Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Mice, Inbred BALB CPyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Vibrio vulnificus: A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Yersinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).HomoserineAeromonas hydrophila: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Xanthomonas: A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Bacteroidaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Myxomatosis, InfectiousMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Edwardsiella tarda: A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its hydrogen sulfide production. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Mice, Inbred C57BLHemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brucella suis: A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.Xanthomonas campestris: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.

*  Plasmid facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Plasmid
... on a host organism by the production of toxins or other virulence factors. ... see sex factor). Plasmids are widely used as vectors to produce recombinant DNA for gene ......
http://encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/plasmid
*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022432/00001
... a virulence factor can be anything from secreted factors to adhesive proteins. The ... or be ab le to produce its pathogenic factor(s). Generally speaking, a virulence factor ... 13 Virulence Factors and Vaccine Targets of S. mutans In order for any organism to ex ert ... While numerous definitions of a virulence factor exist, Casadevall and Piro fski suggest ......
http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022432/00001
*  British Library EThOS: Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in the UK :...
... demonstrating their role as colonisation factors rather than virulence factors. Although ... Analysis of virulence factors identified pap, afa/dra and kpsMTII as important ... colonisation of widespread clones and specific virulence factors Author: Ciesielczuk, ... the breadth of virulence factors contributing to these infections and the differences ......
http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.667420
*  Antievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::Evolution of...
Flagella are generally accepted as being important virulence factors, and expression and ... are well-known virulence factors (Sandkvist 2001a; Cornelis and Van Gijsegem 2000), ... the type III system mediates the secretion of virulence factors directly from the ... Some articles on virulence functions for:. (1) Type III secretion systems. Cornelis GR, ......
http://antievolution.org/cgi-bin/ikonboard/ikonboard.cgi?s=50aaad593e244ecc
*  Other Yersinia species isolated from humans - The Clinical Advisor
... virulence factors described for Y. enterocolitica, epidemiologic studies have shown a ... These strains/species do not carry the "standard" Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV), which ......
http://clinicaladvisor.com/infectious-diseases/other-yersinia-species-isolated-from-humans/article/610760/
*  Horacio Bach | Infectious Diseases
1) Pathogenic virulence factors: I am interested in understanding how pathogenic ......
http://id.med.ubc.ca/person/horacio-bach/
*  Frontiers | Stenotrophomonas maltophilia responds to exogenous AHL signals...
2007). Diffusible signal factor-dependent cell-cell signaling and virulence in the ... oryzae is required for optimal rice virulence. Mol. Plant Pathol. 8, 529-538. doi: ... 2013). Abundance of the quorum-sensing factor Ax21 in four strains of Stenotrophomonas ... clinical strains display differential diffusible signal factor production and virulence ......
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2015.00041/full
*  Neil Reiner | Infectious Diseases
Secreted virulence factors and immune evasion in visceral leishmaniasis. J Leukoc Biol. ... targeted by intracellular pathogens and the corresponding microbial virulence factors ......
http://id.med.ubc.ca/person/neil-reiner/
*  Products | Newport Labs
Genotyping and identification of virulence factors are important diagnostic tools. * ... These two factors make pinkeye a perfect candidate for a Custom Made Vaccine. ... Genetic environmental factors associated with incidence of infectious bovine ... associated with Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi is a major factor affecting cattle ......
http://newportlabs.com/products
*  Microbiology | JCB
The bacterial virulence factors VopL and VopF nucleate actin from the pointed end Thomas ... Actin filament assembly by bacterial factors VopL/F: Which end is up? Christina L. ......
http://d2j7maqgsavdlx.cloudfront.net/collection/microbiology
*  Virulence
Many virulence factors are so-called effector proteins that are injected into the host cells by special secretion machines such as the type 3 secretion system. Many bacterial and host molecules that are involved in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells have been identified. Some virulent bacteria produce special proteins that allow them to colonize parts of the host body. These virulence factors allow the bacteria to enter host cells and facilitate entry into the body across epithelial tissue layers at the body surface. Gram negative pathogens can translocate virulence proteins and factors via membrane vesicle trafficking at the host-pathogen interface. 558-566.http://icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2007/december/1211.pdf A mechanism was proposed for 'membrane vesicle trafficking' for tanslocation of biochemical signal molecules from gram negative pathogens to host or target animal cells. YashRoy R C 2003 Eucaryotic cell intoxication by Gram-negative pathogens: A novel bacterial outermembrane-bound vesicular exocytosis mod...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virulence
*  Optimal virulence
... Any movement on the virulence axis, towards higher or lower virulence, will result in lower fitness for the parasite, and thus will be selected against. Mode of transmission Evolutionary hypotheses Trade-off hypothesis. Short-sighted evolution hypothesis. Coincidental evolution hypothesis. Evolutionary hypotheses. The three hypotheses are the 'Trade-Off Hypothesis', the 'Short-Sighted Evolution Hypothesis', and the 'Coincidental Evolution Hypothesis'. Trade-off hypothesis. Short-sighted evolution hypothesis. Short-sighted evolution suggests that the traits that increase reproduction rate and transmission to a new host will rise to high frequency within the pathogen population. These traits include the ability to reproduce sooner, reproduce faster, reproduce in higher numbers, live longer, survive against antibodies, or survive in parts of the body the pathogen does not normally infiltrate. These traits typically arise due to mutations, which occur more frequently in pathogen populations than in host popu...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimal_virulence
*  Britta Janke, University of Wuerzburg, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology - ResearchGate
... Britta Janke. Are you Britta Janke. The Pathogenicity Island-Associated K15 Capsule Determinant Exhibits a Novel Genetic Structure and Correlates with Virulence in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain 536. Ulrich Dobrindt. Jörg Hacker. coli K-12 strain MG1655. coli strain 536. DOI:10.1128/IAI.72.10.5993-6001.2004 3.73 Impact Factor. Ulrich Dobrindt Britta Janke. Jörg Hacker Methods in molecular medicine 02/2003; 73:99-112. Coli and Evolution of Virulence. Ulrich Dobrindt Britta Janke. coli strain 536 and the E. coli K-12 strain MG1655. Britta Janke. Ulrich Dobrindt. coli K-12 strain MG1655. In total, 22 DNA fragments were isolated which were specific for strain 536. Seven fragments did not show any homology to known genes. Whereas two fragments were highly specific for uropathogenic E. DOI:10.1016/S0378-1097 01 00149-5 2.12 Impact Factor Source Available from: Ulrich Dobrindt. Toxin genes on pathogenicity islands: Impact for microbial evolution. U Dobrindt B Janke. G Blum-Oehler. ABSTRACT: Toxin-specifi...
http://researchgate.net/researcher/33582088_Britta_Janke
*  Evolution of microbial virulence: the benefits of stress - CentAUR
... . University of Reading CentAUR: Central Archive at the University of Reading. Accessibility navigation Evolution of microbial virulence: the benefits of stress. Tools Tools Tools. Wordle Link RDF+XML BibTeX RIOXX2 XML RDF+N-Triples JSON Dublin Core Atom Simple Metadata Refer METS HTML Citation with IDs HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Dublin Core Reference Manager RDF+N3. Arnold, D. L, Jackson, R. W, Waterfield, N. R and Mansfield, J. W 2007 Evolution of microbial virulence: the benefits of stress. Trends in Genetics, 23 6. pp. 293-300. ISSN 0168-9525 Full text not archived in this repository. To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.tig.2007.03.017 Abstract/Summary Although genome sequencing of microbial pathogens has shed light on the evolution of virulence, the drivers of the gain and loss of genes and of pathogenicity islands gene clusters, which contribute to the emergence of new disease outbreaks, are unclear. Recent e...
http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/9937/
*  High Virulence Of HIV-1 Might Be An Accident Of Evolution
... EPIDEMICS. High Virulence Of HIV-1 Might Be An Accident Of Evolution HIV-1--most closely related to an SIV strain found in chimpanzees--is the more virulent of the two human strains and the source of the majority of HIV infections throughout the world. by Staff Writers Ulm, Germany SPX Jun 16, 2006 The virulence characteristic of HIV-1--the virus predominantly responsible for human AIDS--might amount to an accident of evolution, new evidence reveals. A gene function lost during the course of viral evolution predisposed HIV-1 to spur the fatal immune system failures that are the hallmarks of AIDS, researchers report in the June 16, 2006 Cell. AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, according to The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS. In 2005, an estimated 4.1 million were newly infected with the virus. While infection with related strains of "simian immunodeficiency virus" SIV is similarly rampant among many species of monkeys, naturally infected nonh...
http://terradaily.com/reports/High_Virulence_Of_HIV_1_Might_Be_An_Accident_Of_Evolution.html
*  Areas of Focus | Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Areas of Focus. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Home. For the Scientific Community:Science. Core Faculty Labs. Hung Lab Areas of Focus. Hung Lab Lab Home Areas of Focus Select Publications People. Areas of Focus. With the emergence of new pathogens and the increasing antibiotic resistance of old pathogens, novel ways of thinking about therapeutics and for combating infectious diseases must be developed. The goal of the Hung lab's research is to understand in vivo mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis by studying pathogen-host interactions. By merging the powerful fields of chemical biology ...
http://broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/core-faculty-labs/hung-lab/areas-focus
*  Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity
... "The Good, the Bad, and the Deadly" Tag words: pathogenic bacteria, bacterial pathogenicity, invasiveness, toxigenesis, colonization, specific adherence, adhesin, receptor, invasion, invasin, coagulase, leucocidin, hemolysin, streptokinase, phagocytosis, phagosome, lysosome, phagolysosome, immunological tolerance, antigenic disguise, immunosuppression, antigenic variation, protein toxins, botulinum toxin, diphtheria toxin, anthrax toxin, tetanus toxin, pertussis toxin, cholera enterotoxin, adenylate cyclase, staph enterotoxin, TSST, pyrogenic exotoxin, superantigen, shiga toxin, E. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity page 1 This chapter has 8 pages Kenneth Todar, PhD Introduction A pathogen is a microorganism that is able to cause disease in a plant, animal or insect. Pathogenicity is the ability to produce disease in a host organism. Microbes express their pathogenicity by means of their virulence, a term which refers to the degree of pathogenicity of the microbe. The outcome of such a relationship de...
http://textbookofbacteriology.net/pathogenesis.html
*  Evolution of microbial virulence: the benefits of stress - Opus
... Study. Faculties Departments. Business. Site Search. Publications. Browse by author. Browse by department. Browse by funder. Browse by year. Search. Policy. Authors' corner. Contact. Login. Evolution of microbial virulence: the benefits of stress. Reference: Arnold, D. L, Jackson, R. W, Waterfield, N. R and Mansfield, J. Evolution of microbial virulence: the benefits of stress. Trends in Genetics, 23 6, pp. Related documents: This repository does not currently have the full-text of this item. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided below. Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2007.03.017 Abstract Although genome sequencing of microbial pathogens has shed light on the evolution of virulence, the drivers of the gain and loss of genes and of pathogenicity islands gene clusters, which contribute to the emergence of new disease outbreaks, are unclear. phaseolicola illustrate how exposure to resistance mechanisms acts as the driving force for genome reorganization. Here we argue that the ...
http://opus.bath.ac.uk/3605/
*  .. The discovery of the molecule of heredity: Matthew’s new Guardian piece .. Share this: .. Lik
« I saw Santa. I keep a safe lab ». The discovery of the molecule of heredity: Matthew’s new Guardian piece. This is another anniversary in the history of genetics: it’s been seventy years since three investigators at Rockefeller Institute in New York City now Rockefeller University, where I began grad school —Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty “AMM” —discovered that DNA was the genetic material. Although their paper on this work was published in 1944 reference and link below, full pdf here, May 26, 1943 was the day that Oswald Avery wrote to his brother announcing the discovery. You can see Avery’s scrawled letter. here. This finding truly was the beginning of the frenzy in molecular genetics that led directly to the discovery of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick, and then to elucidating how DNA produced proteins. For it wasn’t until we knew what the genetic material actually was that we could determine its structure. And before the AMM paper, nobody knew for sure. I’ve read the pap...
https://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2013/06/03/the-discovery-of-the-molecule-of-heredity-matthews-new-guardian-piece/
*  Category:Virulence factors
category virulence factors category virulence factors category viral proteins category pathology...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Virulence_factors
*  CarlZimmer.com: Articles
Skeptics are challenging the popular idea that an evolutionary tradeoff faced by pathogens may be the secret to making diseases less harmful. Although myxoma was almost 100% deadly at first, its virulence soon dropped significantly. Experts began to model the competing forces, and some confidently suggested that the models could serve public health, through "virulence management." For example, by making it more difficult for a cholera-causing bacterium to be transmitted from one individual to the next, they argued, health programs could take advantage of an evolutionary balance to favor benign strains. Some biologists predicted that a parasite's virulence would evolve out of the balance between its competing needs to breed and spread. As it becomes easier for a parasite to infect new hosts, pathogens can afford to evolve into deadlier forms. Many evolutionary biologists were charmed by the elegance of the tradeoff model. Bull himself found support for it in experiments with a virus that infects bacteria. They...
http://carlzimmer.com/articles/2003.php?subaction=showfull&id=1177165490&archive=&start_from=&ucat=6
*  GenProp0059
... . Genome Properties. JCVI Home. Genome Properties Home. TIGRFAMs. Genome Properties List. Top Level Genome Properties. Search CMR Genome Properties. Genome Property Definition Page Accession GenProp0059. Name type I secretion. Type SYSTEM. Description A type I protein secretion system is an ABC transporter. The system is Sec-independent. ATP drives the transport of target proteins across both inner and outer membranes and into the extracellular medium. There is no cleaved N-terminal signal sequence. Instead, the type I system recognizes C-terminal information, localized to the last 50 amino acids or less. Characteristic sequence found nearby, such as repeats of the motif GGXGXDXXX in Erwinia, may play a supporting role, possibly for chaperoning the rest of the protein rather than for recognition of the export signal reference PMID:11157948. This property does NOT cover ABC transporter-mediated processing and secretion of class II bacteriocins of certain Gram-positive bacteria, because of the following di...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/genome-properties/GenomePropDefinition.cgi?prop_acc=GenProp0059
*  TIGR01842
... . TIGRFAMs. JCVI Home. TIGRFAMs Home. Genome Properties. TIGRFAMs Home. TIGRFAMs Terms. TIGRFAMs Complete Listing. TIGRFAMs FTP site. TIGRFAMs Resources. TIGR01842 Seed Alignment. HMM Summary Page: TIGR01842. Accession. TIGR01842. Name. type I sec PrtD. Function. type I secretion system ATPase. Trusted Cutoff. 510.15. Domain Trusted Cutoff. 510.15. Noise Cutoff. 386.60. Domain Noise Cutoff. 386.60. Isology Type. subfamily. HMM Length. 544. Mainrole Category. Protein fate. Subrole Category. Protein and peptide secretion and trafficking. Gene Ontology Term. GO:0008565 : protein transporter activity molecular function. GO:0030253 : protein secretion by the type I secretion system biological process. Author. Haft DH. Entry Date. Mar 3 2003 2:34PM. Last Modified. Feb 14 2011 3:27PM. Comment. Type I protein secretion is a system in some Gram-negative bacteria to export proteins often proteases across both inner and outer membranes to the extracellular medium. This is one of three proteins of the type I secreti...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/tigrfams/HmmReportPage.cgi?acc=TIGR01842
*  Ferric uptake regulator family
... in molecular biology the ferric uptake regulator fur family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator protein s these are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria although iron is essential for most organisms high concentrations can be toxic because of the formation of hydroxyl radical s furs can also control zinc homeostasis and is the subject of research on the pathogenesis of mycobacteria references category protein families...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferric_uptake_regulator_family
*  Anti -FAM84A (Protein FAM84A, Neurologic Sensory Protein 1, NSE1, FLJ35392, PP11517) - United States
anti fam a protein fam a neurologic sensory protein nse flj pp united states biological login email password forgot your password new user remember me home distributors technical about register antibodies biochemicals culture media custom services growth factors bioassay kits lectins molecular biology serum tissues protocols newsletter about us contact you are here home antibodies antibodies fam family with sequence similarity anti fam a protein fam a neurologic sensory protein nse flj pp anti fam a protein fam a neurologic sensory protein nse flj pp pricing for pricing information usa customers sign in outside usa please contact your distributor for pricing specifications clone host grade applications monoclonal mouse affinity purified e b ih fam a family with sequence similarity member a was identified in a screen for genes up regulated in colon cancer it may play a role in cell migration and has a critical role in the progression of colon cancer catalog applications suitable for use in elisa western blot a...
http://usbio.net/item/126611
*  SMART: Trans reg C domain annotation
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Trans reg C Transcriptional regulatory protein, C terminal. SMART accession number: SM00862. Description: This domain is almost always found associated with the response regulator receiver domain. It may play a role in DNA binding. Interpro abstract IPR001867 : Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions. Some bacteria can contain up to as many as 200 two-component systems that need tight regulation to prevent unwanted cross-talk. These pathways have been adapted to response to a wide variety of stimuli, including nutrients, cellular redox state, changes in osmolarity, quorum signals, antibiotics, and more. Two-component systems are comprised of a sensor histidine kinase HK and its cognate res...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/do_annotation.pl?ACC=SM00862&BLAST=DUMMY
*  SMART: Trans reg C domain annotation
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Trans reg C Transcriptional regulatory protein, C terminal. SMART accession number: SM00862. Description: This domain is almost always found associated with the response regulator receiver domain. It may play a role in DNA binding. Interpro abstract IPR001867 : Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions. Some bacteria can contain up to as many as 200 two-component systems that need tight regulation to prevent unwanted cross-talk. These pathways have been adapted to response to a wide variety of stimuli, including nutrients, cellular redox state, changes in osmolarity, quorum signals, antibiotics, and more. Two-component systems are comprised of a sensor histidine kinase HK and its cognate res...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/do_annotation.pl?DOMAIN=Trans_reg_C&BLAST=DUMMY
*  SecY protein
{{Pfam box Symbol = SecY Name = eubacterial secY protein image = PDB 1rh5 EBI.jpg width = caption = Structure of a protein-conducting channel. 1 Pfam= PF00344 InterPro= IPR002208 SMART= PROSITE = PDOC00612 SCOP = 1rh5 TCDB = 3.A.5 OPM family= 19 OPM protein= 1rh5 PDB= A:69-417. The 'SecY protein ' is the main transmembrane subunit of the eubacterial Sec or Type II secretory pathway and a protein-secreting ATPase complex, also known as a translocon. Secretion of some proteins carrying a signal-peptide across the inner membrane in Gram-negative bacteria occurs via the preprotein translocase pathway. Proteins are produced in the cytoplasm as precursors, and require a chaperone subunit to direct them to the translocase component within the membrane. The translocase pathway comprises 7 proteins, including a chaperone protein SecB, an ATPase SecA, an integral membrane complex SecY, SecE and SecG, and two additional membrane proteins that promote the release of the mature peptide into the periplasm SecD and SecF. Th...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SecY_protein
*  Annual report of Biology of Cell Interactions for year 2005
The research of this unit focuses on i the mechanisms of entry, signalisation and the intracellular fate of cytokine receptors ii the mechanisms of entry and development of intracellular bacteria, the Chlamydia, which are mainly responsible for pneumopathies, sexually transmitted diseases and blindness. The research of this unit focuses on the mechanisms of entry, signalisation and the intracellular fate of cytokine receptors. Sorting of intracellular receptors : a role for ubiquitin. We have shown that IL2 receptor chains are mono-ubiquitinated, which is essential for this intracellular sorting. 2 Invasion OF HOST CELLS BY INTRACELLULAR BACTERIA, CHLAMYDIA. Chlamydiae are bacteria that proliferate only within eukaryotic host cells. Since Chlamydia are strict intracellular parasites, their development depends on their capacity of being internalized by the host cell, in particular by epithelial cells, which are their main target Figure 4. We have shown that infection by C. The inclusion membrane contains lipid...
http://pasteur.fr/recherche/RAR/RAR2005/print/Ubic-en.html
*  Category:Bacterial proteins
category bacterial proteins category bacterial proteins bacterial proteins are proteins from which any bacterium may be comprised in its natural state category proteins by type of organism category bacteriology...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Bacterial_proteins
*  Which poisonous bacterial protein is best for you?
Which poisonous bacterial protein is best for you....
http://io9.com/5814140/which-poisonous-bacterial-protein-is-best-for-you/all
*  Category:Bacterial enzymes
category bacterial enzymes category bacterial enzymes bacterial enzymes are bacterial proteins whose main functions include catalytitic operations category bacterial proteins category enzymes...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Bacterial_enzymes
*  Two-component regulatory system
... In the field of molecular biology, a 'two-component regulatory system' serves as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions. 1 They typically consist of a membrane-bound histidine kinase that senses a specific environmental stimulus and a corresponding response regulator that mediates the cellular response, mostly through differential expression of target genes. Mechanism of action Function Phospho-relay system Histidine kinases See also References. Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions. In ' Escherichia coli ', the EnvZ/OmpR osmoregulation system controls the differential expression of the outer membrane porin proteins OmpF and OmpC. Histidine kinases. Signal transducing histidine kinase s are the key elements in two-component signal transduction systems. Histidine kinases usually have an N-termi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-component_regulatory_system
*  Stationary phase
... the term stationary phase may refer to stationary phase biology a phase in bacterial growth stationary phase chemistry a medium used in chromatography stationary phase approximation in the evaluation of integrals in mathematics...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stationary_phase
*  Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites.: Micro Four Thirds Talk Forum: Digital Photography
... Review. Reviews. Sample Images. Videos. Lenses. Forums. Forum index. Micro Four Thirds Talk Change forum Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Shop cameras lenses ▾. Forum Parent First Previous Next Next unread. jericho77. Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013. Reply to thread Reply with quote. Forum Parent First Previous Next Next unread. Posted by When Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013 3. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Aug 5, 2013. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013 1. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Alumna Gorp. Aug 5, 2013. ...
http://dpreview.com/forums/post/51930238
*  The genetic basis of a plant-insect coevolutionary key innovation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (PDF Downl
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA PDF Download Available. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. © 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA www.pnas.org?cgi?doi?10.1073?pnas.0706229104PNAS. fossil calibrated, Bayesian relaxed molecular clock estimation of the Pierinae–Coliadinae divergence. Fossil and molecular data agree that the Brassicales appeared by 90 to 85 Mya, which is much earlier than the parallel evolution of glucosinolates in the Euphorbiaceae 58 Mya 28. In this article, we directly address the timing of the appearance of the glucosinolate-feeding Pierinae, using several independent molecular datasets and various calibration methods to generate a robust estimate of when Pieridae evolved relative to their Brassicales host plants. Pieridae-specific temporal reconstruction used a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock method on EF-1. Current and expected diversity, and divergence estimates for the Coliadinae and Pierinae subfamilies of Pieridae. However, there are significantly more species of Pierinae than expected, eve...
http://researchgate.net/publication/5771953_The_genetic_basis_of_a_plant-insect_coevolutionary_key_innovation._Proc_Natl_Acad_Sci_USA
*  Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protecti
... ve biofilms -- ScienceDaily. Your source for the latest research news. Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protective biofilms. Date: April 26, 2012 Source: The Scripps Research Institute Summary: Scientists have unraveled a complex chemical pathway that enables bacteria to form clusters called biofilms. Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have unraveled a complex chemical pathway that enables bacteria to form clusters called biofilms. Past research had also revealed that nitric oxide is involved in influencing bacterial biofilm formation. Nitric Oxide Modulates Bacterial Biofilm Formation through a Multicomponent Cyclic-di-GMP Signaling Network. The Scripps Research Institute. "Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protective biofilms." ScienceDaily. The Scripps Research Institute. Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protective biof...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120426135128.htm
*  Mankin Lab - Publications
Browse by year: 2014    2013    2012    2011    2010    2009    2008    2007    2006    2005    2004    2003    2002    2001    2000    1999    1998    1997    1996    1995   . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111, 9804-9809. 2014 The general mode of translation inhibition by macrolide antibiotics Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111, 15958–15963. Top. Top. Top. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 5931-5932. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 10496-10501. Vázquez-Laslop, N., Ramu, H., Mankin, A. 2011 Nascent peptide in the ribosome exit tunnel affects functional properties of the A-Site of the peptidyl transferase center Mol Cell 41, 321-330. Top. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 1983-1988. A., Xiong, L., Mankin, A. H D 2010 Structures of the Escherichia coli ribosome with antibiotics bound near the peptidyl transferase center explain spectra of drug action Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 17152-...
http://mankinlab.cpb.uic.edu/cgi-bin/publication.cgi
*  GO:1900911 regulation of olefin biosynthetic process
... Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. QuickGO A fast browser for Gene Ontology terms and annotations. EBI Databases QuickGO GO:1900911 regulation of olefin biosynthetic process. Search for terms by keyword or ID: apoptosis GO:0006915 Search for proteins by name or accession: tropomyosin P06727. Web Services. Dataset. Term Basket. Term Information ID GO:1900911. Name regulation of olefin biosynthetic process. Ontology Biological Process. Definition Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of olefin biosynthetic process. GONUTS GO:1900911 Wiki Page. Synonyms. Synonyms are alternative words or phrases closely related in meaning to the term name, with indication of the relationship between the name and synonym given by the synonym scope. Click on the icon for more details. Type Synonym. exact regulation of olefin synthesis. exact regulation of olefin biosynthesis. exact regulation of olefin formation. exact regulation of olefin anabolism. Ancestor Chart This chart is interactive; ...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/GTerm?id=GO:1900911
*  Albums by Smokey Robinson : Rhapsody
... JavaScript is disabled in your browser settings. rhapsody.com requires JavaScript. Cancel. Free trial. x Music. Apps Devices. Pricing. Sign up. Company Info. Careers. Press Media. Partners. Account. Customer Support. Redeem Coupon. Buy a Gift. 2015 Rhapsody International Inc. ×. Rhapsody App for. Rhapsody International, Inc. Get app. Have the app. Music Apps Devices Pricing Listen Now Try Rhapsody. Sign In. Home. / Music. / Soul/R B. / Motown. / Smokey Robinson. / Facebook. Twitter. Albums by Smokey Robinson. Main Releases. Play. Smokey & Friends. Smokey Robinson. Play. Be Near Me. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Motown Years Live. Smokey Robinson. Play. Ev'ry Man Should Know. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Solo Anthology. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Stripped Mixes. Smokey Robinson. Play. Time Flies When You're Having Fun. Smokey Robinson. Play. Love Songs. Smokey Robinson. Play. Timeless Love. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Definitive Collection. Smokey Robinson. Play. 20th Century Masters: The Millennium Collection....
http://rhapsody.com/artist/smokey-robinson/albums
*  Robinson News | News | News Releases | Robinson Memorial Hospital
-Any- Foundation News Robinson News. Foundation Awards Scholarships Benefitting Employees September 25, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the awarding of 9 scholarships to employees of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Rob... Robinson wins NorthCoast 99 Award 12 years in a row September 4, 2014 Robinson Memorial Hospital again has been named as one of the best 99 places to work in Northeast Ohio by the Employers Resource Council. Osteoporosis event to celebrate healthy aging month September 4, 2014 During Robinson Memorial Hospital’s celebration of healthy aging month, there will be a program on Osteoporosis on Wednesday, September 10 from 6 ... Foundation Awards Student Scholarships July 10, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the award of seven scholarships to children of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Robi... Robinson Wound Care Center Joins Healogics, Inc. to Raise Awareness of Chronic Wounds May 29, 2014 The Robinson Wound Care Center at ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/news-releases/451.aspx?email=1
*  Robinson News | News | News Releases | Robinson Memorial Hospital
-Any- Foundation News Robinson News. Foundation Awards Scholarships Benefitting Employees September 25, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the awarding of 9 scholarships to employees of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Rob... Robinson wins NorthCoast 99 Award 12 years in a row September 4, 2014 Robinson Memorial Hospital again has been named as one of the best 99 places to work in Northeast Ohio by the Employers Resource Council. Osteoporosis event to celebrate healthy aging month September 4, 2014 During Robinson Memorial Hospital’s celebration of healthy aging month, there will be a program on Osteoporosis on Wednesday, September 10 from 6 ... Foundation Awards Student Scholarships July 10, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the award of seven scholarships to children of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Robi... Robinson Wound Care Center Joins Healogics, Inc. to Raise Awareness of Chronic Wounds May 29, 2014 The Robinson Wound Care Center at ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/news-releases/fuchs_appointed_as_general_counsel_16.aspx
*  Robinson News | News | News Releases | Robinson Memorial Hospital
-Any- Foundation News Robinson News. Foundation Awards Scholarships Benefitting Employees September 25, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the awarding of 9 scholarships to employees of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Rob... Robinson wins NorthCoast 99 Award 12 years in a row September 4, 2014 Robinson Memorial Hospital again has been named as one of the best 99 places to work in Northeast Ohio by the Employers Resource Council. Osteoporosis event to celebrate healthy aging month September 4, 2014 During Robinson Memorial Hospital’s celebration of healthy aging month, there will be a program on Osteoporosis on Wednesday, September 10 from 6 ... Foundation Awards Student Scholarships July 10, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the award of seven scholarships to children of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Robi... Robinson Wound Care Center Joins Healogics, Inc. to Raise Awareness of Chronic Wounds May 29, 2014 The Robinson Wound Care Center at ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/news-releases/robinson_memorial_presents_poster_at_the_apic_annu_494.aspx?email=1
*  Robinson Health Center at Aurora | Robinson Memorial Hospital
robinson health center at aurora robinson memorial hospital about us foundation volunteer speaker s bureau press room contact us patients visitors medical services nursing find a doctor locations careers patient portal home locations robinson health center at aurora robinson health center at aurora walden place aurora ohio the robinson health center at aurora offers expert physicians personalized care and the latest in medical technology in one convenient location services and physician practices aurora primary care diagnostic x ray and laboratory services northeast ohio ob gyn robinson rehab center and sport clinic directions view larger map your name your email recipient email your comments word verification visitors patient portal key phone numbers visiting hours wheelchair assistance wi fi at robinson memorial hospital locations robinson memorial hospital robinson medical arts building robinson professional center robinson health center at aurora robinson health center at brimfield robinson health center ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/Main/Aurora.aspx?email=1
*  Home | Robinson Memorial Hospital
Robinson Memorial Hospital. ABOUT US FOUNDATION VOLUNTEER SPEAKER'S BUREAU PRESS ROOM CONTACT US. Patients Visitors. Medical Services. Nursing. Find a Doctor. Locations. Careers. Patient Portal. Classes Events. Holiday Journeys - Grief Support. Mon, Oct 5, 2015. 2:00 PM - 4:00 PM. Holiday Journeys - Grief Support. Mon, Oct 5, 2015. 6:30 PM - 8:30 PM. Ostomy Support Group. Mon, Oct 5, 2015. 7:00 PM - 9:00 PM. Diabetes Support Group. Tue, Oct 6, 2015. 5:00 PM - 6:00 PM. Tue, Oct 6, 2015. 5:00 PM - 6:30 PM. Robinson In The News Robinson Memorial Hospital is now UH Portage Medical Center. Robinson Health System becomes part of University Hospitals on June 1. Robinson Memorial hosts 21st Annual Nursing Research Day. Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation Hosts 2015 Robinson Society and Heritage Society Distinguished Giving Recognition. Doctors Receiving Top Scores in Patient Satisfaction Congratulations to the following doctors who rank in the 90th percentile on the Press Ganey Patient Satisfaction Survey. Jessica ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/Main/Home.aspx
*  Rehabilitation | Robinson Memorial Hospital
Rehabilitation. Robinson Memorial Hospital. ABOUT US FOUNDATION VOLUNTEER SPEAKER'S BUREAU PRESS ROOM CONTACT US. Patients Visitors. Medical Services. Locations. Patient Portal. Medical Services. Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation. The Robinson Rehab Center and Sport Clinic works to rehabilitate each patient to his or her maximum potential and works to provide the patient with the necessary skills to maintain his or her progress. Ongoing communication between the patient, therapist and referring physician is the foundation of the center's rehabilitation programs. View Aquatic Classes. Team of Professionals Each therapist strives to stay on top of the latest technology and treatments and passes this knowledge along to patients. All Robinson Rehab Center and Sport Clinic professionals are licensed or certified by the State of Ohio. The center provides:. Aquatic aerobics, aquatic exercise and water arthritis classes in Ravenna. Locations: Robinson Medical Arts Building. 6847 North Chestnut Street Ravenna, Ohio 44266...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/rehabilitation.aspx
*  Shamim Patel - UK address and phone number - 192.com
... People. All People Businesses Places Electoral Roll Directors. Make sure the biggest decision you'll make is also the best. People. AZ-People. Surname - Patel. Your results for Shamim Patel. Filter Search. Search by name and/or location using the search form at the top of the page. Get access to likely ages Find old friends and family Double check names of spouses and children Trace your family tree Find out who your neighbours are Verify people are who they say they are. Make sure the biggest decision you'll make is also the best. Find out more. previous. 110 Results for Shamim Patel. Looking for Shamim Patel. Below are the results from the UK Electoral Roll and Company Director data. You can narrow your search by adding a location above if you wish. Name Address Other Occupants Electoral Roll Director Info Length of Occupancy Neighbours Property Price. 1 Shamim Patel. Age Guide: 40-44. Reading, Berkshire, RG2 Full Address. View. 2 Shamim R Patel. Age Guide: 30-34. Leicester, Leicestershire, LE5 Full Ad...
http://192.com/atoz/people/patel/shamim/
*  Phillip Phillips News, Pictures, and Videos | TMZ.com
Home Celebs Phillip Phillips Phillip Phillips. Idol Managers Claim John Mayer's ex-manager plotted to jack "American Idol" champ Phillip Phillips out from under his contract with the show -- according to a new lawsuit, but the bigger news is Phil is a READ MORE > - 9/21/2015 2:51 PM PDT. Phillip Phillips I Want to be Gone, Gone, Gone From My Idol Contract Phillip Phillips says "American Idol" producers are ruining his career ... American Idol Winner Phillip Phillips Mother Popped for DUI Phillip Phillips' mother Sheryl Phillips -- who appeared on several episodes of "American Idol" during Phillip's championship run last season -- was arrested for DUI earlier today, TMZ has READ MORE > - 964 days ago. Phillip Phillips I LOVE MY FAMILY But ... READ MORE > - 1064 days ago. Phillip Phillips Family Idol Champ s Forcing Us To Sell Pawn Shop Phillip Phillips' family says the singer left them high and dry after winning "American Idol" -- refusing to help them out financially -- and now, they've been forced to sell th...
http://tmz.com/person/phillip-phillips/?adid=cr_featured_saga_13
*  Shadowing | Robinson Memorial Hospital
Shadowing. Robinson Memorial Hospital. ABOUT US FOUNDATION VOLUNTEER SPEAKER'S BUREAU PRESS ROOM CONTACT US. Patients Visitors. Medical Services. Nursing. Find a Doctor. Locations. Careers. Patient Portal. Home. Volunteer. Shadowing. Shadowing. Robinson Memorial Hospital offers several types of opportunities for short-term observational learning experiences for high school, college and adult students pursuing healthcare careers. The process to apply for a shadow experience depends on the age of the applicant. Note: Robinson Memorial Hospital has a mandatory flu vaccination policy for all employees, volunteers, contracted workers and shadow students. Students wanting to shadow at Robinson Memorial must provide proof of receiving a flu vaccine during current flu season - either by a receipt showing the student's name and detail of service from the provider, an insurance benefits explanation or detailed note from a physician. Students can bring their vaccine documentation the morning of their assigned shadow exp...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/Main/Shadowing.aspx
*  [Haskell-cafe] System.Random.Shuffle fix
System.Random.Shuffle fix. System.Random.Shuffle fix friggin friggin frigginfriggins at gmail.com. Previous message: A small display problem using Helium Next message: System.Random.Shuffle fix Messages sorted by:. I was looking for a shuffling algorithm to shuffle mp3-playlists so was very happy to see System.Random.Shuffle: http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/random-shuffle-0.0.2 However I get errors,non-exhaustive patterns in function shufleTree or extractTree depending how I call it. Errors are at the bottom. I fixed it but I don't have the math skills to see if I perhaps broke it statistically ... Here is my fix, someone don't remember who, helped me a little : http://hpaste.org/fastcgi/hpaste.fcgi/view?id=2789#a2789 the shuffle at the end is with the fix. *Freet S.shuffle Loading package syb ... linking ... Loading package base-3.0.3.0 ... linking ... Loading package old-locale-1.0.0.1 ... linking ... Loading package old-time-1.0.0.1 ... linking ... Loading package random-1.0.0.1 ...
https://mail.haskell.org/pipermail/haskell-cafe/2009-March/058399.html
*  OriGene - LRRC2 (NM 024512) cDNA Clone
OriGene - LRRC2 NM 024512 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Home TrueClone LRRC2 Clone. LRRC2 NM 024512 Human cDNA Clone. SC310473 LRRC2 untagged -Human leucine rich repeat containing 2 LRRC2, NM 024512.2, 10ug $680 3 weeks. Reference Data RefSeq: NM 024512.2, NP 078788. Synonyms : leucine-rich repeat-containing 2; leucine rich repeat containing 2. More TrueClone Citations >>. LRRC2 Mouse Clones SKU Description Amount Price Shipping. MC211501 Lrrc2 untagged - Mouse leucine rich repeat containing 2 Lrrc2, 10ug 10 ug $380 3 weeks. MR216368 Lrrc2 Myc-DDK-tagged - Mouse leucine rich repeat containing 2 Lrrc2 10 ug $380 Next day. MG216368 Lrrc2 GFP-tagged - Mouse leucine rich repeat containing 2 Lrrc2, 10ug 10 ug $420 3 weeks. MR216368L1 Lenti ORF clone of Lrrc2 Myc-DDK-tagged - Mouse leucine ri...
http://origene.com/cdna/trueclone/accession/NM_024512/SC310473.aspx
*  JUST LIKE A WOMAN LYRICS - BOB DYLAN
just like a woman lyrics bob dylan sing lyrics bob dylan biography bob dylan albums bob dylan lyrics bob dylan just like a woman lyrics last updated pm sponsored links nobody feels any pain tonight as i stand inside the rain ev rybody knows that baby s got new clothes but lately i see her ribbons and her bows have fallen from her curls she takes just like a woman yes she does she makes love just like a woman yes she does and she aches just like a woman but she breaks just like a little girl queen mary she s my friend yes i believe i ll go see her again nobody has to guess that baby can t be blessed till she finally sees that she s like all the rest with her fog her amphetamine and her pearls she takes just like a woman yes she does she makes love just like a woman yes she does and she aches just like a woman but she breaks just like a little girl it s was raining from the first and i was dying there of thirst so i came in here and your long time curse hurts but what s worse is this pain in here i can t stay i...
http://sing365.com/music/Lyric.nsf/Just-Like-A-Woman-lyrics-Bob-Dylan/659E935998737E48482569690029ABC7
*  Gary Phillips eBooks | epub and pdf downloads | eBookMall
Gary Phillips eBooks. epub and pdf downloads. eBookMall. Search. Sponsored link: What is YOUR Secret Talent. - Take a Free Personality test. Gary Phillips eBooks Epub and PDF format. Gary Phillips eBooks. eBooks found: 15 Occupied Earth: Stories of Aliens, Resistance and Survival at all Costs. Richard Brewer. Gary Phillips Polis Books, October 2015. ISBN: 9781940610528 Format: ePub. List Price: $ 9.99 Our price: $ 7.99. Violent Spring. Gary Phillips mysteriouspress.com, June 2014. ISBN: 9781784087968 Format: ePub. List Price: $ 13.11 Our price: $ 9.99. Perdition, U.S.A. Gary Phillips mysteriouspress.com, June 2014. ISBN: 9781784087975 Format: ePub. List Price: $ 13.11 Our price: $ 9.99. Bad Night Is Falling. Gary Phillips mysteriouspress.com, June 2014. ISBN: 9781784087982 Format: ePub. List Price: $ 13.11 Our price: $ 9.99. Only the Wicked. Gary Phillips mysteriouspress.com, June 2014. ISBN: 9781784087951 Format: ePub. List Price: $ 13.11 Our price: $ 9.99. The Extractors. Gary Phillips Stark Raving Group, M...
http://ebookmall.com/author/gary-phillips
*  "Beyond Stroke" Support Group | Events | Calendar of Events | Robinson Memorial Hospital
beyond stroke support group events calendar of events robinson memorial hospital about us foundation volunteer speaker s bureau press room contact us patients visitors medical services nursing find a doctor locations careers patient portal beyond stroke support group calendar view back to previous page support groups tuesday october pm pm description stroke survivors and caregivers will benefit from information presented by a variety of speakers as well as from sharing and support of their peers for information call jan bahle at location robinson medical arts building rmab n chestnut st ravenna ohio contact healtheducation rmh org phone visitors patient portal key phone numbers visiting hours wheelchair assistance wi fi at robinson memorial hospital locations robinson memorial hospital robinson medical arts building robinson professional center robinson health center at aurora robinson hea...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/Main/Calendar/659.aspx
*  Deposition of Bobby Phillips States That Erwin Cain Sold Cocaine
... Home About Stories. Featured. BOR Featured. User Stories. Deposition of Bobby Phillips States That Erwin Cain Sold Cocaine. Deposition of Bobby Phillips States That Erwin Cain Sold Cocaine 3. By Burnt Orange Report. on October 19, 2010. Bobby Phillips, Jr. Phillips states that he met Erwin Cain in October of 1977, when he was engaged to Erwin's sister, Gloria Cain. Attorney : Did you ever see Mr. Erwin Cain sell drugs. Phillips : Yeah, I've seen him deliver to his brother-in-law, to his brother, and to other people that came by the house when he was there. Attorney : Do you know where Thomas Cain, Jr. Attorney: which brother would that be. Phillips : Erwin. Attorney: Just to clarify, and let me repeat it's your statement that you have seen, in the past, a man you can identify as Erwin Cain use marijuana. Phillips : Yes. Attorney: Have you, and is it your statement also that you have seen him sell marijuana to someone. Phillips : Yeah. Phillips : It was usually just we used to go over to his h...
http://burntorangereport.com/diary/10880/deposition-of-bobby-phillips-states-that-erwin-cain-sold-cocaine
*  Anthony Robinson | dafont.com
Anthony Robinson. dafont.com. English. Fran ais. Espa ol. Deutsch. Italiano. Portugu s Login. Register. Themes New fonts Authors Top Forum FAQ Submit a font Tools. 4 matching requests on the forum Anthony Robinson 1. 2 3. Anthony Robinson. View profile Send a private message http://www.redbubble.com/people/anfa/portfolio 58 fonts - 4,331,510 downloads 2,129 yesterday. Preview. Fonts 10 20 50 100. Show variants. Size Tiny Small Medium Large Sort by Name Popularity Newer first. More options. Only as. Public domain / GPL / OFL. 100% Free. Free for personal use. Donationware. Shareware. Demo. Unknown Only fonts with. Accents. Euro. Newcastle by Anthony Robinson. in Fancy. Decorative 15,200 downloads 4 yesterday. 100% Free - 2 font files Download Donate to author. Static Buzz by Anthony Robinson. in Fancy. Distorted 104,264 downloads 4 yesterday. 100% Free Download Donate to author. Lasso Of Truth by Anthony Robinson. in Gothic. Modern 5,855 downloads 4 yesterday. 100% Free Download Donate to author. Punched by An...
http://dafont.com/anthony-robinson.d2796?page=3
*  Anthony Robinson | dafont.com
Anthony Robinson. dafont.com. English. Fran ais. Espa ol. Deutsch. Italiano. Portugu s Login. Register. Themes New fonts Authors Top Forum FAQ Submit a font Tools. 4 matching requests on the forum Anthony Robinson 1. 2 3. Anthony Robinson. View profile Send a private message http://www.redbubble.com/people/anfa/portfolio 58 fonts - 4,333,980 downloads 2,470 yesterday. Preview. Fonts 10 20 50 100. Show variants. Size Tiny Small Medium Large Sort by Name Popularity Newer first Reinitialize More options. Only as. Public domain / GPL / OFL. 100% Free. Free for personal use. Donationware. Shareware. Demo. Unknown Only fonts with. Accents. Euro. First by Anthony Robinson. in Techno. Sci-fi 12,112 downloads 3 yesterday. 100% Free Download Donate to author. Newcastle by Anthony Robinson. in Fancy. Decorative 15,203 downloads 3 yesterday. 100% Free - 2 font files Download Donate to author. New York Punk by Anthony Robinson. in Fancy. Destroy 20,765 downloads 3 yesterday. 100% Free Download Donate to author. Lasso Of T...
http://dafont.com/anthony-robinson.d2796?page=5&text=AUBURN
*  Phillip Phillips Ringtones Free Download - Ringtone Maker Audiko
... Sublime, Kendrick Lamar, DevilDriver, K. Michelle, Five Finger Death Punch. Mobile apps. Login. JavaScript must be enabled in order for you to use Audiko in standard view. A B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. 0...9. Thousands of ringtones on Audiko.net. Here is a chance to download a free Phillip Phillips ringtones for your iPhone or mobile. Specify your favorite line from your favorite award-winning track - Beggin, Get Up Get Down, Unpack Your Heart, or any other track. You may download your ringtone both in the MP3 and m4a formats, supported by both mobile phones and iPhones. Just select a track, and choose free Phillip Phillips ringtones download option. Download Phillip Phillips Ringtones. Top free ringtones. Name. Gone, Gone, Gone. Home. Raging Fire. Alive Again. Face. Get Up Get Down. Searchlight. Volcano. U Got It Bad. We've Got Tonight. Albums. Behind the Light Deluxe Version. Phillip Phillips. Weve Got Tonight American Idol Performance Single. Phillip Phil...
http://audiko.net/ringtone/phillip-phillips
*  Coles Phillips
... 'Clarence Coles Phillips' October 1880June 13, 1927 was an American artist and illustrator who signed his early works 'C. Coles Phillips', but after 1911 worked under the abbreviated name, 'Coles Phillips'. He is known for his stylish images of women and a signature use of negative space in the paintings he created for advertisements and the covers of popular magazines. Early life Career Personal life Notes References External links. Early life. ' ' Michael Schau, Watson-Guptill, 1975, p. Image:Coles Phillips2 Life.jpg The work of Phillips quickly became popular with the 'Life' readers. Schau & Phillips 1975, p. Phillips' use of negative space allowed the viewer to "fill-in" the image; it also reduced printing costs for the magazine, as "the novelty of the technique and the striking design qualities masked the fact that 'Life' was getting by with single color or two-color covers in a day when full-color covers were de rigueur for the better magazines". Phillips worked in watercolor and always painted fro...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coles_Phillips
*  Phillip Phillips News, Pictures, and Videos | TMZ.com
Idol Managers Claim John Mayer's ex-manager plotted to jack "American Idol" champ Phillip Phillips out from under his contract with the show -- according to a new lawsuit, but the bigger news is Phil is a READ MORE > - 9/21/2015 2:51 PM PDT. Phillip Phillips I Want to be Gone, Gone, Gone From My Idol Contract Phillip Phillips says "American Idol" producers are ruining his career ... American Idol Winner Phillip Phillips Mother Popped for DUI Phillip Phillips' mother Sheryl Phillips -- who appeared on several episodes of "American Idol" during Phillip's championship run last season -- was arrested for DUI earlier today, TMZ has READ MORE > - 963 days ago. READ MORE > - 1063 days ago. Phillip Phillips Family Idol Champ s Forcing Us To Sell Pawn Shop Phillip Phillips' family says the singer left them high and dry after winning "American Idol" -- refusing to help them out financially -- and now, they've been forced to sell their cherished READ MORE > - 1066 days ago. Phillip Phillips Crooks Smash In Pawn Shop, St...
http://tmz.com/person/phillip-phillips/?adid=cr_featured_saga_14
*  HERBICIDE-TOLERANT PLANTS - BASF AGROCHEMICAL PRODUCTS.B.V.
In addition, enzymes of this embodiment will also comprise one or more of a leucine, threonine, a valine, or alanine at position 1,781 Am, a glycine at position l,785 Am, a proline at position l,786 Am, an asparagine at position 1,811 Am, a proline at position l,824 Am, a cysteine or glycine at position l,999 Am, a cysteine or arginine at position 2,027 ' Am, a glycine at position 2,039 Am, an asparagine at position 2,041 Am, a phenylalanine, isoleucine or leucine at position 2,049 Am, a valine at position 2,059 Am, a leucine at position 2,074 Am, a leucine, isoleucine, methionine or additional valine at position 2,075 Am, a glycine or threonine at position 2,078 Am, a phenylalanine at position 2,079 Am, a glutamic acid at position 2,080 Am, a deletion at position 2,080 Am, a deletion at position 2,081 Am, an arginine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, glycine, histidine, lysine, leucine, serine, threonine, or valine at position 2,088 Am, a glutamic acid at position 2,095 Am, an alanine or serine at position 2,096 A...
http://sumobrain.com/patents/wipo/Herbicide-tolerant-plants/WO2011028836.html
*  Bimolecular fluorescence complementation
This was achieved by dissecting GFP into C- and N-terminal GFP fragments. In addition, this study was the first report of an ' in vivo ' technique, now known as the bimolecular fluorescence complementation BiFC assay, to provide insight into the structural basis of protein complex formation through detection of fluorescence caused by the assembly of fluorescent reporter protein fragments tethered to interacting proteins. Generally, YFP is recommended to serve as the reporter protein, cleaved at residue 155 N-terminal consisting of residues 1–154 and C-terminal consisting of residues 155–238 or residue 173 in particular, as these sets of fragments are highly efficient in their complementation when fused to many interacting proteins and they produce low levels fluorescence when fused to non-interacting proteins. It is suggested that each target protein is fused to both the N- and C-terminal fragments of the fluorescent reporter protein in turn, and that the fragments are fused at each of the N- and C-terminal e...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bimolecular_fluorescence_complementation
*  Candice Olson Family Spaces ISBN 9781118276679 PDF epub | Candice Olson ebook | eBookMall
Candice Olson Family Spaces ISBN 9781118276679 PDF epub. Candice Olson ebook. eBookMall. Candice Olson Family Spaces. Candice Olson. Design : Interior Decorating. Digital Book format: ePub Adobe DRM. Buy ePub. List price: $ 19.99 Our price: $ 16.99. Popular TV star Candice Olson shows you how to create your dream family room Everybody wants their home's main living space to meet the needs of the whole family—and look great doing it. Chock full of tips and ideas, Candice Olson Family Spaces features hundreds of full-color, before-and-after photos of Candice's stunning family room makeovers. Explains how good design accommodates all members of the family and their daily activities Designs offer functionality, durability, and comfort without sacrificing style As a busy mother of two, Candice brings valuable insight to what a family really needs from the spaces they share Redecorating—or even just dreaming about decorating—can transform one's outlook on life, and Candice Olson Family Spaces is the catalyst to get...
http://ebookmall.com/ebook/candice-olson-family-spaces/candice-olson/9781118276679
*  Abner Phillips (1737-1813), p.2
Abner Phillips - Surry County, NC There were Phillips in Surry County, NC as early as 1771, according to tax lists. Lewis' Dist.: Abner PHILLIPS, 400 acres, 1 white poll. LEWIS to Abner PHILLIPS, 300 acres on north side of Yadkin River, east side Turkey Creek, for 75. LEWIS to Abner PHILLIPS, 100 acres on north side of Yadkin River at Turkey Creek, for 75. Phillips Dist.: Abner PHILLIPS, 400 acres, 2 white polls. 1790 Census, Surry Co., NC, p.186: ABNER PHILLIPS 3 white males under 16 2 white males over 16 3 white females no slaves Note: Abner's sons Cornelius PHILLIPS and Ephraim PHILLIPS are also listed in the 1790 Census of Surry Co., NC, p.183. 1800 Census, Surry Co., NC: ABNER PHILLIPS. 1810 Census, Surry Co., NC, p.193: ABNER PHILLIPS. In the name of God Amen this tenth day of November in year of our lord 1812 I ABNER PHILLIPS of Surry County State of North Carolina being sick and weak in Body but in perfect mind memory thanks be given to God For the Same Calling unto mind the mortality of my bo...
http://moonzstuff.com/phillips/abner1737_p2.html
*  "Dear Abby" Advice Columnist Pauline Phillips Dead at 94 - Us Weekly
... US Weekly. News. Photos. Style. Beauty. Moms. Body. Entertainment. Subscribe. Give a Gift. Us Weekly. Newsletter. Subscribe. ADVERTISEMENT. "Dear Abby" Advice Columnist Pauline Phillips Dead at 94. Celebrity News. Jan. Tweet. Columnist Abigail Van Buren attends Friends Of Mario Cuomo Fundraiser Dinner on November 30, 1989 at the Sheraton Center in New York City. Newspapers -- and readers -- the world over lost an icon Wednesday, Jan. 16, after "Dear Abby" advice columnist Pauline Phillips died in Minneapolis at the age of 94. Phillips had suffered from Alzheimer's disease for years, but was still dishing out advice to readers as recently as 2002, though her daughter Jeanne took on co-authoring duties in the mid-1990s. PHOTOS: Stars we lost in 2012. Phillips, who wrote under the pen name Abigail Van Buren, shared advice on everything from dating to snoring spouses for more than 40 years to a readership of more than 90 million newspaper readers. "They gave her a bunch of letters, thinking that they would n...
http://usmagazine.com/celebrity-news/news/dear-abby-advice-columnist-pauline-phillips-dead-at-94-2013171
*  Joanna Phillips | UCSF Medical Center
Joanna Phillips. UCSF Medical Center. About UCSF. Find a Doctor. Conditions Treatments. Conditions Treatments A-Z. Patient Education. Doctors. Find a Doctor. Getting to UCSF Medical Center. Careers at UCSF Medical Center. UCSF Medical Group. Home > Doctors > Joanna Phillips. Find a Doctor. Joanna Phillips, M.D. Joanna Phillips is a neuropathologist at UCSF Medical Center who helps diagnose neurologic disease through the examination of central nervous system tissue. As an academic neuropathologist, her goal is to improve the treatment of brain tumors through research and patient care. She completed a pathology residency at the University of Washington in Seattle, followed by a fellowship in neuropathology at UCSF. Phillips is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Society for Investigative Pathology, American Association of Neuropathologists, American Association for Cancer Research and Glycobiology Research and Training Program. Safaee M, Fakurnejad S, Bloch O, Clark AJ, Ivan M...
http://ucsfhealth.org/joanna.phillips
*  SMART: Secondary literature for GLUCA domain
smart secondary literature for gluca domain smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback secondary literature sources for gluca the following references were automatically generated lopez lc frazier ml su cj kumar a saunders gf mammalian pancreatic preproglucagon contains three glucagon related peptides proc natl acad sci u s a display abstract we have isolated cdna clones encoding bovine pancreatic preproglucagon twenty five putative preproglucagon clones were selected by screening clones of a fetal bovine pancreas cdna library with a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probe the probe was a mixture of synthetic base dna oligomers constructed to correspond to the six carboxyl terminal amino acids residues of mature glucagon restriction mapping of six of these clones suggested that they represented a single mrna species primary sequence analysis of one clone containing a base pair dna insert revealed tha...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=GLUCA
*  viruses share common: Topics by Science.gov
... Toggle navigation. Topics by Science.gov Home. Site Map. Index. Alerts. Help. Contact Us. About. Sample records for viruses share common. 1 2. 3. 4. 5. . . To gain insights into the role and specificity of hepaciviral nonstructural protein 2 NS2, which is required for HCV polyprotein processing and particle morphogenesis, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GBV-B. We found that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, has cysteine protease activity responsible for cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, and we experimentally confirmed the location of this junction within the viral polyprotein. A model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology was experimentally established by determining the membrane association properties of NS2 segments fused to green fluorescent protein GFP and their nuclear magnetic resonance structures using synthetic peptides as well as by applying an N-glycosylation scanning approach. Similar glycosylation studies confirmed the HCV NS2 organization. Togeth...
http://science.gov/topicpages/v/viruses share common.html
*  VPR: Andrea Phillips thanks President Obama, military for her husband's rescue
... .  Archive Home .  VPR.net Home . Andrea Phillips thanks President Obama, military for her husband's rescue. 04/13/09 5:42PM By Ross Sneyd.  MP3 .  Download MP3 . AP Photo/Toby Talbot. Andrea Phillips is flanked by her son, Daniel, and daughter, Mariah. Host A day after her husband was rescued from Somali pirates, Andrea Phillips said she wanted to thank friends, officials and especially President Obama for their support during the crisis. In a short news conference in South Burlington today, Phillips also said she had also been able to speak with her husband by telephone. VPR's Ross Sneyd has more. Sneyd Andrea Phillips has had the flu since a day before her husband's capture - and she's just now recovering. Since last week, when it became clear that Richard Phillips had given himself up to the pirates to protect the crew on his Merchant Marine ship, she's stayed out of the spotlight. She said her husband got a laugh out of her condition, knowing that she would be appeari...
http://vpr.net/news_detail/84680/andrea-phillips-thanks-president-obama-military-fo/
*  Protein superfamily
A 'protein superfamily' is the largest grouping clade of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred see homology. Usually this common ancestry is based on structural alignment. and mechanistic similarity even though no sequence similarity is evident. 2 Superfamilies typically contain several protein families which show sequence similarity within the family. The term 'protein clan' is commonly used for protease superfamilies based on the MEROPS protease classification system. Identification Sequence homology. Structural homology. Mechanistic similarity. Evolutionary significance Examples Protein superfamily resources See also References. Sequence homology. sequence homology. Superfamily members typically show no detectable sequence homology. In the PA clan of protease s, for example, not a single residue is conserved through the superfamily, not even those in the catalytic triad. Conversely, the individual families that make up a superfamily are defined on the basis of their sequence alignment, for exa...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_superfamily
*  Publications | NEB
FEBS Lett. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. Proteins Mol.Cell.Biol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Protein Sci Proc. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J B...
https://neb.com/research/publications?page=3&start=30&num=10&sorting=Year&asc=False
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA Molecular Paradigms for Eradicating Helmenthic Parasites Exp.Parasitol. Appl.Environ.Microbiol., Trop.Med.Parasitol. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Biochem J. NY Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbio...
https://neb.com/research/publications?num=50&sorting=&asc=False
*  Publications | NEB
FEBS Lett. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology B...
https://neb.com/sitecore/content/nebsg/home/research/publications?Page=2&sorting=Year
*  Par stability determinant
... notoc the par stability determinant is a bp locus of the pad plasmid which encodes a type i toxin antitoxin system in enterococcus faecalis it was the first such plasmid addiction module to be found in gram positive bacteria the par locus contains two gene s fst which encodes a amino acid toxic protein and a gene for rnaii the small rna anti toxin which inhibits fst translation the two genes are found on opposite dna strands and share a region which is where they are thought to have an antisense interaction their rna secondary structure s have been predicted computationally the complementary regions appear to be presented on exposed loops for interaction par maintains pad by means of post segregational killing psk if a daughter cell does not inherit the par locus the unstable rnaii will quickly degrade leaving the long lived fst toxin to damage or kill the daughter cell see also references further reading external links see also hok sok system references further reading external links category antisense ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Par_stability_determinant
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology Basel Front ...
https://neb.com/research/publications?Page=29&asc=False
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology Basel Front ...
https://neb.com/research/publications?Page=55
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology Basel Front ...
https://neb.com/research/publications?page=50&start=500&num=10
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology Basel Front ...
https://neb.com/sitecore/content/nebsg/home/research/publications?Page=47
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology Basel Front ...
https://neb.com/sitecore/content/nebsg/home/research/publications?page=52&start=520&num=10&asc=False
*  .. Post navigation .. Happy Birthday Duncan Phillips .. Post navigation
post navigation square dancing last chance o is for origin story happy birthday duncan phillips posted on june by sarah osborne bender clockwise from top left milton avery black sea oil on canvas x in the phillips collection washington d c acquired robert motherwell in white and yellow ochre oil charcoal ink tempera and paper collage on paper x in the phillips collection washington d c acquired alexander calder only only bird tin cans and wire x x in the phillips collection washington d c acquired karl knaths the blue heron at the tide wash oil on canvas x in the phillips collection washington d c acquired i had the pleasure of speaking last night to alice phillips swistel great niece of duncan phillips who was born today in it s not surprising that the conversation came around to her memories of him though i ve worked here for over five years and handled many of phillips s belongings his j...
http://blog.phillipscollection.org/2012/06/26/happy-birthday-duncan-phillips/
*  Consensus sequence
In molecular biology and bioinformatics, the 'consensus sequence' is the calculated order of most frequent residues, either nucleotide or amino acid, found at each position in a sequence alignment. It represents the results of multiple sequence alignment s in which related sequences are compared to each other and similar sequence motifs are calculated. Biological significance Sequence analysis Notation. Thus a consensus sequence is a model for a putative DNA binding site : it is obtained by aligning all known examples of a certain recognition site and defined as the idealized sequence that represents the predominant base at each position. Any mutation allowing a mutated nucleotide in the core promoter sequence to look more like the consensus sequence is known as an 'up mutation'. On the contrary, mutations that destroy conserved nucleotides in the consensus sequence are known as 'down mutations'. These types of mutations down-regulate transcription since RNA polymerase can no longer bind as tightly to the cor...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consensus_sequence
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. Nature Structure Methods Mol.Biol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. Nucleic Acids Research BMC Res Notes J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol World J. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology Basel Front Genet Curr Protoc Mol Biol Methods Mol Biol ...
https://neb.com/research/publications?num=100&sorting=Journal&asc=False
*  Bill Robinson to sit out 27 months - Harness Racing Newsroom - USTA - USTROTTING
... WHAT IS THE USTA. USTA. USTA Home. Rule Book. Rule Book PDF. Rule Change Proposals. Rule Change Proposals. Ask the USTA. This Is Harness Racing. A Winning Combination. Rule Book. Rule Book PDF. Rule Change Proposals. Stakes Guide. Stakes Event Guide. USTA Youth. HORSE SERVICES. Racing Entries/Results. Racing Home. TrackMaster Race Programs. Bill Robinson to sit out 27 months Tuesday, April 20, 2004 - by Harness Racing Communications, a division of the USTA Tweet. Trainer Bill Robinson will serve suspensions totaling 27 months and pay fines totaling C$125,000 under an agreement with the Ontario Racing Commission announced Tuesday by the ORC. On April 16, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice Divisional Court dismissed Robinson's application for judicial review regarding a C$50,000 fine and 10-month suspension because of a positive Class III drug test on the horse Artistic. Robinson served approximately four months of the suspension for the Artistic ruling, and will serve another six months and one week un...
http://xwebapp.ustrotting.com/absolutenm/templates/article.aspx?articleid=2247&zoneid=1
*  Publications | NEB
Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA J Parasitol. Proteins Mol.Cell.Biol. CABIOS Glycobiology Proceeding of the Heartworm Symposium Biotechnology Biochemistry Parasitology Today Science Archaea A Laboratory Manual Parasitology Proc Natl Acad Sci Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society Accountability in Research Genetic Analysis Biomolecular Engineering Enzymes and Proteins from Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms, Advs.Protein Chemistry Genetics Society of America Nuc.Acids Res. J Bacteriol Biotechnology Journal Biomedical Optics Express Nucleic Acids Res. Plant Cell Nature Chemistry Methods in Molecular Biology Mol Cell Biol. J Cell Sci BMC Microbiol Protein Cell Gene Ther Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Nat Biotechnol Front Physiol Appl Environ Microbiol Viruses Applications in Plant Sciences G3 Bethesda J Virol Anal Biochem AMB Express PLoS Pathog Curr Opin Chem Biol J Biol Eng Mol Biol Evol PLoS Genet Biology Basel Front Genet Curr Protoc Mol Biol Methods Mol Biol Eur J...
https://neb.com/research/publications?Page=32&sorting=Journal&asc=False
*  SMART: CDC37 C domain annotation
smart cdc c domain annotation smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback cdc c cdc c terminal domain smart accession number sm description cdc is a protein required for the activity of numerous eukaryotic protein kinases this domains corresponds to the c terminal domain whose function is unclear it is found c terminal to the hsp chaperone heat shocked protein binding domain pf and the n terminal kinase binding domain of cdc pubmed interpro abstract ipr cdc is a protein required for the activity of numerous eukaryotic protein kinases this entry corresponds to the c terminal domain whose function is unclear it is found c terminal to the hsp chaperone heat shock protein binding domain ipr and the n terminal kinase binding domain of cdc ipr family alignment view or chroma format clustalw format msf format fasta format pir format there are cdc c domains in proteins in smart s nrdb database click on the...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/do_annotation.pl?ACC=SM01069&BLAST=DUMMY
*  Nucleotide (Weighted) Links for PubMed (Select 17242370) - Nucleotide - NCBI
Nucleotide Weighted Links for PubMed Select 17242370 - Nucleotide - NCBI. NCBI. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. GenBank. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Search database All Databases Assembly BioProject BioSample BioSystems Books ClinVar Clone Conserved Domains dbGaP dbVar Epigenomics EST Gene Genome GEO DataSets GEO Profiles GSS GTR HomoloGene MedGen MeSH NCBI Web Site NLM Catalog Nucleotide OMIM PMC PopSet Probe Protein Protein Clusters PubChem BioAssay PubChem Compound PubChem Substance PubMed PubMed Health SNP SRA Structure Taxonomy ToolKit ToolKitAll ToolKitBook UniGene Search term. Format Summary GenBank GenBank full FASTA ASN.1 XML INSDSeq XML TinySeq XML Feature Table Accession List GI List. Sort by Default order Accession Date Modified Date Released Organism Name Taxonomy ID. Mus musculus guanine nucleotide binding protein G protein, alpha inhibiting 2 Gnai2, mRNA. Mus musculus adult inner ear cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, clone:F930015A20 product:guanine nucleotide bind...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore?LinkName=pubmed_nuccore_weighted&from_uid=17242370
*  LARGE POOL SIZE
... Oracle Forums. Oracle Database Administration. LARGE POOL SIZE. Thread: LARGE POOL SIZE. View Profile. View Forum Posts. i want to know how these large pool will use in ORACLE. Reply With Quote. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Senior Advisor. You can size the large pool with LARGE POOL SIZE LARGE POOL MIN ALLOC parameters in init.ora If the size is 0, the large pool is not set. Reply With Quote. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Reply With Quote. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Join Date May 2000 Location ATLANTA, GA, USA Posts 3,135. LARGE POOL SIZE does not improve I/O slave processes. If this area is set, then it will be used for PL/SQL procedures. In general, 10 % of SHARED POOL SIZE is set for this parameter. Reply With Quote. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Originally posted by tamilselvan LARGE POOL SIZE does not improve I/O slace processes. If this area is set, then it will be used for PL/SQL procedures. In general, 10 % of SHARED POOL SIZE is set for this parameter. Large pool is not a part of SHA...
http://dbasupport.com/forums/showthread.php?16303-LARGE_POOL_SIZE&p=65753
*  Olson family statement, 1975
... The Frank Olson. Legacy Project. FAMILY STATEMENT, 1975. FAMILY STATEMENT BY THE WIFE AND CHILDREN OF FRANK R. OLSON Alice Wicks Olson Eric Wicks Olson Lisa Wicks Olson Hayward Nils Wicks Olson Released in a press conference July 10, 1975. We are the family of Frank R. Olson. Frank Olson a civilian biochemist working for the United States Army died shortly after midnight on November 28, 1953, when he plunged to his death from a window on the 10th floor of the Hotel Statler in New York. The death certificate states that Frank Olson jumped or fell and cites multiple fractures, shock and hemorrhage as the causes of death. An employee of the Central Intelligence Agency had been with Frank Olson in his hotel room the night he died. This man was accompanying Frank Olson in his hotel room the night he died. This man was accompanying Frank Olson when Olson was taken to New York to consult a psychiatrist. Olson s widow was later told that her husband s escort had awakened about 1:30 A.M. to see Olson going at a f...
http://frankolsonproject.org/Statements/FamilyStatement1975.html
*  Search results for query PF00558 - Protein Data Bank Japan
PDB: 9 results Info pages: 0 results Status search: 0 results Chemie search: 0 results ✖. STRUCTURE OF THE CHANNEL-FORMING TRANS-MEMBRANE DOMAIN OF VIRUS PROTEIN "U" VPU FROM HIV-1. Authors: Park, S.H., Mrse, A.A., Nevzorov, A.A., Mesleh, M.F., Oblatt-Montal, M., Montal, M., Opella, S.J. Cite: Three-dimensional structure of the channel-forming trans-membrane domain of virus protein "u" Vpu from HIV-1 J.Mol.Biol., 333, 2003. STRUCTURE OF THE CHANNEL-FORMING TRANS-MEMBRANE DOMAIN OF VIRUS PROTEIN "U" VPU FROM HIV-1. Authors: Park, S.H., Mrse, A.A., Nevzorov, A.A., Mesleh, M.F., Oblatt-Montal, M., Montal, M., Opella, S.J. Cite: Three-dimensional structure of the channel-forming trans-membrane domain of virus protein "u" Vpu from HIV-1 J.Mol.Biol., 333, 2003. STRUCTURE OF THE CHANNEL-FORMING TRANS-MEMBRANE DOMAIN OF VIRUS PROTEIN "U" VPU FROM HIV-1. Authors: Park, S.H., Mrse, A.A., Nevzorov, A.A., Mesleh, M.F., Oblatt-Montal, M., Montal, M., Opella, S.J. Cite: Three-dimensional structure of the channel-forming tr...
http://pdbj.org/mine/search?query=PF00558
*  SCOP: Protein: Class II MHC beta chain, C-terminal domain from Human (Homo sapiens), HLA-DR group [T
SCOP: Protein: Class II MHC beta chain, C-terminal domain from Human Homo sapiens , HLA-DR group. Structural Classification of Proteins Protein: Class II MHC beta chain, C-terminal domain from Human Homo sapiens , HLA-DR group. Lineage: Root: scop Class: All beta proteins Fold: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich sandwich; 7 strands in 2 sheets; greek-key some members of the fold have additional strands Superfamily: Immunoglobulin uperfamily Family: C1 set domains antibody constant domain-like Protein: Class II MHC beta chain, C-terminal domain Species: Human Homo sapiens , HLA-DR group. SQ P04229 30-219 probably orthologous to the mouse I-E group PDB Entry Domains:. 1fv1. complexed with ace, nag region b:93-190. complexed with ace; mutant region b:93-190. automatically matched to d1bx2b1 region b:93-190. automatically matched to d1d5xb1 complexed with dio, epe, so4, zn region b:93-190. automatically matched to d1d5xb1 complexed with 4dp, ace; mutant region b:93-190. mutant region b:93-190. mutant region b:93-1...
http://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop/data/scop.b.c.b.b.c.gg.html
*  Genetic regulatory mechanisms and carcinogenesis.
... Enter Your Search: Search tips Search criteria Articles Journal titles. Public Health Rep. Page Browse. Bates, R. Public Health Rep. PMCID: PMC1919899. Genetic regulatory mechanisms and carcinogenesis. H V Gelboin and R. Bates. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. Selected References. These references are in PubMed. Mammary cancer induced by a single feeding of polymucular hydrocarbons, and its suppression. Cancer Res. 1958 Jul; 18 6 :725–729. Cancer Res. 1962 Jun; 22 :525–548. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1957 Jun; 18 6 :769–778. Cancer Res. IDENTITY OF DNA AND DIVERSITY OF MESSENGER RNA MOLECULES IN NORMAL MOUSE TISSUES. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1964 Oct; 52 :915–922. THE CYCLIC HELIX AND CYCLIC COIL FORMS OF POLYOMA VIRAL DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1963 Oct; 50 :730–738. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. V Evidence for induction of enzyme synthesis in the rat by 3-methylcholanthrene. ...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1919899/
*  Maps: pUC18, pUC19 DNA
Home Contacts Order Catalog Support. pUC18, pUC19 pUC18. GenBank/EMBL sequence accession number L09136. pUC19. GenBank/EMBL sequence accession number L09137. Restriction sites of the pUC18 DNA Please note that the pUC19 nt sequence deposited under EMBL accession number X02514 is exactly the same as L09137 GenBank/EMBL, while X02514 GenBank has two errors. CAP protein binding site 591-554 compl. lac repressor binding site 507-487 compl. pUC18 and pUC19 vectors are small, high copy number, E.coli plasmids, 2686 bp in length. pUC18/19 plasmids contain: 1 the pMB1 replicon rep responsible for the replication of plasmid source plasmid pBR322. The high copy number of pUC plasmids is a result of the lack of the rop gene and a single point mutation in rep of pMB1; 2 bla gene, coding for beta-lactamase that confers resistance to ampicillin source plasmid pBR322. It differs from that of pBR322 by two point mutations; 3 region of E.coli operon lac containing CAP protein binding site, promoter Plac, lac repressor binding...
http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869N/CHEM869NLinks/fermentas.com/TechInfo/NucleicAcids/MappUC1819.htm
*  Tetracyclin repressor-like, C-terminal domain superfamily
Biological Process BP regulation of RNA metabolic process 0.0008117 1.109 -- DIRECT. Biological Process BP regulation of RNA biosynthetic process 0.00000000001558 1.154 -- DIRECT. Biological Process BP regulation of macromolecule metabolic process 0.1063 0.7873 -- INHERITED FROM : regulation of RNA metabolic process |. Biological Process BP regulation of metabolic process 0.00002713 0.6426 Least Informative DIRECT. Biological Process BP regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process 0.0007777 1.059 Moderately Informative DIRECT. Biological Process BP regulation of cellular biosynthetic process 0.0335 0.9894 Moderately Informative INHERITED FROM : regulation of cellular macromolecule biosynthetic process |. Biological Process BP regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process 0.01401 0.9736 Moderately Informative INHERITED FROM : regulation of RNA metabolic process |. Molecular Function MF molecular_function 1 0 -- INHERITED FROM : nucleic acid binding |. Molecular Function MF binding 0.4364 0...
http://supfam.cs.bris.ac.uk/SUPERFAMILY/cgi-bin/scop.cgi?ipid=SSF48498
*  PlantTFDB - Plant Transcription Factor Databases @ CBI, PKU
bHLH Family Introduction The basic/helix-loop-helix bHLH proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that th...
http://planttfdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn/family.php?fam=bHLH
*  .. [UPDATE] R. Kelly Hospitalized Due to ‘Strange Illness’ .. ************************** .. Oh
R. Kelly Hospitalized Due to ‘Strange Illness’. June 27th, 2012, lilD. . UPDATE. R Kelly’s people have said, “Initial indications are that he is suffering from complications from surgery he had last year to treat an abscess on his vocal cords.”. Because of said illness, Kells has had to cancel appearances on both the “Jimmy Fallon Show” and NBC’s “Today Show.”. His reps added: “It is unclear how long Kelly may be sidelined.”. The Wheard: TMZ. **************************. Aww man…and just when he was getting ready to launch his book tour. Did I so sund like I care…. Anywho, R. Kelly has been hospitalized due to some “strange illness,” so he’s had to postpone his album launching party in New York. One of R. Kellly’s reps said the date was postponed  “due to a health emergency that has sidelined Mr. Kelly in Chicago.”  No other information at this time. Wonder if it’s his voice. Remember when had that surgery when he lost his voice. Hmm…. The Wheard: Complex. I’m lilD, and that’s the Word Eye Heard. So many ...
http://thewordeyeheard.com/2012/06/27/r-kelly-hospitalized-due-to-strange-illness/
*  eIF-2-alpha, C-terminal domain superfamily
... Home > SCOP hierarchy > eIF-2-alpha, C-terminal domain superfamily. SEARCH Keyword search. Sequence search. BROWSE Organisms. Taxonomy. Statistics. SCOP. Hierarchy. Ontologies. GO. EC. Phenotype TOOLS Compare genomes. Phylogenetic trees. Web services. Downloads. ABOUT Description. Publications. Documentation HELP User support. Contact us. Email list. Sitemap. Structural Classification. Genome Assignments. Sequence Alignments. Domain Combinations. Taxonomic Distribution. eIF-2-alpha, C-terminal domain superfamily. SCOP classification Root: SCOP hierarchy in SUPERFAMILY 11. Class: Alpha and beta proteins a+b 376. Fold: Ferredoxin-like 59. Superfamily : eIF-2-alpha, C-terminal domain. Families: eIF-2-alpha, C-terminal domain. Superfamily statistics. Genomes 646 Uniprot 2014 06 PDB chains SCOP 1.75. Domains 757 1,028 3. Proteins 755 1,025 3. Functional annotation General category Information. Detailed category Translation. Document:. Function annotation of SCOP domain superfamilies. Gene Ontology high-covera...
http://supfam.cs.bris.ac.uk/SUPERFAMILY/cgi-bin/scop.cgi?ipid=SSF110993
*  Dylan Bob Tabs - Just Like A Women Tabs (ver. 1)
Dylan Bob Tabs - Just Like A Women Tabs ver. 1 Home. D Dylan Bob. Dylan Bob, Just Like A Women Tabs ver.1. Artists: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #. Best songs All Of Me John Legend Love Me Like You Do Ellie Goulding Take Me To Church Hozier See You Again Wiz Khalifa Let Her Go Passenger Riptide Vance Joy Lay Me Down Sam Smith Stay With Me Sam Smith Four Five Seconds Rihanna Hallelujah Jeff Buckley. Follow us on. Just Like A Women Tabs ver.1. Dylan Bob Tabs. Rating: 4/ 5 4 votes. Versions:. Tabs. Chords. Version 1 4. ×. Print Tabs too difficult. Try these video lessons and learn fast. JUST LIKE A WOMAN by Bob Dylan C F G C Nobody feels any pain C F G C Tonight as I stand inside the rain F G F G Everybody knows that baby's got new clothes F Em Dm C F G But lately I see her ribbons and her bows Am C G Have fallen from her curls C Em F She takes just like a woman, yes she does C Em F She makes love just like a woman, yes she does C Em F And she aches just like a woman G C But she breaks jus...
http://azchords.com/d/dylanbob-tabs-5069/justlikeawomen-tabs-177242.html
*  James - ( Just Like Fred Astaire tab )
James - Just Like Fred Astaire tab. Just Like Fred Astaire tab. James tabs. Song name Band name Song name. # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. Home / J / James / Just Like Fred Astaire tab. Print this tab. Listen to Just Like Fred Astaire. James - Just Like Fred Astaire tab. Highlighted Show chord diagrams. Doctor, What is happening to me. Palpitations My mind's diseased Even my v ision is impaired I'm losing my hair Cos when I hold her in my arms I feel like Fred As taire Lovesick My temperature's high Just met a girl Who believes we can fly[ I'm A millionaire .. And when I hold her in my arms I feel like Fred As taire. I believe in happiness I believe in Love I believe she fell to earth from somewhere high above I believe in Hollywood Don't believe that Love must bring despa ir Cos when I hold her in my arms I'm just like Fred Astaire He said love is just a disease A plague for the na ive These days no one be lieves Meteors may strike the earth Nations live and die I'm the boy who got the...
http://guitaretab.com/j/james/40110.html
*  [Bioperl-l] Degenerate primer calculation
Degenerate primer calculation. Degenerate primer calculation Samantha Thompson Samantha.Thompson at greenbiologics.com. Previous message: Degenerate primer calculation Next message: About to tag the last RC... Messages sorted by:. -----Original Message----- From: Sara Kalla Sent: 12 January 2009 20:10 To: Samantha Thompson Cc: bioperl-l List Subject: Re: Degenerate primer calculation Samantha Thompson wrote: -----Original Message----- From: Chris Fields. Sent: 08 December 2008 16:41 To: Samantha Thompson Cc: bioperl-l List Subject: Re: Degenerate primer calculation. On Dec 8, 2008, at 9:59 AM, Samantha Thompson wrote: Hi, I also have another similar sequence analysis/primer problem. What I'd like to do is produce degenerate primers from amino acid sequences. amino acid sequence derived as a consensus from multiple the alignment of homologous proteins and converts them into degenerate codons and then that degenerate primer actually several primers synthesised with different bases pooled together, in order to s...
http://bioperl.org/pipermail/bioperl-l/2009-January/028912.html
*  .. SmokeyRobinson .. Smokey Robinson & The Miracles Co-Founder Bobby Rogers Dead at Age 73 .. Presi
SmokeyRobinson SmokeyRobinson. Tags: bobby rogers, bobby rogers dead, bobby rogers rip, bobby rogers smokey robinson, BobbyRogers, BobbyRogersDead, BobbyRogersRip, BobbyRogersSmokeyRobinson, Smokey Robinson, smokey robinson the miracles, SmokeyRobinson, SmokeyRobinsonTheMiracles, smokeyrobison, smoky robinson, smokyrobinson. Share on Tumblr. President Obama Inauguration: Usher, Alicia Keys, Stevie Wonder More to Perform. Category: Hip-Hop Tags: Alicia Keys, Alicia Keys Obama, AliciaKeysObama, inauguration, John Legend, John Legend Obama, JohnLegend, JohnLegendObama, Obama, Obama Inauguration, ObamaInauguration, Smoke Robinson Obama, SmokeRobinsonObama, Smokey Robinson, SmokeyRobinson, Stevie Wonder, Stevie Wonder Obama, StevieWonder, StevieWonderObama, Usher, Usher Obama, UsherObama. Send to a friend. Share on Tumblr. Share on Tumblr. Share on Tumblr. Tags: berry gordy, BerryGordy, Queen Latifah, QueenLatifah, Smokey Robinson, SmokeyRobinson, Stevie Wonder, StevieWonder, Teena Marie, TeenaMarie. Share on Tumb...
http://theboombox.com/tags/SmokeyRobinson/

Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Coles PhillipsHaemolysin expression modulating protein family: In molecular biology, the haemolysin expression modulating protein family is a family of proteins. This family consists of haemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) from Escherichia coli and its enterobacterial homologues, such as YmoA from Yersinia enterocolitica, and RmoA encoded on the R100 plasmid.AB toxin: The AB toxins are two-component protein complexes secreted by a number of pathogenic bacteria. They can be classified as Type III toxins because they interfere with internal cell function.Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Trimeric autotransporter adhesin: In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion.GyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Trans-activating crRNA: In molecular biology, trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) is a small trans-encoded RNA. It was first discovered in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes.Bacterial outer membraneDeletion (genetics)List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Global microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.Escherichia coli (molecular biology): Escherichia coli (; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".El Tor: El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Also known as V.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Pilin: Pilin refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria. Bacterial pili are used in the exchange of genetic material during bacterial conjugation, while a shorter type of appendages also made up of pilin, called fimbriae, are used as a cell adhesion mechanism.LcrV: In molecular biology, LcrV is a protein found in Yersinia pestis and several other bacterial species. It forms part of the Yersinia pestis virulence protein factors that also includes all Yop's, this used to stand for Yersinia outer protein, but the name has been kept out of convention.Thiol-activated cytolysin: Cholesterol-binding cytolysin, previously incorrectly known as 'thiol-activated' cytolysins Bacterial Disease Mechanisms: Michael Wilson, Rod McNab, Brian Henderson (2002)" are toxins produced by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria and are characterised by their ability to lyse cholesterol-containing membranes, their reversible inactivation by oxidation and their capacity to bind to cholesterol.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Cryptococcus neoformans: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and an obligate aerobe that can live in both plants and animals. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans, a filamentous fungus belonging to the class Tremellomycetes.Signature-tagged mutagenesis: Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a genetic technique used to study gene function. Recent advances in genome sequencing have allowed us to catalogue a large variety of organisms' genomes, but the function of the genes they contain is still largely unknown.Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection: Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection may result in orbital cellulitis or facial erysipelas in neonates.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Bacterial capsule: The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell.Cholesterol-dependent cytolysin: Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDC) are a family of β-barrel pore-forming exotoxins that are secreted by Gram-positive bacteria. CDC are secreted as water-soluble monomers of 50-70 kDa, that once bound to the target cell, will form a circular homo-oligomeric complex containing up to 40 monomers, although it is possible that some may incorporate more monomers.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Listeria monocytogenes: Listeria monocytogenes is the bacterium that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen.Pseudomonas exotoxin: The Pseudomonas exotoxin (or exotoxin A) is an exotoxin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase: Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase (, acyl-homoserine lactone synthase, acyl homoserine lactone synthase, acyl-homoserinelactone synthase, acylhomoserine lactone synthase, AHL synthase, AHS, AHSL synthase, AhyI, AinS, AinS protein, autoinducer synthase, autoinducer synthesis protein rhlI, EsaI, ExpISCC1, ExpISCC3065, LasI, LasR, LuxI, LuxI protein, LuxM, N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase, RhlI, YspI, acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing)) is an enzyme with system name acyl-(acyl-carrier protein):S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing). This eGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica: Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica is a skin condition caused by a Candida albicans infection, characterized by an oval-shaped area of macerated white skin on the web between and extending onto the sides of the fingers.Median toxic dose: ==Introduction==Secretion: Secretion is the process of elaborating, releasing, and oozing chemicals, or a secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland. In contrast to excretion, the substance may have a certain function, rather than being a waste product.CDP-abequose synthase: CDP-abequose synthase (, rfbJ (gene)) is an enzyme with system name CDP-alpha-D-abequose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPseudomonas infectionNif regulonYersinia enterocolitica: Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacillus-shaped bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Y.Septicemic plague: Septicemic (or septicaemic) plague is one of the three main forms of plague. It is caused by Yersinia pestis, a gram-negative species of bacterium.Operon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Thermal cyclerHemolysis (microbiology): Hemolysis (or haemolysis in British English) is the breakdown of red blood cells. The ability of bacterial colonies to induce hemolysis when grown on blood agar is used to classify certain microorganisms.Porphyromonas gingivalis: Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, pathogenic bacterium. It forms black colonies on blood agar.BiofilmBacitracinBordet-Gengou agar: Bordet-Gengou agar is a type of agar plate optimized to isolate Bordetella, containing blood, potato extract, and glycerol, with an antibiotic such as cephalexin or penicillin and sometimes nicotinamide.The potato extract provided nitrogen and vitamins, and potato starch absorbed fatty acids present in nasal secretions or collection-swab cotton that inhibited growth; glycerol was a carbon source.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Vibrio vulnificus: Vibrio vulnificus is a species of Gram-negative, motile, curved, rod-shaped (Bacillus), Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Present in marine environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas, V.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Bacillus anthracis: Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus. B.Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli ( Anglicized to ; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).CagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.Shigella flexneri: Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several different serogroups of Shigella are described; S.Siderophore: Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and grasses.Miller, Marvin J.List of diseases (Y): This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "Y".CryptococcosisGene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaEscherichia coli O121: Escherichia coli O121 is a serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals.http://www.Enterohemorrhagic: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strain (EHEC) is the most common E. coli strain producing disease in U.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Heat-labile enterotoxin family: In molecular biology, the heat-labile enterotoxin family includes Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A chain is needed for enzymatic activity.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.HyphaQuellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.

(1/5284) Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei by proteins originating from a plant pathogenic bacterium.

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei is generally inefficient. Therefore, one of the current challenges in human gene therapy is the development of efficient DNA delivery systems. Here we tested whether bacterial proteins could be used to target DNA to mammalian cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, efficiently transfers DNA as a nucleoprotein complex to plant cells. Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer to plant cells is the only known example for interkingdom DNA transfer and is widely used for plant transformation. Agrobacterium virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 perform important functions in this process. We reconstituted complexes consisting of the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2, VirE2, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vitro. These complexes were tested for import into HeLa cell nuclei. Import of ssDNA required both VirD2 and VirE2 proteins. A VirD2 mutant lacking its C-terminal nuclear localization signal was deficient in import of the ssDNA-protein complexes into nuclei. Import of VirD2-ssDNA-VirE2 complexes was fast and efficient, and was shown to depended on importin alpha, Ran, and an energy source. We report here that the bacterium-derived and plant-adapted protein-DNA complex, made in vitro, can be efficiently imported into mammalian nuclei following the classical importin-dependent nuclear import pathway. This demonstrates the potential of our approach to enhance gene transfer to animal cells.  (+info)

(2/5284) Evidence for a structural motif in toxins and interleukin-2 that may be responsible for binding to endothelial cells and initiating vascular leak syndrome.

The dose-limiting toxicity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immunotoxin (IT) therapy in humans is vascular leak syndrome (VLS). VLS has a complex etiology involving damage to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), extravasation of fluids and proteins, interstitial edema, and organ failure. IL-2 and ITs prepared with the catalytic A chain of the plant toxin, ricin (RTA), and other toxins, damage human ECs in vitro and in vivo. Damage to ECs may initiate VLS; if this damage could be avoided without losing the efficacy of ITs or IL-2, larger doses could be administered. In this paper, we provide evidence that a three amino acid sequence motif, (x)D(y), in toxins and IL-2 damages ECs. Thus, when peptides from RTA or IL-2 containing this sequence motif are coupled to mouse IgG, they bind to and damage ECs both in vitro and, in the case of RTA, in vivo. In contrast, the same peptides with a deleted or mutated sequence do not. Furthermore, the peptide from RTA attached to mouse IgG can block the binding of intact RTA to ECs in vitro and vice versa. In addition, RTA, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38-lys), and fibronectin also block the binding of the mouse IgG-RTA peptide to ECs, suggesting that an (x)D(y) motif is exposed on all three molecules. Our results suggest that deletions or mutations in this sequence or the use of nondamaging blocking peptides may increase the therapeutic index of both IL-2, as well as ITs prepared with a variety of plant or bacterial toxins.  (+info)

(3/5284) Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor interacts with mouse blastocysts independently of ErbB1: a possible role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ErbB4 in blastocyst implantation.

Blastocyst implantation requires molecular and cellular interactions between the uterine luminal epithelium and blastocyst trophectoderm. We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is induced in the mouse luminal epithelium solely at the site of blastocyst apposition at 16:00 hours on day 4 of pregnancy prior to the attachment reaction (22:00-23:00 hours), and that HB-EGF promotes blastocyst growth, zona-hatching and trophoblast outgrowth. To delineate which EGF receptors participate in blastocyst activation, the toxicity of chimeric toxins composed of HB-EGF or TGF-(&agr;) coupled to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) were used as measures of receptor expression. TGF-(&agr;) or HB-EGF binds to EGF-receptor (ErbB1), while HB-EGF, in addition, binds to ErbB4. The results indicate that ErbB1 is inefficient in mediating TGF-(&agr;)-PE or HB-EGF-PE toxicity as follows: (i) TGF-(&agr;)-PE was relatively inferior in killing blastocysts, 100-fold less than HB-EGF-PE, (ii) analysis of blastocysts isolated from cross-bred egfr+/- mice demonstrated that HB-EGF-PE, but not TGF-(&agr;)-PE, killed egfr-/- blastocysts, and (iii) blastocysts that survived TGF-(&agr;)-PE were nevertheless killed by HB-EGF-PE. HB-EGF-PE toxicity was partially mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), since a peptide corresponding to the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as well as heparitinase treatment protected the blastocysts from the toxic effects of HB-EGF-PE by about 40%. ErbB4 is a candidate for being an HB-EGF-responsive receptor since RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that day 4 mouse blastocysts express two different erbB4 isoforms and immunostaining with anti-ErbB4 antibodies confirmed that ErbB4 protein is expressed at the apical surface of the trophectoderm cells. It is concluded that (i) HB-EGF interacts with the blastocyst cell surface via high-affinity receptors other than ErbB1, (ii) the HB-EGF interaction with high-affinity blastocysts receptors is regulated by heparan sulfate, and (iii) ErbB4 is a candidate for being a high-affinity receptor for HB-EGF on the surface of implantation-competent blastocysts.  (+info)

(4/5284) Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by elimination of recipient-reactive donor T cells with recombinant toxins that target the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), due to the presence of recipient-reactive T cells, limits the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is a major contributor to patient mortality. To prevent GVHD, murine and human T cells were activated by antigen or mitogens and treated with a genetically engineered form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) directed against the IL-2 receptor. Treatment with the chimeric toxin eliminated alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as determined by cytotoxicity and mixed lymphocyte culture assays. Precursor frequencies of alloreactive cytotoxic T cells and proliferative T cells were reduced up to 100-fold as shown by limiting dilution assays. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that treatment with the chimeric toxin completely eliminated CD25+ cells from the cultures. Toxin treatment had no significant effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as determined in vitro by colony-forming assays and in vivo by long-term hematopoietic recovery after 950 rad irradiation. Toxin treatment decreased GVHD in transplanted mice to less than 10% (as compared to 88% in untreated controls). Thus, it is possible to prevent life-threatening GVHD after BMT by using a CD25 receptor-directed toxin to eliminate host-reactive T cells from bone marrow grafts.  (+info)

(5/5284) Suppression of metastasis formation by a recombinant single chain antibody-toxin targeted to full-length and oncogenic variant EGF receptors.

Cytotoxic strategies which are directed to tumor-associated antigens might be most beneficial for cancer patients with minimal tumor load such as in an adjuvant setting after initial therapy. We have recently described a highly potent single chain antibody-toxin, scFv(14E1)-ETA, which consists of the variable domains of the antibody 14E1 genetically fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. ScFv(14E1)-ETA specifically recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the oncogenically activated receptor variant EGFRvIII, which have been implicated in the development of various human malignancies. Here we have investigated the antimetastatic activity of bacterially expressed scFv(14E1)-ETA and its disulfide-stabilized derivative ds-scFv(14E1)-ETA in a novel model for disseminated disease which is based on murine renal carcinoma cells subsequently transfected with the E. coli beta-galactosidase gene, and human full-length or variant EGFR cDNAs. Intravenous injection of these Renca-lacZ/EGFR and Renca-lacZ/EGFRvIII cells in syngenic Balb/c mice led to the formation of pulmonary metastases which were readily detectable upon excision of the lungs and X-gal staining. Systemic treatment of mice with scFv(14E1)-ETA resulted in the complete suppression of Renca-lacZ/EGFRvIII metastasis formation and drastically reduced the number of pulmonary Renca-lacZ/EGFR tumor nodules. The ds-scFv(14E1)-ETA derivative where the antibody variable regions are connected by an artificial disulfide bond displayed improved thermal stability at physiological temperature but due to reduced cytotoxic activity was less potent than the original scFv(14E1)-ETA in metastasis suppression.  (+info)

(6/5284) Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain.

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

(7/5284) Extrahepatic synthesis of plasminogen in the human cornea is up-regulated by interleukins-1alpha and -1beta.

The avascular cornea has limited access to plasma proteins, including plasminogen, a protein that is synthesized by the liver and supplied to most tissues via the blood. Recent experiments by others using plasminogen-deficient mice revealed the importance of plasmin, the active form of plasminogen, for the maintenance of the normal cornea and for corneal wound healing [Kao, Kao, Bugge, Kaufman, Kombrinck, Converse, Good and Degan (1998) Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 502-508; Drew, Kaufman, Kombrinck, Danton, Daugherty, Degen and Bugge (1998) Blood 91, 1616-1624]. In the present experiments, plasmin was identified as a major serine proteinase in the human cornea. The major plasminogen and plasmin forms on non-reducing zymograms and Western blots had Mr values of 76x10(3) and 85x10(3), with minor forms of Mr 200x10(3), 135x10(3), 68x10(3) and 45x10(3). Angiostatin-like peptides with Mrs of 48x10(3), 45x10(3) and 38x10(3) were observed which bound to lysine-Sepharose and reacted with anti-plasminogen monoclonal antibodies directed towards kringle domains 1-3 of plasminogen. The cornea contained 1.1+/-0.15 microgram of plasminogen+plasmin/cornea, or 0.54+/-0.05 microgram of plasminogen+plasmin/mg of protein. Cornea conditioned medium contained nine times the amount of plasminogen+plasmin that could be extracted from the cornea. These data suggested that corneal cells, unlike most extrahepatic cells, synthesize plasminogen. The synthesis of plasminogen by the cornea was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled plasminogen, sequencing of its cDNA obtained by reverse transcriptase-PCR and inhibition of protein synthesis. Interleukins-1alpha and -1beta stimulated corneal plasminogen synthesis 2-3-fold; however, interleukin-6 decreased corneal plasminogen synthesis by approx. 40% at early times after addition of the cytokine. By 24 h of culture, no differences were noted in the presence and absence of interleukin-6. Thus the cornea can synthesize plasminogen and regulate its synthesis in response to its environment, including cytokines induced in the cornea by injury and inflammation. Therefore the cornea can control the amount of plasminogen, the precursor of both plasmin and angiostatin.  (+info)

(8/5284) Molecular characterization of a flagellar export locus of Helicobacter pylori.

Motility of Helicobacter species has been shown to be essential for successful colonization of the host. We have investigated the organization of a flagellar export locus in Helicobacter pylori. A 7-kb fragment of the H. pylori CCUG 17874 genome was cloned and sequenced, revealing an operon comprising an open reading frame of unknown function (ORF03), essential housekeeping genes (ileS and murB), flagellar export genes (fliI and fliQ), and a homolog to a gene implicated in virulence factor transport in other pathogens (virB11). A promoter for this operon, showing similarity to the Escherichia coli sigma70 consensus, was identified by primer extension. Cotranscription of the genes in the operon was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and transcription of virB11, fliI, fliQ, and murB was detected in human or mouse biopsies obtained from infected hosts. The genetic organization of this locus was conserved in a panel of H. pylori clinical isolates. Engineered fliI and fliQ mutant strains were completely aflagellate and nonmotile, whereas a virB11 mutant still produced flagella. The fliI and fliQ mutant strains produced reduced levels of flagellin and the hook protein FlgE. Production of OMP4, a member of the outer membrane protein family identified in H. pylori 26695, was reduced in both the virB11 mutant and the fliI mutant, suggesting related functions of the virulence factor export protein (VirB11) and the flagellar export component (FliI).  (+info)


What are the virulence factors of tuberculosis?


Diseases have virulence factors such as evasins or adhesins and I cannot figure out what tbs virulence factors are! Please help!
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, does not have "classical" virulence factors such as toxins or adhesins. Rather, it has developed strategies that allow it to survive inside macrophages. It is not exactly known how the bacterium can survive inside the phagosome of the macrophage, but it makes a 19-kDa lipoprotein which is thought to interact with TLR2, and thus prevent presentation of bacterial antigens to the immunesystem

Despite many years of research, there is not a good list of virulence factors. Many genes have been studied, and several are needed for the bacterium to be virulent, but it is not always known what they do. Myc tub is not a classical sick-making bacteria. Most bacteria will make you immediately sick (think of food poisoning), but Myc tub grows very slowly and can survive for a long time in the human body. It probably developed completely different techniques to survive.

This is a good article where virulence factors of Myc tub are discussed:
http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/16/3/463


What are the virulence factors of Legionellosis/Legionairre's disease to pathgenic?


What are the virulence factors of Legionellosis/Legionairre's disease to pathgenic?
Sorry Yoda
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Many of the fungi have so few virulence factors that they do not cause infections in?


Many of the fungi have so few virulence factors that they do not cause infections in 
            immunocompetent persons.  These fungi are often referred to as what type of pathogen
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Sam,  the term is commensal fungi.  A commensal fungus may depend on its host for food, shelter, support, transport, or a combination of these factors.  The host may receive a variety of benefits, including protection from infection, improved digestion or cleaner skin.  Humans get many benefits from resident organisms that do not cause any harmful infections.


What are some diseases/microorganisms that start with X?


The diseases need to be ones that affect humans, and the microorganisms must also affect humans.
I would also prefer diseases/microorganisms that aren't too vague; I need a little information about them for a project that asks for:

1. The type of pathogen it is (bacteria, nematode, virus, etc)
2. Its scientific name.
3. Characteristics of the disease that it causes (IN HUMANS).
4. The microorganisms' virulence factors.
5. Treatment for the disease,

If anyone could help me out, that would be great.
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Honestly, I can't even think of a single one that starts with X.  There's probably a lot of bacteria that start with the letter X, but the thing you need to realize is that of the bacteria out there, very few are capable of causing human disease.

EDIT: To the people below me, those aren't infectious diseases, they're names of conditions or genetic defects.


What factors did you have to consider before planning for baby number 2?


What factors did you have to consider before planning for baby number 2?
How did you weigh up the pros and cons?
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Nephel ur a morin!

Factors that i thought about were 
wether or not we could afford another child, 
how my son would cope with a sibling, 
how i would cope with 2 rather then 1, 
how we would cope with the space required for more children for toys ect, 
how it would effect things when the time came to return to work, 
how it would impact on our marriage

i no thats a lot of how comes and what ifs but they are reasonable things to consider! we had thought about it all and said that 1 more would be ok- only 2 find out i am carrying twins...LOL what are the chances of that- not great considering i dont really fit the criteria for twins.


What are key factors you consider when chossing a tattoo shop?


Those who have gotten tattoos (or planning on it) what are key factors that made you choose the tattoo shop to get it done at?

Reviews/recommendations, pricing, hours, artist, atmosphere, cleanliness, type of art done (color/gray/portrait)???
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There are a few factors to consider when chosing an artist/shop.

1. When you walk in, what do you smell? Look for a shop that smells clean. My tattoo shop smells like bleach/alcohol

2. Have you viewed he artists portfolio? Have you seen what tattoos they have done?

3. Is the airconditioning working? Might sound silly, but I went to a tattoo shop once, and everything was great except their air conditioning wasn't working.... getting tattooed while youre hot and sweaty is HORRIBLE!

4. What have other people said about this shop/artist? Facebook is a good place to lurk, as people will usually post on the shops wall about their experiences.

5. As for price, well, you get what you pay for... My tattoo artist is $150 per hour, but does give discounts for larger pieces. Some places charge by the hour, others charge by piece.

Hope this helps!


What factors contribute to the increase in obese kids?


What factors do you think are contributing to this increase in overweight kids? What strategies can parents, schools and local communities use to combat this problem.
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Our schools need to provide healthier foods. Processed foods, like those used in the cafeteria are some of the worst. Many contain high fructose corn syrup as a preservative and a sweetener. And just how did the soda manufacturer weasel their way into our schools. I am not that old, but we never had a Coke machine in our school building. Again, most soda/pops are made with high fructose corn syrup.

I found this web site www.understand-health.com that has several videos about the health issue children face.

For parents it tough to make your child bring a health lunch from home when all their friend buy the school lunch - peer press adds stress, which can also cause weight gain.

Children should be taught and fed a low glycemic diet.


How do environmental factors affect memory and how does loud music interfere with memory?


How do environmental factors affect memory and how does loud music interfere with memory?
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I've never heard of loud music interfering with memory, but environmental factors like pollution and poisons, like lead and mercury can affect memory and brain function.  It's especially important where young children may be exposed because it affects them most of all.