Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Tuberculosis, Urogenital: A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tuberculosis, Splenic: Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Tuberculosis, Hepatic: Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Tuberculosis, Laryngeal: Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.Tuberculosis, Renal: Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Tuberculosis, Oral: Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Tuberculosis, Male Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Mycolic AcidsHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peritonitis, Tuberculous: A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interferon-gamma Release Tests: The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.IndiaMolecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Aminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Tuberculoma: A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tuberculosis, Cardiovascular: Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Mycobacterium marinum: A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.PeruDiarylquinolines: A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Tuberculosis, Avian: A variety of TUBERCULOSIS affecting various birds, including chickens and ducks. It is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM and characterized by tubercles consisting principally of epithelioid cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mice, Inbred C57BLRussiaCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.BrazilRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Georgia (Republic)Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Aza CompoundsMicroscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Inbred BALB CSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Thioacetazone: A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pericarditis, Tuberculous: INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mycobacterium kansasii: A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Granuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.VietnamHypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.AmidohydrolasesCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.QuinolinesFluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Benzophenoneidum: An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.AfricaRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)

*  Tuberculosis | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable ... Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, ... Tuberculosis mostly affects adults in their most productive years. However, all age groups are at risk. Over 95% of cases and ... Tuberculosis is particularly difficult to diagnose in children and as yet only the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is generally
http://afro.who.int/health-topics/tuberculosis
*  Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody (ab905) References
Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody (ab905) has been cited in 4 publications. Find out more about the references ... Rahman A et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis subverts the TLR-2-MyD88 pathway to facilitate its translocation into the cytosol. ... Mehra S et al. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis stress response factor SigH is required for bacterial burden as well as ...
http://abcam.com/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antibody-ab905-references.html
*  Rabbit Anti-MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from...
ANTI MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product ... Rabbit Anti-MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from AbD Serotec, ... ANTI MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Info. AbD Serotec. UK & Ireland MorphoSys UK Ltd Endeavour House Langford Business Park ...
http://bio-medicine.org/biology-products/Rabbit-Anti-MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS-Polyclonal-Antibody--Unconjugated-from-AbD-Serotec-4353-1/
*  Tuberculosis Treatment & Control Clinic - Southern Nevada Health District
The Tuberculosis Treatment & Control Clinic is located at: 280 S. Decatur Blvd. Las Vegas, NV 89107. Monday - Friday 8 a.m. - 4 ... Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most deadly diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization, in 2005 TB ...
http://southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/tb/index.php
*  Tuberculosis Program Policy Statement - Southern Nevada Health District
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. While this bacteria usually attacks the lungs, TB ... in accordance with guidelines set forth in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis: ...
http://southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/tb/policy-statement.php
*  Overview of airway involvement in tuberculosis - Arora - 2013 - Journal of...
Tuberculosis of the central airways: CT findings of active and fibrotic disease. AJR 1997; 169: 649-653.. *CrossRef, ... Tuberculosis of the trachea and main bronchi: CT findings in 17 patients. AJR 1997; 168: 1051-1056.. *CrossRef, ... Pulmonary tuberculosis: up-to-date imaging and management. AJR 2008; 191: 834-844.. *CrossRef, ... Pulmonary tuberculosis: CT findings, early active disease and sequential change with anti-tuberculous therapy. Radiology 1993; ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1754-9485.12017/references
*  Latent Tuberculosis Screening Using Interferon-Gamma Release... : JAIDS Journal...
Latent Tuberculosis Screening Using Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in an Australian HIV-Infected Cohort: Is Routine Testing ... Latent Tuberculosis Screening Using Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in an Australian HIV-Infected Cohort: Is Routine Testing ... Home , May 1, 2014 - Volume 66 - Issue 1 , Latent Tuberculosis Screening Using Interferon-Gamma Release... ... Predictive Value of Anemia for Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in... * Antiviral Activity of Genital Tract Secretions ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2014/05010/Latent_Tuberculosis_Screening_Using.7.aspx
*  Tuberculosis Education for Health Care Professionals - Southern Nevada Health...
CDC - MMWR - Plan to Combat Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Recommendations of the Federal Tuberculosis Task Force ... Tuberculosis Education. for Health Care Professionals. The TB Treatment and Control Clinic is committed to providing free, ... CDC - MMWR Weekly Trends in Tuberculosis - United States 2007 *CDC - MMWR - Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of ... Technical Bulletin: Screening Pediatric Patients at Risk for Tuberculosis Disease PDF. *Cellestis Responds to World Health ...
http://southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/tb/education.php
*  Person at Renton High School diagnosed with active tuberculosis, health...
A person at Renton High School has been diagnosed with active tuberculosis, and about 130 people from the school community are ... Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. It is passed from person to person through the air, but it's much ... Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. It is passed from person to person through the air, but it's much ... Person at Renton High School diagnosed with active tuberculosis, health officials say. Posted 4:25 PM, October 31, 2016,
http://q13fox.com/2016/10/31/person-at-renton-high-school-diagnosed-with-active-tuberculosis-health-officials-say/
*  British Library EThOS: Pulmonary aspergillosis in association with tuberculosis...
CPA may begin during active pulmonary tuberculosis infection. CPA associated with tuberculosis constitutes a significant ... Prospective studies are now needed to confirm the prevalence of CPA secondary to tuberculosis and define the optimal strategy ... Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a serious disease that occurs secondary to tuberculosis and is estimated to affect 1.2 ... Levels in ABPA patients were also compared to asthmatic controls.398 patients with treated tuberculosis in Gulu, Uganda
http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.677799
*  CDC | TB | Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005 - Slide 105
TB. Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005 - Slide 105. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/contactinv/slides/Slide105.htm
*  CDC | TB | Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005 - Slide 96
TB. Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005 - Slide 96. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005. Return to Source-Case Investigations Main Menu Source-Case Investigations. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/contactinv/slides/Slide96.htm
*  Search Results for "National Tuberculosis Association." "Moving image"
Search Results for National Tuberculosis Association. Moving image. Home Care Services 1. Authors National Tuberculosis Association. Emerson Yorke Studio. United States. Public Health Service. Home care of tuberculosis: the role of the public health nurse 1. Formats Moving image 10. Authors National Tuberculosis Association. Remove constraint Authors: National Tuberculosis Association. Formats Moving image Remove constraint Formats: Moving image Start Over 1 - 10 of 10 Sort by relevance. Author s : National Tuberculosis Association. Subject s : Tuberculosis, Pulmonary. Author s : National Tuberculosis Association. Publisher: : The Association, c1940 Subject s : Tuberculosis Tuberculosis -- rehabilitation. Author s : National Tuberculosis Association. Publisher: : The Association, Subject s : African Americans Tuberculosis -- therapy. Publisher: : The Association, c1941 Subject s : Indians, North American Tuberculosis, ...
http://collections.nlm.nih.gov/?f[drep2.authorAggregateDisplay][]=National Tuberculosis Association.&f[drep2.format][]=Moving image&per_page=50&sort=score desc
*  Tuberculosis Surveillance | Tuberculosis | Health & Senior Services
Tuberculosis Surveillance. Tuberculosis. Health Senior Services. Skip to navigation Missouri Department of Health Senior Services. Jay Nixon, Governor Gail Vasterling, Director Search Search Health Senior Services. Healthy Living. Health Conditions Diseases. Communicable Diseases. Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Surveillance Tuberculosis surveillance monitors and analyzes data on tuberculosis disease mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis infection and mycobacterium and other tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like disease. Case management data are collected for mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accurate identification and timely reporting of both tuberculosis disease and infection are critical to successful disease control and treatment and the prevention of disease spread. Successful tuberculosis surveillance enables public health agencies to: Identify contacts who may be infected or other individuals at risk for infection, ...
http://health.mo.gov/living/healthcondiseases/communicable/tuberculosis/surveillance.php
*  CDC | TB | Tuberculosis | Pediatric TB in the US, 1993-2013 Slide 2
Pediatric TB in the US, 1993-2013 Slide 2. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Set Epidemiology of Pediatric Tuberculosis in the United States, 1993 2013. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/pediatricTB/slides/Slide2.htm
*  CDC | TB | Tuberculosis | Pediatric TB in the US, 1993-2012 Slide 28
Pediatric TB in the US, 1993-2012 Slide 28. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Set Epidemiology of Pediatric Tuberculosis in the United States, 1993 2012. Return to Slide Set Main Menu Pediatric TB Cases in Specific Groups Download complete Power Point Presentation 32 slides. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/pediatricTB/slides/Slide28.htm
*  Stop TB Partnership | CALL TO ACTION for CHILDHOOD TB
CALL TO ACTION for CHILDHOOD TB. Donate to the Stop TB Partnership. CALL TO ACTION for CHILDHOOD TB. Read the Call in French , Read the Call in Russian. Despite policy guidelines, the implementation of contact tracing and delivery of isoniazid preventive therapy IPT to young and HIV-infected children is often neglected by public health programmes. Most public health programs have limited capacity to meet the demand for care and high-quality services for childhood TB. TB care for children is not consistently integrated into HIV care and maternal and child health programs. This is further compounded by drug stock outs and the lack of child-friendly formulations of drugs for TB treatment and prevention. Children are rarely included in clinical trials to evaluate new TB drugs, diagnostics or preventive strategies. National TB programmes to include and prioritize childhood TB in their national strategic plans in order to address millennium development goals for children and pregnant women. All health care ...
http://stoptb.org/getinvolved/ctb_cta.asp
*  PLOS Medicine: Building Clinical Trials Capacity for Tuberculosis Drugs in High-Burden Countries
... plos.org. Building Clinical Trials Capacity for Tuberculosis Drugs in High-Burden Countries. Building Clinical Trials Capacity for Tuberculosis Drugs in High-Burden Countries. x Published: November 6, 2007 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040302. Article. Citation: Schluger N, Karunakara U, Lienhardt C, Nyirenda T, Chaisson R 2007 Building Clinical Trials Capacity for Tuberculosis Drugs in High-Burden Countries. PLoS Med 4 11 : e302. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040302. Abbreviations: ARV, antiretroviral; MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; NIH, National Institutes of Health; TB, tuberculosis; XDR-TB, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Trials are urgently needed to find regimens that are shorter, less toxic, and effective against multidrug-resistant TB MDR-TB; Figure 1 and extensively drug-resistant TB XDR-TB. Funding on the order of US$300–US$500 million annually will be needed to conduct such a clinical trials agenda, including the evaluation ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040302
*  CDC | TB | Tuberculosis | Pediatric TB in the US, 1993-2013 Slide 16
Pediatric TB in the US, 1993-2013 Slide 16. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Set Epidemiology of Pediatric Tuberculosis in the United States, 1993 2013. Return to Slide Set Main Menu Pediatric Cases, Percentages and Rates by States Download complete Power Point Presentation 32 slides. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/pediatricTB/slides/slide16.htm
*  WHO | Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children
Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children. Health topics. Media centre. Programmes. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health Topics Maternal health Newborn health Child health Adolescent health. Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children. Authors : World Health Organization. Number of pages : 41 Publication date : 2006 Languages : English, Russian WHO reference number : WHO/HTM/TB/2006.371; WHO/FCH/CAH/2006.7. Downloads Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children pdf, 325kb Russian pdf, 67kb. Overview It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis the bacterium that causes tuberculosis TB, and that each year, about 9 million people develop TB, of whom about 2 million die. Of the 9 million annual TB ...
http://who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/htm_tb_2006_371/en/
*  CDC - Table 4 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 - TB
... Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. CDC’s Role in Preventing Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis XDR TB. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers TB in Specific Populations ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2011/table4.htm
*  CDC - Table 30 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 - TB
Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011. Drug-Resistant TB Extensively Drug-Resistant TB TB in Specific Populations African-American Community Tuberculosis in the African-American Community. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/TB/statistics/reports/2011/table30.htm
*  CDC | TB | Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in African-American Population - Slide 17
TB. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in African-American Population - Slide 17. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Drug-Resistant TB Extensively Drug-Resistant TB TB in Specific Populations African-American Community Tuberculosis in the African-American Community. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/TBinAfricanAmericans/slideset/slides/slide17.htm
*  CDC - Tuberculosis Cases and Case Rates per 1000,000 Population, 1953–2014
Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us TB Incidence in the United States, 1953-2014. TB Incidence in the United States, 1953-2014 TB Cases and Case Rates per 100,000 Population. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. CDC’s Role in Preventing Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis XDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/tbcases.htm
*  CDC - Table 13 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 - TB
Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011. Drug-Resistant TB Extensively Drug-Resistant TB TB in Specific Populations African-American Community Tuberculosis in the African-American Community. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2011/table13.htm
*  CDC - Table 36 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 - TB
Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011. Drug-Resistant TB Extensively Drug-Resistant TB TB in Specific Populations African-American Community Tuberculosis in the African-American Community. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2011/table36.htm
*  CDC - Table 46 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 - TB
Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. CDC’s Role in Preventing Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis XDR TB. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers TB in Specific Populations ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2011/table46.htm
*  CDC - Table 24 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012 - TB
Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2012/table24.htm
*  CDC | TB | Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. tuberculosis...2005 | Introduction
TB. Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Slide Set Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005. Slide #1 d Slide #2 d. Slide #3 d Slide #4 d. Slide #5 d Slide #6 d. Slide #7 d Next. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/TB/publications/slidesets/InfectionGuidelines/Intro.htm
*  CDC - Table 47 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012 - TB
Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers TB in Specific Populations Tuberculosis Information for Employers in Non-Healthcare Settings. Treatment ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2012/table47.htm
*  WHO | WHO publications on tuberculosis
WHO publications on tuberculosis. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. English. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. Tuberculosis TB Topics index Stop TB Strategy DOTS expansion TB diagnostics and laboratories TB/HIV MDR/XDR-TB Health systems Public-Private Mix Community engagement TB research TB data TB publications About us. WHO publications on tuberculosis Not all available electronically 1996 page 1 of 3 WHO/TB/96.197. Tuberculosis - A global emergency: case notification update: February 1996 WHO/TB/96.198 Groups at risk: WHO report on the tuberculosis epidemic 1996. English. French. WHO/TB/96.199. Tuberculosis control workshop report, Geneva, October 1995 and revision of "Treatment of Tuberculosis: guidelines for national programmes". ...
http://who.int/tb/publications/1996/en/
*  Integration of HIV and TB Services Results in Improved TB Treatment Outcomes and Earlier Prioritized
... ART Initiation in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Uganda. Comprehensive, up-to-date information on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and policy from the University of California San Francisco. Integration of HIV and TB Services Results in Improved TB Treatment Outcomes and Earlier Prioritized ART Initiation in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Uganda. Integration of HIV and TB Services Results in Improved TB Treatment Outcomes and Earlier Prioritized ART Initiation in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Uganda. Objective To determine whether integrated care for HIV infection and tuberculosis TB would result in improved TB treatment outcomes and prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy ART by eligible patients. 1 HIV outcomes: proportion, timing and outcomes of ART initiation in ART-na ve TB patients. ART was initiated during the intense phase of treatment in TB patients with CD4 <200 L. New TB cases were treated with a combination of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide RHZE in a 2-month ...
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=jl-82-02
*  CDC - Global Tuberculosis - TB
... Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options. In 2013, 65% of all TB cases and 90% of multidrug resistant TB cases in the United States occurred among people born in other countries. Investing in TB control in high-burden settings reduces TB cases in the United States, costs less than screening at U.S. TB Infection Control in Outpatient Settings. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/topic/globaltb/default.htm
*  Tuberculosis Testing | Everyday Health
Tuberculosis Testing. Everyday Health. 1 What Is Tuberculosis. Latent TB. Causes of TB. Testing for TB. Everyday Health. Tuberculosis. Testing for TB. Tuberculosis Testing. Several laboratory tests may need to be done to definitively diagnose active TB. In the United States, screening for latent tuberculosis is done in the following populations:. People who have recently come to the United States from a country with a high rate of tuberculosis People whose work or living arrangement puts them in contact with people who have active tuberculosis People who are starting to take a drug that suppresses the immune system, which may reactivate latent tuberculosis People with other diseases that increase the risk of developing active TB once infected, such as insulin-requiring diabetes, end-stage renal disease, prior gastrectomy, or HIV infection People who are taking drugs that block tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-alpha, such as infliximab Remicade, ...
http://everydayhealth.com/tuberculosis/testing/
*  WHO | WHO publications on tuberculosis
WHO publications on tuberculosis. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. English. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. Menu. Tuberculosis TB Topics index Stop TB Strategy DOTS expansion TB diagnostics and laboratories TB/HIV MDR/XDR-TB Health systems Public-Private Mix Community engagement TB research TB data TB publications About us. WHO publications on tuberculosis No hyperlink indicates no electronic copy is available. Copies can be obtained from the WHO library. 1995 page 2 of 2 WHO/TB/95.190 Country review: Ethiopia, Global Tuberculosis Programme WHO/TB/95.191 Country review: Brazil, Global Tuberculosis Programme WHO/TB/95.192 Country review: Thailand, Global Tuberculosis Programme. WHO/TB/95.193. ...
http://who.int/tb/publications/1995/en/index1.html
*  Pediatric Tuberculosis
... Home. correspondence Indian Pediatr 2013;50: 803. Pediatric Tuberculosis Baljinder Kaur Assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, GMC and RH Patiala, Punjab, India. Email: banga.baljinder@yahoo.com. I read the recent updated guidelines for pediatric tuberculosis in India with interest, and found them to be informative. However, there may be practical difficulty in evaluating exact weight loss which has been defined as weight loss more than 5% of highest weight recorded in 3 months. Weight loss in terms of percentage can only be defined if previous weight of the child is known. Common presentation of children belonging to rural area is anorexia, fever and complain by parents of weight loss as measured from dress size. What are suggestions of the authors regarding interval between subsequent repetition of tuberculin sensitivity test as TST is being used as a tool to diagnose pediatric tuberculosis in conjunction with sputum and gastric lavage microscopy along with chest X-ray; ...
http://indianpediatrics.net/aug2013/aug-803.htm
*  WHO | WHO publications on tuberculosis
WHO. WHO publications on tuberculosis. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. Menu. Tuberculosis TB Topics index Stop TB Strategy DOTS expansion TB diagnostics and laboratories TB/HIV MDR/XDR-TB Health systems Public-Private Mix Community engagement TB research TB data TB publications About us. WHO publications on tuberculosis 2010 WHO/HTM/TB/2010.12. Public-Private Mix for TB care and control: a toolkit. Public-Private Mix for TB care and control: a toolkit. WHO/HTM/TB/2010.16. Guidance on ethics of tuberculosis prevention, care and control. Arabic. English. French. Russian. WHO/HTM/TB/2010.13. Rapid advice: treatment of ...
http://who.int/tb/publications/2010/en/
*  Causes of tuberculosis
tuberculosis transmission. risk factors for tuberculosis. symptoms of tuberculosis. diagnosis of tuberculosis. treatment for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is caused by infection with germs called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can also afflict cattle, where the infection is caused by a similar type of bacterium called Mycobacterium bovis. TB germs from. cattle can be transmitted to humans through drinking heavily infected milk. This type of transmission means that when a TB patient exhales, coughs, or sneezes, tiny droplets of fluid containing tubercle bacilli are released into the air. Tuberculosis is not, however, highly contagious compared to some other infectious diseases. Only about one in three close contacts of a TB patient, and fewer than 15% of more remote contacts are likely to become infected. Once inhaled, tubercle bacilli may reach the small breathing sacs in the lungs the alveoli, where they are taken up by cells called ...
http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/tuberculosis-causes.php
*  Search Results for "National Tuberculosis Association." "Moving image"
Search Results for National Tuberculosis Association. Moving image. Skip Navigation Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine. . Search... Search. . About Help Web Service. Refine by: Subjects Tuberculosis, Pulmonary 5. African Americans 1. Hispanic Americans 1. Home Care Services 1. Indians, North American 1. more ». Authors National Tuberculosis Association. 10. Emerson Yorke Studio. 2 Lyght, Charles E. Charles Everard, 1901- 2. United States. Public Health Service. 2 Eshleman, Fannie W. 1 more ». Titles Another to conquer 1. Behind the shadows 1. Cloud in the sky 1. Home care of tuberculosis: the role of the public health nurse 1. Lease on life 1. more ». Formats Moving image 10. Languages English 10. Dates by Range 1900-1949 9. 1950-1999 1. Search You searched for:. Authors National Tuberculosis Association. Remove constraint Authors: National Tuberculosis Association. Formats Moving image Remove constraint Formats: Moving image Start Over 1 - 10 of 10 ...
http://collections.nlm.nih.gov/?f[drep2.authorAggregateDisplay][]=National Tuberculosis Association.&f[drep2.format][]=Moving image&per_page=10&sort=drep3.titleSortDisplay asc
*  CDC | TB | Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities | Slide 113
Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities. Slide 113. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Slide Set Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Correctional and Detention Facilities. Diagnosis and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection LTBI and Tuberculosis TB Disease Return to Diagnosis and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection LTBI and Tuberculosis TB Disease. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corrections/slides/Slide113.htm
*  CDC - Table 3 - Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 - TB
Tuberculosis TB. Tuberculosis Cases and Percentages by Hispanic Ethnicity and non-Hispanic Race, and Origin of Birth: United States, 1993–2011 Year Non-Hispanic Hispanic or Latino 4 Unknown or Missing 5 American Indian or Alaska Native Asian 1 Black or African American Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 2 White Multiple Race 3 US-born Foreign-born US-born Foreign-born US-born Foreign-born US-born Foreign-born US-born Foreign-born US-born Foreign-born US-born Foreign-born US-born Foreign-born No. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US Executive Summary. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention ...
http://cdc.gov/TB/statistics/reports/2011/table3.htm
*  CDC | TB | Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005 - Slide 58
CDC. TB. Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005 - Slide 58. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content. CDC Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People. Search The CDC. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov. Tuberculosis TB. Tuberculosis Home. Publications and Products. Slide Sets. . . Share Compartir. For Questions About TB Contact Us Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005. Return to Medical Treatment for Contacts with LTBI Main Menu Medical Treatment for Contacts with LTBI. d. Tuberculosis. Topics Basic TB Facts Signs & Symptoms. Risk Factors. Exposure to TB. TB Terms. Personal Stories Deo. Esteban and Danielle. Kenni. Liliana. Mabruka. Martha. Natalie. Rick and Francene. Rosalie and Faith. ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/contactinv/slides/slide58.htm
*  Facts about Tuberculosis (TB)
Facts about Tuberculosis TB. Home > Epidemiology > Disease Prevention > programs > Tuberculosis TB Control and Prevention Program > Facts about Tuberculosis TB Facts about Tuberculosis TB Facts about TB Tuberculosis Surveillance Reports Resources for the Healthcare Community Resources for Local Health Departments in Virginia Education & Links Staff ~ Contact Us. Tuberculosis TB is an infectious disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air. People with latent TB infection have TB germs in their bodies, but they do not have symptoms of TB disease and can t spread the germs to others. People with active TB disease of the lungs or throat can spread germs to others. A Person with Latent TB Infection A Person with TB Disease. Needs treatment for latent TB infection to prevent active TB disease. If you have been around someone who has TB disease, you should go to your doctor or your local health department for tests. Because a person with ...
http://vdh.state.va.us/epidemiology/DiseasePrevention/programs/Tuberculosis/FactsaboutTB.htm
*  WHO | Tuberculosis and HIV publications
WHO. Tuberculosis and HIV publications. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. HIV/AIDS. Menu. HIV News and events Topics Publications Data and statistics About us. Tuberculosis and HIV publications 2015. Scaling up of collaborative TB/HIV activities in concentrated HIV epidemic settings A case study from India 27 February 2015. A guide to monitoring and evaluation for collaborative TB/HIV activities 10 February 2015 2013 - 2014. Childhood TB Training toolkit 1 September 2014. International standards for tuberculosis care 3rd edition 26 July 2014. Framework for conducting reviews of tuberculosis programmes. 26 June 2014. Toolkit to develop a National ...
http://who.int/hiv/pub/tb/en/
*  Tuberculosis Pipeline Highlights - 2014 Update - Research and Markets
USD $ EUR. Clinical Trial Stages: The report provides Tuberculosis pipeline molecules by clinical trial stages including both early and late stage development - phase 3 clinical trials, phase 2 clinical trials, phase 1 clinical trials, preclinical research, and discovery stage. SUMMARY: - Tuberculosis phase 3 clinical trial pipeline molecules - Tuberculosis phase 2 clinical trial pipeline molecules - Tuberculosis phase 1 clinical trial pipeline molecules - Tuberculosis preclinical research pipeline molecules - Tuberculosis discovery stage pipeline molecules - Tuberculosis pipeline molecules short-term launch highlights Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown. Research Methodology Table 1: Tuberculosis Phase 3 Clinical Trials, 2014 Table 2: Tuberculosis Phase 2 Clinical Trials, 2014 Table 3: Tuberculosis Phase 1 Clinical Trials, 2014 Table 4: Tuberculosis Preclinical Research, 2014 Table 5: Tuberculosis ...
http://researchandmarkets.com/research/hvk4z2/tuberculosis
*  CDC | TB | LTBI Slide Set - Slide 67
TB. LTBI Slide Set - Slide 67. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Targeted Tuberculosis TB Testing and Treatment of Latent TB Infection. Targeted Tuberculosis TB Testing and Treatment of Latent TB Infection Return to LTBI Slideset Main Menu. Back to LTBI Slideset Main Menu. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/LTBI/Slides/Slide67.htm
*  CDC | TB | LTBI Slide Set - Slide 76
TB. LTBI Slide Set - Slide 76. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Targeted Tuberculosis TB Testing and Treatment of Latent TB Infection. Targeted Tuberculosis TB Testing and Treatment of Latent TB Infection Return to LTBI Slideset Main Menu. Back to LTBI Slideset Main Menu. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/LTBI/Slides/Slide76.htm
*  .. New report highlights the urgent need for action on childhood tuberculosis
New report highlights the urgent need for action on childhood tuberculosis. A new report, Children and Tuberculosis: From Neglect to Action, outlining recommendations on how the international community and affected countries can combat childhood TB was released today by the ACTION global health advocacy partnership.Â. Despite the international community paying increasing attention to the issue of childhood tuberculosis and despite it being both preventable and treatable, TB remains a top ten killer of children worldwide. In addition to the lack of child-friendly diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines, children are often overlooked or misdiagnosed in National TB Programmes. As well as facing economic hardship and having to deal with the health impact of TB itself, the family were also suffered from intense stigma in their community, causing the children, Akash and Praveen*, to be expelled from school. What is clear from the report is that there is an urgent need for action. The ACTION global ...
http://tbcoalition.eu/2012/11/13/new-report-highlights-the-urgent-need-for-action-on-childhood-tuberculosis/
*  Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis (TB)
People with latent TB don't have symptoms unless the disease becomes active. To find pulmonary TB, doctors test a sample of mucus from the lungs sputum to see if there are TB bacteria in it. Doctors sometimes do other tests on sputum and blood or take a chest X-ray to help find pulmonary TB. If tests still show an active TB infection after 6 months, then treatment continues for another 2 or 3 months. Symptoms If you have latent tuberculosis TB, you do not have symptoms and cannot spread the disease to others. If you have active TB, you do have symptoms and can spread the disease to others. A reaction to a tuberculin skin test is how most people find out they have latent TB. In general, after 2 weeks of treatment with antibiotics, you cannot spread an active pulmonary TB infection to other people. Active TB outside the lungs Active TB in parts of the body other than the lungs extrapulmonary TB is not spread easily to other people. People who have an infection that cannot spread to others latent TB ...
https://cardiosmart.org/healthwise/hw20/7301/hw207301
*  WHO | The Global TB Programme
The Global TB Programme. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Programmes. Twitter. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. Tuberculosis TB Topics index Stop TB Strategy DOTS expansion TB diagnostics and laboratories TB/HIV MDR/XDR-TB Health systems Public-Private Mix Community engagement TB research TB data TB publications About us. The Global TB Programme. TB topics. Links to WHO regional TB pages. WHO African Region. WHO Region of the Americas. WHO South-East Asia Region. WHO European Region. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. WHO Western Pacific Region. Mission The WHO Global TB Programme aims to advance universal access to TB prevention, care and control, guide the global response to threats, and promote innovation. Core functions Provide global leadership on matters critical to TB; Develop evidence-based policies, strategies and standards for TB prevention, care and control, and monitor their implementation; Jointly ...
http://who.int/tb/about/en/
*  State battles new tuberculosis outbreaks | Peninsula Clarion
State battles new tuberculosis outbreaks. Peninsula Clarion. State battles new tuberculosis outbreaks. ANCHORAGE AP -- Public health officials are battling a tuberculosis outbreak in Southwest Alaska that they're calling the largest in six years. Both outbreaks are under control, state officials said. The Bristol Bay Area Health Corp. Another 56 people have tested positive for exposure to the bacteria, meaning they've been infected although they show no symptoms. 'We've alerted all our health aides in the villages.' Twenty people have been diagnosed with the disease in Anchorage since the first of the year. Nine are from a single family and many of the others are people who were exposed to that family, officials said. Tuberculosis is a worldwide health scourge that once ran rampant across rural Alaska, especially among Natives. Health officials worldwide once believed tuberculosis would be eradicated by the end of the last century. But during the early 1980s, the spread of ...
http://peninsulaclarion.com/stories/061300/ala_061300ala0040001.shtml
*  WHO | WHO publications on tuberculosis
WHO publications on tuberculosis. Navigation Alt+1. Search Search the WHO .int site. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. English. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. Tuberculosis TB Topics index Stop TB Strategy DOTS expansion TB diagnostics and laboratories TB/HIV MDR/XDR-TB Health systems Public-Private Mix Community engagement TB research TB data TB publications About us. WHO publications on tuberculosis 2004 page 1 of 2 WHO/HTM/TB/2004.344. Compendium of indicators for monitoring and evaluating National Tuberculosis Programs. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.343. 3 WHO/HTM/STB/2004.29. Progress Report on the Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.342. A guide to monitoring and evaluation for collaborative TB/HIV activities. English. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.341. Fourth annual meeting of the Stop TB Working Group on DOTS-Plus for MDR-TB, Paris, France, 27-28 October 2003. ...
http://who.int/tb/publications/2004/en/
*  CDC | TB | Pamphlets/Brochures/Booklets
TB. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options CDC Home. Tuberculosis TB. TB and HIV Coinfection. Patient Education Series. What You Need to Know About TB Infection PDF - 409k. 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure. Espa ol Spanish. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348. Contact CDC INFO. Treatment. Latent TB Infection. TB Disease. Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Drug-Resistant TB. Extensively Drug-Resistant TB. TB in Specific Populations. Introduction. Recommendations to ACET, CDC, DTBE. Rapid Molecular Testing to Detect Drug-Resistant TB in the US. Introduction. Models for Incorporating HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral into Tuberculosis Contact Investigations. ...
http://health.state.ga.us/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/TB-CDC_Protectyourfamily.htm
*  CDC | TB | LTBI - Introduction
LTBI - Introduction. Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Guide for Primary Health Care Providers. They can be found in the June 9, 2000 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report MMWR, entitled Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and ...
http://cdc.gov/TB/publications/LTBI/intro.htm
*  CDC | TB | Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious TB 2005 | Initiate Investigation
TB. Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious TB 2005. Tuberculosis TB. Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis, 2005. Slide #9. Slide #10. Slide #11. Slide #12. Slide #13. Slide #14. Slide #15. d Slide #16. Slide #17. Slide #18. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/contactinv/decisions.htm
*  CDC | TB | TBETN | Member's Only | Login
TB. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options. Tuberculosis TB. Treatment. Latent TB Infection. TB Disease. Testing & Diagnosis. Infection Control & Prevention. Drug-Resistant TB. TB in Specific Populations. Slideset. Slideset Text version. International Travelers. Vaccines & Immunizations. Drug susceptibility testing. Zero Tolerance for Pediatric TB. Models for Incorporating HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral into Tuberculosis Contact Investigations. Prevalence of Latent TB Infection Among High Risk Populations in the United States. Addressing TB Among African Americans in the Southeast: Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Treatment Adherence for Latent TB Infection and TB Disease. Factors Associated with Acceptance of, Adherence to and Toxicity From Treatment for Latent TB Infection and Pilot Study of Treatment for Latent TB Infection Effectiveness. Evaluation of New Interferon-y Release ...
http://www2.cdc.gov/tb/TBETN/login.asp?accessdenied=/tb/TBETN/MembersOnly/toc.asp
*  WHO | Nutritional care and support for patients with tuberculosis
WHO. Nutritional care and support for patients with tuberculosis. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Nutrition. Menu Nutrition home. Nutrition topics. Databases. Publications. Collaborating centres. Regional offices. About us. . Nutritional care and support for patients with tuberculosis Guideline. Share Email Twitter Facebook Google Delicious LinkedIn. More... Print. Authors : World Health Organization. Publication details. Number of pages : 54 Publication date : 2013 Languages : English ISBN : 978 92 4 150641 0. Downloads Full text pdf, 596kb Executive summary pdf, 334kb. Overview This guideline provides guidance on the principles and evidence-informed ...
http://who.int/nutrition/publications/guidelines/nutcare_support_patients_with_tb/en/
*  PEPFAR Invests Additional $11M to Supply Cepheid TB Test in 14 High-burden Countries | GenomeWeb
PEPFAR Invests Additional $11M to Supply Cepheid TB Test in 14 High-burden Countries. GenomeWeb. Skip to main content. Business Policy. Business News Research Funding Policy Legislation Regulatory News Reimbursement. Microarrays Multiplexing PCR Informatics Sequencing Technology Mass Spec Sample Prep Gene Silencing/Gene Editing. Clinical. Molecular Diagnostics Companion Diagnostics Biomarker Discovery Validation Drug Discovery Development Clinical Sequencing Clinical Proteomics. Disease Areas. Cancer Infectious Disease Cardiovascular Disease Neurological Psychological Disease Metabolic Disease Autoimmune Disease Inherited Disease Reproductive Health. Home » PEPFAR Invests Additional $11M to Supply Cepheid TB Test in 14 High-burden Countries. PEPFAR Invests Additional $11M to Supply Cepheid TB Test in 14 High-burden Countries Dec 06, 2012. NEW YORK GenomeWeb News – The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief PEPFAR this week announced an additional $11 million to provide Cepheid's Xpert MTB/RIF ...
https://genomeweb.com/pcrsample-prep/pepfar-invests-additional-11m-supply-cepheid-tb-test-14-high-burden-countries
*  CDC - Slide 179 - Core Curriculum - Slide sets - TB
... Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Slide Set Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis: What the Clinician Should Know. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. CDC’s Role in Preventing Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis XDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/slides/Slide179.htm
*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2011 - Slide 29 - TB
... Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us 2011 Surveillance Slides. Slide 29. Back to 2011 Surveillance Slides Main Page. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers TB in Specific Populations Tuberculosis Information for ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/surv/surv2011/slides/surv29.htm
*  Tuberculosis Prevention for HIV Infected Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. About the Results Database. History, Policies, and Laws. Media/Press ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00057122?order=315
*  Tuberculosis Prevention for HIV Infected Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
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*  WHO | Address TB/HIV, MDR/XDR-TB and other challenges
WHO. Address TB/HIV, MDR/XDR-TB and other challenges. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. Menu. Tuberculosis TB Topics index Stop TB Strategy DOTS expansion TB diagnostics and laboratories TB/HIV MDR/XDR-TB Health systems Public-Private Mix Community engagement TB research TB data TB publications About us. Address TB/HIV, MDR/XDR-TB and other challenges LHIL/Jim Mullins. Global tuberculosis control is facing major challenges today. In general, much effort is still required to make quality care accessible without barriers of gender, age, type of disease, social setting, and ability to pay. Coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ...
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*  CDC | TB | Treatment of TB 2003 Slides - Slide 10
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http://cdc.gov/TB/publications/slidesets/Treatment_Guidelines/2003/treat10.htm
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http://cdc.gov/TB/publications/slidesets/Treatment_Guidelines/2003/treat47.htm
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*  CDC | TB | Treatment of TB 2003 Slides - Slide 40
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*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2012 - Slide 20 - TB
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*  CDC | TB | Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities | Slide 175
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*  CDC - Slide 73 - Core Curriculum - Slide sets - TB
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/slides/Slide073.htm
*  CDC - Slide 74 - Core Curriculum - Slide sets - TB
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/slides/Slide074.htm
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/chapter1.htm
*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2012 - Slide 25 - TB
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http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/surv/surv2012/slides/surv25.htm
*  CDC | TB | Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. TB in Health-Care Settings, 2005 | Slid
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/InfectionGuidelines/largeSlides/slide47.htm
*  CDC | TB | Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. TB in Health-Care Settings, 2005 | Slid
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/infectionguidelines/largeSlides/slide41.htm
*  CDC | TB | Health Care Providers and TB Program Materials by Topic
CDC. TB. Health Care Providers and TB Program Materials by Topic. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options. CDC Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People. Search The CDC. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov. Tuberculosis TB. Share Compartir. Health Care Providers and TB Program Materials by Topic. Featured Materials Interactive Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis: What the Clinician Should Know The Interactive Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis: What the Clinician Should Know provides clinicians with information on diagnosing and treating latent TB infection and TB disease. Course topics include TB in the United States, Transmission and Pathogenesis, Testing for TB, Diagnosing TB Disease, Treatment of LTBI, Treatment of TB ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/education/provider_edmaterials.htm
*  CDC |TB | ...the Uses of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for the Diagnosis of TB: Drug Susceptible
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/guidelines/amplification_tests/dst.htm
*  CDC - Slide 107 - Core Curriculum - Slide sets - TB
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/slides/Slide107.htm
*  Phila.Gov | Public Health
Phila.Gov. Public Health. Phila.gov. City Council. Divisions. Services. Division of Disease Control. Disease Control » Tuberculosis Control Program. Tuberculosis Resources TB Control Newsletters The Philadelphia TB Newsletter is a newsletter for clinicians, laboratories, and infection control personnel who diagnose, treat, and/or report tuberculosis TB in Philadelphia. It provides treatment updates and recommendations, reviews local and national TB epidemiology, and includes upcoming TB outreach and prevention activities. Volume 8 2014. Volume 7 2013. Volume 6 2012. Volume 5 2011. Volume 4 2010. Volume 3 2009. Volume 2 2008. Volume 1 2006 – 2007. TB Control Educational Materials Basic Tuberculosis Facts. 10 Facts About TB. You Can Prevent TB. TB Can Be Treated. The Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease. Tuberculosis Information for Employers in Non-Healthcare Settings. TB Skin Testing. Drug Resistant TB. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. ...
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*  CDC | TB | Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. TB in Health-Care Settings, 2005 | Slid
TB. TB in Health-Care Settings, 2005. Slide 82. Tuberculosis TB. Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Slide Set Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/InfectionGuidelines/largeSlides/slide82.htm
*  CDC | TB | Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. TB in Health-Care Settings, 2005 | Slid
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*  CDC | TB | Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. TB in Health-Care Settings, 2005 | Slid
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http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/infectionguidelines/largeSlides/slide124.htm
*  CDC | TB | Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of M. TB in Health-Care Settings, 2005 | Slid
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*  CDC | TB | Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities | Slide 24
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*  CDC | TB | Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities | Slide 49
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*  CDC | TB | Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities | Slide 75
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*  CDC | TB | Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities | Slide 136
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*  CDC | TB | Prevention and Control of TB in Correctional and Detention Facilities | Slide 137
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*  CDC | TB | Basic TB Facts - TB Personal Stories | Tri's Story
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*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2011 - Slide 26 - TB
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*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2012 - Slide 3 - TB
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*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2012 - Slide 7 - TB
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*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2011 - Slide 17 - TB
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http://cdc.gov/tb/statistics/surv/surv2011/slides/surv17.htm
*  CDC - Core Curriculum - Slide sets - TB
... Chapter 3: Testing for TB Infection and Disease 26 slides. Chapter 4: Diagnosis of TB Disease 26 slides. Chapter 5: Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection 20 slides. Chapter 6: Treatment of TB Disease 36 slides. Chapter 7: TB Infection Control 23 slides. Chapter 8: Community TB Control 22 slides. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/default.htm
*  CDC - Slide 115 - Core Curriculum - Slide sets - TB
... Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Slide Set Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis: What the Clinician Should Know. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers TB in Specific Populations Tuberculosis ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/slides/Slide115.htm
*  CDC - Slide 123 - Core Curriculum - Slide sets - TB
... Slide Sets. For Questions About TB Contact Us Slide Set Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis: What the Clinician Should Know. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers TB in Specific Populations Tuberculosis ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/slidesets/corecurr/slides/Slide123.htm
*  CDC - Surveillance Slides 2012 - Slide 33 - TB
... Tuberculosis TB. For Questions About TB Contact Us 2012 Surveillance Slides. Slide 33. This slide shows the increase in genotyping surveillance coverage from 2004 to 2012. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic Support Site Visits. TB Genotyping Information Management System TB GIMS Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB. Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers TB in Specific Populations ...
http://cdc.gov/TB/statistics/surv/surv2012/slides/surv33.htm
*  CDC | TB | Publications | Posters | Think TB
TB. Posters. Think TB. Tuberculosis TB. Posters. Think TB Poster The Think TB poster encourages health care providers and patients to recognize the signs and symptoms of tuberculosis. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB ...
http://cdc.gov/TB/publications/Posters/ThinkTB.htm
*  CDC | TB | Publications - Self Study Modules
TB. Tuberculosis TB. On This Page Self-Study Modules on TB 1 - 5. Self–Study Modules 1-5 - Slide Sets & Facilitator Guide. Self-Study Modules on TB 6 - 9. Module 3: Targeted Testing and the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease PDF - 704KB. Module 4: Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease PDF - 1MB. Self–Study Modules 1-5 - Slide Sets Facilitator Guide This Self–Study Modules 1-5 Slide Sets was developed as an accompaniment to the print-based Self Study Modules, to aid in the presentation of module content for a facilitator-led training. Facilitator Guide This guide provides facilitator guidance and tips for leading a training using the Self-Study Modules on Tuberculosis, 1-5 Slide Sets. Self-Study Modules 6 - 9 Continuing Education Credits Temporarily Unavailable Introduction PDF - 36k. Module 6: Contact Investigations for Tuberculosis PDF - 876k. Module 9: Patient Adherence to Tuberculosis ...
http://health.state.ga.us/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/TB-CIselfstudymodule6.htm
*  Tuberculosis Program | Departments & Services | UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland
Tuberculosis Program. Departments & Services. UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland. About Us. About Us. Volunteer. 100 Year Timeline. Events. Leadership. Quality & Safety. Publications. For Media. News/Stories. Careers. Video. Locations - Maps. Directions. Contact. MyChart. Patient Services. Quick Directory. Your Child's Stay. Your Child's Condition. Why Choose Children's. Visitor Information. eCards. Billing and Payment. Medical Records. Español. Patient Stories. Contact Us. Maps & Locations. Refer a Patient. Find a Doctor. Clinic Schedules. Education & Training. Clinical Trials & Research. Medical Staff. Calendar. Maps. Contact Directory. Our Impact. Research Centers & Services. Clinical & Translational Research. Principal Investigators. CHORI Leadership. Education Programs. Ways to Donate. Donate Now. How Your Gift Helps. In-Kind Donations. Volunteer. Foundation Events. UCSF Benioff Children's Foundation. Children's Hospital Oakland Home. Departments & Services. Tuberculosis Program. ...
http://childrenshospitaloakland.org/main/departments-services/tuberculosis-program-138.aspx
*  Phys.org - tuberculosis
... Home tuberculosis. News tagged with tuberculosis. 1 week. 1 week. 1 week. Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u b erculosis is a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, in humans mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs as pulmonary TB but can also affect the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the circulatory system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal system, bones, joints, and even the skin. Other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canetti, and Mycobacterium microti also cause tuberculosis, but these species are less common in humans. The diagnosis relies on radiology commonly chest X-rays, a tuberculin skin test, blood tests, as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids. Tuberculosis is spread through the air, when people who have the disease cough, ...
http://phys.org/tags/tuberculosis/sort/date/12h/
*  Tuberculosis | Everyday Health
Tuberculosis. Everyday Health. Health A-Z. Everyday Guide To Tuberculosis. 1 What Is Tuberculosis. 2 Active vs. Latent TB. Symptoms of TB. Causes of TB. Everyday Health. Tuberculosis. What Is Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is an infectious, airborne disease that kills millions of people around the world every year. Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In most people, TB is latent, meaning the bacteria are present in the body but are in a dormant state, neither making the person sick nor infecting others. Tuberculosis is more likely to enter the active phase in people who have acquired the infection recently in the past two years and among those whose immune systems are weakened as a result of malnutrition, old age, infection with HIV, taking immunosuppressant drugs, or among patients who are on dialysis. While there are effective treatments for tuberculosis, the disease can be fatal: ...
http://everydayhealth.com/tuberculosis/
*  Tuberculosis :: Biology Medical Biomedical Disease TB
Free Essays A-F. Free Essays G-L. Free Essays M-Q. Free Essays R-Z. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis M.TB. Tuberculosis can be diagnosed through the Mantoux test and by staining methods such as the Ziel-Neelsen method. Tuberculosis is caused by M.TB. Skin tests and microbiologic smears and cultures are the main methods used to diagnose TB, though the full diagnosis consists of many more tests. The Ziehl-Neelsen method is one method used to stain Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M.TB.’s resistance to stains is caused by its cell wall Wikipedia paragraph 6-7. The lipid portion of the cell wall consists of three major components: mycolic acids, cord factor, and Wax-D. “Mycolic acids are alpha-branched lipids found in cell walls of Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium” Todar, Kenneth paragraph 15. The complete diagnosis for tuberculosis consists of the patient’s medical history, a physical examination, a TB skin test, a serological test, a chest x-ray, ...
http://123helpme.com/view.asp?id=154064
*  Tuberculosis mortality - Greece - Health
. Tuberculosis mortality - Greece - Health. Tuberculosis mortality. Greece. Health. Tuberculosis death rate per year per 100,000 population lower bound. Year Value Footnotes. 1990. 1.2. 1991. 1 1992. 1.3. 1993. 1.1. 1994. 1.1. 1995. 1.1. 1996. 1.2. 1997. 1 1998. 1.6. 1999. 1.1. 2000. 0.8. 2001. 0.6. 2002. 0.7. 2003. 0.6. 2004. 0.8. 2005. 0.7. 2006. 0.7. 2007. 0.7. 2008. 0.6. 2009. 0.5. Tuberculosis death rate per year per 100,000 population mid-point. Year Value Footnotes. 1990. 1.7. 1991. 1.2. 1992. 1.7. 1993. 1.5. 1994. 1.5. 1995. 1.4. 1996. 1.5. 1997. 1 1998. 2 1999. 1.4. 2000. 1 2001. 0.6. 2002. 0.9. 2003. 0.8. 2004. 1 2005. 0.9. 2006. 0.8. 2007. 0.9. 2008. 0.8. 2009. 0.5. Tuberculosis death rate per year per 100,000 population upper bound. Year Value Footnotes. 1990. 2.4. 1991. 1.7. 1992. 2.3. 1993. 2.1. 1994. 2 1995. 1.9. 1996. 1.9. 1997. 1 1998.
http://indexmundi.com/greece/tuberculosis-mortality.html
*  WHO | WHO publications on tuberculosis
WHO. WHO publications on tuberculosis. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. Menu. Tuberculosis TB Topics index Stop TB Strategy DOTS expansion TB diagnostics and laboratories TB/HIV MDR/XDR-TB Health systems Public-Private Mix Community engagement TB research TB data TB publications About us. WHO publications on tuberculosis 2000 WHO/CDS/TB/2000.275 Global tuberculosis control This report is updated annually. WHO/CDS/TB/2000.276. Procurement of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs for DOTS-Plus pilot projects: proceedings of a meeting, Cambridge, USA, 5-6 July 1999. WHO/CDS/TB/2000.278 Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance ...
http://who.int/tb/publications/2000/en/
*  Tuberculosis: 17 Questions and Answers
... Cancer. Diabetes. Heart Disease. Communities: Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life. WebMD Pain Coach Track your pain levels, triggers, and treatments. Check for Drug Interactions Drug Basics Safety Commonly Abused Drugs. Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox. Living Healthy. Living Healthy Centers View All. Family Pregnancy. Family and Pregnancy Centers Pregnancy. Children's Health. Featured Topics Know the Signs of Early Pregnancy. News Experts. Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox. WebMD Health Experts and Community. WebMD Communities Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life. Get Answers WebMD Newsletters Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox. Tuberculosis: 17 Questions and Answers Confused About Tuberculosis Headlines. Get the Facts By Miranda Hitti WebMD Health News Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD. ...
http://webmd.com/lung/news/20070601/tuberculosis-17-questions-and-answers?src=rsf_full-4292_pub_none_rltd
*  CDC | TB | Cultural Materials - English
Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options. Tuberculosis TB. Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination DTBE 1600 Clifton Rd., NE MS E10 Atlanta, GA 30329 800-CDC-INFO 800-232-4636 TTY: 888 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO. Treatment Latent TB Infection. TB Disease Testing & Diagnosis. TB & HIV Coinfection. Infection Control & Prevention. Slideset. Slideset Text version. Contact TBTC Behavioral & Social Science Research Data & Statistics Reported TB in the US, Surveillance Report Archived Surveillance Reports and Slide Sets TB in the United States, Slide Set Education & Training Health Care Provider & TB Program Materials. State TB Lab Implementation Schedule Guide to the Application of Genotyping to Tuberculosis Prevention and Control International Notification of TB Cases International TB Notification Form Programmatic ...
http://cdc.gov/tb/publications/CulturalMaterials_eng.htm
*  Current Trends Tuberculosis -- United States, 1984
... In 1984, a provisional total of 21,701 tuberculosis cases was reported to CDC, a 9.0% decline from the 1983 final total of 23,846 cases. Similarly, in 1984 the provisional incidence rate was 9.2 cases per 100,000 population, a decline of 9.8% from the 1983 final rate of 10.2/10,000 Figure 4. Final mortality data recently released by the National Center for Health Statistics indicate that, in 1982, there were 1,807 tuberculosis deaths, a decline of 6.7% from the 1,937 deaths reported in 1981. Reported by Div of Tuberculosis Control, Center for Prevention Svcs, CDC. Editorial Note Editorial Note: From 1975 through 1978, the average annual decrease in the tuberculosis incidence rate was 6.3% Figure 4. From 1978 through 1981, when there was a large influx of Southeast Asian refugees, the average annual decline was only 3.2%. Three factors may have contributed to the decreased incidence of tuberculosis: 1 a decline in the number of indigenous tuberculosis cases; 2 a ...
http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000484.htm
*  Tuberculosis: What You Need To Know
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals. The most common cause of human disease is the bacteria mycobacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis M. In the past, another major cause of human tuberculosis was Mycobacterium bovis M. Other mycobacteria that cause human diseases are very rare in people with healthy immune systems. Individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to these rarer presentations of human tuberculosis How does one get infected. Humans get infected by M. What is the risk of disease once infected. tuberculosis does not necessarily mean that one will get the disease. While the risk for getting sick with tuberculosis is highest in the first two years of infection, about 90 percent of healthy people who get exposed to the mycobacterium will never get tuberculosis. Individuals with weakened immune systems, however, are at higher risk of active disease. Not everyone exposed to tuberculosis will get ...
http://fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/tbbroch.htm
*  WHO | WHO Global Task Force on TB Impact Measurement
WHO Global Task Force on TB Impact Measurement. Health topics. Play Store. Tuberculosis TB. WHO Global Task Force on TB Impact Measurement MEETINGS AND WORKSHOPS WHO. April-May 2013 Multi-country global workshop on TB prevalence surveys and TB surveillance. May 2011 TB surveillance and surveys: WHO training workshop for consultants. October 2009 Presentations for the DOTS Expansion Working Group DEWG Prevalence surveys June 2014 Data analysis workshop for TB prevalence surveys. November 2013 Data analysis workshop for TB prevalence surveys. February 2012 Repeat prevalence surveys in Asia: design and analysis. October 2011 National TB prevalence surveys seminar. October 2010 TB prevalence surveys in African global focus countries. October 2009 Meeting of the sub-group on TB disease prevalence surveys with survey coordinators. January 2009 Meeting of the subgroup on TB prevalence surveys - Survey protocol review. March - August 2008 Training workshop on TB prevalence surveys Surveillance and estimates ...
http://who.int/tb/advisory_bodies/impact_measurement_taskforce/meetings/en/

Tuberculosis managementTuberculosis radiology: Radiology is used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as a form of TB infection caused by bacteria that are resistant] to treatment with at least two of the most powerful [[Therapy#Lines of therapy|first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP).MVA85A: MVA85A (modified vaccinia Ankara 85A) is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis developed by researchers at Oxford University. This vaccine produces higher levels of long-lasting cellular immunity when used together with the older TB vaccine BCG.Miliary tuberculosisIsoniazidQuantiFERON: Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are diagnostic tools for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). They are surrogate markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and indicate a cellular immune response to M.Tuberculous lymphadenitisGibbus deformity: A Gibbus deformity is a form of structural kyphosis, where one or more adjacent vertebrae become wedged. Gibbus deformity can be a sequela of advanced skeletal tuberculosis and is the result of collapse of vertebral bodies.Mycobacterium bovis: ATCC 19210Scrofuloderma: (ILDS A18.462)Mantoux test: The Mantoux test or Mendel-Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin sensitivity test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for purified protein derivative) is a screening tool for tuberculosis (TB). It is one of the major tuberculin skin tests used around the world, largely replacing multiple-puncture tests such as the Tine test.SputumAlbert CalmetteSam GonotskyTotally drug-resistant tuberculosis: Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB) is a generic term for tuberculosis strains that are resistant to a wider range of drugs than strains classified as Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. TDR-TB has been identified in three countries; India, Iran, and Italy.Urogenital tuberculosis: Urogenital tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that affects the urogenital system.Pyrazinoic acidDenise Faustman: Denise L. Faustman, (born 1958) is a U.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Mycobacterium indicus pranii: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP),Mycobacterium indicus pranii earlier known as Mw, is a non-pathogenic mycobacterial species, which, based on its growth characteristics and metabolic properties,Rahman SA, Singh Y, Kohli S, Ahmad J, Ehtesham NZ, Tyagi AK, Hasnain SE. 2014.Canga's bead symptom: In radiology, Canga's bead symptom is the irregular appearance of uterus and nodular structures in tuba uterina observed in patients with genital tuberculosis.Canga, S: Kadýn Hastalýklarý Jinekoloji.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Amplified fragment length polymorphismLung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Mycobacterium genavense: Mycobacterium genavense is a slow-growing species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.Mycobacterium frederiksbergense: Mycobacterium frederiksbergense is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Thermal cyclerStreptomycinFibrin ring granuloma: A fibrin ring granuloma is a histopathological finding that is characteristic of Q fever. On hematoxylin-eosin staining, the fibrin ring granuloma consists of a central lipid vacuole (usually washed-out during fixing and staining, leaving only an empty hole) surrounded by a dense red fibrin ring and epithelioid macrophages.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Coles PhillipsComposite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Mycobacterium gordonae: Mycobacterium gordonae is a species of Mycobacterium named for Ruth E. Gordon.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityCord factor: Cord factor, or trehalose dimycolate, is a glycolipid molecule found in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and similar species. It is the primary lipid found on the exterior of M.Bioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis: Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis (MLVA ) is a method employed for the genetic analysis of particular microorganisms, such as pathogenic bacteria, that takes advantage of the polymorphism of tandemly repeated DNA sequences. A "VNTR" is a "variable-number tandem repeat".Notifiable disease: A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.Glen Lake Sanatorium: Glen Lake Sanatorium, a tuberculosis treatment center serving Hennepin County in Minnesota, opened on January 4, 1916, with a capacity of 50 patients. In 1909, the Minnesota State Legislature had passed a bill authorizing the appointment of county sanatorium boards and appropriating money for the construction of county sanatoriums.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.GeneXpert MTB/RIFMycobacterium marinum: Mycobacterium marinum (formerly M. balnei) is a free-living bacterium, which causes opportunistic infections in humans.Illegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.Tibotec: Tibotec is a pharmaceutical company with a focus on research and development for the treatment of infectious diseases such as HIV (AIDS), and Hepatitis C. The company develops antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of AIDS.

(1/6653) Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

(2/6653) Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996.

During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community.  (+info)

(3/6653) Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

(4/6653) Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity.

Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization.  (+info)

(5/6653) Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex to lipophilic deazapteridine derivatives, inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase.

Twelve lipophilic 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-5-deazapteridine derivatives and trimethoprim were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro. Six of the compounds had MICs of < or =12.8 mg/L and < or =1.28 mg/L against M. tuberculosis and M. avium, respectively; trimethoprim MICs were >128 mg/L and >12.8 but < or =128 mg/L, respectively. Two compounds, with either a 2-methyl-5-methoxy phenyl or 2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethyl phenyl linked at the 6-position of the deazapteridine moiety by a CH2NH bridge, had MICs of < or =0.13 mg/L against M. avium; the two compounds also had apparent I50 values for dihydrofolate reductase of 2 and 8 nM, respectively, compared with an I50 of 400 nM with trimethoprim. Four of the compounds were selectively toxic to mycobacteria as compared with Vero cells. These results demonstrated that lipophilic antifolates can be synthesized which are more active against mycobacteria than trimethoprim and which possess selective toxicity.  (+info)

(6/6653) The future role of international agencies in control of acute respiratory tract infections.

Achievements in the control of acute respiratory infection (ARI) owe much to international collaboration in research, education, and delivery of services. This article highlights some of the current activities of the many international agencies involved and summarizes thoughts on their future roles. Key recent scientific advances include better surveillance, new and improved vaccines, refinement of standard clinical management plans and behavioral change techniques, and demonstration of the effectiveness of their application. Agencies involved include the World Health Organization, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, national government agencies for overseas aid, many academic departments, and professional lung health associations. However, much remains to be done, especially in collaborative research, in the devising, implementing, and evaluating of health care delivery systems in low-income countries, and in mobilizing political will and resources. These are tasks beyond the capacity of any lone agency. Success will depend on how effectively we collaborate.  (+info)

(7/6653) Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

(8/6653) Differential protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The development of more-effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recently devised vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis secreted proteins MPT64 (23 kDa), Ag85B (30 kDa), and ESAT-6 (6 kDa) as candidate antigens, DNA vaccines were prepared and tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of aerosolized tuberculosis (TB). Intramuscular immunization with DNA-64 or DNA-85B resulted in the activation of CD4(+) T cells, which produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and high titers of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Further, DNA-64 induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. The addition of a eukaryotic leader sequence to mpt64 did not significantly increase the T-cell or antibody response. Each of the three DNA vectors stimulated a significant reduction in the level of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs of mice challenged 4 weeks after immunization, but not to the levels resulting after immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The vaccines showed a consistent hierarchy of protection, with the most effective being Ag85B, followed by ESAT-6 and then MPT64. Coimmunization with the three vectors resulted in a greater degree of protection than that induced by any single vector. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells earlier than in infected animals immunized with a control vector. The efficacy of these DNA vaccines suggests that multisubunit vaccination may contribute to future vaccine strategies against TB.  (+info)


Tuberculosis?


Can anybody help me to understand why Tuberculosis usually affects the top of the lungs more than elsewhere in the lungs?

Thanks...
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Sorry, i cant find anything to clarify why it only affects the top of the lungs....Never heard that b4 anyway:)


tuberculosis ?


well when i was younger i was diagnosed with tuberculosis (and treated it)and my doctor said that every 10 years i would need an x ray of my upper body to make sure it is still latent TB, 10 years later i had a new doctor and i asked about it but he said that it wasn't needed and that i would have to watch out for other warning signs like coughing up bloody mucus. but im kind of worried, what if the TB affected something else other than my lungs? how else am i supposed to know? can anyone help me?
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I think you would get symptoms in your lungs before it spread...
But I'm not 100% sure about this... I'd like to know because I have a bit of a TB-fear (for no reason) so I like to have all the information...

Can you try and get a second opinion?
If not try not to worry, latent TB only becomes active in a small amount of cases, keep yourself healthy and watch out for anything unusual...


TUBERCULOSIS?????????????????????????????????//?


My bf got a TUBERCULOSIS test for a physical and it came out positive... Could this be mistakened? Is there a cure or shot i could get 2 prevent it? He has absolutely no symptoms...
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There are a few possibilities. One is that it's a false positive. There are other types of the form of bacteria that cause tuberculosis. If present in the body, it can show a positive result on a ppd test even though it's not the type that causes the disease. There is also a vaccine that can cause a false positive, but if you were born in the US, that's not really a possibility, as it isn't used here. The most likely possibility is that he has a TB infection, but it didn't progress into TB disease yet. 

When a person has a TB infection, the immune system attacks it as it would any other infection or sickness. They won't show the symptoms of tuberculosis. If the body is able to fight it off successfully, it doesn't "die" or go away, but it  becomes inactive and isn't contagious to others. It can't multiply or progress into TB disease (which IS contagious and does show symptoms ). Most people that have a tuberculosis infection won't develop the disease, unless they have a compromised immune system or lung disease. It still needs treatment with antibiotics to actually kill the bacteria because a dormant infection can become active again if left untreated. Both a TB infection and TB disease can be cured, but obviously it's easier to treat before it fully develops. treating it before it's a full on disease is important because tuberculosis can cause a lot of damage to the lungs and other organs.

The next step for him is probably tests where they take samples of his phlegm to see if the infection is present. He might also need a chest X-ray.


Tuberculosis screening for volunteer work at a hospital?


I'm going to volunteer at a hospital and tomorrow I'm going because they need a blood test for tuberculosis screening. What's the point of that? Don't you kind of know when you have tuberculosis...? 
And do they just test for tuberculosis or do they use the blood for other diseases/drug test?
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You can be a carrier of TB and never have had symptoms. All hospital personnel have to get TB tests to be sure you're not going to pass it on to patients. It's really no big deal. The nurse will inject a small amount of liquid just barely under your skin so that it creates a little bubble, then you go back in 48 hours to have them look at it. If it turns red and has bumps then you likely have been exposed, which is not what you want. If there isn't any reaction, then you're good to go. They don't actually take blood from you so no, they can't test for drugs or other diseases. Hope that helps!


What are some diseases similar to tuberculosis and could be mistaken as Tuberculosis?


So I am researching tuberculosis, and I have to answer the question:

If it isn't your exact disease, what else could it be?

So essentially I have to find diseases with the same signs and symptoms, ones that may act in the same way or cause your body to look the same way as tuberculosis.

I then have to talk about how they are similar and why. Any help would be great. Thanks.
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So other mycobacterium would look the same on stains:
Mycobacterium bovis
Mycobacterium kansasii
and other mycobacteria

Other bacteria can cause similar lung disease (but look different on stain and culture):
Nocardia
Rhodococcus equii
and other bacteria



How much does tuberculosis treatment cost in the Philippines?


I am helping a family out in the Philippines. Their 20 year old son has tuberculosis. A small spot in the lung.

They have told me it costs about USD 1,200 per month to treat it. For about 9 months. How much does TBC treatment really cost?

He contracted the disease working in a laboratory.
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in a community health center, its for free!!!! seriously. there's this project called  Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) by the WHO and DOH where they treat TB patients for free. just go the nearest community health center and inquire. they will tell you the steps to do. even the homeless could avail this treatment.

http://www.doh.gov.ph/node/1458
http://www.doh.gov.ph/faq/show/477
http://www.doh.gov.ph/programs/tb

but the down side is that he should go to the facility everyday to take his pills. usually, in a private hospital, you get to take your pills at home but you'll end up paying more. i'm not sure if they could make some arrangement that could make him go to the facility in less frequency.


What happens when you get a tuberculosis shot while having a cold?


The other day my mom got a tuberculosis shot, but she had a cold. Now the spot where they gave her the shot is red and bumpy. She wanted to know if that's normal or if that's something that's not suppose to happen?
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The cold should not affect the test.  She should go ahead and follow up for the test reading as scheduled.  Reactions before or after the time frame where the test is read do not count as a positive reaction.  However if it is still bumpy where she had the test placed the nurse will want to measure the area to see if it qualifies as a positive result.


How do you get tested for tuberculosis and hepititous?


I'm going to the docotor's and I need to be checked for tuberculosis and hepititous b or something like that? (sorry about the spelling) Is it a shot or do they need to draw blood?
p.s.
Whats s sputum test?
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For tuberculosis, you will get a PPD (purified protein derivative) shot.  The solution is injected just under your skin, so it'll  look like a small raise on your skin.  You will have to have the result within 72 hours.  Positive reaction means that you've been exposed to TB, and you need further testing (i.e., x-ray and sputum test). 

For Hepatitis B, you need to provide a blood sample.

Answer to follow on question:
Sputum test will show if you have the TB bacteria called "tubercle bacilli" growing in your lungs. Treatment for TB is fairly easy -- all you need is compliance to the medication regimen.