Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Branched DNA Signal Amplification Assay: A molecular probe technique that utilizes branched DNA (bDNA) as a means to amplify the hybridization signal. One end of the bDNA molecule is designed to bind a specific target, while the other end of the bDNA molecule contains many branches of DNA that are designed to bind a probe used for signal detection.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Dried Blood Spot Testing: Techniques for using whole blood samples collected on filter paper for a variety of clinical laboratory tests.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Human papillomavirus 31: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Roseolovirus Infections: Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.Human bocavirus: A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cercocebus atys: A species of Old World monkeys from the genera CERCOCEBUS that is important in AIDS research. They may be naturally or experimentally infected with the SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS. They inhabit African forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo Republic.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Penile Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.Herpesvirus 6, Human: The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bocavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Allostasis: Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.PyrimidinonesPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.

*  Students Developing Low-Cost Device for Monitoring HIV Levels in Blood Win...
If a therapy is working as it should, the viral load remains low. If the virus has become resistant, however, the viral load in ... Low-Cost HIV Viral-Load Monitoring. Kirk Hutchison. Ultimately, the team is aiming for large-scale manufacture of their viral- ... "There are millions of people who need viral load tests and can't get them, and I cannot wait to make a difference in their ... Viral load test equipment currently costs around $80,000, and $25 or more per test. The student founders of Worldcare
http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/feature/students_developing_low_cost_technique_for_monitoring_hiv_levels_in_bloodst
*  Doravirine vs. darunavir | CATIE - Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C...
Results-Changes in viral load and CD4+ cell counts. Overall, after one year, the proportions of participants who had a viral ... Among participants who entered the study with a viral load greater than 100,000 copies/mL, the proportions with a suppressed ... 20% of participants had a viral load greater than 100,000 copies/mL ... Among participants who entered the study with a CD4+ count of 50 or less cells/mm3, the proportions with a suppressed viral ...
http://catie.ca/en/treatmentupdate/treatmentupdate-220/anti-hiv-agents/doravirine-vs-darunavir
*  Is it safe to drop CD4+ monitoring among virologically suppr... : AIDS
viral load. Search for Similar Articles. You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Citation/2014/09100/Is_it_safe_to_drop_CD4__monitoring_among.1.aspx
*  Articles by Vladimir Novitsky, MD, PhD : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune...
Viral Load and CD4+ T-Cell Dynamics in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. Novitsky, Vladimir; Woldegabriel, Elias; Kebaabetswe ... Better Control of Early Viral Replication Is Associated With Slower Rate of Elicited Antiviral Antibodies in the Detuned Enzyme ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/author.aspx?firstName=Vladimir&lastName=Novitsky
*  Assessment of Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Ther... : JAIDS Journal...
Viral Load Measurement. All viral load levels were measured by a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.8 ... Relationship Between Adherence and Viral Load. An HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load in the prior month was available for only 24 ... An undetectable viral load (,2.4 log10 copies/mL) was obtained for 55% of the patients with full adherence but for none of the ... Undetectable viral load was associated with full adherence in a subset of children with a P value ,10% (P = 0.098). As compared ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2005/12010/Assessment_of_Adherence_to_Highly_Active.18.aspx
*  Jonathan Elford<...
Elford, J. and Hart, G. (2005). HAART, viral load and sexual risk behaviour. AIDS, 19(2), pp. 205-207. ... increased duration of stay in the UK or Ireland reduces the risk of detectable maternal HIV viral load at delivery. HIV ... ART use, viral suppression and sexual behaviour among HIV diagnosed MSM in the UK: results from the ASTRA study. Glasgow (2012 ... Increased HIV Incidence in Men Who Have Sex with Men Despite High Levels of ART-Induced Viral Suppression: Analysis of an ...
http://city.ac.uk/people/academics/jonathan-elford
*  Reducing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV among Women who Breastfeed - HIV...
Plasma viral load. • Breastmilk virus. • Breast inflammation (mastitis, abcess, nipple lesions). • New HIV infection. • Viral ... Both viral load and CD4 count are independently associated with the risk of transmission through breastfeeding. The World ...
http://breastcrawl.org/breastfeeding-hiv-pmtct.shtml
*  Variability of Growth in Children Starting Antiretroviral Treatment in Southern...
... and again no difference between viral load sites and nonviral load sites was apparent. For HAZ, the predictors for growth ... Growth velocity, fat-free mass and energy intake are inversely related to viral load in HIV-infected children. J Nutr. 2000;130 ... Differences in factors associated with initial growth, CD4, and viral load responses to ART in HIV-infected children in Kampala ... 7 and it is particularly important in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa with limited access to CD4 count and ...
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/130/4/e966.1
*  Differential antiviral effect of PEG-interferon-α-2b on HIV... : AIDS
... who had the highest baseline HIV viral load, and the rebound found in patients with higher baseline viral load indicate that ... Conversely, in the four patients with lower baseline HIV load (, 3.3 log10), HIV viral load fell below the level of detection ... Viral load at beginning of treatment is measurable, V0, and thus from the above steady-state assumption we obtain I0 = cV0/p. ... 1), although in two of them HIV viral load at the end of treatment (48 weeks) was 1 log10 lower than baseline. ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/09120/Differential_antiviral_effect_of.5.aspx
*  Short-term interferon-alfa therapy for acute hepatitis C: A randomized...
Results of short-term IFN administration, stratified by viral load and genotype, were as follows. A low viral load in the early ... In this study, significant predictive factors were viral load (low viral load), timing of initial treatment (early-intervention ... or a high viral load (105 copies/mL or greater). There was no significant difference in viral load between the early- ... Significant factors were viral load (low viral load group), the timing of initial treatment (early-intervention group), and
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.20196/full
*  Viral Load Measurement: Healthwise Medical Information on eMedicineHealth
... Home. Topics A-Z. Slideshow Pictures. Image Gallery. Medications. Quizzes. Medical Dictionary. . About Us. Privacy. Site Map October 6, 2015 Like Us. Follow Us. home. infections center. infections a-z list. viral load measurement healthwise article. Font Size. A A A. Go Back Viral Load Measurement. Slideshow: Common Dental Problems and Procedures. Dental Oral Health Quiz. Slideshow: 10 Secrets to Brighter, Whiter Teeth. Test Overview A viral load test measures how much human immunodeficiency virus HIV is in the blood. Viral load is first measured when you are diagnosed with HIV infection. This initial measurement serves as the baseline, and future viral load measurements will be compared with the baseline. Since viral load can vary from day to day, the trend over time is used to determine if the infection is getting worse. If your viral load shows a steady increase over several measurements, it means the ...
http://emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=135958&ref=135959
*  hiv transmission risk with undetectable viral load
... Join POZ:. POZ 100. FORUMS. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Symptoms Opportunistic Infections OIs Newly Diagnosed Disclosing Your HIV Status Living With HIV The Big Treatment Questions Side Effects and Other Health Problems POZ Focus / Fact Sheets Finding a Doctor Finding Support Health Services Directory. Newsfeed Treatment News POZ Exclusives Opinion Criminalization News Conference Coverage Global News World AIDS Day RSS Feeds. COMMUNITY. POZ Community Forums. Main Forums. Living With HIV. hiv transmission risk with undetectable viral load. Forums Index. Main Forums. Members Total Members: 26567 Latest: CarlosLopez. Stats Total Posts: 675707 Total Topics: 52421 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Welcome to the POZ/AIDSmeds Community Forums , a round-the-clock discussion area for people with HIV/AIDS, their friends/family/caregivers, and others concerned about HIV/AIDS. Click here for posting guidelines pertaining to all other POZ/AIDSmeds community ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=43515.0;prev_next=prev
*  Nevirapine vs. Atazanavir Boosted With Ritonavir on a Background of Truvada in Human Immunodeficienc
Sponsor: Boehringer Ingelheim Information provided by: Boehringer Ingelheim. Further study details as provided by Boehringer Ingelheim:. Number of Participants With HIV Viral Load 50 Copies/ml at Week 2 of Treatment Results within time windows, patients on-treatment. Number of Participants With HIV Viral Load 50 Copies/ml at Week 4 of Treatment Results within time windows, patients on-treatment. Number of Participants With HIV Viral Load 50 Copies/ml at Week 6 of Treatment Results within time windows, patients on-treatment. Number of Participants With HIV Viral Load 50 Copies/ml at Week 8 of Treatment Results within time windows, patients on-treatment. Number of Participants With HIV Viral Load 50 Copies/ml at Week 12 of Treatment Results within time windows, patients on-treatment. Number of Participants With HIV Viral Load 50 Copies/ml at Week 24 of Treatment Results within time windows, patients on-treatment. Number of ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00552240?order=342
*  PLOS ONE: Interleukin-27 Is Differentially Associated with HIV Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Counts in
... Therapy-Naïve HIV-Mono-Infected and HIV/HCV-Co-Infected Chinese. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Interleukin-27 Is Differentially Associated with HIV Viral Load and CD4 + T Cell Counts in Therapy-Naïve HIV-Mono-Infected and HIV/HCV-Co-Infected Chinese. Published: May 9, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096792. Article. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4 + T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. 2014 Interleukin-27 Is Differentially Associated with HIV Viral Load and CD4 + T Cell Counts in Therapy-Naïve HIV-Mono-Infected and ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096792
*  Relationship Between CD4 Count and Viral Load -- TheBody.com
... Advertisement. Ask the Experts About. Understanding Your Labs Understanding Your Labs. Rollover images to visit our other forums. Get E-Mail Notifications When This Forum Updates or Subscribe With RSS Relationship Between CD4 Count and Viral Load. High viral load and los cd4 en 3 months infected. Oct 4, 2015. vl n cd4c Sep 13, 2015. Too Soon to Be Concerned About HIV Drug Resistance. Editor's Pick Aug 30, 2015. Why Did I Develop an AIDS-Related Illness After Starting HIV Treatment. Editor's Pick Aug 30, 2015. CD4 and Vl Aug 23, 2015. Very low cd4 Jul 25, 2015. 10 Words or Less May 31, 2015. CD4 Drop May 24, 2015. Normal cd4 count low cd4 percentage low Vral load May 24, 2015. viral load May 17, 2015. Undetectable VL but low CD4 May 17, 2015. cd4 and viral load May 3, 2015. What to make of this results Mar 22, 2015. vallez fever, increased my VL Mar 15, 2015. Huge Drop In CD4 Count. Please Help. Mar 8, 2015. high viral load and ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Archive/Relationship/index.html
*  What Is Log In A Hcv Viral Load Test - The Body
. What Is Log In A Hcv Viral Load Test - The Body. Skip to main content. Skip page links. TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. Ask The Experts. Search. Search. Follow Us. Facebook. Twitter. Newsletters. Search. Search. THEBODY.COM. What's New Newsletters Android/iPhone App My Health Tracker Personal Reminder Service HIV Care Professionals The Body en Espanol ASOFinder.com. Ask The Experts. TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. Treatment. HIV Medications. Hepatitis C Coinfection. GI Issues. Other Side Effects Coinfections. Drug Resistance. Switching Stopping Treatment. Pediatric HIV Treatment. Prevention. HIV/AID Basics. HIV Prevention. HIV Testing. Safer Sex. Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Myths About HIV/AIDS. History of the AIDS Epidemic. Immune System Basics. Helping Friends With HIV/AIDS. Living With HIV. Getting Good Care. Healthy Living With HIV. Arts, Media HIV/AIDS. Diet, Nutrition HIV/AIDS. HIV Stigma. Relationships, Sexuality HIV/AIDS. Vitamins, Minerals Supplements. HIV and Financial Issues. HIV and Legal ...
http://thebody.com/h/what-is-log-in-a-hcv-viral-load-test.html
*  The interaction between viral load, CD4 cell count and disease progression | Health24
The interaction between viral load, CD4 cell count and disease progression. HIV/Aids. HIV/Aids. Updated 25 June 2014 The interaction between viral load, CD4 cell count and disease progression The "dance" between CD4 cell counts and viral loads can predict how fast or slow the final stages of Aids kick in in an HIV positive patient, but what are they and what role do they play in the progression of HIV/Aids. The "dance" between CD4 cell counts and viral loads can predict how fast or slow the final stages of Aids kick in in an HIV positive patient, but what are they and what role do they play in the progression of HIV/Aids. The “dance” between viral load, CD4 count and disease progression There is a very special relationship between the viral load and the CD4 cell count, and if considered together, they can predict whether a person’s journey towards Aids the final stage of disease will be rapid or slow. Viral load ...
http://health24.com/Medical/HIV-AIDS/HIV-in-the-body/The-interaction-between-viral-load-CD4-cell-count-and-disease-progression-20120721
*  Any good 180gr load data for 300 ultra mag?????? - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine
Any good 180gr load data for 300 ultra mag?????. - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. Any good 180gr load data for 300 ultra mag?????. Home LRH Store Forums Long Range Rifles Articles Reviews Group Hunts Shooting Classes G7 Ballistics Calculator Rules FAQ Register Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Any good 180gr load data for 300 ultra mag?????. LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes. Join Date: Nov 2006 Location: El Campo, Tx Posts: 26. Any good 180gr load data for 300 ultra mag?????. Platinum Member. Join Date: Jan 2003 Location: The rifle range, or archery range or behind the computer in Alaska Posts: 3,597. Re: Any good 180gr load data for 300 ultra mag?????. Long range shooting is a process that ends with a result. Once you start to focus on the result how bad your last shot was, how big the group is going to be, what your buck will score, what your match score is, what place you are in... Re: ...
http://longrangehunting.com/forums/f28/any-good-180gr-load-data-300-ultra-mag-19163/
*  Switching From PI to Nevirapine in Patients With Undetectable Viral Load Is Safe and Potent - TheBod
... yPRO.com. The Body PRO Covers: The 43rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Switching From PI to Nevirapine in Patients With Undetectable Viral Load Is Safe and Potent Coverage provided by Judith A. September 15, 2003 A common strategy for the treatment of HIV-infected patients is switching to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NNRTI from a protease inhibitor PI for various reasons including virologic failure, side effects, intolerance and treatment simplification. The characteristics of this cohort were as follows: mean age was 41 years range 25-69, 82.5 percent were male, 60 percent CDC category A, 17.5 percent were co-infected with hepatitis C HCV and 70 percent were naive to antiretroviral therapy ART at the time they started the PI regimen prior to the switch. Follow-up data was available for 114 subjects for one year, 106 subjects for two years and 96 subjects for three years. The efficacy of the treatment for maintaining undetectable ...
http://thebodypro.com/content/art15564.html
*  Need 7wsm load data - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine
... Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. Rifles, Reloading, Optics, Equipment. Reloading. Need 7wsm load data. Home LRH Store Forums Long Range Rifles Articles Reviews Group Hunts Shooting Classes G7 Ballistics Calculator Rules FAQ Register Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Reloading. Need 7wsm load data. LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes. Bronze Member. Join Date: Mar 2008 Posts: 92. Platinum Member. Re: Need 7wsm load data Hopefully someone with actual 7WSM data will reply but in the mean time, reloaders nest has a few loads for the Berger180. Cartridge Loads - Hodgdon Reloading Data Center - data.hodgdon.com. Bronze Member. Join Date: Mar 2008 Posts: 92. Re: Need 7wsm load data Thanks for the input. Join Date: Mar 2008 Location: Chatham, VA Posts: 436. Re: Need 7wsm load data I have a 7-300WSM, just slightly less capacity than your straight up 7WSM and can git to 3000 with a 180gr Berger with a 27 barrel but ...
http://longrangehunting.com/forums/f28/need-7wsm-load-data-70329/
*  low cd 4 low viral load: alternative healing - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
... Understanding Your Labs Understanding Your Labs. Ask the Experts > Forum on Understanding Your Labs > Q & A low cd 4 low viral load: alternative healing Aug 29, 2009. i understand that the treatment would helps to reduce my viral load to 50. but in the long run, does the treatment not affect my kidney / liver. i am not on treatment and have reduced the viral load from 10,000 - 433 in two years. yes my CD4 count has also fallen a hundred count but doesnt the CD4 do that anyway while the immune system is fighting to such a massive reduce in the viral load. and if i should be able to reduce my viral load further to 50 with further healing is it not better than tiring my kidney / liver with drugs. low cd 4 low viral load Aug 23, 2009 hi, my viral load was 10,000 2 years ago and cd4 was around 400 now 2 years later my viral ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Q203601.html
*  BARACLUDE(R) (Entecavir) Treatment Resulted In Greater Viral Load Suppression Compared to Adefovir a
BARACLUDE R Entecavir Treatment Resulted In Greater Viral Load Suppression Compared to Adefovir at 96 Weeks In Antiviral-Naive Adult Chronic Hepatitis B E-Antigen Positiv... eroconversion compared with 25 percent ... Biology. Medicine. RSS Navigation Links Biology News Medicine News Biology Products Medicine Products Biology Definition Medicine Definition Biology Technology Medicine Technology Biology Dictionary Medicine Dictionary. HOME >> MEDICINE >> TECHNOLOGY. BARACLUDE R Entecavir Treatment Resulted In Greater Viral Load Suppression Compared to Adefovir at 96 Weeks In Antiviral-Naive Adult Chronic Hepatitis B E-Antigen Positive Patients eroconversion compared with 25 percent n5/20 adefovir-treated ... ...-- Six BARACLUDE R entecavir -treated patients and 16 adefovir-treat... patients discontinued therapy prior to week 96. - No BARACLUDE-treated patients and one adefovir-treated patient/p... http://www.bio-medicine.org/inc/biomed/medicine-technology.asp ...
http://bio-medicine.org/medicine-technology-1/BARACLUDE-28R-29--28Entecavir-29-Treatment-Resulted-In-Greater-Viral-Load-Suppression-Compared-to-Adefovir-at-96-Weeks-In-Antiviral-Naive-Adult-Chroni-1900-3/
*  AIDS 2010 Abstract - Both immune activation and viral load are reduced within 28 days by VS411, the
... first antiviral-hyperactivation limiting therapeutic AV-HALT - a phase II study. Back to the PAG Back Sign In. Both immune activation and viral load are reduced within 28 days by VS411, the first antiviral-hyperactivation limiting therapeutic AV-HALT - a phase II study. Lori 5, for the VS411 Study Group 1 Makerere Medical School, Kampala, Uganda, 2 Fundaci n Huesped, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3 IATEC, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 4 Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy, 5 ViroStatics srl, Alghero SS, Italy, 6 ViroStatics srl, Princeton, NJ, United States, 7 Genetic Immunity Kft., Budapest, Hungary Background: Excessive immune activation drives disease progression and HIV-associated pathologies even with successful HAART. A new antiretroviral class, AV-HALTs, reduces both viral load and excessive immune activation. VS411, the first-in-class NRTI-based AV-HALT, combines low-dose, slow-release 2´,3´-dideoxyinosine ddI with low-dose hydroxycarbamide ...
http://pag.aids2010.org/Abstracts.aspx?AID=4916
*  Blood Work: Two Common Tests to Use for Monitoring HIV Disease - TheBody.com
Blood Work: Two Common Tests to Use for Monitoring HIV Disease From Project Inform. CD4 Cell Count Tests. CD4 Counts and When to Start Therapy. Viral Load Tests. Getting Viral Load Tests. Viral Load and Women. Disease Progression and Therapy. Introduction Two of the most common tests that you and your doctor will use to monitor your health are CD4+ cell counts and viral load tests. They also help to assess your risk of disease progression and response to anti-HIV therapy that you may be taking. In HIV-negative people, normal CD4 cell counts are 600-1,500/mm 3 of blood. So for every two CD4 cells, an HIV-negative person has one CD8+ cell in their blood. Using CD4 counts along with viral load tests and information about your general health provides a more complete picture of your health and response to therapy. Because the current federal guidelines base its decisions for starting anti-HIV therapy more on CD4 cell count than on viral ...
http://thebody.com/content/art45185.html
*  Viral Load Assay Question - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
... Advertisement. Ask the Experts About. Understanding Your Labs Understanding Your Labs. Rollover images to visit our other forums. 0 Email. Glossary. Ask the Experts > Forum on Understanding Your Labs > Q & A Viral Load Assay Question Mar 2, 2008. Hello Dr. Holodiny, I notice on my lab report for my viral load under the Actual Kit copies/ml that it states 50 and then on another line is says HIV-1 RNA Not Detected. I know that 50 is the lower limit for detection for the LMDS-ROCHE Ultrasensitive test that is being used. Is it possible to have a result of 50 and yet the second line read HIV 1 RNA detected. In general, what is the meaning or purpose of that second line that says HIV 1 RNA Detected or Not Detected. I did have a small blip 6 months ago of 58 and on that report it did read HIV 1 RNA detected. Is it possible to have a detected level of HIV RNA but the amount still be below the lower limits of the test to quantify. Thanks. Response from Dr. Holodniy. The assay can ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Q191069.html
*  HIV prevalence in blood only 2-4%?
HIV prevalence in blood only 2-4%. HIV prevalence in blood only 2-4%. HIV prevalence in blood only 2-4%. 2012 June CD4:205, 16% VL:2676 Start Truvada/Stocrin 2012 July CD4:234, 18% VL:88 2012 Sep CD4:238, 17% VL:UD 2013 Feb CD4:257, 24% VL:UD -viramune/truvada 2013 May CD4:276, 26% VL:UD 2015 CD4: 240, 28% VL:UD - Triumeq 2015 March CD4: 350 VL: UD. 2012 June CD4:205, 16% VL:2676 Start Truvada/Stocrin 2012 July CD4:234, 18% VL:88 2012 Sep CD4:238, 17% VL:UD 2013 Feb CD4:257, 24% VL:UD -viramune/truvada 2013 May CD4:276, 26% VL:UD 2015 CD4: 240, 28% VL:UD - Triumeq 2015 March CD4: 350 VL: UD. http://i-base.info/ttfa/section-2/211-compartments-and-sanctuary-sites While many studies show in some populations HIV viral load is 1 log higher in the genitals this still is probably not important esp given the error or margin on viral load tests is 1 log, eg in gay men v up to date this article and one of many and also shows importance of other things on localised viral load ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=43327.0;prev_next=next
*  CD4 and Viral Load - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
... Ask the Experts About. Understanding Your Labs Understanding Your Labs. Ask the Experts > Forum on Understanding Your Labs > Q & A CD4 and Viral Load Oct 2, 2005. My first test showed a CD4 count of 375 and viral count of 57K. Is body using up CD4 cells to fight HIV; is this why my viral count was lower. Those numbers both CD4 and viral load are actually within assay variability. Another number you need to follow is the CD4 percent. I suspect that although the absolute CD4 count looks slightly lower, the percent has remained the same. In the presence of ongoing HIV replication as measured by a detectable plasma viral load, new CD4 cells are becoming infected and then dying, leading to a decrease in CD4 count. Another set of numbers or two will determine how soon you will need HIV treatment. Smoking per se does not reduce CD4 count, but it's always a good idea to quit and preserve lung function. You'd also reduce the risk of lung infection ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Q168767.html?ic=4003
*  280 AI Load Data - Page 2 - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine
... Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. Rifles, Reloading, Optics, Equipment. Reloading. 280 AI Load Data. Home LRH Store Forums Long Range Rifles Articles Reviews Group Hunts Shooting Classes G7 Ballistics Calculator Rules FAQ Register Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Reloading. 280 AI Load Data. LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes. Join Date: Jun 2012 Location: Northern California Posts: 48. I've always had to fire form my own from Rem brass. But I've found to get my rifle under .75 groups I needed to fire form. Silver Member. Join Date: Aug 2013 Posts: 141. Re: 280 AI Load Data Length of your bbl doesn't decide what powders to use. Just because your bbl is longer doesn't mean you can fit more powder into the case, which is what really matters. Join Date: Jan 2009 Posts: 613. Re: 280 AI Load Data Quote: Originally Posted by Jcub. Length of your bbl doesn't decide what powders to use. Just because your bbl is longer doesn't mean you can fit more powder ...
http://longrangehunting.com/forums/f28/280-ai-load-data-129596/index2.html
*  7STW load data with Retumbo? - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine
7STW load data with Retumbo. - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. 7STW load data with Retumbo. 7STW load data with Retumbo. Join Date: Jun 2011 Location: Helena, MT Posts: 823. 7STW load data with Retumbo. He had brought over a lb of retumbo but I couldn't really find much data in the threads for loads with retumbo. My dear boy if 5 miles away they don't sit up in their beds and ask what the HELL was that, the gun is not big enough. http://www.longrangehunting.com/foru...72/index4.html. Join Date: Jun 2011 Location: Helena, MT Posts: 823. Re: 7STW load data with Retumbo. 1.5gr under max recommended load from Bergers load data. Gotta love breaking in a barrel Wanted to send 3 more this time to see what kind of group I could get with a new barrel and Bergers set at magazine length.. Sent off the first round and felt really good about it. My dear boy if 5 miles away they don't sit ...
http://longrangehunting.com/forums/f126/7stw-load-data-retumbo-116469/
*  Treatment News : CD4s, Viral Load Not Enough to Predict Survival During HIV Treatment
... A Smart + Strong Site. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Symptoms Opportunistic Infections OIs Newly Diagnosed Disclosing Your HIV Status Living With HIV The Big Treatment Questions Side Effects and Other Health Problems POZ Focus / Fact Sheets Finding a Doctor Finding Support Health Services Directory. More Treatment News. Have news about HIV. March 8, 2011 CD4s, Viral Load Not Enough to Predict Survival During HIV Treatment. As AIDS-related illnesses decline and non-AIDS complications become increasingly more common in the modern antiretroviral ARV therapy era, looking at six blood markers not just CD4 cell counts and viral load will be necessary to make accurate survival predictions. As people living with HIV continue to respond favorably to ARV treatment, explained researcher Amy Justice, MD, PhD, of Yale and the Veterans Administration VA Connecticut Healthcare System, there is increased interest in factors associated with aging, beyond standard CD4 count and ...
http://poz.com/articles/hiv_vacs_survival_761_20023.shtml?commentson=no
*  Early Treatment With Three Classes of Antiretrovirals Quickly Reduces Viral Loads, Study Says - TheB
... odyPRO.com. Medical News Early Treatment With Three Classes of Antiretrovirals Quickly Reduces Viral Loads, Study Says. Kaiser Family Foundation. May 17, 2007 Early treatment with a combination therapy that contains three classes of antiretroviral drugs can reduce viral loads quickly -- raising the possibility that HIV can be eliminated in people with already low viral loads following aggressive treatment with new drug classes -- according to study published in the June 15 issue of the Journal of Infectious Disease, Bloomberg reports. The study found that early treatment with the three-drug combination therapy reduced the number of infected resting T cells by 50% every 4.6 months. Based on the results, the researchers estimated that 7.7 years of the combination therapy could all but eliminate HIV among people who began treatment early. Although the number of study participants who started the combination therapy early, remained on treatment for ...
http://thebodypro.com/content/art41026.html?m201o
*  Short‐term evolution of HIV‐1 viraemia and CD4+ cell counts... : AIDS
Top Cited Articles. Objective: To investigate the different responses to antiretroviral treatment including zidovudine, of patients harbouring HIV with primary resistance to zidovudine, serum viral load, and CD4+ cell counts, for 24 weeks in a group of antiretroviral-naive patients with the codon 215 mutation of the HIV pol gene and in a control group at the start of treatment. Results: During the first 12 weeks, CD4+ cell counts increased 76 ± 26 and 64 ± 26 × 10 6 /l in wild-type and mutant virus-infected groups, respectively , decreasing slightly until week 24, although no significant differences were found between the two groups studied. Conclusion: No significant differences were found between patients with the primary mutation to zidovudine and control patients harbouring wild-type virus in terms of short-term response measured by serum viral load and CD4+ cell counts. With this aim, we studied the changes, after antiretroviral treatment with either ZDV ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/1998/04000/Short_term_evolution_of_HIV_1_viraemia_and_CD4_.8.aspx
*  Continued... - HIV Prevention - MedHelp
- HIV Prevention - MedHelp. Communities Health Tools Information My MedHelp Login or. HIV Prevention Community. About This Community: If you believe you have been exposed to HIV and want help to judge your risk, would like advice about HIV testing, or have questions about the effectiveness of condoms or risks associated with specific sexual practices, this is the site for you. antibody, negative, test, viral, virus. viral load and transmission 4 replies : what does viral load have to do with transmission risk. HIV viral load 14 replies : hi i would like to know what should be the normal HIV RN... Viral Load Question 5 replies : i read on another website that if you have been infected... Regarding HIV RT PCR Test 26 replies : 42 days after a high-risk involving a HIV+ ejaculating ... NAT test viral load and an Antibody at the 6 months mark definitely means NO HIV. I have read that some people never produce antibodies and also read ...
http://medhelp.org/posts/HIV-Prevention/Continued/show/21058
*  any form of resistance testing for UD viral load?
any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. POZ 100. TESTING. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits. Questions About Treatment Side Effects. any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits Questions About Treatment Side Effects Insurance, Benefits Programs HIV Mental Health HIV Lipodystrophy Metabolic Problems Nutrition HIV Research News Studies. Stats Total Posts: 675712 Total Topics: 52423 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Welcome to the POZ/AIDSmeds Community Forums, a round-the-clock discussion area for people with HIV/AIDS, their friends/family/caregivers, and others concerned about HIV/AIDS. Click here for posting guidelines pertaining to all other POZ/AIDSmeds community forums. Author Topic: any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. scotty54 Member. Posts: 92. any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. on: March 01, 2013, ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=47597.msg579125
*  any form of resistance testing for UD viral load?
any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. Join POZ:. POZ 100. TESTING. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits. Questions About Treatment Side Effects. any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits Questions About Treatment Side Effects Insurance, Benefits Programs HIV Mental Health HIV Lipodystrophy Metabolic Problems Nutrition HIV Research News Studies. Stats Total Posts: 675712 Total Topics: 52423 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Welcome to the POZ/AIDSmeds Community Forums, a round-the-clock discussion area for people with HIV/AIDS, their friends/family/caregivers, and others concerned about HIV/AIDS. Click here for posting guidelines pertaining to all other POZ/AIDSmeds community forums. Author Topic: any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. scotty54 Member. Posts: 92. any form of resistance testing for UD viral load. on: March ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=47597.msg579468
*  Does HIV/HCV Viral Load Affect Likelihood of Transmission to Others? - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Co
Does HIV/HCV Viral Load Affect Likelihood of Transmission to Others. - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection -- TheBody.com. Advertisement. Ask the Experts About. Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection. Rollover images to visit our other forums. 0 Email. Glossary. Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A Does HIV/HCV Viral Load Affect Likelihood of Transmission to Others. Jan 19, 2001. I'm a 29yo severe hemophiliac co-infected with HIV HCV since the early 80's. I was also HBV infected, but cleared the disease on my own years ago. I've been on Epivir. Zerit since 8-96 and a protease inhibitor currently Viracept since 10-96. My HIV vl was undetectable even after only the first 6 weeks of d4t 3tc and has remained that way ever since. My T-4 count has fluctuated between 350-600 since before anti-viral therapy. My HCV vl is 825,000 and my liver enzymes are currently fluctuating between normal and slightly elevated and ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Hepatitis/Q12206.html?ic=4003
*  Vacinação contra influenza em crianças infectadas pelo HIV: alterações imunológicas e na carga
How to cite this article. Send this article by e-mail. Influenza vaccination in HIV infected children: immunologic and viral load changes. Objective: to identify whether influenza immunization in HIV infected children could increase HIV viral load and decrease CD4+ lymphocytes count as a consequence of the response induced by a T cell-dependent antigen. Blood samples were collected at three different moments: on the immunization day; between 14 and 20 days later; between 60 and 90 days later. Plasma levels of HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes count were determined. Friedman ANOVA test, Student t-test for dependent samples, Bonferroni correction, and Wilcoxon matched test were performed for statistic analysis. Results: children's mean age was 6.08 years 1 to 12.9 years. The medians of CD4+ lymphocyte count on vaccination day and at the other two moments were 789, 645 and 768 cells/mm 3, respectively. A significant reduction was observed in the CD4+ lymphocyte count ...
http://scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0021-75572003000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  What's the deal with the pricing of Atripla and Sustiva Truvada?
Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=9659.0
*  What's the deal with the pricing of Atripla and Sustiva Truvada?
Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=9659.msg120759
*  Viral load increase after decrease - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
... Advertisement. Ask the Experts About. Understanding Your Labs Understanding Your Labs. Rollover images to visit our other forums. 0 Email. Glossary. Ask the Experts > Forum on Understanding Your Labs > Q & A Viral load increase after decrease Jun 22, 2014. I was diagnosed about the last week of January 2014. At that moment, my doctor told me the infection was really recent. I started with 400 000/m3 viral load and 320 CD4-cells. On April 2014 I got 800/ml3 and 690 CD4. But June 2014, I'm 8 000/ml3 and same CD4 than in April. He wants to repeat the test in two months, we hope the viral load drops again. He says it could be normal, although he's a little afraid of this peak, because he told me also, it may be my virus is getting resistant to my treatment if the next viral load is high again. I take my Atripla dose every night. Should I be worried it's not working well. I also have read until it got undetectable, this differences could ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Q236641.html
*  Calcium/Vitamin D
Stats Total Posts: 675712 Total Topics: 52423 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Posts: 125. Calcium/Vitamin D on: January 15, 2012, 03:22:21 PM. Logged 10/2011-CD-4-598-Undetectable 01/2012-CD-4-758-Undetectable 04/2012-CD$-780-70 Viral Load 08-2012-CD4-846--20 viral load 02/2013-CD$ 865----20 Undetectable Viral Load 08/2013- CD4-898---- 20 undetectable viral load. Logged 10/2011-CD-4-598-Undetectable 01/2012-CD-4-758-Undetectable 04/2012-CD$-780-70 Viral Load 08-2012-CD4-846--20 viral load 02/2013-CD$ 865----20 Undetectable Viral Load 08/2013- CD4-898---- 20 undetectable viral load. Logged Sero converted Sept 10 / Confirmed + Dec 10 Jan 11, VL 9,500 / CD4 482 32% Feb 11, VL 5,800 / CD4 680 37% start Atripla Mch 11, VL UD / CD4 700 42% Jun 11, VL UD / CD4 750 43% swap to Kivexa and Efav. DEXA / kidney issues decline in eGFR to 77 start supplements - Vit D3 / Omega 3 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=41492.0
*  Structured Treatment Interruptionsand HIV Immune Response - TheBody.com
... The median CD4 count was 921, median time that viral load had been below 500 copies was 108 weeks, and the median time of a protease inhibitor-based HAART regimen was 137 weeks. The second time, the patient's viral load remained below 5,000 copies for four months. All seven who discontinued therapy had a rebound in viral load within one to eight weeks, as well as an increase in CTL responses. From this group, eight underwent an STI after a median of 57 weeks range 53 to 75 weeks of therapy. Of interest, one patient who was not taking hydroxyurea discontinued therapy due to peripheral neuropathy at week 20, and his viral load remained below 50 copies after 46 weeks without therapy. They had been on HAART for 52 weeks and had a viral load below 20 copies for at least 32 weeks before the first STI. Similarly, four patients had viral loads that were 0.6 to 1.5 log lower than pretreatment and showed HIV-specific cellular ...
http://thebody.com/content/art13201.html
*  Catalfamo, M. et al. HIV infection-associated immune activation occurs by two distinct pathways that
Their CD4 T cell counts ranged from 11 to 1938 cells per microliter, and their HIV RNA levels from ?50 to 860,608 copies per milliliter. To examine the separate effects of CD4 depletion and HIV viral load on T cell prolifer- ation, we measured spontaneous ex vivo incorporation of BrdU in the CD4 and CD8 T cells from the whole blood of patients with HIV infection; characterized as having high ?800 cells per microliter or low ?300 cells per microliter levels of CD4 T cells and high ?10,000 copies per milliliter or low ?50 copies per milliliter levels of HIV RNA Fig. Both normal volunteers and patients with HIV infection and HIV RNA levels ?50 copies per milliliter showed an increase in CD4 proliferation when those with higher CD4 counts were compared with those with lower CD4 counts for normal volunteers and for patients Fig. In both HIV infected groups with HIV-RNA levels ?50 copies per milliliter and normal volunteers, CD4 T cell prolif- eration was higher than CD8 T cell proliferation P. The ...
http://researchgate.net/publication/23627280_Catalfamo_M._et_al._HIV_infection-associated_immune_activation_occurs_by_two_distinct_pathways_that_differentially_affect_CD4_and_CD8_T_cells._Proc._Natl._Acad._Sci._USA_105_19851-19856
*  Early Combination Anitretroviral Therapy of Vertical HIV Infection
In this report she presented data on viral kinetics and control of viral replication following the initiation of the first regimen to be examined which is AZT/3TC/nevirapine. The median baseline HIV RNA for this group was 5.9 log about 795,000 copies/ml and the range was from 4.81 log to 6.82 log 64,500 to 6.6 million copies/ml. Their baseline HIV RNA ranged from 4.75 log to 6.67 log about 56,000 to 4.67 million copies/ml with a median of 5.89 log 776,000 copies/ml. Overall in both cohorts, a minimum of a 2 log reduction in plasma HIV RNA was sustained for 12 weeks or longer in 11/16 69% of children; but, 6/9 in cohort 2 had sustained viral load 400 copies/ml at week 12 or longer while 2 had done so in cohort 1. Virological Responses in Cohort 1 A reduction in plasma HIV RNA of at least 2 log was observed early on for all children in this cohort of younger children ranging from 15 days to 3 months of age. In two other infants there was an early reduction of 2 log below baseline ...
http://natap.org/1998/5th_croi/early_combination.htm
*  Summary of FDA Peg-Intron Hearing
The FDA reported 28% with genotype1 and hi viral load receiving standard IFN+RBV had a sustained viral response SVR compared to 29% for those receiving Peg-Intron+RBV 800mg with genotype 1/hi viral load. Regarding patients with genotype 2-6 and high viral load the FDA reported responses: 74% who received standard IFN/RBV had SVR compared to 72% receiving Peg-Intron 1.5/RBV 800mg. Schering reported patients with genotype 2/3 & hi-viral load >2 million had 77% SVR with IntronA/Rebetol and 76% SVR with Pegintron 1.5 ug/kg/Rebetol 800mg. For those patients with lo viral load & genotype 1, PegIntron/RBV showed 72% SVR vs 44% using standard IFN/RBV. For patients with genotype 2-6 & lo viral load, 72% receiving standard IFN/RBV had SVR vs 81% using PegIntron/RBV. Schering reported that for genotype 2/3 and 2 million, 41% receiving Pegasys+RBV 1000-1200mg had an SVR vs 33% for patients receiving standard IFN+RBV 1000-1200. In ...
http://natap.org/2001/slideShows/day1.htm
*  Viral load scare?
Viral load scare. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. HIV Prevention and Testing. Am I Infected. Viral load scare. HIV Prevention and Testing Am I Infected. Stats Total Posts: 675712 Total Topics: 52423 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Welcome to Am I Infected. Welcome to the "Am I Infected?" POZ forum. Anyone who needs to post more than three messages in the "Am I Infected?" forum -- including past, present and future POZ Forums members -- will need to subscribe, with secure payments made via PayPal. " and " Am I Infected. NOTE: HIV testing questions will still need to be posted in the "Am I Infected?" forum; attempts to post HIV symptoms or testing questions in any other forums will be considered violations of our rules of membership and subject to time-outs and permanent bans. To learn how to upgrade your Forums account to participate beyond three posts in the "Am I Infected?" Forum, please click here. I called in for my ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=13766.msg171857
*  lab nubie
... Stats Total Posts: 675717 Total Topics: 52424 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. lab nubie on: December 27, 2006, 03:50:37 PM. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=40802.0 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=7216.msg82919
*  Newsfeed : Study: New Myriad Inc. HIV Drug Can Reduce Viral Load 50-fold in 2 Weeks
... A Smart + Strong Site. Join POZ:. POZ STORIES. POZ 100. NEWLY DIAGNOSED. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Symptoms Opportunistic Infections OIs Newly Diagnosed Disclosing Your HIV Status Living With HIV The Big Treatment Questions Side Effects and Other Health Problems POZ Focus / Fact Sheets Finding a Doctor Finding Support Health Services Directory. Newsfeed Treatment News POZ Exclusives Opinion Criminalization News Conference Coverage Global News World AIDS Day RSS Feeds. Blogs Forums Personals POZ Stories Ask POZ Calendar Polls Surveys Bookstore Job Listings Widgets & RSS Feeds. Who We Are Our Staff Advisory Board Advertise Awards Press Subscribe Get Our E-Newsletter Contact Us. Back to home » Newsfeed » September 2009. The HIV Life Cycle Shingles Herpes Simplex Virus Syphilis & Neurosyphilis Treatments for Opportunistic Infections OIs What is AIDS & HIV. Have news about HIV. September 15, 2009 Study: New Myriad Inc. HIV Drug Can Reduce Viral Load 50-fold in 2 Weeks. Myriad ...
http://poz.com/articles/myriad_hiv_viral_load_1_17254.shtml
*  Mitsuyasu Weighs in on Interleukin-2 - TheBody.com
... Treatment News Mitsuyasu Weighs in on Interleukin-2 By Dan Dunable July 2000 Ronald T. Mitsuyasu discussed the use of Interleukin-2 IL-2 in people living with HIV to help boost T-cells and possibly give their antiretroviral regimens increased effectiveness. Dan Dunable: Dr. Mitsuyasu, could you explain what Interleukin-2 is, and what its effect is on the immune system of someone living with HIV. Mitsuyasu, MD: IL-2 is a T-cell growth factor, produced by immune cells, which stimulates the growth and differentiation of T lymphocytes. In most patients with HIV who are on fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy, IL-2 can increase the number of CD4 cells and increase their function. The studies done with IL-2 have shown a gradual increase in the CD4 count measured just prior to each subsequent dose of IL-2. RM: These studies are clinical efficacy studies. Thus they are designed to see if IL-2 will improve the clinical outcome of patients who receive it. SILCAAT is targeted at patients with CD4 ...
http://thebody.com/content/art32396.html?ts=pf
*  Peel - Nails - Reviews, prices and offers for Peel
Description Masterfix Peel rivets Aluminium / Steel dome head The mandrel is constructed in such a way, that it cuts the end of the rivet body into four petals which clamp the material and spread the load over ... Description Masterfix Peel rivets Aluminium / Steel dome head The mandrel is constructed in such a way, that it cuts the end of the rivet body into four petals which clamp the material and spread the load over ... Description Masterfix Peel rivets Aluminium / Steel dome head The mandrel is constructed in such a way, that it cuts the end of the rivet body into four petals which clamp the material and spread the load over ... Description Masterfix Peel rivets Aluminium / Steel dome head The mandrel is constructed in such a way, that it cuts the end of the rivet body into four petals which clamp the material and spread the load over ... Description Masterfix Peel rivets Aluminium / Steel dome head The mandrel is constructed in such a way, that it cuts the end of the rivet ...
http://ciao.co.uk/sr/q-peel,tc-5297315
*  Question about viral load numbers?
Question about viral load numbers. Join POZ:. POZ 100. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Symptoms Opportunistic Infections OIs Newly Diagnosed Disclosing Your HIV Status Living With HIV The Big Treatment Questions Side Effects and Other Health Problems POZ Focus / Fact Sheets Finding a Doctor Finding Support Health Services Directory. Newsfeed Treatment News POZ Exclusives Opinion Criminalization News Conference Coverage Global News World AIDS Day RSS Feeds. COMMUNITY. POZ Community Forums. Main Forums. Someone I Care About Has HIV. Question about viral load numbers. Main Forums. I Just Tested Poz Living With HIV Vivir con el VIH Someone I Care About Has HIV Long-Term Survivors Positive Women AIDS Activism In Memoriam. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits Questions About Treatment Side Effects Insurance, Benefits Programs HIV Mental Health HIV Lipodystrophy Metabolic Problems Nutrition HIV Research News Studies. Stats Total Posts: 675754 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 186 Online Ever: 585 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=33424.0
*  How long to continue with Truvada - HepB Treatment (Please respond) - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Co
How long to continue with Truvada - HepB Treatment Please respond - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection -- TheBody.com. Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection. Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A How long to continue with Truvada - HepB Treatment Please respond Dec 8, 2010. I am chronic Hep B patient but my recent blood test now shows eAntigen = negative and eAntibody = positive, Viral load undetectable, ALT = 21, AST = 22, AFP = 3.4. I have been on Truvada for the past nine months. and I had eAntigen = positive and eAntibody = negative. It seems that all my sisters have HepB surface antigen positive but eAntigen negative/eAntibody positive, undetectable viral load, all three sisters are in 50s. Based on this, my doctor asked me to continue taking Truvada for additional 6 months and after 6 months if entigen is still negative and eAntibody is still positive then I may discontinue the treatment. My fear is that as soon as I ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Hepatitis/Q212322.html?ic=4003
*  Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician
All others: Purchase online access. Optimized Regimen Only Study 1 TORO 1 report on the use of enfuvirtide in patients who have HIV infection with elevated viral loads despite multi-drug treatment. This randomized, open-label trial enrolled 501 patients from various HIV treatment centers in North and South America who had viral loads of at least 5,000 copies of HIV-1 RNA per mL despite at least six months of treatment with drugs from three classes of antiretroviral medications i.e., nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors. After 24 weeks of injections, the best response to treatment HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 50 copies per mL occurred in 19.6 percent of patients assigned to the enfuvirtide group, compared with 7.3 percent of those receiving an optimized regimen alone. An intermediate response HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 400 copies per mL occurred in 31.7 percent ...
http://aafp.org/afp/2004/0101/p184.html
*  Treatment News : Reyataz/Isentress Combo Spares Norvir and Nukes, But Is Integrase Resistance a Conc
About 10 percent of patients in each study group six patients in the Reyataz/Isentress group and three patients in the standard treatment group withdrew from the study by week 24. In the strict intention-to-treat analysis, 74.6 percent of those in the Reyataz/Isentress group, compared with 63.3 percent of those in the standard treatment group, had undetectable viral loads below 50 copies through week 24 of the study. Failure to achieve or maintain a viral load below 50 copies by week 24 was documented in 11 Reyataz/Isentress patients 17 percent eight of whom had pre-treatment viral loads in excess of 250,000 copies and eight standard treatment patients 26 percent four of whom had pre-treatment viral loads in excess of 250,000 copies. Six patients 9.5 percent receiving Reyataz/Isentress had viral loads in excess of 400 copies at week 24, compared with one patient 3 percent in the standard treatment group. Four of the six patients 6.3 ...
http://poz.com/articles/hiv_reyataz_isentress_761_18812.shtml
*  What is the worst TV show on air?
What is the worst TV show on air. What is the worst TV show on air. October 04, 2015, 05:38:58 PM. Stats Total Posts: 675754 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 186 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: What is the worst TV show on air. What is the worst TV show on air. on: March 08, 2007, 09:57:19 PM. Which tv show would you like to have off air. Logged Infected: April 2005 12/6/06 - Diagnosed HIV positive 12/19/06 - CD4 = 240 22% VL = 26,300 1/4/07 - CD4 = 200 16% VL =. Logged Infected: April 2005 12/6/06 - Diagnosed HIV positive 12/19/06 - CD4 = 240 22% VL = 26,300 1/4/07 - CD4 = 200 16% VL =. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=10052.msg124315
*  What is the worst TV show on air?
What is the worst TV show on air. What is the worst TV show on air. October 04, 2015, 01:50:56 PM. Stats Total Posts: 675742 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 185 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: What is the worst TV show on air. What is the worst TV show on air. on: March 08, 2007, 09:57:19 PM. Which tv show would you like to have off air. Logged Infected: April 2005 12/6/06 - Diagnosed HIV positive 12/19/06 - CD4 = 240 22% VL = 26,300 1/4/07 - CD4 = 200 16% VL =. Logged Infected: April 2005 12/6/06 - Diagnosed HIV positive 12/19/06 - CD4 = 240 22% VL = 26,300 1/4/07 - CD4 = 200 16% VL =. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=10052.msg124436
*  Q: shouldn't there be a "Positive non-Gay Men Thread" now too?
Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Author Topic: Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. on: April 04, 2007, 09:10:34 PM. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=10959.msg136080
*  Q: shouldn't there be a "Positive non-Gay Men Thread" now too?
Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Author Topic: Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. on: April 04, 2007, 09:10:34 PM. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=10959.msg136096
*  Q: shouldn't there be a "Positive non-Gay Men Thread" now too?
Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Author Topic: Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. Q: shouldn't there be a Positive non-Gay Men Thread now too. on: April 04, 2007, 09:10:34 PM. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged Infected: April 2005 12/6/06 - Diagnosed HIV positive 12/19/06 - CD4 = 240 22% VL = 26,300 1/4/07 - CD4 = 200 16% VL =. Logged Infected: April 2005 12/6/06 - Diagnosed HIV positive 12/19/06 - CD4 = 240 22% VL = 26,300 1/4/07 - CD4 = 200 16% VL =. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=10959.msg136119
*  A Surprising Undetectable - Resource Center on Keeping Up With Your HIV Meds - TheBody.com
... Comments. A Surprising Undetectable By Joe Ohmer From TheBody.com. I didn't even really understand the significance of an undetectable viral load, because when those topics were being broached to me, I'd been diagnosed maybe six months earlier, I had suffered a stroke, and recovering as much as I could from being partially paralyzed as a result of that stroke was foremost in my head; I had no idea what the numbers meant. I had also been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B, and I had never gone on treatment for that, and I wasn't on therapy for my HIV yet. Eight months after I was diagnosed with HIV, my gastroenterologist that was taking care of my liver issues did some blood work, and my HIV viral load was undetectable without any medication. Except for one blip, my HIV viral load has been undetectable. My infectious disease doctor had always thought that my HIV was responding to the low dose given for my hepatitis -- which may be true that it's remained ...
http://thebody.com/content/71165/a-surprising-undetectable.html
*  should I be worried about aptivus? - Forum on Choosing Your Meds -- TheBody.com
should I be worried about aptivus. - Forum on Choosing Your Meds -- TheBody.com. Choosing Your Meds Choosing Your Meds. Ask the Experts > Forum on Choosing Your Meds > Q & A should I be worried about aptivus. I just read on this site about a black box warning that Aptivus can cause intracranial hemmorrage. In the case of tipranavir Aptivus, a small, but significant number of patients developed intracranial hemmorrhage ICH, bleeding in the brain while receiving the medication. To me, this means that patients with previous stroke, or significant risk of stroke or bleeding should use the medication with caution. In the end analysis, the choice of tipranavir, like other medications used in rescue or salvage therapy needs to balance the potential benefit of supressing HIV viral loads to undetectable levels with the risk of having side effects or complication. For patients who haven't achieved undetectable viral loads on tipranavir, the risk of ICH might be too high; by contrast, if ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Meds/Q177351.html?ic=4003
*  vitamin advice
... Stats Total Posts: 675717 Total Topics: 52424 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Posts: 5. vitamin advice on: March 01, 2012, 01:23:39 AM. and a viral load of over 200,000. I will make this observation, a VL of 200,000 that persists over a period of time is not a Good Thing. I will make this observation, a VL of 200,000 that persists over a period of time is not a Good Thing. Logged 10/2011-CD-4-598-Undetectable 01/2012-CD-4-758-Undetectable 04/2012-CD$-780-70 Viral Load 08-2012-CD4-846--20 viral load 02/2013-CD$ 865----20 Undetectable Viral Load 08/2013- CD4-898---- 20 undetectable viral load. Vitamins don t do jack shit to fight HIV: HAART = antivirals to fight HIV and live healthy... When its her time to take HAART and that may be now -- side effects are not the issue. Numbers consistent since 12/2010 - VL has remained undetectable and CD4 is anywhere from 275-325. The OP s girlfriend needs to ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=42214.msg542742
*  After 12 weeks of combo therapy (pegintron plus riboviran) my viral load is undetectable.
After 12 weeks of combo therapy pegintron plus riboviran my viral load is undetectable. Ask Our Hepatitis Experts Questions About-HCV. Back  . After 12 weeks of combo therapy pegintron plus riboviran my viral load is undetectable. Dear Dr. Chung,. I am co-infected with HCV/HIV. My hep c genotype is 1b. After 12 weeks of combo therapy pegintron plus riboviran my viral load is undetectable. Are there trial study results which show the percent of people with this genotype who have stayed in remission after completing 1 year of treatment versus those who relapse. Neil. Dr Chung Writes-. We dont' have enough data on Sustained response vs relapse in those coinfected pts receiving PEG + riba. if they behave like pts with HCV only, then we would expect about 80% chance of keeping the response sustained. I suspect the % will fall short of this in coinfection, but we await the results of the ongoing trials to know exactly how much. RC. Ask Our Experts. www.natap.org. ...
http://natap.org/askus/answers/021402_7.htm
*  My latest update - Forum on Strategies for Treatment-Experienced HIVers - TheBody.com
... Strategies for Treatment-Experienced HIVers Strategies for Treatment-Experienced HIVers. Ask the Experts > Forum on Strategies for Treatment-Experienced HIVers > Q & A. 11/21/05 CD4 288/18%, VL 43,299. Lab results since then: 2/13/06 CD4 521/27%, VL 539. 4/28/06 CD4 499/31%, VL 643. So the absolute CD4 went up since taking meds, but remains unchanged in latest set although the increase in CD4% is quite encouraging. What is discouraging me is the unchanged VL in the last set although a great initial response. Regardless, resistance testing suggested that you may have some early nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NRTI resistance but probably no significant protease inhibitor PI resistance. Previous treatment history immediately prior to and at the time of the resistance testing, along with other previous treatment history would be helpful to know. If viral load is not declining despite excellent adherence and you are unable to get resistance testing performed because the viral ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/TreatExp/Q174919.html?ic=4003
*  New Low-Cost Technologies Offer Practical Solutions for Developing World | HIV/AIDS News | AIDSinfo
Search HIV/AIDS Drugs. Health Topics Home HIV/AIDS-Related Guidelines. "Making progress against HIV infection and AIDS in these highly affected countries requires simpler, affordable treatment and prevention strategies that work in real-world settings." Low-Cost Technologies Prove Effective for Use in Developing Countries CDC researchers in Uganda, working in collaboration with the Ugandan Ministry of Public Health, found that the significantly cheaper CD4+ test and viral load monitoring technology performed effectively, comparable to standard tests in use today. Results from the test, known as reverse transcriptase viral load assay RT-VLA, were compared against those obtained using an RNA viral load test, the international standard test for monitoring viral load in HIV-infected patients.
https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/news/622/new-low-cost-technologies-offer-practical-solutions-for-developing-world
*  recently diagnosed--interpreting (the strange) test results...
recently diagnosed--interpreting the strange test results... recently diagnosed--interpreting the strange test results... Stats Total Posts: 675738 Total Topics: 52428 Online Today: 185 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: recently diagnosed--interpreting the strange test results... recently diagnosed--interpreting the strange test results... on: March 24, 2007, 07:02:21 AM. They were: 1st test: CD4: 300 20%, viral load: 2,100 2nd test: CD4: 695 33%, viral load: 300 3rd test: CD4: 770 30%, viral load: 400 The tests were each taken about three weeks apart, and I m not on any drug regimen and haven t done anything differently. I have a friend who had a similar pattern and is shaping up to be a long-term non progressor - he can just control it w/o drugs for the moment and has a very low VL and a very good CD4 count. Logged Diagnosed January 2006 26/1/06 - 860 22%, VL 500,000 24/4/06 - 820 24.6%, VL 158,000 13/7/06 - 840 22%, VL 268,000 1/11/06 - ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=10547.msg132727
*  lab tests of HVC - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
... Understanding Your Labs Understanding Your Labs. Ask the Experts > Forum on Understanding Your Labs > Q & A lab tests of HVC Aug 15, 2004. 3 month ago i have lab test of HVC positive,and my ALT was 206.then i tested for PCR QUAN and QUAL from lab, my PCR qual was Postive and viral load was 250000,and my genotype of HVC was tested from another lab and the result was NOT TYPEBLE, my doctor say that some time geno type is not typeabe, then i started treatment,after 5 week of treatment my ALT was 50, and the LAB from where my genotype was NOT typeble call me on phone and said to that they want my pcr quan and qual again and i was tested agian and the result was NOT DETECTED negative. and one thing more if HVC positive and pcr negative wht does mean. It looked like you had both a positive qualitative and quantitative HCV viral load test prior to treatment. The second test was done after a few weeks of therapy, so it is difficult to interpret as the treatment could have brought the ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Q158981.html
*  Statnamic load test
... Guidance on rapid load pile testing can be found in: Methods for Axial Compressive Force Pulse Rapid Testing of Deep Foundations. How it works Typical equipment See also References External links. Statnamic testing works by accelerating a mass upward that in turn imparts a load onto the foundation pile below the Statnamic device. The simplest form of Statnamic analysis used to obtain equivalent static pile response is known as the unloading point method UPM The UPM analysis method was conceived to be simple and based on measured results alone Middendorp et al., 1992. Typical equipment. In addition to these typical capacities, devices have been produced which can apply maximum loads ranging from 0.3 to 60MN. To achieve greater loads the major components of the device including the piston, silencer-weight hanger and reaction mass must be scaled up in size. As the device does not rely on gravity to apply loads as in static or drop weight testing it can be used ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statnamic_load_test
*  Question abou the virus - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
... Advertisement. Ask the Experts About. Understanding Your Labs Understanding Your Labs. Rollover images to visit our other forums. 0 Email. Glossary. Ask the Experts > Forum on Understanding Your Labs > Q & A Question abou the virus May 6, 2007. I recently tested pos and my viral load came back undetectable. However, i have been reading on this thing about people who testing positive and the results come back high, low, or in between. My questioin, is shoudlnt everyone's test be low or undetectable when they first get diagnosed and then the numbers increase from there. My friend told me something about your viral load shooting up or something. Have my viral load already shot up. I guess I am just confused about how the virus initally begins its attack Response from Dr. Holodniy. Although you recently tested positive, is this really acute infection within the last few weeks, or could you have been infected for months to years. Although it is much more likely ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Labs/Q184008.html
*  Well The Membership Continues to Climb!
Well The Membership Continues to Climb. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Living With HIV. Well The Membership Continues to Climb. Click here for Am I Infected. Author Topic: Well The Membership Continues to Climb. AustinWesley Member. Posts: 815. Well The Membership Continues to Climb. on: February 19, 2007, 11:49:37 PM. For all the whiners that said they were leaving the membership continues to grow. Logged Diag. 3/06 Infected aprx. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest labs drawn on 01/15/07 vl 1,100 cd4 119 7% Drawn 02/10/07 cd4=160 viral load= 131 percentage= 8% New labs 3/10/07 two months on sustiva truvada cd4 count 292 percentage 14 viral load undetectable. Logged diagnosed on 11/20/06 viral load 23,000 cd4 97 8% 01/04/07 six weeks after diagnosis vl 53,000 cd4 cd4 70 6% Began sustiva truvada 01/04/07 newest ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=9282.msg113381
*  PLOS Computational Biology: Autonomous Targeting of Infectious Superspreaders Using Engineered Trans
Other Article Types. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Article. Building on analyses of HIV field data from sub-Saharan Africa, we construct a multi-scale model, beginning at the single-cell level, to predict the effect of TIPs on individual patient viral loads and ultimately population-level disease prevalence. The intervention proposed here is based upon Therapeutic Interfering Particles TIPs that are engineered to replicate only in the presence of the wildtype pathogen and act to inhibit the growth of the pathogen. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002015 Editor: Rob J. Here, we propose a fundamentally different approach that obviates the need to directly identify high-risk populations by engineering a therapeutic version of interfering particles i.e. We develop a data-driven, three-scale model Figure 1 that translates molecular-level characteristics of the TIP to predict patient-level HIV ...
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002015
*  Hep C Question
... ask our hepatitis experts questions about hcv back nbsp if you don t clear the virus in the first weeks you probably won t have a sustained response dear dr chung i have been on peg combo treatment for weeks my viral load went from million to my dr was hoping for better i read that if u don t clear the virus in the first weeks you probably won t have a sustained response your opinion also i found a website that describes the profile for non responders over genotyoe had hvc over years high viral load liver scarring i fit the first and if u consider million high viral load i am stage i don t want stay on this tx if i don t fit the profile to respond your opinion dr chung writes probably true although the week rule was developed for pegasys combo not pegintron combo those criteria for nonresponders are not hard and fast if you are genotype and are having a bumpy time with therapy you may wish to consider stopping early and waiting for better and better tolerated ...
http://natap.org/askus/answers/041902_3.htm
*  Nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with severe acute malnutrition -
... UCL Discovery. UCL Discovery. UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery Enter your search terms. UCL Theses. About UCL Discovery. Nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with severe acute malnutrition. Nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with severe acute malnutrition. This study explores nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children during inpatient nutrition rehabilitation and 4 months of follow-up.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: Lilongwe district, Malawi.Main outcome measures: Weight gain, anthropometrics.Results: In our sample of 454 children with severe acute malnutrition SAM, 17.4% n = 79 of children were HIV infected. Among the HIV-infected children, 35.4% 28/79 died, compared with 10.4% 39/375 in HIV-uninfected children p 0.001. All children who survived achieved nutritional recovery 85% weight for height and no oedema, regardless of HIV status. HIV-infected children had similar weight ...
http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/125133/
*  Asymptomatic HIV infection Medical Information
... All Consumer Professional Pill ID Interactions News FDA Alerts Approvals Pipeline Clinical Trials Care Notes Encyclopedia Dictionary Natural Products. Asymptomatic HIV infection. Asymptomatic HIV infection Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. Causes of Asymptomatic HIV infection. Asymptomatic HIV infection is phase in which the immune system in someone with HIV slowly deteriorates, but the person has no symptoms. Asymptomatic HIV infection Symptoms. Asymptomatic HIV means a person does not have symptoms typically seen in people with HIV. A diagnosis of HIV infection is based on results from blood tests, including the HIV antibody test ELISA. Treatment of Asymptomatic HIV infection. When a person without symptoms of AIDs should receive therapy remains controversial. Those who do not have symptoms but who have CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 350 should receive anti-viral treatment. ...
http://drugs.com/enc/asymptomatic-hiv-infection.html
*  Bacteremia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children... : The Pediatric Infectious Diseas
... e Journal. Advertisement. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Subscribe. Search Jobs. Saved Searches. Recent Searches. You currently have no recent searches. Login. Register. Activate Subscription. eTOC. Help. All Issues Current Issue Issue Displayed. Advanced Search. Home Currently selected. Current Issue. Previous Issues. Published Ahead-of-Print. Collections. For Authors. Information for Authors. Language Editing Services. Journal Info. About the Journal. Editorial Board. Affiliated Societies. Advertising. Open Access. Subscription Services. Reprints. Rights and Permissions. Mobile. New Features. iPad App. Home. October 2011 - Volume 30 - Issue 10. Bacteremia in Human Immunodeficiency ...
http://journals.lww.com/pidj/Abstract/2011/10000/Bacteremia_in_Human_Immunodeficiency.23.aspx
*  SCHERING-PLOUGH PRESENTS CLINICAL DATA ON CCR5 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AT 9TH CONFERENCE ON RETROVIRUSES
... AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS. Conference Reports for NATAP. 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections   Seattle, Washington, February, 2002. Back  . SCHERING-PLOUGH PRESENTS CLINICAL DATA ON CCR5 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AT 9TH CONFERENCE ON RETROVIRUSES AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS. Following yesterday's oral presentation by a researcher from Schering Plough, Mark Laughlin, about their entry inhibitor for HIV, Schering issued this statement which I feel you'd like to read. Schering-Plough Research Institute today presented preliminary clinical data on its CCR5 receptor antagonist, a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of HIV infection, at the 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Seattle. In an oral presentation at the conference's opening session on new antiretroviral agents, Mark M. Laughlin, M.D., director, clinical pharmacology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, presented clinical results showing a direct antiviral effect in ...
http://natap.org/2002/9retro/day2.htm
*  Infectious Disease Clinics of North America Journal Impact Factor & Description - ResearchGate
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America Journal Impact Factor Description - ResearchGate. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America INFECT DIS CLIN N AM Publisher: WB Saunders Journal description Each issue of Infectious Disease Clinics reviews new diagnostic and management techniques for a single clinical problem--and makes them simple to apply. Infectious Disease Clinics website. Other titles Infectious disease clinics of North America, Infectious disease clinics. Auwaerter Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 06/2015; 29 2. DOI:10.1016/S0891-5520 15 00034-3. Clostridium difficile Infection. Wilcox Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 03/2015; 29 1. DOI:10.1016/S0891-5520 15 00009-4. ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection CDI is the most common cause of infectious health care-associated diarrhea and is a major burden to patients and the health care system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 03/2015; 29 1 :123-134. ...
http://researchgate.net/journal/0891-5520_Infectious_Disease_Clinics_of_North_America
*  JAMA | Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection2012 Recommendations of the International A
JAMA. Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection2012 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel. Sign in via Shibboleth. Create an Account. The JAMA Network. JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association. JAMA Surgery. You've earned it free CME tokens, redeemable for CME Credits, have been added to your personal account courtesy of The JAMA Network and. Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection : 2012 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel Melanie A. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.7961. • Sign in to your personal account • Institutional sign in: Athens. October 17, 2012 Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Adults Tom A. • Sign in to your personal account • Institutional sign in: Athens. Return to: Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection: 2012 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel. Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection: 2012 Recommendations of the ...
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1221704&atab=7
*  Highlights of the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections - TheBody.com
... Advertisement. 0 Email. Print-Friendly. Glossary. Editorial Highlights of the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections What Are the Newest Developments in the Treatment of HIV. How Will These Advances Affect You. An Advocate for People Living With HIV Provides a Full Report By Dawn Averitt From San Francisco General Hospital. April 1998 A note from TheBody.com: The field of medicine is constantly evolving. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information. The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, which attracts more than 3,000 experts on HIV disease from around the globe, has come to be regarded as the most important scientific meeting of the year for those involved in AIDS research. The particular strength of this annual meeting is that it brings together researchers who rarely venture outside their laboratories and office-based physicians who have never seen the ...
http://thebody.com/content/art12708.html?nxtprv
*  The influence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on chronic hepatitis C in injection drug u
... sers: A long-term retrospective cohort study. The influence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on chronic hepatitis C in injection drug users: A long-term retrospective cohort study. Eighty HIV-positive and 80 HIV-negative injection drug users included between 1980 and 1995 were matched according to age, gender, and duration of HCV infection and followed-up during 52 months. High serum HCV-RNA level was associated with low CD4-lymphocyte count P = .001. The progression to cirrhosis was accelerated in HIV-positive patients with low CD4 cell count RR = 4.06, P = .024 and in interferon-untreated patients RR = 4.76, P = .001, independently of age at HCV infection P = .001. In this retrospective cohort study, HIV coinfection worsened the outcome of chronic hepatitis C, increasing both serum HCV-RNA level and liver damage and decreasing sustained response to interferon therapy. 1 to compare the virologic and histologic characteristics of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-positive and HIV-negative injection ...
http://natap.org/2001/hepc/121001_1.htm
*  Abacavir and Myocardial Infarction Risk: Additional Data
... The question of whether abacavir increases the risk of myocardial infarction MI initially arose with a study from the D:A:D cohort last year, followed by conflicting analyses from other studies see previous HMQ reports Abacavir and Didanosine Associated with Increased Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Abacavir and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: The SMART Study. A case-control study from the French Hospital Database found that current or recent abacavir use was associated with MI risk odds ratio: 1.97, but only for subjects who had been on abacavir 1 year in patients on abacavir >1 year, or in those with past use of abacavir, there was no statistically significant increased risk of MI. In: Program and abstracts of the 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 8-11, 2009; Montreal. In: Program and abstracts of the 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 8-11, 2009; Montreal. In: Program and abstracts of the 16th Conference on Retroviruses and ...
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/insite?page=hmq-0905-06
*  Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in an Urban Population: Low Eligibili
... ty for Interferon Treatment. Articles. Back  . Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in an Urban Population: Low Eligibility for Interferon Treatment. One hundred eighty human immunodeficiency virus HIV and hepatitis C virus HCV coinfected patients were prospectively evaluated for suitability for interferon and ribavirin therapy. Of the 149 patients with chronic HCV infection who completed the evaluation, 44 30% were eligible for treatment and 105 70% were ineligible, with the main barriers being missed clinic visits, active psychiatric illness, active drug or alcohol use, decompensated liver disease, or medical illness.. These barriers persisted despite ongoing education regarding the seriousness of HCV disease and access to a designated psychiatrist and substance abuse programs ..... These data underscore the challenges that exist in treating HCV disease in an urban population of HCV- and HIV-coinfected patients. Of interest, 14% of the patients referred were HCV RNA ...
http://natap.org/2003/Jan/012403_2.htm
*  Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes (Implementing
Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes Implementing AIDS Prevention and Care Project - Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS - United States Agency for International Development, 1998, 41 p. Sustaining behavioural data collection over time. HOME HELP PREFERENCES. Search Titles Subjects Organizations. EXPAND TEXT. EXPAND CONTENTS. DETACH. NO HIGHLIGHTING. Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes Implementing AIDS Prevention and Care Project - Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS - United States Agency for International Development, 1998, 41 p. introduction... 1 Introduction. 2 Why track behaviour. 3 Linking behavioural data with HIV serosurveillance. 4 What is needed to understand and track behaviour. 5 Do people tell the truth about their sexual and drug-taking behaviour. 6 Recommended mix of data collection methods. 7 What next. 8 Sustaining behavioural data collection over time. Bibliography. Annex. 8 ...
http://nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0aedl--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-help---00-0-1-00-0--4----0-0-11-10-0utfZz-8-00&a=d&c=aedl&cl=CL3.30&d=HASHb0ab7655d451df28d95d51.9
*  Asymptomatic HIV Infection Symptoms & Treatment, NE - CHI Health, Omaha
... Asymptomatic HIV infection Definition Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. Causes Asymptomatic HIV infection is phase in which the immune system in someone with HIV slowly deteriorates, but the person has no symptoms. Symptoms Asymptomatic HIV means a person does not have symptoms typically seen in people with HIV. A diagnosis of HIV infection is based on results from blood tests, including the HIV antibody test ELISA. Possible Complications People with asymptomatic infection can progress to symptomatic HIV infection, develop opportunistic infections associated with HIV, and transmit HIV to other people. People at risk for HIV infection should have regular testing to ensure early diagnosis of this infection, as many treatment options are available. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, ...
http://chihealth.com/body.cfm?id=3218&action=detail&AEArticleID=000682&AEProductID=Adam2004_117&AEProjectTypeIDURL=APT_1
*  PLOS ONE: Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Worse Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected African Pat
... ients on Antiretroviral Therapy. Article-Level Metrics. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Worse Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected African Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy. Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Worse Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected African Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy Abraham M. Published: January 2, 2013 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053022. Article. This cohort study utilized data from a large HIV treatment program in western Kenya to describe the impact of active tuberculosis TB on clinical outcomes among African patients on antiretroviral therapy ART. 2013 Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Worse Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected African Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy. For purposes of this analysis, patients were categorized into 3 groups based on their ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0053022
*  Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)
Women's Interagency HIV Study WIHS. Library. E-mail. Contact Us. HIV Center for Women and Children. Patient Care and Services. AIDS Education and Training Center. HIV/ID Seminar Series. NYS International Training Research Program NYS-ITRP. HIV Track / Medicine Residency Program. HIV Track / PA Program. Counseling. Supportive Counseling Services. Patient Care. Medical Support for Adults. Medical Support for Adolescents. WIHS. Treatment of HIV/AIDS. Women Specific. Other Community Services. Birnbaum, MD, MPH. Howard Crystal, MD. DeHovitz, MD, MPH. Howard Minkoff, MD. Yusuff, MD, MPH. Seminar Series. Employment. NYS International Training Research Program NYS-ITRP. STAR Health Center. HIV Center for Women and Children. Women's Interagency HIV Study WIHS Women's Interagency HIV Study WIHS Funded by the National Institutes of Health for over 20 years, the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study WIHS is the largest and longest-running study to investigate the impact of HIV on women in the United States. Findings ...
http://downstate.edu/hiv/WIHS.html
*  hivandhepatitis.com - CROI 2013: Women's PrEP Trial Does Not Show HIV Risk Reduction [VIDEO] | HIV P
hivandhepatitis.com - CROI 2013: Women's PrEP Trial Does Not Show HIV Risk Reduction. HIV Prevention. hivandhepatitis.com. HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Topics HIV Prevention. HIV Disease Progression. HIV Testing Diagnosis. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Topics HBV Treatment. HBV Disease Progression. HBV Prevention. HBV Testing Diagnosis. HIV/Hepatitis Coinfection HIV/HBV Coinfection. HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Topics. HIV Prevention CROI 2013: Women's PrEP Trial Does Not Show HIV Risk Reduction. CROI 2013: Women's PrEP Trial Does Not Show HIV Risk Reduction Details Category: HIV Prevention. Long-awaited results from the VOICE trial of post-exposure prophylaxis PrEP for women in Africa, presented at the recent 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections CROI 2013 in Atlanta, was not able to show that daily oral tenofovir plus emtricitabine the drugs in Truvada could lower the risk of HIV acquisition. As previously described in a report by Gus Cairns, VOICE randomly assigned more than 5000 women in South Africa, Uganda, ...
http://hivandhepatitis.com/hiv-aids/hiv-aids-topics/hiv-prevention/4049-croi-2013-womens-prep-trial-does-show-hiv-risk-reduction-video
*  hivandhepatitis.com - Pegylated Interferon May Maintain HIV Suppression and Reduce Viral DNA Integra
... tion. hivandhepatitis.com. HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Topics HIV Prevention. HIV Disease Progression. HIV Testing Diagnosis. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Topics HBV Treatment. HBV Disease Progression. HBV Populations. HBV Prevention. HBV Testing Diagnosis. HIV/Hepatitis Coinfection HIV/HBV Coinfection. Search for a Cure Pegylated Interferon May Maintain HIV Suppression and Reduce Viral DNA Integration. Pegylated Interferon May Maintain HIV Suppression and Reduce Viral DNA Integration Details Category: Search for a Cure. Adding pegylated interferon alfa to antiretroviral therapy ART for HIV may help some people control viral replication when they interrupt treatment, according to a small study reported at this year's Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections CROI 2012 and published in the October 26, 2012, advance online edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Results At 12 weeks, 9 of 20 participants 45% who stayed on pegylated interferon monotherapy maintained ...
http://hivandhepatitis.com/hiv-treatment/hiv-cure/3859-pegylated-interferon-may-maintain-hiv-suppression-and-reduce-viral-dna-integratio
*  U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy Release Is Imminent - TheBody.com
u s national hiv aids strategy release is imminent thebody com print this page back to web version of article u s national hiv aids strategy release is imminent by olivia ford june finally the release of the u s s first ever national hiv aids strategy is almost upon us we re no longer talking months we re talking weeks said u s office of national aids policy director jeffrey crowley in a conference call with community members on june organizations across the u s are circling the wagons preparing to alert their constituencies about the strategy upon its release since back in the days when onap convened a dozen plus open meetings in different cities and communities across the u s in order to document what people had to say about what should be included in the nation s first national hiv aids strategy they ve attempted to keep the community abreast of what they re up to as far as developing the strategy updating their own blog and that of aids gov releasing a shiny report including photos on the results of the ...
http://thebody.com/content/art57089.html?ts=pf
*  The Role of Inflammation and Aging in HIV-Associated Cardiovascular Risk - Full Text View - Clinical
... Trials.gov. Find Studies Study Record Detail. The Role of Inflammation and Aging in HIV-Associated Cardiovascular Risk This study has been completed. Sponsor: University of California, San Francisco Collaborator: GlaxoSmithKline Information provided by Responsible Party : University of California, San Francisco. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01333644 First received: March 1, 2011 Last updated: May 29, 2015 Last verified: May 2015 History of Changes. Just as these changes are thought be causally associated with heart disease in the very old,the investigators postulate that these changes will be associated with early heart disease in the untreated and perhaps treated HIV disease. HIV Infection Cardiovascular Disease Inflammation. Official Title: The Role of Inflammation and Aging in HIV-Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Further study details as provided by University of California, San Francisco:. HIV-Infection Treated HIV-infected individuals with an undetectable HIV RNA level 75 copies RNA/mL, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01333644?term=" February 16, 2011":" March 18, 2011"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=5
*  POZ Exclusives
A Smart + Strong Site. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Back to home » POZ Exclusives March 31, 2010. March 25, 2010. March 16, 2010. March 10, 2010. March 09, 2010. HIV and the Brain: Part 2 At the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections CROI in San Francisco David Evans speaks with Scott Letendre, MD, from the University of California in San Diego, about the relationship of HIV levels in the brain versus the blood, and what that might mean for treating HIV. New Treatments for HIV: Part 1 At the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections CROI in San Francisco Tim Horn speaks with David Hardy, MD, from Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, about new HIV treatments including the drug blood level-booster, cobicistat, and the new integrase inhibitor, elvitegravir. New Treatments for HIV: Part 2 At the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections CROI in San Francisco Tim Horn speaks with David Hardy, MD, from Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los ...
http://poz.com/archive/March_2010_401.shtml
*  .. Roundup: HIV Infection Rate Among Young Blacks “Alarming”, Abortion Returns
infection rate. · · · · ·. Abortion. Roundup: HIV Infection Rate Among Young Blacks “Alarming”, Abortion Returns to Spotlight. by Brady Swenson, RH Reality Check. September 12, 2008 - 10:00 am. CDC calls HIV infection rate for young black men “alarming”; Abortion has returned to the glaring spotlight of the 2008 election; Judge rejects abortion related anti-Obama group’s request for FEC injunction. · · · · ·. McCain, Obama Respond to New Numbers on HIV Infection Rate. by Julie Davids, CHAMP. August 5, 2008 - 7:00 am. In response to new numbers suggesting that the HIV infection rate in the U.S. is 40% higher than previously reported, Barack Obama called for a national HIV plan while John McCain failed to call for a national, coordinated strategy. · · · · ·.
http://rhrealitycheck.org/tag/infection-rate/
*  42 U.S. Code § 300ff–87a - National HIV/AIDS testing goal | LII / Legal Information Institute
Code § 300ff–87a - National HIV/AIDS testing goal. Code § 300ff–87a - National HIV/AIDS testing goal. a In general Not later than January 1, 2010, the Secretary shall establish a national HIV/AIDS testing goal of 5,000,000 tests for HIV/AIDS annually through federally-supported HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care programs, including programs under this subchapter and other programs administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2 the total number of individuals tested through federally-supported and other HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care programs in each State;. B through federally-supported and other HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care programs, were diagnosed and referred into treatment and care during such period;. 5 the amount of funding the Secretary determines necessary to meet the annual testing goal in the following 12 months and the amount of Federal funding expended to meet the testing goal in the prior 12-month period; and. c Review of program effectiveness Not ...
https://law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/42/300ff-87a?quicktabs_8=0
*  Role of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Management of Pediatric HIV Infection | Pediatric ARV Guideli
Role of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Management of Pediatric HIV Infection. Search HIV/AIDS Drugs. Role of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Management of Pediatric HIV Infection. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents. Role of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Management of Pediatric HIV Infection. Please send your comments with the subject line Comments on Pediatric ARV Guidelines to ContactUs@aidsinfo.nih.gov by March 20, 2015. Evaluation of plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs is not required in the management of most pediatric patients with HIV, but should be considered in children on combination antiretroviral therapy in the following scenarios BII : Use of antiretroviral drugs with limited pharmacokinetic data and therapeutic experience in children e.g., for use of efavirenz in children aged 3 years and darunavir with once-daily dosing in children aged 12 years ; Significant drug-drug interactions and food-drug interactions; ...
https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/2/pediatric-arv-guidelines/108/role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-management-of-treatment-failure
*  Opinion : Implementing the National HIV/AIDS Strategy Across the United States - by Grant Colfax
... A Smart + Strong Site. POZ STORIES. POZ 100. NEWLY DIAGNOSED. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Newsfeed Treatment News POZ Exclusives Opinion Criminalization News Conference Coverage Global News World AIDS Day RSS Feeds. March 29, 2013 Implementing the National HIV/AIDS Strategy Across the United States. by Grant Colfax. Successful implementation of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy the Strategy requires ongoing collaboration among federal, state, and local governments and key non-governmental stakeholders. As part of our ongoing efforts to support Strategy implementation, ONAP is convening community discussions across the United States. moving people from an HIV diagnosis to care, treatment, and viral suppression The importance of the Affordable Care Act implementation for HIV care and prevention. At each meeting, state and local public health officials, representatives from community-based organizations, advocates, and other key stakeholders convene. ONAP and other federal partners provide ...
http://poz.com/articles/grant_colfax_2676_23732.shtml?commentson=no
*  Antiretroviral Drugs May Halt HIV Spread in Heterosexuals --Doctors Lounge
... Search Symptoms. Medical Reference. Drugs. Back to Journal Articles Antiretroviral Drugs May Halt HIV Spread in Heterosexuals. Studies find that daily use may prevent HIV acquisition in unaffected heterosexuals. A daily oral dose of antiretroviral drugs used for the treatment of HIV infection may reduce HIV acquisition among uninfected individuals exposed to the virus through heterosexual sex, according to the results of a new U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study, the TDF2 study, along with the results of a separate trial Partners Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study. WEDNESDAY, July 13 HealthDay News -- A daily oral dose of antiretroviral drugs used for the treatment of HIV infection may reduce HIV acquisition among uninfected individuals exposed to the virus through heterosexual sex, according to the results of a new U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study, the TDF2 study, along with the results of a separate trial Partners Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study. ...
http://doctorslounge.com/index.php/news/pb/21595
*  DermIS - HIV-Infection (information on the diagnosis)
dermis hiv infection information on the diagnosis doia pedoia information modules organisations user input info related doia same page in doia differential diagnoses infectious mononucleosis secondary lues chronic recurrent aphthae drug eruption related links search www google com for hiv infection search string by alphabet a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z by localization hiv infection definition includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity through aids related complex arc to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids synonyms hiv infection umls hiv disease human immunodeficiency virus disease unspecified hiv disease unspecified human immunodeficiency virus disease hiv human immunodeficiency virus infection hiv disease hiv infection hiv infections htlv ...
http://dermis.net/dermisroot/en/11088/diagnosep.htm
*  UAB - SOM - Women's Interagency HIV Study. - Home
UAB - SOM - Women's Interagency HIV Study. Home About WIHS Participant Information Investigator Resources Getting to WIHS Contact Us. Enroll Today We are currently looking for 100 culturally and ethnically diversity women from Alabama and Mississippi who have HIV or at risk for HIV. If you choose to enroll in this study, you will be asked to provide data through:. Whether you are HIV positive or negative, the data you will provide will help increase scientific knowledge of HIV and its effect on the women's body. As an HIV negative participant, you data will be used to compare with the scientific finds gained from our HIV positive participants. Also you involvement in this study will provide you will knowledge of how HIV affects your own body through acquiring knowledge of you internal, gynecological and physical health. That's why every WIHS participant is so important. About WIHS The Women's Interagency HIV Study, WIHS, began in 1993 to investigate the impact of HIV infection on women in the United States. ...
http://assistive.usablenet.com/tt/uab.edu/medicine/wihs/
*  Is Itchy Skin A Sign Of Acute HIV Infection - The Body
. Is Itchy Skin A Sign Of Acute HIV Infection - The Body. Skip to main content. Skip page links. TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. Ask The Experts. Search. Search. Follow Us. Facebook. Twitter. Newsletters. Search. Search. THEBODY.COM. What's New Newsletters Android/iPhone App My Health Tracker Personal Reminder Service HIV Care Professionals The Body en Espanol ASOFinder.com. Ask The Experts. TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. Treatment. HIV Medications. Hepatitis C Coinfection. GI Issues. Other Side Effects Coinfections. Drug Resistance. Switching Stopping Treatment. Pediatric HIV Treatment. Prevention. HIV/AID Basics. HIV Prevention. HIV Testing. Safer Sex. Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Myths About HIV/AIDS. History of the AIDS Epidemic. Immune System Basics. Helping Friends With HIV/AIDS. Living With HIV. Getting Good Care. Healthy Living With HIV. Arts, Media HIV/AIDS. Diet, Nutrition HIV/AIDS. HIV Stigma. Relationships, Sexuality HIV/AIDS. Vitamins, Minerals Supplements. HIV and Financial Issues. HIV and Legal Issues. ...
http://thebody.com/h/is-itchy-skin-a-sign-of-acute-HIV-infection.html
*  Infectious Disease Clinic | Stanford Health Care
Infectious Disease Clinic. Stanford Health Care. For Health Care Professionals. Stanford Health Care SHC formerly Stanford Hospital & Clinics. Infectious Disease Clinic. Infectious Disease Clinic. Our team of infectious disease doctors have specialized expertise in many areas, including: General infectious diseases Infections related to immunodeficiency Travel medicine and tropical diseases HIV and sexually transmitted diseases Bone and joint infections Infections associated with cystic fibrosis. Montoya, Infectious disease doctor, Infectious disease doctor. Care and Treatment of Infectious Diseases. Stanford Health Care's infectious diseases clinics provide state-to-the-art diagnosis and treatment for patients with various kinds of infections. We have over 10 clinic doctors with highly specialized expertise at the following Bay Area clinics: General Infectious Diseases Clinic Treats infections of different etiologies and of different organ systems, from bacterial pneumonia, Clostridium difficile colitis C. ...
https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-clinics/infectious-disease-clinic.html

Statnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Natural transfer: The natural transfer (hypothesis or theory), in reference to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, states that humans first received HIV by contact with primates, presumably from a fight with a Chimpanzee during hunting or consumption of primate meat, and became contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the 'Hunter Theory', the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Resistance mutation: A resistance mutation is a point mutations in virus genes that allow the virus to become resistant to treatment with a particular antiviral drug. The term was first used in the management of HIV, the first virus in which genome sequencing was routinely used to look for drug resistance.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.BDNA test: Branched DNA testing or bDNA testing is a test created by the Chiron company to measure the viral load of HIV in a sample of blood. A phosphorescent chemical that is known to bind to HIV RNA is added to the suspect DNA.Genetic load: Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of the theoretically optimal genotype and the fitness of the observed average genotype in a population. This means that populations with a low genetic load will tend to be healthier, have fitness that is less dispersed, and have offspring that are more likely to survive to reproduction.Canine hepacivirus: Canine hepacivirus is a single strand RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus.Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Gerold G, Qaisar N, Jain K, Henriquez JA, Firth C, Hirschberg DL, Rice CM, Shields S, Lipkin WI (2011) Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus.Thermal cyclerHIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Bioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.Cytomegalic inclusion body disease: Cytomegalic inclusion body disease (CIBD) is a series of signs and symptoms caused by cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis or other rare infections such as herpes or rubella viruses. It can produce massive calcification of the central nervous system, and often the kidneys.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingList of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Hepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.NitazoxanideLymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a medical term referring to a histological variant of malignant tumor arising from the uncontrolled mitosis of transformed cells originating in epithelial tissue (or in cells that display epithelial characteristics) that bear microscopic resemblance to lymphoepithelioma (nasopharyngeal carcinoma).Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.RegavirumabDiscovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus: Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) is a type of human polyomavirus. It is associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disease only seen in immunocompromised patients.RibavirinMakerere University School of MedicineElvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovirClinical virology: Clinical or medical virology is a branch of medicine (more particularly of clinical pathology) which consists in isolating and/or in characterising one or several viruses responsible for some human pathologies by various direct or indirect techniques (cellular Cultures, serologies, biochemistry, molecular biology). It also consists in proving the absence of resistance of viruses in treatment antiviral by viral genome sequencing to adapt antiviral therapeutics at best.NevirapineHIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.RitonavirLamivudineEfavirenzDesiccation tolerance: Desiccation tolerance refers to the ability of an organism to withstand or endure extreme dryness, or drought-like conditions. Plants and animals living in arid or periodically arid environments such as temporary streams or ponds may face the challenge of desiccation, therefore physiological or behavioral adaptations to withstand these periods are necessary to ensure survival.Dried blood spot: Dried blood spot testing (DBS) is a form of biosampling where blood samples are blotted and dried on filter paper. The dried samples can easily be shipped to an analytical laboratory and analysed using various methods such as DNA amplification or HPLC.Host tropism: Host tropism is the name given to a process of tropism that determines which cells can become infected by a given pathogen. Various factors determine the ability of a pathogen to infect a particular cell.Lopinavir/ritonavirAlanine transaminase: Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).Squamous intraepithelial lesion: A squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is an abnormal growth of epithelial cells on the surface of the cervix, commonly called squamous cells. This condition can lead to cervical cancer, but can be diagnosed using a Pap smear or a colposcopy.Cervical screening: Cervical screening is the process of detecting abnormal changes in the cervix before they can develop into cervical cancer. If the abnormal tissue or cells can be removed, then the disease can be prevented from developing.GeneXpert MTB/RIFHepatitis B immune globulinZimbabweans in Botswana

(1/7028) Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions.

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

(2/7028) Rapid death of adoptively transferred T cells in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) probably play the major role in controlling HIV replication. However, the value of adoptive transfer of HIV-specific CTL expanded in vitro to HIV+ patients has been limited: this contrasts with the success of CTL therapy in treating or preventing Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus disease after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We investigated the fate of expanded HIV-specific CTL clones in vivo following adoptive transfer to a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two autologous CTL clones specific for HIV Gag and Pol were expanded to large numbers (>10(9)) in vitro and infused into an HIV-infected patient whose viral load was rising despite antiretroviral therapy. The fate of one clone was monitored by staining peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with T-cell receptor-specific tetrameric major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes. Although the CTL transfer was well tolerated, there were no significant changes in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts and virus load. By tracking an infused clone using soluble MHC-peptide complexes, we show that cells bearing the Gag-specific T-cell receptors were rapidly eliminated within hours of infusion through apoptosis. Thus, the failure of adoptively transferred HIV-specific CTL to reduce virus load in AIDS may be due to rapid apoptosis of the infused cells, triggered by a number of potential mechanisms. Further trials of adoptive transfer of CTL should take into account the susceptibility of infused cells to in vivo apoptosis.  (+info)

(3/7028) Protection against influenza virus infection of mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064.

Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections.  (+info)

(4/7028) Qualitative and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction testing for cytomegalovirus DNA in serum allows prediction of CMV related disease in liver transplant recipients.

AIM: To identify cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in liver transplant recipients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and to separate the cases in which CMV related disease will occur, for whom treatment is indicated, from those in whom infection will remain innocuous. METHODS: The combination of qualitative and semiquantitative PCR of serum and urine was assessed to determine whether these assays can identify those at risk of CMV related disease and compared their performance with conventional approaches to diagnosis. RESULTS: Qualitative PCR of serum had superior specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared with urine DEAFF (detection of early antigen fluorescent foci) and PCR of urine. All episodes of CMV related disease were associated with the presence of CMV DNA by PCR in serum or urine; CMV was detected before clinical onset in 70% and 60% of cases, respectively. The period over which CMV DNA could be detected was not correlated with CMV related disease. Both peak viral load and cumulative viral load estimated using a semiquantitative PCR method on serum samples positive by the qualitative method could be used to distinguish asymptomatic infection from CMV related disease with 100% specificity and sensitivity. In contrast semiquantitative PCR of urine was of little value. CONCLUSIONS: An approach based on PCR testing with a combination of qualitative and subsequently semiquantitative serum samples would improve the diagnosis of CMV infection and aid identification of those patients at risk of CMV related disease, allowing treatment to be targeted specifically.  (+info)

(5/7028) Viral burden and disease progression in rhesus monkeys infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses.

To determine the role of viral burden in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced disease, cellular provirus and plasma viral RNA levels were measured after inoculation of rhesus monkeys with four different SHIVs. These SHIVs included SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6, constructed with env, tat, rev, and vpu derived from either cell line-passaged or primary patient isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; the viral quasispecies SHIV-89.6P derived after in vivo passage of SHIV-89.6; and a molecular clone, SHIV-KB9, derived from SHIV-89.6P. SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6 are nonpathogenic in rhesus monkeys; SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9 cause rapid CD4(+) T cell depletion and an immunodeficiency syndrome. Relative SHIV provirus levels were highest during primary infection in monkeys infected with SHIV-89.6P, the virus that caused the most rapid and dramatic CD4(+) T cell depletion. However, by 10 weeks postinoculation, provirus levels were similar in monkeys infected with the pathogenic and nonpathogenic chimeric viruses. The virus infections that resulted in the highest peak and chronic viral RNA levels were the pathogenic viruses SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9. SHIV-89. 6P uniformly caused rapid and profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and immunodeficiency. Infection with the SHIV-KB9 resulted in very low CD4(+) T cell counts without seroconversion in some monkeys and a substantial but less profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and rapid seroconversion in others. Surprisingly, the level of plasma viremia did not differ between SHIV-KB9-infected animals exhibiting these contrasting outcomes, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in AIDS virus pathogenesis.  (+info)

(6/7028) Detection of human retrovirus 5 in patients with arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether human retrovirus 5 (HRV-5) infection is associated with autoimmune rheumatic disease. METHODS: DNA from patients with various disorders including inflammatory diseases and from normal subjects was tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HRV-5 proviral DNA. Positive results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: HRV-5 proviral DNA was detected in 53% of synovial samples from arthritic joints, in 12% of blood samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in 16% of blood samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, it was not detectable by PCR of affected tissues from patients with several other autoimmune diseases and was found in only 1 of >200 tissue specimens obtained at autopsy from non-RA patients. Sequence analysis of the amplified viral segment showed genetic variation between samples with maintenance of the open reading frame, typical of a replicating infectious retrovirus. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the frequent detection of HRV-5 in any disease. We propose that the possible involvement of HRV-5 in autoimmune and rheumatic disease should be investigated further.  (+info)

(7/7028) Vaccination with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, based on autologous infected cells, elicits enhancement of homologous challenge infection.

Cats were vaccinated with fixed autologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cells in order to present viral proteins to the immune system of individual cats in an MHC-matched fashion. Upon vaccination, a humoral response against Gag was induced. Furthermore, virus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in a Crandell feline kidney cell-based neutralization assay, but not in a neutralization assay based on primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Despite the induction of these FIV-specific responses, vaccinated cats were not protected. Instead, accelerated virus replication was found, an observation similar to what previous experiments using other vaccine candidates have shown. Here, the results of the present study are discussed in the light of enhancement of lentivirus infections as a complicating factor in lentivirus vaccine development.  (+info)

(8/7028) Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251.

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)


infection


  • Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. (mdpi.com)
  • Mounting evidence in models of both autoimmunity and chronic viral infection suggests that the outcome of T cell activation is critically impacted by the constellation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors expressed on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Introduction Acute HIV infection (AHI) is associated with high HIV viral load and therefore an important factor in onward transmission. (bmj.com)
  • Five cases were reclassified as non-recent based on low CD4 count (n = 2) and viral load (n = 2) and history of HIV infection (n = 1) and thus, 78/251 (31%) infections were determined as recent on RITA. (bmj.com)


antiretroviral


  • 6 Growth monitoring identifies HIV-infected children eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is useful to assess response to therapy, 1 , 7 and it is particularly important in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa with limited access to CD4 count and viral load monitoring to assess treatment failure. (aappublications.org)
  • Loss of antiretroviral drug susceptibility at low viral load during early virological failure in treatment-experienced patients. (stanford.edu)


HAART


  • 1 Adherence is a major factor determining the degree of viral suppression that is achieved in response to HAART and the emergence of resistant mutations. (lww.com)
  • Genotypic impact of prolonged detectable HIV type 1 RNA viral load after HAART failure in a CRF01_AE-infected cohort. (stanford.edu)


Monitoring


  • Ultimately, the team is aiming for large-scale manufacture of their viral-load-monitoring devices "so that we can get them out into the world and start helping real people," said Hutchison. (ucsd.edu)
  • The key to long-term HIV treatment monitoring is determining the viral load at regular intervals. (ucsd.edu)
  • In low-resource settings around the world, however, the equipment and funds necessary for regular monitoring of HIV load are often not available. (ucsd.edu)


duration


  • Oral acyclovir (Zovirax), valacyclovir (Valtrex), and famciclovir (Famvir) are effective treatments for initial or recurrent episodes of HSV by decreasing symptom duration and viral shedding. (aafp.org)


Plasma


  • There was no correlation between plasma viral load and neuronal populations in any of the CA fields. (mdpi.com)


treatment


  • Patients in the United States with access to standard HIV therapy have their viral load tested every three to six months to make sure their treatment is still effective," explained Yajur Maker, one of the technical leads for Worldcare Technologies. (ucsd.edu)


count


  • Data on viral load, CD4 count and previous HIV testing were incorporated in the RITA algorithm to minimise false recent infections. (bmj.com)


test


  • Viral load test equipment currently costs around $80,000, and $25 or more per test. (ucsd.edu)


therapy


  • If a therapy is working as it should, the viral load remains low. (ucsd.edu)
  • Mathematical modeling using HCV viral kinetics during therapy with IFN-α has suggested that the major anti-HCV mechanism of action of IFN is blocking production or release of new virions [13] . (lww.com)


star


  • Actress Valerie Bertinelli has been the target of nasty new headlines after pics of the "Hot in Cleveland" star looking heavier went viral. (extratv.com)


virus


  • If the virus has become resistant, however, the viral load in a person's bloodstream goes up. (ucsd.edu)


page


  • Danny, 30, posted the viral video to his Facebook page and has been viewed 87,000 times in under 24 hours. (dailyrecord.co.uk)


What would your viral load level be during seroconversion?


  • I know antibody tests are not conclusive until 3 months (12/13 weeks) but what if two weeks after exposure, you start to get a fever and you take an RNA PCR test that tests for actual viral matter in your blood? would your viral load be detectable at the time that hiv symptoms (ARS) arrive?
  • A PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction test) can detect the genetic material of HIV rather than the antibodies to the virus, and so can identify HIV in the blood within two or three weeks of infection


Does having a low HIV viral load actually prevent some transmission?


  • I have heard that if someone has a low viral HIV load that they are less likely to spread the virus to their partner. Is this true?
  • That's true. I'm HIV+ and my husband is negative. We had unprotected sex a good 20-30 times in order for me to become pregnant and he wasn't infected. At this time my viral load was undetectable and my CD4 count was up around the 700 mark which is very good. There's also a lesser transmission from female/male than male/female which also helps. I definitely would suggest having unprotected sex even if your viral load is undetectable because there is still that risk. Take care. xo


if my viral load is undetectable cant i stop interferon therapy?


  • my platelets are down to 104 but the viral load is gone. i feel like crap so cant i just stop the treatments? i have been taking the drugs for a little over 9 weeks now.
  • Nine weeks is not long enough to keep your viral load undetectable. If you stop now, all you've done so far will be for nothing. What does your doctor recommend for the platelets? While there are some people that don't experience side effects, most people experience some. Feeling crappy is typical for this treatment. You have to know this going into treatment and keep a positive attitude so you can stay on treatment and let the meds do their work. Treatment is temporary; then you'll have the rest of your life and hopefully it will be virus free. Drink lots of water; that will help the side effects. Talk to your doctor about what medication might help your side effects. Hang in there; it can be well worth it. I've been cleared of HCV for almost 8 years now. Best wishes to you.


can i trans mite hiv to someone when my viral load in undetectable?


  • lets just say that the man had no scratches sores or anything and we used a condom and it broke! my viral load is undetectable and my cd4 count is 637. im in good health. no colds or anything and so is he. i need a % of his chances.
  • I can't give you a percentage, but I can tell you that it is more difficult for a woman to transmit HIV to a man than vice versa, and your low viral load may also make transmission of the virus more difficult. That said, there IS still risk of transmission, so he should be tested. More than 98% of people who are infected will test positive within 3 months, but in very rare cases, it could take up to 6 months for someone to test positive.


am I in good health with a cd-4 count of 308 and a viral load that is undetecable?


  • I have hiv/aids and was last dianosed with a cd-4 count of 308 and a viral load that was undetecable .am I in good health?
  • Well a CD4 count of 308 is somewhat concerning because it doesn't lie far from the definition of AIDS which is a consistent CD4 under 200.. a normal CD4 is 600+. You don't state how long it has been at that level, but once cell mediated immunity is lost, survival becomes less hopeful. I would speak to your doctor and ask them what they think about your CD4 level. Now it is great that you are undetectable, but that will be of little importance if you get a major infection and your body doesn't have the t-cells to fight it.


how do you determine a viral load, if the lab report is given in IU instead of mL?


  • i have HCV, there was a viral load done,,,but know one seems to be able to tell me the actual load , say ( 5 million viruses per mL and that is what I'm use to.) Only that it is very high. Not much of answer....as it covers a lot of ground,. Any help ?
  • I'm not real sure. I think it is 1 IU is = to 5.6 ML copies


a person has a job offer in kuwait and Saudie but has HCV . And not deceted negative on the viral load test?


  • my question is if that person has not deceted negative on the VIRAL load test whould that at least help ? and what can a person do to increse the chances . I know they test , BUT would that help it should , Are there any cases , any history , anything .
  • The person should first go to a medical gastroenterologist and get his treatment started then he should think about middle east. I do not know how much weightage they give on HCV positivity but I am sure that the person should start taking treatment.


If my HIV viral load is undetectable, would that mean I show up negative on a blood test?


  • I know it means I still have the virus, and that I can transmit it (just 40 or less copies a cubic milliliter). But I wasn't sure if that means that the HIV antibodies will not show up as being present... therefore, it would look that i was negative?
  • You'll test positive for antibodies Here is pic of HIV markers' timeline http://www.metapathogen.com/HIV-1/HIV-testing.html Here is pic of HIV markers' timeline w and w/o treatment http://www.metapathogen.com/HIV-1/HIV-1-disease-progression.html