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  • death
  • Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay while cell death rates were determined using staining with calcein-AM/propidium iodide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Recently it was reported that triptolide (PG490), a purified compound from Tripterygium , possessed antitumor properties and induced apoptosis by p53-independent mechanisms in a variety of malignant cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, Ido1+ tumors grow faster than Ido1− tumors in immunodeficient SCID/beige mice (lacking T, B, and NK cells) suggesting that some Ido1 -controlled nonimmunological mechanisms may be involved in tumor cell growth regulation. (hindawi.com)
  • mitotic
  • By contrast, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) was classically implicated in delaying anaphase onset until all mitotic chromosomes are aligned at the mitotic spindle. (g3journal.org)
  • However, at the molecular level, if or how the meiosis I-meiosis II transition differs from the transition between two consecutive mitotic cell cycles remains largely unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These lines of evidence thus suggest that the meiosis I-meiosis II transition fundamentally differs from the transition between two consecutive mitotic cell cycles. (plantphysiol.org)
  • phenotypes
  • Finally, the cdc-20 gain-of-function mutant cdc-20/ fzy-1 ( av15 ), which is refractory to the cell cycle delay conferred by the spindle checkpoint, showed phenotypes similar to bub-3 and san-1 mutants. (g3journal.org)
  • The analysis of correlations between the expression pattern of the tested miRNAs and CP induced limb phenotypes implies that miRNAs regulating apoptosis may differ from each other with respect to their functional role in teratogenesis: some miRNAs act to protect embryos, whereas other miRNAs boost a teratogen-induced process of maldevelopment to induce embryonic death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antitumor
  • Xanthatin, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has significant antitumor activity against a variety of cancer cells, yet little is known about its anticancer mechanism. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, the properties of triptolide and the recent approval of its water-soluble form (PG490-88) for entry into Phase I clinical trials suggested that this drug was a promising candidate to test for antitumor activity against prostate cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Suggested links in the biology of DM and cancer include hyperglycemia driving malignant cell growth, the insulin and insulin-like growth factor axis leading to cell survival and mitogenesis, and alterations in inflammatory cytokines leading to suppression of antitumor immunity [ 9 , 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings allowed to demonstrate that the anti-checkpoint antibodies were able to reprogram the organism's response, re-directing the antitumor immune response, and skewing the balance on the tumor microenvironment toward immune destruction of the tumor. (frontiersin.org)
  • squamous cell carc
  • In a panel of oral/laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines, we observed deficiencies in DNA damage signaling in correlation with cisplatin resistance, but not with DNA repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DSBs
  • ATM is a central component of a signal transduction process that responds to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) ultimately effecting cell cycle checkpoint arrest and/or apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • The G2/M checkpoint, however, is characterized as insensitive and negligent as it can take 10-20 DSBs to signal DNA damage. (openwetware.org)
  • Consequently, low quantities of DSBs go undetected and the cells multiply evoking mutagenesis and carcinogenesis 6. (openwetware.org)
  • Although DSBs have proven to be significant contributors to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, there is still no method to explicitly evaluate these spontaneous DNA breaks in cells. (openwetware.org)
  • Single living Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells were used to determine the amount of cells relaying the SOS damage response after experiencing spontaneous DNA DSBs. (openwetware.org)
  • elegans
  • Here, we combined the unique sample retrieval capacity afforded by laser capture microscopy with analysis of mRNA abundance by CEL-Seq (cell expression by linear amplification and sequencing) to generate a spatiotemporal gene expression map of the Caenorhabditis elegans syncytial germline from adult hermaphrodites and males. (genetics.org)
  • Mutator phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans DNA damage checkpoint mutants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • generate
  • Our primary focus is on elucidating the events required for orderly segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, the crucial process by which diploid germ cells generate haploid gametes. (stanford.edu)
  • Diploid germ cells face several major challenges on the road to reducing their ploidy to generate haploid gametes: 1) Chromosomes must locate, identify and align with their appropriate homologous pairing partners. (stanford.edu)
  • 2018. Cell cycle heterogeneity can generate robust cell type proportioning. (springer.com)
  • epithelial cells
  • This property of triptolide attracted our attention because we have found that primary cultures of human prostatic epithelial cells derived from normal tissues and adenocarcinomas are in general extremely resistant to apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Experiments presented here demonstrated that triptolide had dose-dependent effects on both normal and cancer-derived primary cultures of human prostatic epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • regulators
  • CDK inhibitors: cell cycle regulators and beyond. (springer.com)
  • In a large number of studies, members of the microRNA (miRNA)-34 family such as miRNA-34a, miRNA-34b, miRNA-34c, as well as miRNA-125b and miRNA-155, have been shown to be regulators of apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanism
  • Recent studies have shown that ATM also regulates a mechanism of processing a subset of DNA ends that appear to be difficult to ligate, since they are rejoined with slow kinetics in control cells. (nih.gov)
  • Apoptosis as a mechanism of cytolysis of tumor cells by a pathogenic free-living amoeba. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • vitro
  • Comparison of in vitro activities of camptothecin and nitidine derivatives against fungal and cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • In vitro studies indicate that IDO1 is capable of exerting suppressive effects directly on T cells and can activate suppressive populations of regulatory T cells [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 4: Cheng Y, Li W, Liu Y, Cheng HC, Ma J, Qiu L. YC-1 exerts inhibitory effects on MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells by targeting EGFR in vitro and in vivo under normoxic condition. (medkoo.com)
  • axis
  • The germ line accounts for more than half of the cell nuclei in the adult worm, with nuclei in all stages of meiosis present simultaneously in a temporal/spatial gradient along the distal-proximal axis of the gonad, so that each gonad represents a complete meiotic time course. (stanford.edu)
  • novel
  • Recent advances in high-resolution epigenome profiling, single-cell transcriptomics, and cell cycle reporter systems have provided novel insights into the cell cycle regulation of cell fate determination. (springer.com)
  • A complete understanding of Acanthamoeba -host cell interactions may help in developing novel strategies to treat Acanthamoeba infections. (microbiologyresearch.org)