RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.DNA Virus InfectionsVirus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA Virus InfectionsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fowlpox virus: The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.DucksHendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.

*  bacterial cell densities
For phages and viruses lots of such determinations have been ... bacterial cell densities bacterial cell densities romantschuk martin l romantsc at biocenter helsinki fi tue mar est previous message bacterial cell densities next message biosci bionet minifaq fundraiser messages sorted by dear mark you can probably run an isopycnic sucrose or cscl density gradient and you do not need standards if it is in equilibrium which is has to be to be usable you simply sample the band visualized by lightscattering and determine the density of it grams ml of e g ul you can also collect the whole gradient into fractions and weigh each fraction to get a curve and then you measure by dinstance from the top or something in which fraction the bacterium bands however in the high osmolarity of the gradient the liquid will be sucked our of the cell and make their density higher than in water or normal media for phages and viruses lots of such determinations have been done martin romantschuk viikki biocenter dept biosciences u o...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/biofilms/1999-March/000410.html
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Lifecycle F+RNA phages
Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here. ... Biology-Online View topic - Lifecycle F+RNA phages. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Please login to access all site features. Create account. Log me on automatically each visit. 121314 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Books. Biology-Online. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. Microbiology. Advanced search. Register. Login. Lifecycle F+RNA phages. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 2 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Lifecycle F+RNA phages by Sandro. Fri Jan 11, 2008 4:08 am I'm a bit confused about the life cycle of MS2, GA and other F+ RNA phages. This probably sounds quite theoretical but I'm very interested to get an answere or to get a discussion started. Thanks Sandro. Sandro. Garter Posts: 1 Joined: Fri Jan 11, 2008 3:54 am. Reply with quote. Re: Lifecycle F+RNA phages by blcr11. Fri Jan 11, 2008 7:35 pm Why would they need lysogeny—or even, how could they lysogenize. I can’t sp...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about12803.html?hilit=Replicase
*  Mycovirus
The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA dsRNA genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA +ssRNA genomes. Mycovirology History Taxonomy Host range and incidence Origin and evolution Transmission Movement of mycoviruses within fungi Impact on host phenotype Sources References External links. It is a special subdivision of the general field of virology and describes taxonomy, host range, origin and evolution, transmission and movement of mycoviruses and their impact on host phenotype. 8 Taxonomy. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA dsRNA genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA +ssRNA genomes. Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV. Fungal Viruses. but some mycoviruses can replicate in taxonomically different fungal hosts. 2005 described that it is possible to extend the natural host range of ' Cryphonectria parasitica ' hypovir...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycovirus
*  PRINTS Search
... WORKLIST ENTRIES 1 : ICOSAHEDRAL View alignment View Structure Icosahedral viral capsid protein signature Type of fingerprint: COMPOUND with 3 elements Links: PRINTS; PR00235 HSVCAPSIDMCP ; PR00236 HSVCAPSIDP40 ; PR00865 HPVCAPSIDL1 INTERPRO; IPR000937 PROSITE; PS00555 ICOSAH VIR COAT S PFAM; PF00729 Viral coat PDB; 2TBV 3Dinfo SCOP; 2TBV CATH; 2TBV Creation date 11-MAR-1995; UPDATE 27-JUN-1999 1. TIMMINS, P.A., WILD, D. AND WITZ, J. The three-dimensional distribution of RNA and protein in the interior of tomato bushy stunt virus: a neutron low-resolution single-crystal diffraction study. STRUCTURE 2 1191-1201 1994. 2 DOLJA, V.V. AND KOONIN, E.V. Phylogeny of capsid proteins of small icosahedral RNA plant viruses. J.GEN.VIROL. 72 1481-1486 1991. The capsid proteins of plant icosahedral positive strand RNA viruses form 4 different domains: a positively charged, N-terminal 'R' domain, which interacts with RNA 66 residues ; a connecting arm, 'a' 35 residues ; a central, surface 'S' domain, which forms the v...
http://bioinf.man.ac.uk/cgi-bin/dbbrowser/PRINTS/DoPRINTS.pl?cmd_a=Display&qua_a=/Full&fun_a=Code&qst_a=ICOSAHEDRAL
*  Virology Journal | Full text | Isolation of midgut escape mutants of two American genotype dengue 2
virology journal full text isolation of midgut escape mutants of two american genotype dengue viruses from aedes aegypti virologyj com article x bottom top biomed central journals gateways search virology journal biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my virology journal top abstract background results discussion conclusions methods competing interests authors contributions acknowledgements references virology journal positive strand rna viruses volume viewing options abstract full text pdf mb epub kb additional files associated material pubmed record article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar khoo cch doty jb held nl olson ke franz awe on pubmed khoo cch doty jb held nl olson ke franz awe related articles pages on google on google scholar on pubmed tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mende...
http://virologyj.com/content/10/1/257
*  Medical Xpress - viruses(... continued page 9)
Medical Xpress - viruses ... Home viruses. News tagged with viruses. 1 week. 1 week. 1 week. Related topics: bacteria · influenza · immune system · protein · virus. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Hepatitis B infections are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The disease can become chronic, and is one of the most important causes of severe diseases such as liver cancer. Jul 28, 2015 21 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Medical Xpress —An international team of researchers has found a MERS neutralizing antibody—a discovery that could perhaps lead to a treatment for people infected with the virus. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Jul 28, 2015 8 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Jul 27, 2015 22 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Jul 25, 2015 13 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Jul 24, 2015 10 0. Jul 23, 2015 45 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Jul 23, 2015 11 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Jul 22, 2015 51 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Jul 22, 2015 11 0. I: dsDNA viruses II:...
http://medicalxpress.com/tags/viruses/page9.html
*  virus | biology | Britannica.com
Britannica.com. Certain viruses also have other proteins internal to the capsid; some of these proteins act as enzymes , often during the synthesis of viral nucleic acids. Viruses must use the ribosomes of their host cells to translate viral mRNA into viral proteins. The invading virus uses the nucleotides and amino acids of the host cell to synthesize its nucleic acids and proteins, respectively. Size and shape bacteriophage: virus structures Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. In viruses, however, genetic information can come in a variety of forms, including single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA. All double-stranded DNA viruses consist of a single large molecule, whereas most double-stranded RNA viruses have segmented genomes, with each segment usually representing a single gene that encodes the information for synthesizing a single protein. The virions of most plant viruses and many animal and bacterial viruses are composed of single-stranded RNA. reverse transcriptase , that copies the single-stranded R...
http://britannica.com/science/virus
*  Idaeovirus
... 'Idaeovirus' is a genus of positive-sense ssRNA viruses that contains one species: 'Raspberry bushy dwarf virus' RBDV. 6 Taxonomy Virology Life Cycle Diagnosis Treatment References External links. 'Group: ssRNA + ' {{Collapsible list|title= Order: Unassigned 1={{Collapsible list. 'Raspberry bushy dwarf virus' 7. RNA-1 is 5,449 nucleotide s in length and contains one open reading frame ORF that encodes for a combined protein that has methyltransferase, helicase, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. 9 RNA-2 is 2,231 nucleotides in length and contains two ORFs, one at the 5' end and the other at the 3' end. The first ORF encodes for a cell-to-cell movement protein, while the second ORF is expressed as a subgenomic RNA strand. This strand, RNA-3, is 946 nucleotides in length and encodes for the coat protein. Idaeovirus. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcriptio...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idaeovirus
*  Viruses
... Index to this page. Life Cycle. Viral Genomes. DNA Viruses. Genome is a molecule of double-stranded DNA. Hepatitis B. Genome is single-stranded DNA. RNA Viruses. Negative-stranded RNA viruses. Positive-stranded RNA viruses. Double-stranded RNA viruses. Retroviruses. Latent Viruses. Lysogeny. Transduction. Viruses. Properties: They are obligate intracellular parasites. Probably there are no cells in nature that escape infection by one or more kinds of viruses. Viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages. Outside the cell, they consist of particles called virions. Virions range in size from as small as the poliovirus shown above magnified some 450,000 times courtesy of A. R Taylor, which is 30 nm in diameter about the size of a ribosome to as large as Pithovirus sibericum an amoeba-infecting virus which, at 1,500 nm, is larger than many bacteria. The virion consists of An outer shell, the capsid, made of protein. The capsid is responsible for protecting the contents of the core establishing what...
http://home.comcast.net/~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/V/Viruses.html
*  Varicosavirus
... the genus varicosavirus is a group of related plant virus es associated with the swelling in plant vein tissues they are negative single stranded rna kormelink et al negative strand rna viruses the plant infecting counterparts virus research viruses with no specific assigned family infection occurs through soil by the spores of the fungus olpidium brassicae genome structure literature external links genome the genome consists of a bi segmented linear single stranded negative sense rna the first segment is about nucleotides in length the second about nucleotides in length sasaya et al the nucleotide sequence of rna of lettuce big vein virus genus varicosavirus reveals its relation to nonsegmented negative strand rna viruses virology structure virions consist of a non enveloped rod shaped capsid having a helical symmetry of nm in length and a width of nm literature external links category varicosaviruses...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varicosavirus
*  All about viruses | Home - Home
Submit a Tip. Email Sign-Up. DNA and RNA are chains of genetic material that contains instructions for the virus to reproduce. Unlike living cells, viruses cannot on their own carry out the biochemical processes needed to reproduce. They must be inside a living cell to function and produce more viruses. But viruses are very specific about what type of cell they need. It also identifies the type of cell in the body that will host the virus. Viruses usually infect only one type of cell. Once inside the cell, the viral DNA or RNA and viral enzymes use the host cell’s own machinery to produce copies of the virus. The new viruses then find and infect other host cells. They can interfere with the normal processes of the host cell, kill the host cell by exploding out of it or trigger the immune system 's response. Some viruses, however, can cause chronic infections. Hepatitis B and C viruses cause a chronic infection. In a latent viral infection, the virus's DNA or RNA rests harmlessly in the host cells and does not...
http://m.clickorlando.com/All-about-viruses/17818014
*  .. STOP Piracy Virus .. What is STOP Piracy Virus? .. How does STOP Piracy Virus get it? .. How doe
What is STOP Piracy Virus. STOP Piracy Virus is a ransomware infection that blocks you from entering your computer under the pretense that you supposedly have used piracy content on your computer. When you get infected, STOP Piracy Virus locks your computer in 3 seconds, and the only thing you see is a black notification message that asks you for money. You have to remove STOP Piracy Virus from your computer immediately if you want to access your files, but there is no need to pay the ransom fee, because the malicious application itself would never unlock your computer. How does STOP Piracy Virus get it. STOP Piracy Virus makes use of Trojan Reveton for its distribution. That is common to almost all ransomware infections from the Ukash virus family. They have been very prominent for the entire second half of the year, and if you frequent computer security websites, you must have read of such infections as FBI Moneypak, Metropolitan Police Virus, IRMA virus ant the rest. That is why it has two interface versio...
http://anti-spyware-101.com/stop-piracy-virus
*  Viruses
... next history of viruses up malicious code previous malicious code viruses the following are necessary characteristics of a virus replication requires a host program as a carrier activated by external action replication limited to virtual system in essence a computer program which has been infected by a virus has been converted into a trojan horse the program is expected to perform a useful function but has the unintended side effect of viral code execution in addition to performing the unintended task the virus also performs the function of replication upon execution the virus attempts to replicate and attach itself to another program it is the unexpected and generally uncontrollable repliction that makes viruses so dangerous viruses are currently designed to attack single platforms a platform is defined as the combination of hardware and the most prevalent operating system for that hardware as an example a virus can be referred to as an ibm pc virus referring to the hardware or a dos virus referring to ...
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistir/threats/subsection3_3_1.html
*  .. diệt virus autorun .. Autorun Eater – Diệt Autorun tốt nhất .. diệt v
download phẠn má m software posts tagged diá t virus autorun diá t virus autorun download tẠi phẠn má m diá t virus autorun download htsoft vn cẠp nhẠt phẠn má m phiãªn bẠn má i nhẠt miá n phã chá ä á diá t virus autorun má i cã c bẠn download tẠi miá n phã phẠn má m diá t virus autorun vã ä ã ng gã p ã kiẠn vá phẠn má m diá t virus autorun trãªn download htsoft vn categories audio video bẠo mẠt cã ng cá lẠp trã nh cã ng cá trá c tuyẠn diá t virus doanh nghiá p drivers dá liá u file game há thá ng internet e mail mobile phẠn má m khã c phẠn má m viá t thá thuẠt vä n phã ng ä á hoẠmã y tã nh recent comments autorun eater diá t autorun tá t nhẠt admin sep st views comment download tẠiâ autorun eater ká tá khi thiẠt bá læ u trá usb ra ä á i nhiá u loẠi virus cå ng nhá ä ã mã lã y lan qua mã y tã nh rẠt nhanh nhá ng loẠi download anti spy malware anti trojan autorun autorun eater autorun eater autorun remover diá t autorun diá t autorun tá t nhẠt diá t virus...
http://download.htsoft.vn/phan-mem/diet-virus-autorun
*  Portal:Viruses/Selected virus/2
portal viruses selected virus portal viruses selected virus px diagram of hiv structure human immunodeficiency virus hiv is a lentivirus an rna virus in the retrovirus family two types of hiv have been characterised hiv is the more virulent and is responsible for most infections worldwide hiv is mainly confined to west africa the genome consists of two copies of a single stranded rna which contains nine genes the roughly spherical virus particle has a diameter of about nm it is enveloped and contains a conical capsid made of around copies of the p protein the envelope glycoprotein a trimeric complex of gp and gp binds to cd the primary receptor on the host cell hiv infects key cells in the human immune system including cd helper t cell s macrophage s and dendritic cell s infection leads to low levels of cd t cells via several mechanisms resulting in a progressive immunodeficiency disease known as aids transmission occurs by the transfer of bodily fluids including blood semen and breast milk in which the virus...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Viruses/Selected_virus/2
*  Digital Life: Viruses
Viruses. In his 1972 science-fiction novel When HARLIE was One, writer David Gerrold wrote about computer viruses. Real-life computer viruses were in existence in the early 1980s, with perhaps the earliest one being Elk Cloner, written for DOS 3.3 on the Apple ][ circa 1982. Elk Cloner: The program with a personality It will get on all your disks It will infiltrate your chips Yes it's Cloner. To recapitulate, the earliest viruses in the wild were written for the Apple ][, while the earliest academic viruses were written for Unix. Brain was a boot-sector virus that only infected DOS formatted 360 K floppy disks. In a 1988 paper titled An Abstract Theory of Computer Viruses, Leonard Adleman the A in RSA, and Fred Cohen's advisor states that for every computer program, there is an infected form of that program. He describes a computer virus as a mapping from programs to infected programs, and further says that each infected program on each input input being all accessible information such as the user's keyboard ...
http://kernelthread.com/publications/security/viruses.html
*  Bliss (virus)
bliss virus bliss virus bliss is a computer virus introduced in which aims to infect linux systems when executed it attempts to attach itself to linux executable files to which regular users do not have access in the case of the alpha version this prevents the executables from running so users notice it immediately although it was probably intended to prove that linux can be infected it does not propagate very effectively because of the structure of linux s user privilege system the bliss virus never became widespread and remains chiefly a research curiosity after the staog virus it is the second known linux virus when the bliss virus was released antivirus software vendors and linux distributions released security advisories to notify users of the potential risks debian still lists itself as vulnerable to the bliss virus however due to the requirement for infection to occur under the root user the risk is listed as minimal see also linux malware references external links category linux viruses...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bliss_(virus)
*  virus notice
... from rueggp is anyone else getting these messages that a virus was detected in a email they sent message recipient of the infected attachment anita westbrook inbox subject of the message a winxp patch one or more attachments were quarantined attachment re ziehl neelsen scr was quarantined for the following reasons virus w klez gen mm was found message from antigen huey to rueggp earthlink net antigen for exchange found readme exe infected with w klez g mm norman worm the message is currently purged the message congratulations was sent from rueggp and was discovered in imc queues inbound located at northwestern medical center kerbs huey message from antigen huey to rueggp earthlink net antigen for exchange found unknown infected with html mimeexploit ca vet virus the file is currently removed the message congratulations was sent from rueggp and was discovered in imc queues inbound located at northwestern medical center kerbs huey message from brendabegg to rueggp earthlink net klez e is the most common wo...
http://histosearch.com/histonet/Apr02A/virusnotice.html
*  Questions About Viruses
... skip navigation slide of i ndex p revious n ext questions about viruses do all cancer causing viruses turn into cancer no only of women with hpv develop cervical cancer can scientists prevent virus caused cancers by developing vaccines against the viruses in some cases yes vaccines already exist for hpv and hepatitis b what factors other than viruses contribute to cancer do viruses cause some of our cells to fuse does cell fusion cause or contribute to cancer what we know what we don t know text o nly version text m ostly version g raphic version o u tline version h a ndout version this document was created with the accessible web publishing wizard for office...
http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/findings/sept06/lazebnik_files/textmostly/slide10.html
*  Virus infections
... redirect viral disease...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus_infections
*  Table of clinically important viruses
... redirect viral disease...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_clinically_important_viruses
*  Why anti-vaxxers might be creating a world of more dangerous viruses
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http://io9.com/how-poor-vaccination-rates-can-help-viruses-beat-the-va-1492482862
*  Fatty acylation of Vaccinia virus proteins : dual myristylation and palmitylation of the A-type incl
... usion protein. mirage Fatty acylation of Vaccinia virus proteins : dual myristylation and palmitylation of the A-type inclusion protein. SA@OSU Home → Electronic Theses and Dissertations → Electronic Theses and Dissertations → View Item. Fatty acylation of Vaccinia virus proteins : dual myristylation and palmitylation of the A-type inclusion protein. Description: Fatty acylation of Vaccinia virus proteins : dual myristylation and palmitylation of the A-type inclusion protein.pdf. These proteins were identified as the A-type inclusion protein 92 kDa , G9R 39 kDa , A16L 36 kDa , and E7R 17 kDa. The latter three proteins were shown to be myristylated on an N-terminal glycine residue. Furthermore, A16L could not be detected in either purified extracellular enveloped virus EEV or in intracellular mature virus IMV . These are the two predominant forms of infectious virions produced during a VV infection. E7R was detected in EEV and, to a lesser extent, in IMV. Unlike the other proteins,...
http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/33994
*  Modified vaccinia Ankara
... The 'Modified Vaccinia Ankara' 'MVA' is an attenuated vaccine of a poxvirus. N Greenberg: 'IMVAMUNE: modified vaccinia Ankara strain as an attenuated smallpox vaccine.' In: 'Expert review of vaccines.' Band 8, Nummer 1, Januar 2009,, S. Properties Clinical trials Immunogenicity Challenge Studies in Primates References. Concerns about the safety of the vaccinia virus have been addressed by the development of vectors based on attenuated vaccinia viruses. One of them, the 'Modified Vaccinia Ankara' 'MVA' virus, is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that was developed towards the end of the campaign for the eradication of smallpox by Anton Mayr in Germany. G Siccardi: 'Marker gene swapping facilitates recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara production by host-range selection.' In: 'Journal of virological methods.' Band 156, Nummer 1–2, März 2009,, S. Recently, vaccination with smallpox vaccine a vaccinia virus related to MVA has been shown, on rare occasions, to cause heart problems in people wh...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modified_vaccinia_Ankara
*  vaccinia virus vaccine: Topics by Science.gov
PubMed Central. PMID:19563829. PubMed Central. PMID:22593237. PubMed. PMID:19587131. PubMed. PMID:236900. PubMed Central. PMID:2187593. PubMed. PMID:9987155. PubMed Central. Candidate vaccines based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara MVA viral vector expressing antigens from influenza MVA/Flu viruses were constructed. In this study, we measured the antibody and CD4+ T cell responses against four vaccinia viral proteins A27L, A33R, B5R, and L1R known to be strongly targeted by humoral and cellular responses induced by vaccinia virus-vaccination in 90 recently vaccinated and 7 long-term vaccinia -immunized human donors. In this study, we measured the Ab and CD4 + T cell responses against four vaccinia viral proteins A27L, A33R, B5R, and L1R known to be strongly targeted by humoral and cellular responses induced by vaccinia virus vaccination in 90 recently vaccinated and 7 long-term vaccinia -immunized human donors. Differences and Similarities in Viral Life Cycle Progression and Host Cell Physiology afte...
http://science.gov/topicpages/v/vaccinia virus vaccine.html
*  What rhymes with vaccinia virus?
What rhymes with vaccinia virus. Login The STANDS4 Network. ABBREVIATIONS. BIOGRAPHIES. CONVERSIONS. DEFINITIONS. GRAMMAR. LYRICS. PHRASES. POETRY. QUOTES. REFERENCES. RHYMES. SYMBOLS. SYNONYMS. USZIP. Search. # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. NEW RANDOM. Search. # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. NEW RANDOM. What rhymes or sounds like the word vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family. It has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome approximately 190 kbp in length, and which encodes approximately 250 genes. The dimensions of the virion are roughly 360 × 270 × 250 nm, with a mass of approximately 5-10 fg. Vaccinia virus is well known for its role as a vaccine that eradicated the smallpox disease, making it the first human disease to be successfully eradicated by science. This endeavour was carried out by the World Health Organization under the Smallpox Eradication Program. Post eradication of smallpox, scientists s...
http://rhymes.net/rhyme/vaccinia virus
*  Investigations into Vaccinia virus pathogenesis at University of Edinburgh on FindAPhD.com
... PHDS. EVENTS. FUNDING. ADVICE. EMAIL UPDATES 0. Our Sites FindAPhD.com PhD projects and research opportunities. FindAMasters.com Taught and research Masters courses. FindAnMBA.com MBAs and business Masters courses. FindAPostDoc.com PhD and postdoctoral jobs. FindCPD.com Continuing professional development. FindAProfessionalDoctorate.com Professional doctorate programmes. PostgraduateFunding.com Small grants for postgraduate study. PostgraduateForum.com Discussion forum for postgraduate students. Main Menu. PhDs. Events. Funding. Advice. Email Updates. About. search. 1k+. Follow @FindAPhD. Share this page:. Home. PhDs. Investigations into Vaccinia virus pathogenesis. Investigations into Vaccinia virus pathogenesis. University of Edinburgh College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine Edinburgh United Kingdom. University of Edinburgh College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. This project is no longer listed in the FindAPhD database and may not be available. Click here to search the FindAPhD database for P...
http://findaphd.com/search/ProjectDetails.aspx?PJID=42890
*  Topical cidofovir shows promise in treating vaccinia-infected mice | CIDRAP
Topical cidofovir shows promise in treating vaccinia-infected mice. CIDRAP. Skip to main content University of Minnesota. Driven to Discover. Site Search. Connect with Us Newsletter Signup Facebook Linked In Twitter Email Alerts Contact Us. Main Menu Main menu Home News Perspective Infectious Disease Topics Public Health Practices Ongoing Programs. BioWatch CCIVI CIDRAP Leadership Forum Ebola Vaccine Team B Influenza Training News Publishing Public Health Practices. About Us. Staff Mission Contact Us. Donate Now. FEATURED NEWS TOPICS MERS-CoV H7N9 Avian Influenza Ebola Childhood Vaccines Antimicrobial Resistance. Topical cidofovir shows promise in treating vaccinia-infected mice Filed Under : Smallpox. Oct 11, 2004. Share this page: Share Tweet LinkedIn Email Print PDF. Oct 11, 2004 CIDRAP News – The antiviral drug cidofovir is one of very few agents used to treat serious side effects of smallpox vaccination. In a recent study, a topical form of cidofovir worked better than an intravenous formulation to prote...
http://cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2004/10/topical-cidofovir-shows-promise-treating-vaccinia-infected-mice
*  JCI - The DC receptor DNGR-1 mediates cross-priming of CTLs during vaccinia virus infection in mice
... About For authors Alerts Advertise Subscribe Contact. Current Issue. Past Issues. By specialty Autoimmunity Cardiology Gastroenterology Immunology Metabolism Nephrology Neuroscience Oncology Pulmonology Vascular biology All... Videos Conversations with Giants in Medicine Author's Takes. Reviews. Reviews View all reviews... Review Series Cancer Immunotherapy Sep 2015 Autoimmunity Jun 2015 Enteric Nervous System Mar 2015 Autophagy Jan 2015 Gut Microbiome Oct 2014 Nephrology Jun 2014 Lymphatic Vasculature Mar 2014 View all review series... Collections Recently published Commentaries Editorials Hindsight The Attending Physician First Author Perspectives Scientific Show Stoppers Opinion Top read articles. Clinical Medicine JCI This Month Current issue Past issues. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. About For authors Current issue Past issues By specialty Subscribe Alerts Advertise Contact us Videos Conversations with Giants in Medicine Author's Takes Collections Commentaries Editorials Hindsight R...
http://jci.org/articles/view/60660
*  JCI - A stimulating way to improve T cell responses to poxvirus-vectored vaccines
Reviews View all reviews... Share this article. PubMed. Google Scholar. In this issue of the JCI, Salek-Ardakani et al. show how the relative virulence of a virus/vaccine vector affects the memory CD8 + T cells generated and how the response may be enhanced. In this issue of the JCI, Salek-Ardakani et al. In fact, the long-lived humoral and cellular immunity generated by the conventional smallpox vaccines create an additional challenge when using orthopoxviruses i.e., poxviruses in the same genus as vaccinia virus as vaccine vectors to immunize against other diseases: preexisting immunity to the vector dampens immune responses, especially when using a standard dose of replication-competent vaccinia virus–based vaccine e.g., ref. Enhancing T cell responses Although it might seem obvious that a more virulent virus results in more viral replication, which leads to better immune responses than those induced with attenuated viruses, Salek-Ardakani et al. Using a panel of vaccinia viruses with various levels of vir...
http://jci.org/articles/view/45726
*  Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Variant And Cultivation Method (Bavarian Nordic A/s)
FreshPatents Stats 2 views for this patent on FreshPatents.com 2015: 1 views 2012: 1 views Updated: July 08 2015 TOP 200 Companies filing patents this week Advertise Here Promote your product, service and ideas. Free Services MONITOR KEYWORDS Enter keywords & we'll notify you when a new patent matches your request (weekly update). ORGANIZER Save & organize patents so you can view them later. RSS Create custom RSS feeds. Track keywords without receiving email. ARCHIVE View the last few months of your Keyword emails. COMPANY DIRECTORY Patents sorted by company. Follow us on Twitter @FreshPatents Browse patents: Next → ← Previous Search | Industry | Companies | Inventors Modified vaccinia ankara virus variant and cultivation method Title: Modified vaccinia ankara virus variant and cultivation method. Abstract: The present invention provides an attenuated virus, which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively replicate in human...
http://freshpatents.com/-dt20121101ptan20120276613.php
*  A Phase 2a Study of Modified Vaccinia Virus to Treat Sorafenib-naïve Advanced Liver Cancer - Full T
A Phase 2a Study of Modified Vaccinia Virus to Treat Sorafenib-na ve Advanced Liver Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Advanced Search. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. A Phase 2a Study of Modified Vaccinia Virus to Treat Sorafenib-na ve Advanced Liver Cancer FLASH This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. Sponsor: Jennerex Biotherapeutics Information provided by Responsible Party : Jennerex Biotherapeutics. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636284 First received: June 23, 2012 Last updated: January 13, 2015 Last verified: July 2012 History of Changes. This study is to determine how effectively JX-594 Pexa-Vec will prolong life in patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma HCC who have not been previously treated with sorafenib, and the safe administration of JX-594 in five weekly IV infusions. Biological: JX-594 recombinant vaccina GM-CSF. Official Title: A Single-Arm, O...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01636284?recr=Open&cond="Poxviridae Infections"&rank=17
*  Yong He - ResearchGate
... Food and Drug Administration, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States. Russell Vassell Yong He. Carol D Weiss. ABSTRACT: The membrane proximal external region MPER of the gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein Env contains determinants for broadly neutralizing antibodies and has remained an important focus of vaccine design. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128562 3.23 Impact Factor. Russell A Vassell. Carol D Weiss. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.078 3.62 Impact Factor. Russell A Vassell. Carol D Weiss. ABSTRACT: The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, which consists of replication-competent vaccinia virus, elicits antibodies that play a major role in protection. DOI:10.1086/520936 6.00 Impact Factor Source Available from: Wei Wang. Novel resistance mechanism of HIV-1 To peptide fusion inhibitors. Russell Vassell. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-3-S1-S86 4.19 Impact Factor Source Available from: Michael J Merchlinsky. Carol Weiss. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara MVA, a new generation smallpox vaccine that is attenua...
http://researchgate.net/researcher/51283369_Yong_He
*  Quantitative SUMO-1 Modification of a Vaccinia Virus Protein Is Required for Its Specific Localizati
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Page 1 Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. Address correspondence to: Jacomine Krijnse Locker krijnse@ embl.de. 16, June 20052823 Page 3 membrane proteins, known to bind to DNA, are, however, not recruited to the viral replication sites. To find such proteins, we have previously tagged viral genes of unknown function having a putative trans- membrane domain with green fluorescent protein GFP and selected these by their localization to the DNA replication sites upon expression in infected cells. The Modification of A40R Depends on Eukaryotic Expression but Is Independent of Vaccinia Virus Infection When A40R was translated in vitro as a fusion protein with a 6His- or a myc-tag, it migrated with the predicted molec- ular mass of 18 kDa Figure 2A. When the same myc-tagged A40R construct, resulting in a single band of 18 kDa upon in vitro translation Figure 2A, was expressed in infected cells, two bands migrating with an apparent molecular mass of 38 and 18 kDa were detected Figure 2...
http://researchgate.net/publication/7936086_Quantitative_SUMO-1_modification_of_a_vaccinia_virus_protein_is_required_for_its_specific_localization_and_prevents_its_self-association
*  JCI - Control of vaccinia virus skin lesions by long-term-maintained IFN-γ+TNF-α+ effector/memory
JCI - Control of vaccinia virus skin lesions by long-term-maintained IFN-γ+TNF-α+ effector/memory CD4+ lymphocytes in humans. About For authors Alerts Advertise Subscribe Contact. Current Issue. Past Issues. By specialty Autoimmunity Cardiology Gastroenterology Immunology Metabolism Nephrology Neuroscience Oncology Pulmonology Vascular biology All... Videos Conversations with Giants in Medicine Author's Takes. Reviews. Reviews View all reviews... Review Series Cancer Immunotherapy Sep 2015 Autoimmunity Jun 2015 Enteric Nervous System Mar 2015 Autophagy Jan 2015 Gut Microbiome Oct 2014 Nephrology Jun 2014 Lymphatic Vasculature Mar 2014 View all review series... Collections Recently published Commentaries Editorials Hindsight The Attending Physician First Author Perspectives Scientific Show Stoppers Opinion Top read articles. Clinical Medicine JCI This Month Current issue Past issues. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. About For authors Current issue Past issues By specialty Subscribe Alerts...
http://jci.org/articles/view/38506?key=89bf597f55c8d9fa32cc
*  OriGene - VRK2 (NM 006296) cDNA Clone
VRK2 NM 006296 Human cDNA Clone. SC128263 VRK2 untagged -Human vaccinia related kinase 2 VRK2, transcript variant 1, NM 006296.3, 10ug $185 In Stock. VRK2 Mouse Clones SKU Description Amount Price Shipping. MC201146 Vrk2 untagged - Mouse vaccinia related kinase 2 cDNA clone MGC:19195 IMAGE:4236402, 10ug 10 ug $185 Next day. MC227777 Vrk2 untagged - Mouse vaccinia related kinase 2 Vrk2, transcript variant 2 10 ug $410 2 weeks. MR207249 Vrk2 Myc-DDK-tagged - Mouse vaccinia related kinase 2 cDNA clone MGC:19195 IMAGE:4236402 10 ug $650 Next day. MR217960 Vrk2 Myc-DDK-tagged - Mouse vaccinia related kinase 2 Vrk2 10 ug $600 Next day. MR229988 Vrk2 myc-DDK-tagged - Mouse vaccinia related kinase 2 Vrk2, transcript variant 2 10 ug $410 2 weeks. MG207249 Vrk2 GFP-tagged - Mouse vaccinia related kinase 2 cDNA clone MGC:19195 IMAGE:4236402 10 ug $720 3 weeks. MG217960 Vrk2 GFP-tagged - Mouse vaccinia related kinase 2 Vrk2, 10ug 10 ug $660 3 weeks. MR207249L1 Lenti ORF clone of Vrk2 Myc-DDK-tagged - Mouse vaccinia relat...
http://origene.com/cdna/trueclone/accession/NM_006296/SC128263.aspx
*  Generalized vaccinia
... is a cutaneous condition that occurs days after vaccination characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesion s and caused by the vaccinia virus see also vaccinia skin lesion references category virus related cutaneous conditions category vaccinia...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_vaccinia
*  GeoVax Receives Notice of Patent Allowance for DNA/MVA Vaccine for HIV/AIDS
... ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Research News Studies. GeoVax Receives Notice of Patent Allowance for DNA/MVA Vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits Questions About Treatment Side Effects Insurance, Benefits Programs HIV Mental Health HIV Lipodystrophy Metabolic Problems Nutrition HIV Research News Studies. Stats Total Posts: 675752 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 186 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Click here for posting guidelines pertaining to all other POZ/AIDSmeds community forums. Author Topic: GeoVax Receives Notice of Patent Allowance for DNA/MVA Vaccine for HIV/AIDS Read 1375 times. GeoVax Receives Notice of Patent Allowance for DNA/MVA Vaccine for HIV/AIDS on: October 08, 2013, 03:42:44 PM. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/geovax-receives-notice-of-patent-allowance-for-dnamva-vaccine-for-hivaids-2013-10-07?reflink=MW news stmp ATLANTA, GA, Oct 07, 2013 Marketwired via COMTEX -- GeoVax Labs, Inc. About GeoVax s Technology GeoVax s unique, two co...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=50779.0;prev_next=prev
*  A G Bowie
... add/edit. You are here: Scientific Experts Ireland. Trinity College Bowie A G Bowie. Research Topics vaccinia virus nf kappa b cell surface receptors viral proteins virus diseases membrane glycoproteins signal transducing adaptor proteins immune tolerance drosophila proteins interleukin 1 receptors membrane proteins periplasmic binding proteins immunologic receptors tnf receptor associated factor 6 dna viruses antioxidants exodeoxyribonucleases recombinant fusion proteins vesicular transport adaptor proteins dna binding proteins cytoskeletal proteins dna immunity interferon beta biochemical feedback viral genes viral gene expression regulation sulfhydryl compounds viral antigens atp binding cassette transporters. Genomes and Genes IL1RAP. products. TLR4. products. IRAK 2. products. TIRAP. products. Tak1. products. MYD88. products. Tirap. products. IRAK2. products. IRAK. products. Myd88. products. TRAF6. products. TLR2. products. TLR1. products. IRF-3. products. TMEM173. products. Species human mouse. A G...
http://labome.org/expert/ireland/trinity/bowie/a-g-bowie-714144.html
*  vaccinia host range
... Lemay Guy lemayg at ERE.UMontreal.CA. Tue Dec 27 11:32:17 EST 1994. Previous message: New Journal - Amyloid Next message: Patterns Messages sorted by:. Does anybody know if vaccinia virus can infect mouse cells. I am thinking of mouse fibroblastic cell lines like L cells or SC1 cells. The ATCC catalog mention that the recommended cell lines are from human or simian origin but since this virus can be used as a vector I know that these vectors have been used in dog MDCK cells I suppose that it has a wider host range. I am sure that somebody has tried using mouse cells at one point. I will appreciate if somebody has this information. Thanks in advance Guy Lemay Dept de Microbiologie et Immunologie Universite de Montreal EMail: lemayg at ERE.UMontreal.CA. Previous message: New Journal - Amyloid Next message: Patterns Messages sorted by:. More information about the Cellbiol mailing list....
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/1994-December/001312.html
*  Virokine
'Virokines' are protein s encoded by some large DNA virus es that are secrete d by the host cell and serve to evade the host's immune system. Such proteins are referred to as virokines if they resemble cytokine s, growth factor s, or complement regulator s; the term 'viroceptor' is sometimes used if the proteins resemble cellular receptors. 1 A third class of virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins consists of proteins that bind directly to cytokines. 3 Mechanism Discovery Evolutionary origins References External links. Mechanism. The primary mechanism of virokine interference with immune signaling is thought to be competitive inhibition of the binding of host signaling molecules to their target receptors. Virokines occupy binding sites on host receptors, thereby inhibiting access by signaling molecules. Cytokine-binding proteins bind to and sequester cytokines, occluding the binding surface through which they interact with receptors. Discovery. The early 1990s saw several reports of virally encoded protein...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virokine
*  Vaccinia necrosum
... redirect progressive vaccinia category virus related cutaneous conditions...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinia_necrosum
*  Jian Zhou
... 'Jian Zhou' 1957– March 1999 was a Chinese virologist and cancer researcher, who with fellow researcher Ian Frazer, invented Gardasil and Cervarix, the vaccine s for stimulating human immunological resistance to the cervical cancer -inducing human papilloma virus. 1 Biography HPV and Papilloma vaccine Death Published papers References and notes External links. Jian Zhou received his medical degree from South China’s Wenzhou Medical College near Shanghai. Jian Zhou is survived by wife Xiao-Yi Sun and son Andreas Zhou. HPV and Papilloma vaccine. http://www.uq.edu.au/uqcontact/jians-legacy The two considered the problem of developing a vaccine for HPV – a virus that cannot be cultured without living tissue. In March 1991 Zhou's wife and fellow researcher, Xiao-Yi Sun, assembled by Zhou's instructions 'Vaccines Forgotten Man' two proteins into a virus-like particle VLP,. The vaccine completely protects unexposed women against four HPV strains responsible for 70% of cervical cancers,. says that preventable ce...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jian_Zhou
*  DIGITAL.CSIC: Browsing DSpace
digital csic browsing dspace skip navigation csic research communities collections browse items by issue date author title keywords funder pasarela statistics contact sign on to mi digital csic receive email updates edit account details digital csic english español browsing by keywords vaccinia virus t sort by issue date submit date in order ascending descending results page authors record all showing results to of rights issue date title author s type openaccess sep differential x cleavage x of x eif gi x and x eif gii x in x mammalian x cells x d x a effects x on x translation castelló x alfredo álvarez x enrique carrasco x llamas x luis artículo showing results to of...
http://digital.csic.es/browse?type=subject&order=ASC&rpp=20&value=Vaccinia virus T7&locale=en
*  Cancer battle: Scientists engineer new tumor-killing virus — RT News
... Cancer battle: Scientists engineer new tumor-killing virus. A new genetically-engineered virus has been developed to kill cancer tumors and prevent the growth of new ones, according to a study. ­The study, which was recently published in the journal Nature Medicine, describes a four-week trial of the vaccine Pexa-Vec or JX-594 marking a step forward towards a successful treatment of solid tumors, AFP reports. "For the first time in medical history we have shown that a genetically-engineered virus can improve survival of cancer patients," study co-author David Kirn from California-based biotherapy company Jennerex told AFP. The results of the study indicate that "Pexa-Vec treatment at both doses resulted in a reduction of tumor size and decreased blood flow to tumors," Jennerex said in a statement. The new virus "is designed to multiply in and subsequently destroy cancer cells, while at the same time making the patients' own immune defense system attack cancer cells also," added Kirn. Authors of the study...
http://rt.com/news/new-virus-battles-cancer-888/
*  Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Contact Spread of Vaccinia
from a National Guard Vaccinee -- Wiscon...
http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000514.htm
*  Rabbit anti-Human CBL antibody (ABIN264539)
Rabbit anti-Human CBL antibody ABIN264539. anti-Cas-Br-M Murine Ecotropic Retroviral Transforming Sequence CBL C-Term a... Cas-Br-M Murine Ecotropic Retroviral Transforming Sequence CBL C-Term antibody. Details for Product No. Cas-Br-M Murine Ecotropic Retroviral Transforming Sequence CBL. C-Term 53 , pTyr700 40 , pTyr774 25 , pTyr674 22 , pTyr731 18 , AA 736-835 5 , Tyr700 5 , pTyr770 5 , AA 698-702 4 , Tyr770 4 , partial 4 , AA 775-906 3 , full length 3 , AA 595-810 2 , Internal Region 2 , N-Term 2 , Tyr731 2 , Tyr774 2 , AA 1-30 1 , AA 1-906 1 , AA 424-453 1 , AA 450-510 1 , AA 556-906 1 , AA 575-625 1 , AA 640-689 1 , AA 661-893 1 , AA 666-715 1 , AA 675-725 1 , AA 682-731 1 , AA 740-789 1 , AA 863-877 1 , AA 878-906 1 , Glu768 1 , Gly694 1 , Middle Region 1 , Ser207 1 , Ser208 1 , Ser209 1 , Ser668 1 , Tyr674 1 , pSer669 1. Application. Western Blotting WB 193 , ELISA 83 , Immunohistochemistry IHC 79 , Immunofluorescence IF 64 , Immunofluorescence Paraffin-embedded Sections IF p 60 , Immunohistochemistry...
http://antibodies-online.com/antibody/264539/anti-Cas-Br-M Murine Ecotropic Retroviral Transforming Sequence CBL C-Term/
*  SLA2
sla sla src like adapter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the sla gene function interactions references further reading function this gene encodes a member of the slap family of adapter proteins the encoded protein may play an important receptor proximal role in downregulating t and b cell mediated responses and inhibits antigen receptor induced calcium mobilization this protein interacts with cas br m murine ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence c two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene interactions sla has been shown to interact with cbl gene references further reading...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SLA2
*  Virus Replication | CK-12 Foundation
Virus Replication. CK-12 Foundation meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/". iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-WVB47G" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden" /iframe. Help. Help. Virus Replication. Viruses replicate using the host replication system. The process is different between DNA and RNA viruses. READ. Virus Replication. Overview of the ways viruses can replicate. Flu Attack. Practice. Practice questions. CK-12 Content. All Content. All Levels. All Levels. At Grade. Levels are CK-12's student achievement levels. Basic Students matched to this level have a partial mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills fundamental for proficient work. At Grade Proficient Students matched to this level have demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter, including subject matter knowledge, application of such knowledge to real-world situations, and analytical skills appropriate to subject matter. Read. Real World. Read. Virus Replication. by CK-12....
http://ck12.org/biology/Virus-Replication/?difficulty=at grade
*  EurekAlert! InContext Modules
Acute infection Relatively brief infections, i.e. Caused by viruses which are able to persist in the body. Genome replication The stage of cellular replication at which the genome is copied to form new progeny genomes. Inoculum Cells added to start a culture or, in the case of viruses, viruses added to infect a culture of cells. Maturation The stage of viral replication at which a virus particle becomes infectious. Opportunistic infection An infection in an immune-compromised person caused by an organism that does not usually cause disease in healthy people. Penetration The stage of viral replication at which the virus genome enters the cell. Persistent infection Infections in which ongoing virus replication occurs, but the virus adjusts its replication and pathogenicity so as to avoid killing the host. Provirus Viral genetic material, in the form of DNA, that has been integrated into the host genome. Release, viral The stage of viral replication at which virus particles escape the infected cell. Retrovirus A...
http://eurekalert.org/context.php?context=disease&show=glossary
*  Psych Central - UW scientists unravel critical genetic puzzle for flu virus replication
... Quizzes News Experts Ask the Therapist Blogs Experts Daily News Research Updates World of Psychology Research Resources Find a clinical Trial Resources Forums Support Groups Find Help Ask the Therapist Drugs Medications Find a Therapist Psychotherapy 101 Forums Support Groups Take a Quiz Mood Tracker Pro. Home Conditions Quizzes Ask the Therapist Drugs Blogs News Research Resources Find Help Psychotherapy 101 Forums Support Groups Pro. UW scientists unravel critical genetic puzzle for flu virus replication. Now, with the help of a long-studied flu virus, an electron microscope and a novel idea of how the virus aligns segments of RNA as it prepares to make virions, the particles a virus creates and sends forth to infect cells, that puzzle has been resolved. Viruses, including influenza viruses, depend on the cells of their hosts to survive. They infect cells and use them to help make more infectious particles, which are released from the cell and go on to infect other cells. What Kawaoka found was that th...
http://psychcentral.com/news/archives/2006-01/uow-usu012306.html
*  PLOS Pathogens: A Point Mutation in a Herpesvirus Polymerase Determines Neuropathogenicity
Other Article Types. Article-Level Metrics. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Published: November 9, 2007 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030160. Article. A sustained and high-level presence of viral DNA in the blood stream, and, by implication, cell-associated viremia, is associated with the development of neurologic disease in EHV-1-infected horses. Clinical Data from the Equine Experimental Infection Studies Studies were conducted in a smaller pilot study ponies and subsequently a larger study horses with the revertant pol genotype virus D752, • and mutant virus N752, ○. Real-Time Quantitative PCR Data from the Equine Experimental Infection Studies Results from studies conducted on ponies A and C and horses B and D with the revertant pol genotype virus D752, • and mutant virus N752, ○. Viral Isolation from PBMC/RK13 Coculture Experiments Virus was isolated during the equine experimental infection studies with the revertant pol genotype virus D752, • and mutant virus N752, ○. We performed virus yield t...
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030160
*  PRESLEY Elvis Moody Blue gatefold LP | eBay
PRESLEY Elvis Moody Blue gatefold LP. Show only see all Show only Free postage. PRESLEY Elvis Moody Blue gatefold LP : Items found similar to "PRESLEY Elvis Moody Blue gatefold LP". New listing ELVIS PRESLEY BLUE VINYL LP 12" RECORD LP GATEFOLD POST & BLUE VINYL + CALANDER AU $ 64.99. Presley, Elvis - Moody Blue NEW CD AU $ 10.28. Moody Blues - Presley,Elvis New & Sealed LP Free Shipping AU $ 57.34. Free postage. ELVIS PRESLEY.Elvis Moody Blue RCA 12' Vinyl AU $ 10.00. ELVIS PRESLEY-Moody Blue -C5-LP AU $ 19.99. Elvis Presley 30 #1 Hits 2LP Gatefold sleeve , Elvis Presley AU $ 59.77. Elvis Presley 30 #1 Hits 2LP Gatefold sleeve Elvis Presley Vin AU $ 47.67. New listing Moody Blue Elvis Presley Vinyl AU $ 92.75. Elvis Presley - Moody Blue CD NEW AU $ 19.00. Free postage. ELVIS PRESLEY Elvis Blue Vinyl LP AU $ 29.95. Moody Blue - Elvis Presley New & Sealed Compact Disc Free Shipping AU $ 15.91. Free postage. Elvis' Gold Records Vol 5 Elvis Presley CD Rock Blues Moody Blue In The Ghetto AU $ 9.00. Elvis - Presle...
http://ebay.com.au/sch/sis.html?_nkw=PRESLEY Elvis Moody Blue gatefold LP&_itemId=111256387103
*  Viral culture
... is a laboratory test in which samples are placed with a cell type that the virus being tested for is able to infect if the cells show changes known as cytopathic effect s then the culture is positive traditional viral culture has been generally superseded by shell vial culture in which the sample is centrifuged onto a single layer of cells and viral growth is measured by antigen detection methods this greatly reduces the time to detection for slow growing viruses such as cytomegalovirus for which the method was developed in addition the centrifugation step in shell viral culture enhances the sensitivity of this method because after centrifugation the viral particles of the sample are in close proximity to the cells human and monkey cells are used in both traditional viral culture and shell vial culture human virus types that can be identified by viral culture include adenovirus cytomegalovirus enteroviruses herpes simplex virus influenza virus parainfluenza virus rhinovirus respiratory syncytial virus va...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_culture
*  opalang/elvis.opa at v1115 · MLstate/opalang · GitHub
... Skip to content. Sign up Sign in. This repository. Explore. Features. Enterprise. Pricing. Watch. 25. Star. 978. Fork. 139. MLstate. / opalang. Code Issues. Pull requests. Wiki. Pulse Graphs HTTPS clone URL. Subversion checkout URL. You can clone with. . HTTPS or. . Subversion. Download ZIP. Permalink. Tag: v1115. Switch branches/tags. Branches. Tags. forever. master. norman de2. norman facebook api. norman github v3. norman libnet brutal quick fix. norman postgres. norman protocols. norman twitter api. ping delay. postgres wip. private q. private yefred flatless. typer improvements. windows-1.1.0. Nothing to show. v4308. v4263. v4260. v4259. v4111. v4110. v4101. v4099. v4082. v4079. v4067. v4051. v4036. v4031. v3998. v3977. v3970. v3960. v3952. v3949. v3822. v3820. v3813. v3808. v3804. v3596. v3593. v3590. v3581. v3536. v3535. v3524. v3523. v3521. v3520. v3517. v3512. v3506. v3501. v3496. v3486. v3485. v3482. v3401. v3400. v3399. v3395. v3379. v3375. v3348. v3208. v3179. terms of the GNU Affero General ...
https://github.com/MLstate/opalang/blob/v1115/stdlib/elvis/elvis.opa
*  2009 January 11 - Elvis News.co.uk
january elvis news co uk the elvis files general elvis news elvis tribute u k home submit a story contact us link to us youtube vids date archive for january th i remember elvis at humes as if it were yesterday by carole kimbrell not long ago i saw in the memphis flyer that lauderdale courts were being restored as part elvis in wellsville rita taylor of wellsville discovered this picture of elvis presley which she said was taken in location the king is back in los fresnos impersonator danny lee performs classic elvis presley hits saturday during the los fresnos music festival the elvis fever shakes rattles and rolls australian town sydney afp the quiet australian town of parkes was awash with brylcreem gabardine and gospel as a record number everybody wants to be elvis recent posts new elvis owners discussing graceland upgrades november comments off rock and roll hall of fame displays iconic elvis presley items november comments off that s one for the money the only pair of blue suede shoes ever owned by elvi...
http://elvisnews.co.uk/2009/01/11
*  Elvis Is Back! - Canada 1993 - BMG 2231-2-R - Elvis Presley CD
elvis is back canada bmg r elvis presley cd elvis on cd rca bmg sony cds elvis is back elvis presley elvis is back release bmg r canada matrix number kk r make me know it fever the girl of my best friend i will be home again dirty dirty feeling thrill of your love soldier boy such a night it feels so right girl next door went a walking like a baby reconsider baby...
http://elvisoncd.com/eigenecd/CD/e/elvisisback-canada1993.htm
*  Elvis Is Back! - USA 1996 - BMG 2231-2-R - Elvis Presley CD
Elvis Is Back. - USA 1996 - BMG 2231-2-R - Elvis Presley CD. Elvis On CD RCA/BMG/Sony CDs. Elvis Is Back. Elvis Presley Elvis Is Back. Release: 1996. BMG 2231-2-R. U.S.A. 13. Matrix number: 22312R ++ 64596-01. Make Me Know It Fever The Girl of My Best Friend I Will Be Home Again Dirty, Dirty Feeling Thrill Of Your Love Soldier Boy Such A Night It Feels So Right Girl Next Door Went A' Walking Like A Baby Reconsider Baby....
http://elvisoncd.com/eigenecd/CD/e/elvisisback-usa96.html
*  Les Indispensables De Elvis Presley - France 2006 - BMG 8287683173 2 - Elvis Presley CD
les indispensables de elvis presley france bmg elvis presley cd elvis on cd rca bmg sony cds elvis presley les indispensables de elvis presley release bmg france digipack edition with same tracks as on the cd l essential elvis presley france blue suede shoes hound dog all shook up i got a woman lawdy miss clawdy wear my ring around your neck a big hunk o love mean woman blues it s now or never fever return to sender that s all right treat me nice my baby left me hard headed woman mystery train...
http://elvisoncd.com/eigenecd/CD/l/lesindispensables.htm
*  Viruses
... are obligate intracellular parasites, that is, they can express their genes, do chemical synthesis of more viral nucleic acid and protein, and replicate only within a living cell of the correct host species. One of the biggest questions about viruses is, “Are they alive?” Consider that viruses unlike living organisms, can be crystallized, then be put back together and be “viable” this would kill a bacterium, like living organisms, have genetic programming, can mutate, and can evolve this is the reason we can’t make an AIDS vaccine that will always work, unlike living organisms, cannot reproduce independently, but like living organisms, can reproduce, and eukaryotic virus genes are more similar to eukaryotic genes, and prokaryotic virus genes are more similar to prokaryotic genes, suggesting that viruses may have evolved from fragments of cellular nucleic acids that acquired special “packaging.”. Because antibiotics kill the good bacteria in your system even if bad bacteria are present, taking them can ca...
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio106/viruses.htm
*  Why Cigarette Smoke Makes Flu, Other Viral Infections Worse -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Mobile. Follow. Subscribe. Breaking News :. Rocks Show First Photosynthesis That Made Oxygen. Understanding Others' Thoughts Helps Kids to Lie. Extremely Light Storage Device as E-Car Battery. Birds Flew Over the Heads of Dinosaurs. Hog-Nose Rat Discovered. Foot Fossil: Evolutionary Messiness of Walking. Migrating Songbirds Can Be Tricked by Magnets. Fossils Intensify Mystery of Odd Toothy Mammal. Predator Survives, but Ecosystem Crashes. Restoring Vision With Stem Cells. Science News from research organizations. Why Cigarette Smoke Makes Flu, Other Viral Infections Worse. Date: July 25, 2008 Source: Yale University Summary: A new study could explain why the cold and flu virus symptoms that are often mild and transient in non-smokers can seriously sicken smokers. The study also identified the mechanism by which viruses and cigarette smoke interact to increase lung inflammation and damage. Share:. Total shares:. FULL STORY. A new study by researchers at Yale Schoo...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080724175857.htm
*  Viral infections may have met their match | Harvard Gazette
Viral infections may have met their match. Science Health > Health Medicine Viral infections may have met their match Researchers ID protein that sets off body's response to fight infection November 24, 2013. Image courtesy of Hans-Christian Reinecker/MGH A confocal microscopic image showing the red-tagged GEF-H1 protein, which researchers believe is essential to the immune system's response against viral infection. The report describes finding that a protein called GEF-H1 is essential to the ability of macrophages — major contributors to the innate immune system — to respond to viral infections such as influenza. “The detection of viral genetic material inside an infected cell is critical to initiating the responses that signal the immune system to fight an infection and prevent its spread throughout the body,” said Hans-Christian Reinecker of the Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the MGH Gastrointestinal Unit, senior author of the report. “Our findings indicate that GEF-H1 may control im...
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/11/viral-infections-may-have-met-their-match/
*  Treating Viral Respiratory Illness in Children
... Serving all people by providing personalized health and wellness through exemplary care, education and research. For Medical Professionals. For Media. My Accounts. Patient Portal. Procedure Pre-Register. Pay My Bill Online. Health Info Preferences. Espa ol. . Specialties Services. Our Services Allergy Immunology. Asthma Care. Behavioral Psychological Health. Breast Imaging. Cancer Care. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery. Dermatology. Diabetes Endocrinology. Digestive Diseases. Ear, Nose Throat. Emergency Care. Genetic Counseling. Heart Vascular. Imaging Radiology. Infectious Diseases. Kidney Disease. Men's Health. Neuroscience. Oral Surgery. Orthopedics. Pain Management. Palliative Care. Pediatric Care. Precision Medicine. Primary Care. Pulmonology. Rehabilitation Physical Therapy. Scoliosis Care. Sleep Disorders. Spine Care. Surgical Services. Transplant Services. Urology. Weight Management Surgery. Wellness Fitness. Women's Health. Wound Care Explore health content from A to Z. A B C D E F G. H I J K L M N. O P...
http://healthsource.baylorhealth.com/3,86239
*  Viral Infection - NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital
... NewYork-Presbyterian. The University Hospital of Columbia and Cornell. Access medical records from your hospital visits online with myNYP.org Find A Doctor. Clinical Services. Health Library. Research and Clinical Trials. For Patients and Visitors. For Professionals. . Request an Appointment. NYP Careers. Maps & Directions. Important Telephone Numbers. About Us. Ways to Give. . Home. Glossary of Medical Terms. Glosario de T rminos M dicos. Diseases and Conditions. Enfermedades y Afecciones. Tests and Procedures. Cirug as y Procedimientos. Interactive Media Library. Calculadoras. Ranked among America's Best Hospitals by U.S.News. More top doctors than any other hospital in the NY Metro area, according to New York Magazine. More top doctors than any hospital in the US. Glossary of Medical Terms Viral Infection A viral infection is caused by a virus and is often the cause of minor illness, such as a cold or the stomach flu. A viral infection usually causes many different symptoms that often come on quickly ...
http://nyp.org/glossary/showDocument.php?contentTypeId=18&contentId=viral_infection_VA&heading=Viral Infection
*  Viral Infections - how long, body, last, causes
And viruses cannot reproduce unless they get inside a living cell. They cannot reproduce on their own, but must enter a living cell and use the host cell's energy. For instance, HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS, attacks certain cells of the immune system that are located throughout the body. Sometimes a viral illness is caused not by the virus itself, but by the body's reaction to it. The immune system may kill cells in order to get rid of the virus that is inside them. This can cause serious illness if the cells being. There are thousands of kinds of viruses. Specific viruses attach themselves to the outsides of specific host cells, and then work their way inside through the host's outer membranes. Once inside their host cells, the viruses reproduce. The new viruses can destroy their host cells and then move on to attack new host cells. Diagnosis Some viral infections, such as influenza, the common cold, and chickenpox, are easily recognized by their symptoms and no...
http://humanillnesses.com/original/U-Z/Viral-Infections.html
*  Respiratory infections provide urban asthma clue
... . Home. Thought Leaders Series. Insights from Industry Series. MediKnowledge Series. Research White Papers. News Feed. News A-Z. Health A-Z. Drugs A-Z. Clinical Diagnostics. Life Science Laboratory. Consumer Products. About. Meet the Team. Terms and Conditions. Medical News 'Tweets'. LIFE SCIENCES MEDICINE. October 6, 2015. Other search tools: Drugs. Health. News. Newsletters. Contact Us. Advertisement. Trending Stories Brain health: how can you reduce cognitive decline. An interview with Heather Snyder, Ph.D. CHOP scientist says that mitochondria play central role in human evolution, disease. Neuroscientists reveal the brain malady responsible for tinnitus, chronic pain. Study explores relationship between mental health and parenting. EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial demonstrates superiority of Jardiance in T2D patients at risk for CV events. Humans worse for Chernobyl animals than nuclear disaster. Latest News Oxford Gene Technology launches Cytocell FISH probe for bladder cancer. New UV-Vis spectrophotometer si...
http://news-medical.net/news/20121002/Respiratory-infections-provide-urban-asthma-clue.aspx
*  A little bit scared.............
... Printable View. 10-17-2006, 06:27 AM KayCee31614 A little bit scared............. : I just got off from the phone with the nurse from my Rheumatologists office. I had lab work done last week. Well the nurse just called my house and my Sed Rate is indicating inflammation. I kind of figured that something was going wrong, because the Eczema broke out again with a vengence. The doctor increased my Imuran. It just upsets me that for years my labs have been good and then boom. It is scary and depressing. I am so afraid that it is going to attack my heart again. I am hoping and praying that the imuran will put it back in check. I am just scared is all. Kathleen. 10-17-2006, 10:01 AM Saysusie Kathleen :lol: It is ok to be scared, especially if you have been there before and do not want to have a repeat of the same frightening symptoms. We are here to help you and to give you comfort..you may rant, rave and vent as much as you need - especially if it helps to alleviate your stress. Peace and Blessings Saysusie 1...
http://forum.wehavelupus.com/printthread.php?t=1825&pp=10&page=1
*  Category:Viral diseases
category viral diseases category viral diseases a list of articles about infectious disease s caused by virus es category infectious diseases diseases...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Viral_diseases
*  Viral infection
... redirect viral disease...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_infection
*  Viral Infections
... redirect infection...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_Infections
*  New Drug Can Treat Almost Any Viral Infection by Killing the Body's Infected Cells
New Drug Can Treat Almost Any Viral Infection by Killing the Body's Infected Cells....
http://gizmodo.com/5829625/new-drug-can-treat-almost-any-viral-infection-by-killing-the-bodys-infected-cells?tag=drug
*  Interplex Industries, Inc. - Product Announcements | Product News
Supplier Announcements Supplier: Interplex Industries, Inc. Improving Power Module Packaging Efficiency Interplex's application specific solutions for the packaging of IGBT power modules and complete power stack assemblies utilizing several proven core high-force, high-power, pluggable interconnect technologies, such as press-fit, IDC Insulation Displacement Connectors, tuning forks and other products to improve power module packaging efficiency. How to Create a Solderless Card-Edge Connection Interplex's Surface Mount Technology SMT Card-Edge contacts are placed on a daughter card using standard high-speed pick and place surface mount equipment. A High-Power IDC Motors and Drives Solution Interplex's new Insulation Displacement Connector IDC family of terminals, designed to work directly with heavier, multi-layer magnet wire coatings, maintain a high normal force and a low contact resistance while supporting motors, high-power and harsh industrial applications. A Study on High-Power Press-Fit Current Capacit...
http://globalspec.com/supplier/ProductAnnouncements/InterplexIndustries
*  Rice yellow mottle virus
... rymv is a plant pathogenic virus belonging to the genus sobemovirus the genome is a positive sense single strand rna of nucleotides in length it was first reported in kenya in bakker w characterization and ecological aspects of rice yellow mottle virus in kenya plant diseases and it has been detected in many countries in the sub saharan africa abo m e a a sy and m d alegbejo rice yellow mottle virus rymv in africa evolution distribution economic significance on sustainable rice production and management strategies journal of sustainable agriculture references external links category sobemoviruses category viral plant pathogens and diseases...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice_yellow_mottle_virus
*  Psych Central - Discovery of the first resistance gene to rice yellow mottle virus
... --> Discovery of the first resistance gene to rice yellow mottle virus. Rice yellow mottle virus RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya. IRD geneticists have for several years been applying their research to the genetic bases of this resistance in order to facilitate its transfer to varieties that are agronomically useful yet susceptible to the virus with a view to optimizing their use. Data from rice genome sequencing have been extremely useful for research on this fragment to find out if one gene rather than another could confer resistance to RYMV. For this, a line of resistant rice was modified by transgenically introducing the allele for susceptibility of this gene. One of the proteins that the RYMV requires appears to be the eIF iso 4G translation initiation factor coded by the Rymv1 gene which is probably involved in viral protein translation, but also perhaps in other processes such as the virus's movement within the cell. The two approaches are now being combined in order to determine the mol...
http://psychcentral.com/news/archives/2006-10/idrp-dot100506.html
*  Wound tumor virus
... is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the united states of america belonging to the genus phytoreovirus and the family reoviridae the virus is a type iii virus under the baltimore classification system that is it has a double stranded rna genome this genome is approximately base pairs long and organised into twelve segments all the viral replication occurs in the cytoplasm the virus is rna by weight the other being structural proteins structurally the virus is constructed from different structural proteins the capsid has icosahedral symmetry is non enveloped and around nm in diameter there is an inner shell with a diameter of around nm more than species of plants are potential hosts for wound tumor virus it was first reported in melilotus officinalis the virus causes tumors to form on the plant at the stem and roots with the root tumors being more severe the virus is spread by an insect vector the leaf hopper family notably agallia constricta since viral replication occurs relatively independently ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wound_tumor_virus
*  Potato mop-top virus
... 'Potato mop-top virus PMTV ' is a plant pathogenic virus transmitted through the vector ' Spongospora subterranea ' that affects potatoes. Hosts and Symptoms Disease cycle Environment Management Importance Pathogenesis References External links. Hosts and Symptoms. The potato mop top virus' primary hosts are plants in the Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae. 5 The disease cycle of PMTV begins with the virus entering the host plant’s cell and disassembling its capsid to release the viral RNA into the cell. The naturally occurring virus has been found to have systemic effects on 'Nicotiana benthamiana.' However, when the gene for TRIPLE GENE BLOCK1 TGB1, which is a movement factor protein, was silenced, the systemic movement of the virus was hindered. 8 The virus moves through the xylem to infect plants systemically, but can also spread locally through cell-to-cell movement. 9 Cooperative Extension Publications University of Maine|url = http://umaine.edu/publications/2437e/|website = umaine.edu|accessdate = 2015...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato_mop-top_virus
*  Desk Encyclopedia of Plant and Fungal Virology | 978-0-12-375148-5 | Elsevier
It begins with general topics in plant virology including movement of viruses in plants, the transmission of plant viruses by vectors, and the development of virus-resistant transgenic plants. GENERAL TOPICS Movement of viruses in plants Vector transmission of plant viruses Diagnostic techniques: plant viruses Plant antiviral defense: gene silencing pathway Virus-induced gene silencing VIGS Plant resistance to viruses: engineered resistance Plant resistance to viruses: geminiviruses Plant virus vectors gene expression systems Vaccine production in plants Viroids Section 2. VIRUSES AND VIRUS GENERA Alfalfa mosaic virus Allexivirus Banana bunchy top virus Barley yellow dwarf viruses Beet curly top virus Benyvirus Bromoviruses Cacao swollen shoot virus Capillovirus, Foveavirus, Trichovirus, Vitivirus Carlavirus Carmovirus Caulimoviruses: general features Caulimoviruses: molecular biology Citrus tristeza virus Cowpea mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic virus Flexiviruses Furovirus Ilarvirus Luteoviruses Machlomovirus Ma...
http://elsevier.com/books/desk-encyclopedia-of-plant-and-fungal-virology/mahy/978-0-12-375148-5
*  Pomovirus
... 'Pomovirus' is a genus of viruses, in the family Virgaviridae. Plants and dicotyledons serve as natural hosts. There are currently four species in this genus including the type species Potato mop-top virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: dwarfing of shoots mop-top and potato spraing disease. The name of the genus is derived from its type species, 'Po'tato 'mo'p-top virus, giving rise to 'Pomovirus'. Index of Viruses - Pomovirus 2006. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/Ictv/fs index.htm. Taxonomy Structure Life Cycle References External Links. Taxonomy. 'Group: ssRNA + ' {{Collapsible list|title= Order: Unassigned 1={{Collapsible list. framestyle=border:none; padding:1.0em;|title=Family: Virgaviridae |1=. Beet soil-borne virus. Beet virus Q. Broad bean necrosis virus. ' Potato mop-top virus '. Structure. Viruses in Pomovirus are non-enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries, and helical symmetry. The diameter is around 21 nm, with a length of...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomovirus
*  ARS Project: INTEGRATED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION RELATED TO DEVELOPMENT OF A UNIVERSAL PLANT VIRUS MIC
... ROARRAY 418809 Annual Report Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit : Research. You are here: Northeast Area Home / Floral and Nursery Plants Research / Research / Research Project #418809. INTEGRATED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION RELATED TO DEVELOPMENT OF A UNIVERSAL PLANT VIRUS MICROARRAY. 1b.Approach from AD-416 : ARS will acquire the lists of viral taxa to be represented on the viral detection microarray, and virus-infected samples from which to amplify nucleic acids to validate the microarray. This information and material will be utilized by both ARS and the Cooperator to jointly develop and validate the microarray for detection of target viruses, and to make validation results available to collaborators via a web server. The COOPERATOR will perform analysis of viral sequences to identify suitable sequences for the development of oligonucleotides, and participate in analysis of microarray hybridization results to determine with a high degree of confidence which viruses were present in validation samples. ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=418809&fy=2012
*  Microarray Grant - Universal Plant Virus Detection
... USDA Grant Awarded for Development of a Microarray System for Universal Detection of Plant Viruses. National Arboretum's Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, in collaboration with scientists at several other institutions. The grant is for $999,735 over a period of three years, with the goal of developing the capability to detect and identify plant viruses, from any type of plant, to at least the viral genus level. Most existing methods of virus detection are either virus-specific, or detect a number of related viruses within one group, and are unable to detect viruses of other taxonomic groups. In contrast, the microarray will consist of thousands of oligonucleotides short DNA ‘probes’, each derived from nucleic acid sequences conserved between the genomes RNA or DNA of members of a particular taxonomic group, or between isolates of a particular viral species. Complementary viral sequences, if present, will hybridize anneal to their corresponding spotted viral ‘probe’. The microarray will therefore b...
http://usna.usda.gov/Research/MicroarrayGrant.html
*  Tobravirus
... 'Tobravirus' is a genus of viruses, in the family Virgaviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Tobacco rattle virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: SBWMV: green and yellow mosaic. 1 2. Taxonomy Structure Life Cycle References External Links. Taxonomy. 'Group: ssRNA + ' {{Collapsible list|title= Order: Unassigned 1={{Collapsible list. framestyle=border:none; padding:1.0em;|title=Family: Virgaviridae |1=. Pea early-browning virus. Pepper ringspot virus. ' Tobacco rattle virus '. Structure. Viruses in Tobravirus are non-enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries, and helical symmetry. The diameter is around 22 nm, with two lengths: 46-115 nm and 180–215 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA around 26.84.5kb in total length 8600–11300 nucleotides for each length. Index of Viruses—Tobravirus 2006. In: ICTVdB—The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C Ed, Columbia Un...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobravirus
*  Transmission of plant viruses
... Problems associated with viral transmission Natural transmission between plant hosts Transmission between plant cells External links. Problems associated with viral transmission. Since viruses are obligate intracellular parasites they must develop direct methods of transmission, between hosts, in order to survive. The mobility of animals increases the mechanisms of viral transmission that have evolved, whereas plants remain immobile and thus viruses must rely on environmental factors to be transmitted between hosts. Natural transmission between plant hosts. The structural differences between plant and animal cells have resulted in a variety of transmission routes being exploited, enabling the virus to be passed between different host plants. These differences, combined with the fact that plants are immobile, have resulted in plant viruses relying on the wind and soil to transmit seeds as well as vectors. Vectors either transmit the virus propagative transmission, which results in an amplification of the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_of_plant_viruses
*  Nudivirus
A 'nudivirus' family ' Nudiviridae ' is a large, rod-shaped virus with a circular, double stranded DNA genome of 96–231 kb. Taxonomy Phylogeny Virology Host-virus relations Defense Mechanisms Relation to polydnaviruses in parasitic wasps References. Baculoviruses and nudiviruses differ in gene content, genome organization, cytopathology, infection of adults and most likely in host range. 2011 A DNA Virus of 'Drosophila'. 'Gryllus bimaculatus' nudivirus – black cricket ' Teleogryllus commodus ' 'Helicoverpa zea' nudivirus 1 – cotton bollworm 'Helicoverpa zea' nudivirus 2 – cotton bollworm 'Penaeus monodon' nudivirus – a shrimp 'Oryctes rhinoceros' nudivirus – rhinoceros beetle ' Dynastinae ' species 'Drosophila innubila Nudivirus' – Drosophila innubila ' Diptera '. Although, 'Heliothis zea' Nudivirus 1 HzNV-1 or Hz-1 virus, a relatively broad host range nudivirus, has been shown to block an induced-apoptosis gene 'hhi1', and so, prevent his own death. A functional antiapoptosis gene, Hz-iap2, has been highligh...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nudivirus
*  KIs-V
kis v kis v kis v is a dna virus isolated from four human cases of acute hepatitis in japan this virus has also been isolated in france biagini p touinssi m galicher v de micco p kis virus and blood donors france emerg infect dis doi eid virology the genome has a sequence of bases and potential genes the virus is nanometer s in diameter and is enveloped references category double stranded dna viruses category hepatitis...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KIs-V
*  Cache Buffers Chains and Latch Spelunking | Ardent Performance Computing
o.subobject name||' ' object, sq.* from select x.obj, x.file#,x.dbablk, x.tch, decode x.state,0,'FREE',1,'XCUR',2,'SCUR',3,'CR',4,'READ', 5,'MREC',6,'IREC',7,'WRITE',8,'PI',9,'MEMORY',10,'MWRITE', 11,'DONATED',x.state state, decode x.state,3,cr scn bas,NULL scn bas from sys.v$latch children l, sys.x$bh x where x.hladdr = l.addr and x.obj power 2,22 and x.hladdr = 00000005F9EA6780 sq, dba objects o where o.data object id=sq.obj order by sq.tch desc, file#, dbablk, scn bas where rownum 40; OBJECT OBJ FILE# DBABLK TCH STATE SCN BAS ------------------------------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----- ---------- JSCHDER.SPOT ACTIVITY 903892 214 110918 3 SCUR JSCHDER.BIGTABLE LOG.P 2007 09 3208618 1209 16393 2 CR 279622172 JSCHDER.BIGTABLE ORDERS MF AND PARTS 3136 994 121460 1 SCUR JSCHDER.BIGTABLE.P PARTS APPROVED 3064309 1156 33703 1 SCUR JSCHDER.BIGTABLE LOG.P 2007 09 3208618 1209 16393 1 CR 279619002 JSCHDER.BIGTABLE LOG.P 2007 09 3208618 1209 16393 1 CR 279619202 JSCHDER.BI...
http://ardentperf.com/2007/09/13/cache-buffers-chains-and-latch-spelunking/
*  Defective interfering particle
... Image:RF00496.jpg In virology, 'defective interfering particles' 'DIPs', also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. 6 Defection Interference Pathogenesis Types of defective RNA genomes Recent published work References. They are spontaneously produced by error-prone viral replication, something particularly prevalent in RNA viruses over DNA viruses due to the enzyme used replicase, or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The extent of interference depends on the type and size of defection in the genome; large deletions of genomic data allow rapid replication of the defective genome. During the coinfection of a host cell, a critical ratio will eventually be reached in which more viral factors are being used to produce the non-infectious DIPs than infectious particles. DIP generation is regulated within viruses: the Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element shown in t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defective_interfering_particle
*  Sindbis virus
... {{Taxobox. color=violet name = 'Sindbis virus' image caption = CryoEM model of Sindbis virus. EMDB entry. image = EMD-2374sindbid.jpg virus group = iv familia = ' Togaviridae ' genus = ' Alphavirus ' species = 'Sindbis virus' }} 'Sindbis Virus SINV ' is a member of the ' Togaviridae ' family, in the alphavirus subfamily. The virus was first isolated in 1952 in Cairo, Egypt. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes ' Culex ' spp. SINV causes 'sindbis fever' in humans and the symptoms include arthralgia, rash and malaise. Sindbis fever is most common in South and East Africa, Egypt, Israel, Philippines and parts of Australia. Sindbis virus is an " arbovirus " ar thropod- bo rne and is maintained in nature by transmission between vertebrate bird hosts and invertebrate mosquito vectors. Humans are infected with Sindbis virus when bitten by an infected mosquito. accessed 2007-10-16 Ockelbo disease in Sweden and Karelian fever in Russia. Virus structure, genome and replication See also References External links....
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindbis_virus
*  Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for Sindbis virus detection. J Virol Methods
Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for Sindbis virus detection. Article Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for Sindbis virus detection. Jussi Sane. Jussi Sane University of Helsinki Message author. Remove suggestion. Satu Kurkela Helsinki University Central Hospital Message author. Remove suggestion. Remove suggestion. Remove suggestion. Antti Vaheri University of Helsinki Message author. Remove suggestion. Olli Vapalahti University of Helsinki Message author. Remove suggestion. Impact Factor: 1.78. ABSTRACT Sindbis virus SINV is an arthropod-borne alphavirus found widely in Eurasia, Africa and Oceania. A one-step TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of SINV and evaluated its clinical performance with acute-phase serum samples. The real-time RT-PCR assay was specific and sensitive for the detection of SINV in cell culture supernatants with a 95% detection limit of 9 genome copies/reaction determined by probit analysis. However, in the assay only...
http://researchgate.net/publication/51795207_Development_and_evaluation_of_a_real-time_RT-PCR_assay_for_Sindbis_virus_detection._J_Virol_Methods
*  Nucleotide Sequence of the 26S mRNA of Sindbis Virus and Deduced Sequence of the Encoded Virus Stru
... ctural Proteins - CaltechAUTHORS. Simple Search. Advanced Search. Nucleotide Sequence of the 26S mRNA of Sindbis Virus and Deduced Sequence of the Encoded Virus Structural Proteins. 1981 Nucleotide Sequence of the 26S mRNA of Sindbis Virus and Deduced Sequence of the Encoded Virus Structural Proteins. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:RICpnas81. See Usage Policy. Use this Persistent URL to link to this item: http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:RICpnas81 Abstract The nucleotide sequence of intracellular 26S mRNA of Sindbis virus has been determined by direct sequence analysis of the cDNA made to this RNA with reverse transcriptase. From this, the amino acid sequences of the encoded virus structural proteins, which include a basic capsid protein and two integral membrane glycoproteins, have been deduced. We suggest that three proteases are required to produce these proteins from their polyprotein precursor: a viral protease, which functions in the cytosol to release the capsid protein; signa...
http://authors.library.caltech.edu/6250/
*  Togaviridae References
... Virology. Schlesinger S, Schlesinger MJ. Medical Virology. Strauss JH, Strauss EG. Evolution of RNA viruses. The Arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology. Clinical and subclinical Barmah Forest virus infection. Wang and T. Sequence of the genome of Rubella virus: evidence for genetic rearrangement during Togavirus evolution. Virology 177 : 225-238. Dominguez GD, Wang C-Y, Frey TK Sequence of the genome RNA of rubella virus: evidence for genetic rearrangement during togavirus evolution. Virology 177: 225-238. Lemm AJ, Rumenapt T, Strauss EG, Strauss JH, Rice CM Polypeptide requirements for assembly of functional Sindbis virus replication complexes: A model for the temporal regulation of minus and plus-strand RNA synthesis. Shirako Y, Strauss JH. Regulation of Sindbis virus RNA replication: Uncleaved P123 and nsP4 function in minus strand RNA synthesis whereas cleaved products from P123 are required for efficient plus-strand synthesis. Strauss JH. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Mosquito-Borne Flavivi...
http://web.stanford.edu/group/virus/toga/reference.html
*  Babanki virus
... bbkv is a member of the virus family togaviridae of class iv of the baltimore classification system and the genus alphavirus genome and structure it has an unsegmented positive sense single stranded rna genome which is approximately kb long in general members of the togaviridae have genomes which are able to be used directly as mrna and the genome of bbkv can code for both structural and non structural proteins currently the genome of bbkv has only been partially sequenced it has a spherical nucleocapsid which is approximately nm in diameter and shows icosahedral symmetry of t this nucleocapsid core is surrounded by a lipid envelope covered with glycoprotein spikes and virion particles are approximately nm in diameter in total disease bbkv was first isolated in babanki in northwest cameroon africa in and the disease is also known in senegal and madagascar it is closely related to another alphavirus sindbis virus and causes similar symptoms in humans like fever arthralgia or joint pain and a rash it is sp...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babanki_virus
*  KEGG ENZYME: 3.4.21.90
... ENZYME: 3.4.21.90. Entry EC 3.4.21.90 Enzyme. Name togavirin; Sindbis virus protease; Sindbis virus core protein; NsP2 proteinase. Class Hydrolases; Acting on peptide bonds peptidases ; Serine endopeptidases. Reaction IUBMB. Autocatalytic release of the core protein from the N-terminus of the togavirus structural polyprotein by hydrolysis of a -Trp!Ser- bond. Comment Known from the Sindbis and Semliki forest togaviruses. Once released, the core protein does not retain catalytic activity. Togavirin is the type example of peptidase family S3 and has a similar tertiary structure to chymotrypsin. History EC 3.4.21.90 created 1995. Reference 1. Authors Krausslich HG, Wimmer E. Title Viral proteinases. Journal Annu. Rev. Biochem. 57 1988 701-54. Reference 2. Authors Strauss EG, De Groot RJ, Levinson R, Strauss JH. Title Identification of the active site residues in the nsP2 proteinase of Sindbis virus. Journal Virology. 191 1992 932-40. Reference 3. Authors Tong L, Wengler G, Rossmann MG. Title Refined structu...
http://genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?EC:3.4.21.90
*  infliximab iv and measles virus vaccine subq Drug Interactions - RxList
... infliximab iv and measles virus vaccine subq interactions. Drug interactions with infliximab iv and measles virus vaccine subq infliximab iv brand names and other generic formulations include: Remicade IV All generic drug interactions for infliximab iv lists will include brand and generic names : 73 serious drug interactions. measles virus vaccine subq brand names and other generic formulations include: Attenuvax SubQ All generic drug interactions for measles virus vaccine subq lists will include brand and generic names : 1 contraindicated drug interaction. 75 serious drug interactions. 3 minor drug interactions. Serious - Use Alternative Potential for serious interaction; regular monitoring by your doctor required or alternate medication may be needed. infliximab iv and measles virus vaccine subq infliximab iv decreases effects of measles virus vaccine subq by opposing drug effects. Patient Drug Interactions Source: RxList 2015 RxList, Inc. infliximab iv and measles virus vaccine subq infliximab iv decr...
http://rxlist.com/drug-interactions/infliximab-iv-and-measles-virus-vaccine-subq-interaction.htm
*  leflunomide oral and measles virus vaccine subq Drug Interactions - RxList
... leflunomide oral and measles virus vaccine subq interactions. Drug interactions with leflunomide oral and measles virus vaccine subq leflunomide oral brand names and other generic formulations include: Arava Oral All generic drug interactions for leflunomide oral lists will include brand and generic names : 74 serious drug interactions. measles virus vaccine subq brand names and other generic formulations include: Attenuvax SubQ All generic drug interactions for measles virus vaccine subq lists will include brand and generic names : 1 contraindicated drug interaction. 75 serious drug interactions. 3 minor drug interactions. Serious - Use Alternative Potential for serious interaction; regular monitoring by your doctor required or alternate medication may be needed. leflunomide oral and measles virus vaccine subq leflunomide oral decreases effects of measles virus vaccine subq by opposing drug effects. Patient Drug Interactions Source: RxList 2015 RxList, Inc. leflunomide oral and measles virus vaccine sub...
http://rxlist.com/drug-interactions/leflunomide-oral-and-measles-virus-vaccine-subq-interaction.htm
*  Human Measles Virus IgM ELISA Kit (ab108751) | Abcam
Human Measles Virus IgM ELISA Kit ab108751. Abcam. All Primary antibodies Secondary antibodies Immunoassay kits and reagents Cell and tissue imaging tools Cellular and biochemical assays Proteins and Peptides Proteomics tools Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors Lysates Multiplex miRNA assays. Products. By product type. Primary antibodies. Immunoassay kits and reagents. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. Cell Biology. Immunology. Microbiology. Support. Protocols troubleshooting. Biochemical product FAQ. Check out our protocols Visit protocols and troubleshooting or check them out using the Abcam app for iPhone Protocols and troubleshooting iPhone app. Immunology. Pathways. Your email. Measles-virus-IgM-Human-ELISA-Kit-ab108751.pdf Send me a copy of this email I agree to the terms and conditions. Immunology. Immunoglobulins. IgM. Anti-Measles virus IgM Human ELISA Kit ab108751. Customer reviews and FAQs Overview Product name Anti-Measles virus IgM Hum...
http://abcam.com/Measles-Virus-IgM-Human-ELISA-Kit-ab108751.html?intFromAbID=108750
*  Replicating Attenuated Measles Virus Can Be Engineered to Enter Cells Through the CD20 Antigen | Onc
Replicating Attenuated Measles Virus Can Be Engineered to Enter Cells Through the CD20 Antigen. Cancer Types. Cancer Types. Bone Cancers. Breast Cancer. Head and Neck Cancers. Leukemia. Pediatric Cancers. Skin Cancers. Cancer Treatment. Replicating Attenuated Measles Virus Can Be Engineered to Enter Cells Through the CD20 Antigen Reviewer: Walter Sall, MD OncoLink Last Modified: December 10, 2002. Presenter: Adele Fielding Presenter's Affiliation: Mayo Clinic Type of Session: Scientific Background In laboratory models of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma NHL, attenuated measles virus MV has been found to have therapeutic potential as a replicating, oncolytic virus. CD20 is a lympocyte cell surface antigen, an important target in NHL therapy. MV expressing anti-CD20 replicated well in non-permissive CD20 positive CHO cells. Proteolytic cleavage of the anti-CD20 protein from MV obliterated their ability to replicate in CD20 positive CHO cells. Anti-CD20 expressing MV was much better at suppressing growth of CD20 positive ...
http://oncolink.org/conferences/article.cfm?id=5401
*  Measles virus
... 'Measles virus' 'MeV' is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus ' Morbillivirus ' within the family ' Paramyxoviridae '. Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no animal reservoirs are known to exist. Disease Replication cycle Entry. Evolution Genotypes References. Disease. Measles. The measles virus is the cause of measles, an infection of the respiratory system. Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes and a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash. The virus is highly contagious and is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. Replication cycle. Entry. These proteins are responsible for host cell binding and invasion. Three receptors for the H protein have been identified to date: complement regulatory molecule CD46, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule SLAM and the cell adhesion molecule Nectin-4. Lu G, Gao GF, Yan J 2013 The receptors and entry of measles virus: a review. Evolution. The measl...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measles_virus
*  JCVI: Wild-type Measles Viruses With Non-standard Genome Lengths.
... Home. About. Research. Sustainable Lab. Publications. Education. Giving. Press. Careers. Contact. Listing. About. . Publications. Citation. Bankamp B, Liu C, Rivailler P, Bera J, Shrivastava S, Kirkness EF, Bellini WJ, Rota PA. Wild-type Measles Viruses With Non-standard Genome Lengths. PloS One. 2014 Apr 01; 9: e95470. External Citation. Abstract. The length of the single stranded, negative sense RNA genome of measles virus MeV is highly conserved at 15,894 nucleotides nt. MeVs can be grouped into 24 genotypes based on the highly variable 450 nucleotides coding for the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleocapsid protein N-450. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 2 wild-type viral isolates of genotype D4 with genome lengths of 15,900 nt. Both genomes had a 7 nt insertion in the 3' untranslated region UTR of the matrix M gene and a 1 nt deletion in the 5' UTR of the fusion F gene. The net gain of 6 nt complies with the rule-of-six required for replication competency of the genomes of morbilliviruses. The i...
http://jcvi.org/cms/publications/listing/abstract/article/wild-type-measles-viruses-with-non-standard-genome-lengths/
*  .. Amazing: Doctors say measles virus put woman’s cancer in remission .. Report a Typo .. 10p Ne
Amazing: Doctors say measles virus put woman’s cancer in remission Posted 7:47 PM, May 15, 2014, by Q13 FOX News Staff, Updated at 07:59pm, May 15, 2014. × Amazing: Doctors say measles virus put woman’s cancer in remission. Mayo Clinic staff test to see if Stacy Erholtz’s cancer is still in remission. CNN — A woman with an incurable cancer is now in remission, thanks, doctors say, to a highly concentrated dose of the measles virus. For 10 years, Stacy Erholtz, 49, battled multiple myeloma, a deadly cancer of the blood. Then researchers gave her and five other multiple myeloma patients a dose of a highly concentrated, lab-engineered measles virus similar to the measles vaccine. In fact, the dose Erholtz received contained enough of the virus to vaccinate approximately 10 million people. “I think we succeeded because we pushed the dose higher than others have pushed it,” Russell said. And the other patients in the trial did not go into remission. The measles virus worked with these multiple myeloma patients bec...
http://q13fox.com/2014/05/15/doctors-measles-virus-put-womans-cancer-in-remission/
*  Browsing Research Reports by Subject "Measles Virus Infection"
... Login. The Sheridan Libraries. Welch Medical Library. SAIS Library. Gibson Library. Friedheim Library. JScholarship Home. Provost's Undergraduate Research Awards. Research Reports. Browsing Research Reports by Subject. Browsing Research Reports by Subject "Measles Virus Infection". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. Or enter first few letters:. Sort by: submit date issue date title Order: ascending descending Results: 5 10 20 40 60 80 100. Now showing items 1-1 of 1. Measles Virus Infection of Primary Respiratory Epithelial Cells Derived from Rhesus Macaques. Tsay, Annie; Lin, Wen-Hsuan; Lalime, Erin; Pekosz, Andrew; Griffin, Diane. Office of the Provost, Johns Hopkins University, 2011. Now showing items 1-1 of 1. Search JScholarship. Advanced Search. All of JScholarship. Communities Collections. By Issue Date. Authors. Titles. Subjects. This Collection. By Issue Date. Authors. Titles. Subjects. About. Help. Contact. Feedback. Privacy Policy. Preservation P...
https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/34012/browse?rpp=20&value=Measles Virus Infection&etal=-1&type=subject&starts_with=K&order=ASC&sort_by=-1

Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.Wound tumor virus: Wound tumor virus is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the United States of America belonging to the genus Phytoreovirus and the family Reoviridae. The virus is a Type III virus under the Baltimore classification system; that is it has a double-stranded RNA genome.Nudivirus: A nudivirus (family Nudiviridae) is a large, rod-shaped virus with a circular, double stranded DNA genome of 96–231 kb. The genome encodes 98 to 154 open reading frames.Defective interfering particle: In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection.Sindbis virusCD46: CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. CD46 is an inhibitory complement receptor.Rabies virus: The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva.Global spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.Hepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.West Nile virus in the United States: The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999. The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.Vesicular stomatitis virus: Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) (often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs.Natural transfer: The natural transfer (hypothesis or theory), in reference to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, states that humans first received HIV by contact with primates, presumably from a fight with a Chimpanzee during hunting or consumption of primate meat, and became contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the 'Hunter Theory', the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.Mumps virus: Mumps virus is the causative agent of mumps, a well-known common childhood disease characterised by swelling of the parotid glands, salivary glands and other epithelial tissues, causing high morbidity and in some cases more serious complications such as deafness. Natural infection is currently restricted to humans and the virus is transmitted by direct contact, droplet spread, or contaminated objects.Disease resistance in fruit and vegetables: There are a number of lines of defence against pests (that, those animals that cause damage to the plants we grow) and diseases in the O, principal among these being the practice of good husbandry, creating healthy soil and ensuring high standards of garden hygiene. But no matter how diverse and healthy the garden eco-system may be, there will always be a degree of disease and pest presence.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.John Cunningham (journalist): John Cunningham (1940s – February 8, 2012) an Irish journalist from Tuam. He was national journalist of the year in 1979.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Simon Carpenter: Dr. Simon Carpenter, Head of the Entomology and Modelling Group in the Vector-borne Diseases Programme at the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Institute for Animal Health’s Pirbright Laboratory in Woking, Surrey, is an entomologist who was awarded the first Rooker Prize in 2009 in recognition of his research on biting midges that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of bluetongue disease, an important orbivirus disease of ruminants.Gammaretrovirus core encapsidation signalColes PhillipsHHV capsid portal protein: HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The protein is commonly referred to as the HSV-1 UL-6 protein because it is the transcription product of Herpes gene UL-6.Adolf MayerRespiratory syncytial virus G protein: Respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a protein produced by respiratory syncytial virus.Myxoma virus: Myxoma virus is a virus that causes myxomatosis in rabbits and was used as a pest control in Australia.Virus processing: The main idea behind viral processing is to stop the viruses in a given sample from infecting the desired product. The two most widely used methods of viral processing are viral removal and viral inactivation.Brighton Sailing ClubCytopathic effectAlastrimJosiah WarrenNorwalk Hospital: Norwalk Hospital is a not-for-profit, acute care community teaching hospital in the Spring Hill section of Norwalk, Connecticut. The hospital serves a population of 250,000 in lower Fairfield County, Connecticut.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a medical term referring to a histological variant of malignant tumor arising from the uncontrolled mitosis of transformed cells originating in epithelial tissue (or in cells that display epithelial characteristics) that bear microscopic resemblance to lymphoepithelioma (nasopharyngeal carcinoma).Canine hepacivirus: Canine hepacivirus is a single strand RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus.Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Gerold G, Qaisar N, Jain K, Henriquez JA, Firth C, Hirschberg DL, Rice CM, Shields S, Lipkin WI (2011) Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Michael A. EpsteinTick-borne encephalitis virus: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis.Human parainfluenza virusesReuben Rickard: Reuben Rickard (August 20, 1841 – February 28, 1896) was a mining engineer who served as President of the Town Board of Trustees in Berkeley, California from 1891 to 1893, and again for about one month during 1895.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Viral structural protein: A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Foot-and-mouth disease virus: The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen that causes foot-and-mouth disease. It is a picornavirus, the prototypical member of the Aphthovirus genus.Hexon protein: In molecular biology, the hexon protein is a major coat protein found in Adenoviruses. Hexon coat proteins are synthesised during late infection and form homo-trimers.Thermal cyclerVirulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.

(1/2188) Detection of viruses and body fluids which may contain viruses in the domestic environment.

The domestic environment was investigated for the presence of viruses and body fluids that may contain viruses. A range of surfaces in 39 homes (17 visited on 2 occasions) were sampled by swabbing and analysed using cell culture, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for enteroviral RNA, haemoglobin as a marker for blood, amylase as an indicator of urine, saliva and sweat, and protein as an indicator of general hygiene. Haemoglobin was found on 1.9% of surfaces sampled and of the positive samples 30% were from articles frequently handled. Amylase (> 5 U/l) was found in 29.3% of samples tested. Protein was found in 97.8% of samples tested. Enteroviral RNA, indicating the presence of virus, was detected in 3 out of 448 samples tested; they were from a tap handle, telephone handpiece and a toilet bowl. No viruses were isolated in cell culture, however significant problems were encountered with bacterial and fungal contamination. This work demonstrates that only testing environmental samples for bacteria and ATP may not give a total view of the microbiological problem in the home. A range of test methods is useful to gain a broad view of the problems of hygiene in the home and to allow comparative studies of specific areas such as the kitchen and bathroom.  (+info)

(2/2188) Preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products.

Human gene therapy products include naked DNA and viral as well as non-viral vectors containing nucleic acids. There is limited experience on the preclinical toxicity studies necessary for the safety evaluation of these products, which have been outlined in several recently released guidelines. Requirements for the preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products are both specific and non-specific. All key preclinical studies should be performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices. Non-specific requirements are in fact common to all pharmaceutical products. Critical specific issues to be addressed are: the safety evaluation of the vector and the toxicity of the expressed protein(s), which are the two components of gene therapy products, the quality of the test article, the selection of animal species, and the verification that the administration method successfully transports the gene of interest, with the vector, to the target site(s). The treatment schedule should mimic the intended human therapeutic design. The host's immune response against the gene therapy product has to be evaluated to detect possible adverse effects and immune neutralization by antibodies. The biodistribution of the gene of interest is also essential and can be evaluated by molecular biology techniques, such as PCR. Specific confinement is required for the safe manipulation of viral vectors.  (+info)

(3/2188) Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water.

Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction.  (+info)

(4/2188) Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors.

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

(5/2188) Transport of colloidal particles in lymphatics and vasculature after subcutaneous injection.

This study was designed to determine the transport of subcutaneously injected viral-size colloid particles into the lymph and the vascular system in the hind leg of the dog. Transport of two colloid particles, with average size approximately 1 and 0.41 microm, respectively, and with and without leg rotation, was tested. Leg rotation serves to enhance the lymph flow rates. The right femoral vein, lymph vessel, and left femoral artery were cannulated while the animal was under anesthesia, and samples were collected at regular intervals after subcutaneous injection of the particles at the right knee level. The number of particles in the samples were counted under fluorescence microscopy by using a hemocytometer. With and without leg rotation, both particle sets were rapidly taken up into the venous blood and into the lymph fluid. The number of particles carried away from the injection site within the first 5 min was <5% of the injected pool. Particles were also seen in arterial blood samples; this suggests reflow and a prolonged residence time in the blood. These results show that particles the size of viruses are rapidly taken up into the lymphatics and blood vessels after subcutaneous deposition.  (+info)

(6/2188) The complete genome sequence of the Streptomyces temperate phage straight phiC31: evolutionary relationships to other viruses.

The completed genome sequence of the temperate Streptomyces phage straight phiC31 is reported. straight phiC31 contains genes that are related by sequence similarities to several other dsDNA phages infecting many diverse bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, Rhodobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus. These observations provide further evidence that dsDNA phages from diverse bacterial hosts are related and have had access to a common genetic pool. Analysis of the late genes was particularly informative. The sequences of the head assembly proteins (portal, head protease and major capsid) were conserved between straight phiC31, coliphage HK97, staphylococcal phage straight phiPVL, two Rhodobacter capsulatus prophages and two Mycobacterium tuberculosis prophages. These phages and prophages (where non-defective) from evolutionarily diverse hosts are, therefore, likely to share a common head assembly mechanism i.e. that of HK97. The organisation of the tail genes in straight phiC31 is highly reminiscent of tail regions from other phage genomes. The unusual organisation of the putative lysis genes in straight phiC31 is discussed, and speculations are made as to the roles of some inessential early gene products. Similarities between certain phage gene products and eukaryotic dsDNA virus proteins were noted, in particular, the primase/helicases and the terminases (large subunits). Furthermore, the complete sequence clarifies the overall transcription map of the phage during lytic growth and the positions of elements involved in the maintenance of lysogeny.  (+info)

(7/2188) Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates the Jak-dependent activation of MAPK and Stat1 in IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, signaling.

Two distinct types of interferon, IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, commonly exhibit antiviral activities by transmitting signals to the interior of the cell via their homologous receptors. Receptor stimulation results in the activation of distinct combinations of Janus family protein tyrosine kinases (Jak PTKs); Jak1/Tyk2 and Jak1/Jak2 for IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma, respectively. Jak PTK activation by these IFNs is commonly followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor Stat1 at Y701, which is essential for dimerization, translocation to the nucleus and DNA-binding activity. To gain full transcriptional activity, Stat1 also requires serine phosphorylation at S727. In this paper we demonstrate that Pyk2, which belongs to another PTK family, is critical for the Jak-mediated MAPK and Stat1 activation by IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha. Pyk2 is selectively associated with Jak2 and activated by IFN-gamma. Overexpression of PKM, a dominant interfering form of Pyk2, in NIH 3T3 cells results in a strong inhibition of the IFN-gamma-induced activation of Erk2, serine phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat1-dependent gene transcription. Finally, the antiviral action of IFN-gamma, but not IFN-alpha, is severely impaired by PKM overexpression. Thus, the two types of IFN may utilize distinct Jak-mediated Erk2, and possibly other MAPK activation pathways for their antiviral action.  (+info)

(8/2188) Molecular epidemiology and evolution of emerging infectious diseases.

Molecular epidemiology is an emerging science. The development of new and rapid protocols to isolate and identify pathogens, coupled with the sophisticated phylogenetic analysis of their gene sequences, is providing a new and fascinating insight into the biology, origin and spread of infectious diseases. In this essay, I describe some of the ways in which the techniques of modern molecular biology and evolution have equipped us to face the challenge of these new infections.  (+info)


Viruses....................................?


Viruses __________. 
a. have a protein core and nucleic acid coat 
b. have a protein coat and nucleic acid core 
c. have a cell nucleus inside a bacterial shell 
d. have a nucleic acid very different from their host cell 
e lack enzymes necessary for nucleic acid replication
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there is sumthing call google u know.


viruses..........................?


Looking at the five steps in viral replication, identify means of controlling or preventing viral replication.
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What are 3 viruses and bacteria that attack the immune system?


Im doing a project in my biology class about viruses and bacteria. 

The question is "Describe at least 3 viruses and bacteria that attack the immune system. Also explain how they work, live and survive." 

I already have one virus (HIV) but i need 2 more viruses and 3 bacterias that attack immune system. Also can you elaberate on how HIV attacks the immune system and how it survives?

Thanks for all your help!
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Attack is kind of a bad word here!! Viruses "generate" an immune response. 3 such virus ..some common one:1-Herpes, Chicken Pox( varicella zoster virus), Rabies virus( Rabies disease), Measles Virus, Rubella virus. 
Bacteria: pneumonia( streptococcus pneumoniae),Salmonella(salmonella species), Gonorrhea( Neisseria gonorrhoeae)..other diseases- syphylis,cholera..you can google these and see the name of the bacteria.

Viruses are parasites and their mode of operation varies. They can survive only when they parasitise another organism, you name the organism and there is a virus that lives on it.They live in our cells, the nucleus, cytoplasm and they live in a varied number of cells. Some specialise in cells of the nervous system, immune system(HIV), etc. Even bacteria have viruses that parasitize them- they are called bacteriophage.
HIV virus is a very special virus , in that it has evolve to live within the very cells that are suppose to be protecting us- The many cells of the immune system- macrophages and Tcells. HIV uses a receptor(CD4) that is present on Thelper cells to invade our body. The problem here is that the Thelper cells are called whenever there is an invasion( a foreign matter /antigen) in our system and are absolutely necessary for us to remain healthy. Once they have been invaded by the virus then they are marked for death. The body begins to remove them in an attempt to get rid of teh virus. Thereby rendering us more vulnerable to other infections- because now our defense is being broken down. Viruses on a hold have been able to manipulate our bodies to their advantage being the true parasites they are. for more information you can go to google really/ any university link, once that end in dot edu should be good.  i hope i was helpful i tried my best. Good luck!!


What is the connection between viruses and pathogens?


Is a pathogen a type of virus, or something like that? This is what I sometimes hear but viruses are not yet classified as living or nonliving, and pathogens are bacteria which are alive. A virus is a strand of hereditary materiel surrounded by a protein coating, the prokaryotic cytoplasm contains hereditary martial, would that be the strand? What is the connection between viruses and pathogens?
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A pathogen is a bad germ that can be either a virus, bacterial, or fungal.


Can viruses such as Smallpox still exist in corpses of its victims?


If someone were to open the grave of a person who died of smallpox is there a chance the variola virus could still linger there, and possibly infect the grave robber? If so then could there still be smallpox viruses in the earth and not just in the laboratories in Russia and US?
Please offer a link too to prove yourself.
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Smallpox is not viable in skeletal remains, but it is viable for a long time in mummified and frozen remains. There doesn't seem to be a whole lot of research but there is one study where smallpox was viable in scabs after 13 years in sealed envelopes.


How often do people vomit in their life due to stomach viruses?


How often do people vomit in their life due to things like stomach viruses or catching some illness that causes you to throw up? (Not including swine flu, H1N1)

Also, why do kids seem to throw up more than older people?

How rare is it to catch a stomach virus?
How many stomach viruses are there???

Sorry for so many questions! I have a vomiting phobia and maybe if I learn more about it I can get over it.
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viruses come and go all your life:( your body knows when something is wrong. if you over eat, you will feel sick, if you over drink, you will puke, and feel like you are dying:( ALWAYS WASH YOUR HANDS, and be  weary of door knobs. SORRY, if you feel bad:(


How many stomach viruses does a person get per year?


I am wondering how many viruses a person gets per year.

You know, where you're throwing up, have diarrhea, things of that nature.

Also, tell me if it is probably, (not possible), for a person to have 8 stomach viruses in a 6 month time span.\

Thanks!
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I haven't had a stomach virus in over 10 years.

If you have had that many in 6 months there is something wrong and you should see a doctor.


How do people feel better after catching a virus if viruses cannot be killed/cured?


When people catch viruses, like flu, or say H1N1 since those cannot be killed because the fact the they are viruses how exactly do we feel better later if the virus is not dead?
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viruses simply can't be killed by antibiotics.  Your immune system, however, is very adept at destroying most viruses.