Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.PanamaBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Ulmus: A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Tamaricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Melaleuca: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Betulaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.South AmericaPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.FiresSequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Burseraceae: A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Tsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Sapotaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ulmaceae: A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.

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*  23: reflection trees window - helen birch
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http://23hq.com/nellyb/photo/6848746?album_id=5431169
*  Conserving trees through partnership
Resource centre , Conserving trees through partnership. Conserving trees through ... measures to save these important trees from extinction. As slow-growing large trees (up ... Emblematic Tree' and included in the municipal coats of arms of the Jardín Municipality ... under the partnership of the Global Trees Campaign, has developed a logical, stage by ......
http://bgci.org/education/article/0739/
*  Items in Liberty Tree Collectors store on eBay!
Shop in Swiss Military from Liberty Tree Collectors. Find more of what you love on eBay ......
http://stores.ebay.com/Liberty-Tree-Collectors/_i.html?_fsub=1936611018
*  GRN Apple Tree Clothing - Cool Hunting
Hey, check out these prints from GRN Apple Tree. They're an independently owned family ......
http://coolhunting.com/style/green-apple
*  Mini Tree Coat Stand | Apartment Therapy
... give them their own mini version of a tree-shaped coat stand that looks like it came ... give them their own mini version of a tree-shaped coat stand that looks like it came ......
http://apartmenttherapy.com/grove-mini-54820
*  Lost In The Trees Bio | Press | ANTI
... founder of Lost in the Trees, a musical collective from Chapel Hill, North Carolina ... Dog 51Sean Rowe 45The Milk Carton Kids 43Lost In The Trees 42Tinariwen 41Neko Case 37 ... Lost In The Trees Bio. "For me, classical composition is a very humble thing," says Ari ... Tags: lost in the trees, all alone in an empty house, bio Back to Press ......
http://anti.com/press/lost-in-the-trees-bio/?year=2011&month=6
*  Lake mountains trees canada - Pixdaus
Pixdaus.com is an environmental photo-bookmarking and sharing service. All the pictures are uploaded by users and the copyrights belong to the rightholders. You can request a removal using the Copyright flag link below each image if you find an image that shouldn't belong here ......
http://pixdaus.com/lake-mountains-trees-canada/items/tag/lake mountains trees canada/
*  Unlocking the forest inventory data: relating individual-tree performance to unmeasured environm
... ental factors - Microsoft Research. Unlocking the forest inventory data: relating individual-tree performance to unmeasured environmental factors Jeremy W Lichstein, Jonathan Dushoff, Kiona Ogle, Anping Chen, Drew W Purves, John Caspersen, and Stephen W Pacala April 2010. A limitation of inventory data, however, is that individual-level measurements of light L and other environmental factors are typically absent. Thus, inventory data alone cannot be used to parameterize mechanistic models of forest dynamics in which individual performance depends on light, water, nutrients, etc. To overcome this limitation, we developed methods to estimate species-specific parameters θG relating sapling growth G to L using data sets in which G, but not L, is observed for each sapling. Our approach involves: 1 using calibration data that we collected in both eastern and western North America to quantify the probability that saplings receive different amounts of light, conditional on covariates x that can be obtained from i...
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=81519
*  Peat swamp forest
thumb|200px|right|Satellite image of the island of Borneo on 19 August 2002, showing smoke from burning peat swamp forests. 'Peat swamp forests' are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Tropical peatlands, which coexist with swamp forests within the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, store and accumulate vast amounts of carbon as soil organic matter - much more than natural forests contain. The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Carbon dioxide balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Indonesian peat swamp forests and their role as a carbon sink. File:Borneo fires October 2006.jpg|Satellite photograph of the haze above Borneo Image:Fires and Smoke in Borneo 2009.jpg|The lowlands to the north-west and south-east are shrouded with thick, grey smoke from dozens of fires in this satellite image from 2009. Indonesia contains 50% of tropical peat swamps and 10% of d...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peat_swamp_forest
*  North Central Southern Insect and Disease Map, Northeastern Area, Special Projects, Forest Health M
North Central Southern Insect and Disease Map, Northeastern Area, Special Projects, Forest Health Monitoring, USDA FS. Forest Service National Links Forest Service Home Employment Fire and Aviation International Forestry Just for Kids Maps and Brochures Passes and Permits Photo and Video Gallery Publications Recreational Activities Research and Development State and Private Forestry. National Forest Health Monitoring. FHM Home. About Us. Staff Directory. Detection Monitoring. Evaluation Monitoring. Intensive Site Monitoring. Research on Monitoring Techniques. Analysis Reporting. Publications. Links. Special Projects. NA Risk Maps. Sudden Oak Death. Contact Information: Borys M. Tkacz FHM Program Manager Forest Service-USDA 1621 N. RPE7 Rm 711 Arlington, VA 22209 Email: btkacz@fs.fed.us Phone: 703 605-5343 Fax: 703 605-5353. Special Projects. Northeastern Area North Central Southern Insect and Disease Map. North Central Southern Insect and Disease Risk Map. Ash Decline. Dutch Elm Disease. Gypsy Moth. Red Oak D...
http://fs.fed.us/foresthealth/fhm/sp/na_riskmaps/north_central_s/nc_s_rm.shtml
*  Flowering Crabapple Trees | Buy Online at Nature Hills
Flowering Crabapple Trees. Buy Online at Nature Hills. My Wishlist. Trees. Arborvitae Trees. Birch Trees. Buckeye Trees. Cedar Trees. Crape Myrtle Trees. Cypress Trees. Dogwood Trees. Elm Trees. Cherry Blossom Trees. Flowering Crabapple Trees. Flowering Pear Trees. Flowering Plum Trees. Japanese Maple Trees. Lilac Trees. Linden Trees. Locust Trees. Magnolia Trees. Maple Trees. Mulberry Trees. Oak Trees. Palm Trees. Pine Trees. Poplar Trees. Redbud Trees. Spruce Trees. Sycamore Trees. Willow Trees. Bushes Shrubs. Arborvitae Shrubs. Dogwood Shrubs. False Cypress Shrubs. Holly Shrubs. Lilac Bushes. Magnolia Shrubs. Mock Orange. Rose of Sharon Shrubs. Fruit Trees Plants. Apple Trees. Cherry Trees. Crabapple Trees. Browse By Variety Arborvitae Trees Birch Trees Buckeye Trees Cedar Trees Crape Myrtle Trees Cypress Trees Dogwood Trees Elm Trees Cherry Blossom Trees Flowering Crabapple Trees Flowering Pear Trees Flowering Plum Trees Japanese Maple Trees Lilac Trees Linden Trees Locust Trees Magnolia Trees Maple Trees...
http://naturehills.com/trees/flowering-crabapple-trees/
*  Forest Health Protection, NA - Forest Health Protection
... . ABOUT US. CONTACT US. Forest Service National Links Forest Service Home Employment Fire Aviation International Just for Kids Maps Brochures Passes Permits Photo Video Gallery Projects Policies Publications Recreational Activities Research Development State Private Forestry. . Northeastern Area. Northeastern Area Home. Conservation Education. Fire Aviation Management. Forest Health Protection. Forest Health Monitoring. Forest Health Management. Technology Development. Technical Assistance. Pesticide Use Management. Forest Legacy. Forest Stewardship. Publications. Sustainability and Planning. Urban Community Forestry. Watershed Programs. Wood Education Resource Center. Financial Assistance to Partners. Reports and Achievements. Civil Rights. Forest Health Protection. Asian Longhorned Beetle. Bacterial Leaf Scorch. Beech Bark Disease. Dutch Elm Disease. Emerald Ash Borer. Gypsy Moth. Hazard Tree. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Ice Storms. Invasive Plants. Oak Wilt. Sirex Woodwasp. Thousand Canker Disease Pest Al...
http://na.fs.fed.us/fhp/ta/index.shtm
*  Northern Coniferous Forest Biome
... The northern coniferous forest biome occupies a vast area below the tundra, extending completely across Canada and into interior Alaska. Precipitation averages 20 inches per year, but ranges from 40 inches in the eastern regions to 10 inches in interior Alaska. The former two species generally occupy wet sites with poorly drained mineral or organic soils, while white spruce is the climatic climax species on sites that are drier and higher in nutrient content. Balsam fir Abies balsamea is a dominant tree species in the eastern half of the biome. Red spruce replaces white spruce as a dominant south of the St. Still further south in the high Appalachians, Fraser fir Abies fraseri replaces balsam fir and forms a high altitude association with red spruce as far south as the Carolinas and Tennessee. Much of the northern coniferous forest biome is covered with lakes, which eventually fill with mineral and organic matter to form bogs. It is gradually replaced by black spruce, the edaphic climax on wet, boggy sit...
http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/Forsite/ncfbiome.htm
*  Joint ITTO – CBD Initiative for Tropical Forest Biodiversity
... In the framework of the International Year of Biodiversity 2010 and the International Year of Forests 2011, the International Tropical Timber Organization ITTO and the Convention on Biodiversity CBD signed a Memorandum of Understanding to strengthen collaboration in the pursuit of their common objectives of conserving and sustainably managing tropical forest resources. The following pamphlets summarize the Joint ITTO/CBD Initiative for Tropical Forest Biodiversity. The overall objective of the Joint ITTO/CBD Initiative for Tropical Forest Biodiversity is to enhance biodiversity conservation in tropical forests with the direct participation of local stakeholders, addressing the main drivers of biodiversity loss in tropical forests: deforestation and forest degradation. This Initiative aims to achieve four key outputs, with the assistance of donors and with the close collaboration of partners in producer member countries: Enhanced local capacity for biodiversity conservation in production forests and for t...
https://cbd.int/forest/tropical-forest.shtml
*  Interior West Forest Inventory & Analysis - Users' Group Albuquerque 2008
Interior West Forest Inventory Analysis - Users' Group Albuquerque 2008. Interior West Forest Inventory Analysis. Forest Inventory Analysis. About IW-FIA. Contact Us. Staff/Personnel. Data Retrieval and Tools. Techniques Research. Map Products. Publications Inventory Results. Library. Data Collection. Site Map. Employment. Users' Group. National FIA. Evaluate Our Service. We welcome your comments and suggestions for improvement. Forest Inventory Analysis 507 25th Street Ogden, UT 84401-2450 801 625-5388. 2008 Users' Group Meeting Albuquerque, New Mexico February 2008. Welcome to Users' Group Meeting Michael Wilson, IW-FIA Program Manager [ppt .8 meg]. Application of Satellite-derived Disturbance Information in Support of Sustainable Forest Management Gretchen Moisen, IW-FIA Research Forester, Sean Healey, IW-FIA Research Ecologist, Warren Cohen, PNW-FIA. Drought-related Mortality in Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands John Shaw, IW-FIA Analyst Team Lead [ppt 18 meg]. Providing a Broader Framework for Accesing All Lands ...
http://fs.fed.us/rm/ogden/about/user_group9_albuq.shtml
*  NA - Forest Health and Economics
... ABOUT US. CONTACT US. Forest Service National Links Forest Service Home Employment Fire Aviation International Just for Kids Maps Brochures Passes Permits Photo Video Gallery Projects Policies Publications Recreational Activities Research Development State Private Forestry. . Northeastern Area. Northeastern Area Home. Conservation Education. Fire & Aviation Management. Forest Health & Economics. Forest Legacy. Forest Stewardship. Publications. Sustainability and Planning. Urban Community Forestry. Watershed Programs. Wood Education & Resource Center. Financial Assistance to Partners. Reports and Achievements. Civil Rights. Forest Health Economics. Forest Health Protection programs emphasize protecting the long-term health and sustainability of our forests. Our major responsibilities are to assist the States with implementing their forest health programs and to provide forest health support on National Forests and other federal lands. Activities include identification and evaluation of insect and disease ...
http://na.fs.fed.us/fhp/
*  NA - Forest Health and Economics
... Forest Health & Economics. Forest Health Economics. Our major responsibilities are to assist the States with implementing their forest health programs and to provide forest health support on National Forests and other federal lands. Activities include identification and evaluation of insect and disease problems, provision of resource materials and management recommendations in forests and nurseries, training in hazard tree management, and assistance with major forest pest control projects. Invasive Insects Diseases: Insects and diseases can be introduced in many ways. Invasive Plants: Invasive plants aggressively compete with and displace native plants. Forest Health Management: We direct and implement measures to prevent, retard, or suppress unwanted, native and nonnative invasive insects, pathogens, and plants affecting trees and forests. Pesticide Use and Management: We provide technical pesticide information and coordination on the use of pesticides in the Northeastern Area. Survey and Technical Assi...
http://na.fs.fed.us/fhp/index.shtm
*  .. Urban Forests – Why We Care .. [1] Nowak, D.J.; Crane, D.E.; and Stevens, J.C. Air Pollution
Urban forests help purify the air we breathe. Urban forests help manage a city’s water. Urban forests help a city’s water in several ways:. Urban forests help reduce energy demand. Just three large trees around your home — two on the west side and one on the east — can provide enough shade to reduce your air-conditioning costs by 30 percent in the summer. The strategic planting of urban trees reduce the noise of the city considerably. Tall, dense trees with soft ground surfaces can reduce noise by 50 percent or more. And, it has been shown that urban trees help provide an overall feeling of community well-being. These are only a few of the many benefits that urban forests can provide if kept healthy and if they are cared for properly. Urban forests can help mitigate climate change. Urban Forests can help to mitigate climate change two ways: through direct carbon uptake and sequestration and by reducing the amount of carbon and other greenhouse gases emitted. Shrubs and trees store carbon in woody tissue...
http://americanforests.org/our-programs/urbanforests/whywecare/
*  Phys.org - tropical forests(... continued page 6)
Phys.org - tropical forests ... Home tropical forests. News tagged with tropical forests. 1 week. 1 week. 1 week. greenhouse gases · forest · proceedings of the national academy of sciences · carbon dioxide · climate change. Carbon storage recovers faster than plant biodiversity in re-growing tropical forests. Brazil's rainforests are releasing more carbon dioxide than previously thought. Because of the deforestation of tropical rainforests in Brazil, significantly more carbon has been lost than was previously assumed. May 13, 2012 in Environment. Mar 25, 2010 in Environment. New gecko species identified in West African rain forests. Jun 01, 2010 in Plants & Animals. Old-growth rainforests vital for tropical biodiversity: study. Sep 14, 2011 in Environment. Mar 06, 2012 in Environment. Deforestation can have a significant effect on tropical rainfall, new research confirms. Sep 05, 2012 in Environment. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests TSMF , als...
http://phys.org/tags/tropical forests/sort/popular/all/page6.html
*  Temperate forest
... s correspond to forest concentration formed in the northern and southern hemisphere or in temperate regions main characteristics include wide leaves large and tall trees and non seasonal vegetation temperate forests can be further distinguished by weather patterns and geographical features that favor the predominance of certain kinds of trees in temperate coniferous forest s evergreen conifers predominate while in temperate broadleaf and mixed forests a more even distribution exists between evergreen and deciduous trees temperate deciduous forest s a subgroup of temperate broadleaf forests consist of trees that lose their leaves every year finally temperate rainforest s typically have heavy rainfall and dense humidity in the temperate region winters are mild and rainfall is moderate the forests have trees shrubs and bushes there is less undergrowth most of the trees are deciduous which shed their leaves during the autumn in some areas the deciduous trees are replaced by coniferous trees the main trees fou...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperate_forest
*  .. Why Natural Forest Fires Can Be Good for Forest Health .. Related
Home » Why Natural Forest Fires Can Be Good for Forest Health. Why Natural Forest Fires Can Be Good for Forest Health. September 30, 2013. Every year forest fires consume thousands of acres of forests and wild lands. Trees are destroyed and homes are put at risk. Amid all this destruction is a required health benefit for the forest. Fires have been healing and improving small and large forests around the world since before modern man began walking the Earth. In recent decades, the benefits of a natural forest fire have been examined more closely after years of fire suppression put many forests at increased risk of larger fires. One way the health of a forest is improved after a fire is the seeding and germination of new plants. Pine trees drop their cones in a fire. These cones open up in the heat of the flame and, after a delay, allow seeds to emerge onto the soil. The seeds are better able to germinate after the layer of dried and dead leaves has been cleared by the fire. Smaller plants like geraniums and b...
http://sunnyscope.com/fires-good-forest-health/
*  Planttalk Colorado - Storm-Damaged and Drought Stressed Deciduous Trees
... Home. Sponsors. Feedback. 2130 Storm-Damaged and Drought Stressed Deciduous Trees If your deciduous trees have suffered storm damage, you should remove stubs, broken and hanging branches to minimize hazards and for future tree health. This is sometimes termed crown cleaning. Pruning cuts should be made according to good practice including leaving the branch collar and not making flush cuts. If possible, avoid removing branches that are greater than 1/2 the diameter of the branch or trunk left, 1/3 is preferred. Not following this practice can result in poor wound closure and sucker growth. On older, slow-growing and drought-stressed trees, crown thinning and crown reduction that removes a lot of live wood and the stored carbohydrates in it can speed decline and are not recommended. No more than 25 percent of crown should be removed, and with many already weakened trees, no more than 15 percent. Younger, vigorous trees may more easily accommodate the loss of 25 percent. Consider pruning broken and dead wo...
http://ext.colostate.edu/ptlk/2130.html
*  Threats to Forest Health - #4 Unmanaged Recreation - Pirate4x4.Com : 4x4 and Off-Road Forum
... Threats to Forest Health - #4 Unmanaged Recreation. User Name. Password. Threats to Forest Health - #4 Unmanaged Recreation This opinion article sounds real sensible until he hits on his #4 threat to forest health..... ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Four-part plan - Forest Service focuses on quartet of threats to habitat health. At the Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory, where I serve as director, high-priority projects address the first three of those threats. Point #2: Invasive plants, insects and disease can be controlled by fire, once the current problem of fuel density and the resulting fire intensity can be controlled. The accusation that Off Highway Vehicle OHV and Street legal Vehicle SLV use is a major threat to a healthy forest must be balanced with a history of OHV/SLV use as a valued legitimate recreation practice in National Forests. The growing popularity of OHV/SLV based travel and camping validates the public sense of worth atta...
http://pirate4x4.com/forum/land-use-issues/152640-threats-forest-health-4-unmanaged-recreation.html
*  .. Programme Document for ITTO/CBD Collaborative Initiative for Tropical Forest Biodiversity Releas
Programme Document for ITTO/CBD Collaborative Initiative for Tropical Forest Biodiversity Released. The aim of the CBD/ITTO Initiative is to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in tropical forests. Its specific objective is to support developing countries that are both parties to the CBD and members of ITTO for the implementation of country-specific projects that contribute to the achievement of the goals of the CBD and the ITTO in their work on forest biodiversity, including on linkages between forest biodiversity and climate change, among other areas. As set out in the document, the key activities under the Initiative will include the implementation of specific-country and regional projects and activities related to capacity building, technical support and guidance for: biodiversity conservation in tropical timber production forests; restoration, management and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary tropical forests; transboundary conservation of tropical forest resources; buffer ...
http://climate-l.iisd.org/news/programme-document-for-ittocbd-collaborative-initiative-for-tropical-forest-biodiversity-released/
*  Earth Floor: Biomes
... Deciduous Forest: Plants Trees of this biome include both broadleaf, deciduous trees, such as maple, oak, hickory, and beech, and evergreens, such as hemlock, spruce, and fir. A deciduous forest typically has three to four, and sometimes five, layers of plant growth. Tall deciduous trees make up the top layer of plant growth, and they create a moderately dense forest canopy. Although the canopy is moderately dense, it does allow sunlight to reach the forest floor. This sunlight allows plants in the other layers to grow. During the spring, before the deciduous trees leaf out, these herbs bloom and grow quickly in order to take advantage of the sunlight. Plant adaptations In the spring, deciduous trees begin producing thin, broad, light-weight leaves. The broad leaves are great when temperatures are warm and there is plenty of sunlight. However, when temperatures are cold, the broad leaves expose too much surface area to water loss and tissue damage. Cooler temperatures and limited sunlight are two climati...
http://cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/dforestP.html
*  USDA Forest Service Forest Health Protection
... FHP Home. News. Contact Us. You are here: Home / FHM / Managing Native Insects Diseases / Red Oak Borer Managing Native Insects Diseases. Red Oak Borer A severe episode of oak decline is occurring in the Ozark and Ouachita mountains of Arkansas and Missouri. Oak decline is a natural and complex phenomenon with multiple causes, none of which can be addressed alone to significantly decrease tree decline. In the current episode, populations of red oak borer have exploded, causing widespread mortality of oaks and significant degrade in forest products. Mortality of northern red, black, scarlet and southern red oaks became particularly evident in 1999 following 3 years of severe drought. White oaks, hickories and other species are affected as well, but to a much lesser extent. Red oak borer populations, however, appear to remain high. A comprehensive “Oak Mortality Action Plan for the Ozark Highlands Region” has been prepared to address this problem. On the Ozark National Forest, in the past 2 years, over 560...
http://fs.fed.us/foresthealth/management/fhm-natives-rob.shtml
*  Himalaya mountain forests, Sagamartha National Park, Nepal | GRID-Arendal - Environmental Photo Libr
Himalaya mountain forests, Sagamartha National Park, Nepal. GRID-Arendal - Environmental Photo Library. Photo Library. World Forest Ecosystems. Himalaya mountain forests, S ... Himalaya mountain forests, Sagamartha National Park, Nepal. Himalaya mountain forests, Sagamartha National Park, Nepal Size. Uploaded 21 Mar 2011 by Peter Prokosch Year: 2010 From collection: World Forest Ecosystems Taken by: Peter Prokosch Rhododendron forest at about 3500m above sealevel in the Sagarmatha Mount Everest national park. Tags: Biodiversity 1884, Flora 324, Himalayas 115, IYF 44, Nepal 122 Blue-headed Pionus parrots in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador The Blue-headed Pionus parrots is found in humid regions in South America including the Yasuni National Park, Ecuador. In the wild, the parrots live in flocks of up to 400 during breeding season, but the Blue-headed Pion... By Peter Prokosch. Geometrical scars on the land, Brazil Here in Mato Grosso, the Amazon has been exploited in the name of agriculture, with little regard f...
http://grida.no/photolib/detail/himalaya-mountain-forests-sagamartha-national-park-nepal_05cf
*  Urban Forests and Climate Change (2008) | Climate Change Resource Center
Urban Forests and Climate Change 2008. Climate Change Resource Center. Climate Change Resource Center. Forests and Carbon. Neighborhood Trees Urban Forests. Climate Projects. Urban Forests and Climate Change 2008. The current version of this paper 2013 is available at www.fs.usda.gov/ccrc/topics/urban-forests. Urban forests have a role to play in reducing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases GHG in the atmosphere. Urban trees reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide CO 2 through sequestration and reducing GHG emissions by conserving energy used for space heating and cooling Figure 1. Urban Forest Project Protocol. The Urban Forest Project Protocol provides detailed guidance to insure that tree projects meet eligibility requirements, produce GHG reductions that are additional to a baseline, are sustained for at least 100 years, and do not detract from management of existing trees. Also, it describes how to calculate and report carbon storage by project trees, as well as emissions associated with their ...
http://fs.usda.gov/ccrc/topics/urban-forests-and-climate-change-2008
*  Influences of Forest Structure, Climate and Species Composition on Tree Mortality across the East
... ern US - Microsoft Research. Influences of Forest Structure, Climate and Species Composition on Tree Mortality across the Eastern US Emily R Lines, David A Coomes, and Drew Purves October 2010. Abstract Few studies have quantified regional variation in tree mortality, or explored whether species compositional changes or within-species variation are responsible for regional patterns, despite the fact that mortality has direct effects on the dynamics of woody biomass, species composition, stand structure, wood production and forest response to climate change. Regional variation in mortality is therefore the product of variation in species composition combined with highly varied mortality-environment correlations within species. The results imply that variation in mortality is a crucial part of variation in the forest carbon cycle, such that including this variation in models of the global carbon cycle could significantly narrow uncertainty in climate change predictions. Climate-related variation in mortalit...
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=140570
*  Researchspace: Potential utility of SumbandilaSat imagery for monitoring indigenous forest health
... Search DSpace. Advanced Search. Home. Browse. Communities Collections. Issue Date. Author. Title. Subject. Sign on to:. Receive email updates. My DSpace authorized users. Edit Profile. Help. About DSpace. Researchspace. General science, engineering & technology. General science, engineering & technology. General science, engineering & technology. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10204/4273. Title: Potential utility of SumbandilaSat imagery for monitoring indigenous forest health. Authors: Cho, MA Debba, P. Keywords: SumbandilaSat imagery Indigenous forest health CSIR Conference 2010. Issue Date: 1-Sep-2010. Publisher: CSIR. Citation: Cho, MA and Debba, P. 2010. Potential utility of SumbandilaSat imagery for monitoring indigenous forest health. CSIR 3rd Biennial Conference 2010. Science Real and Relevant. CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, 30 August – 01 September 2010, pp 11. Abstract: Indigenous forest degradation is regarded as on...
http://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/handle/10204/4273
*  Tahoe Forest Health System teaches students importance of hand hygiene and flu prevention | TahoeDai
Tahoe Forest Health System teaches students importance of hand hygiene and flu prevention. TahoeDailyTribune.com. Lake Tahoe News. South Shore Sports. Weather. Real Estate. Tahoe Daily. Tahoe Daily. Tahoe Forest Health System teaches students importance of hand hygiene and flu prevention. - During December students at Truckee Tahoe Unified School District TTUSD were taught the importance of hand hygiene, flu prevention and dental care from Tahoe Forest Health System medical professionals. To complement the program, Ecolab, the global leader in water, hygiene and energy technologies, donated hand sanitizer stands to Glenshire, Truckee, Lake Tahoe and King's Beach Elementary Schools. About Tahoe Forest Health System Tahoe Forest Health System TFHS, a not-for-profit rural health care facility located in Truckee, is one of the top 100 Critical Care Access Hospitals in the United States. Through community support, the new Tahoe Forest Cancer Center is a proud affiliate of the UC Davis Cancer Network, an organizati...
http://tahoedailytribune.com/article/20130128/COMMUNITY/130129909
*  Effects of Forest Disturbance on Water Quality in Appalachian Watersheds | The University of Marylan
Effects of Forest Disturbance on Water Quality in Appalachian Watersheds. The University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. The University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Education. Appalachian Laboratory. Maryland Sea Grant. Students. President s Award. News from UMCES. News Events. Appalachian Laboratory. Landscape Ecology Remote Sensing and Forest Disturbance. Appalachian Laboratory. Appalachian Laboratory. Maryland Sea Grant. Modeling the Distribution of Streams and Stream Burial in Large River Basins. Modeling the Distribution of Streams and Stream Burial in Large River Basins. Caption: Common sources of forest disturbance in the Appalachian Mountain region of the eastern U.S. Predominantly-forested watersheds in the Appalachian Mountain region of the eastern U.S. Caption: Forest disturbance often results in leakage of nitrogen from disturbed watersheds. is the release or “leakage” of dissolved nitrogen N from forests to surface waters see figure at right. We tested the hypothesi...
http://ca.umces.edu/al/project/effects-forest-disturbance-water-quality-appalachian-watersheds
*  Surface wildfires in central Amazonia: short-term impact on forest structure and carbon loss. - Lanc
... aster EPrints. Lancaster EPrints. Home. Search. Browse by Year. Browse by Subject. Browse by Department. Help. Login. Surface wildfires in central Amazonia: short-term impact on forest structure and carbon loss. Haugaasen, Torbjørn and Barlow, Jos and Peres, Carlos A. 2003 Surface wildfires in central Amazonia: short-term impact on forest structure and carbon loss. Forest Ecology and Management, 179 1-3. pp. 321-331. ISSN 0378-1127. Full text not available from this repository. Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127 02 00548-0. Abstract. Changes in forest structure were examined 10–15 months after an unprecedented understorey wildfire burnt previously undisturbed primary forest in central Brazilian Amazonia, following the severe 1997–1998 El Niño dry season. On the basis of 20 0.25 ha plots 10 m×250 m in both burnt and unburnt forest, we found marked differences in the overall live biomass, canopy openness and understorey vegetation. On average, 36% of all trees equal to or greater than 10 cm ...
http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/10385/
*  McInnis urges passing of forest restoration act | Steamboat Pilot & Today
McInnis urges passing of forest restoration act. Steamboat Pilot Today. Explore Steamboat. Real Estate. TV18. Sign in. Steamboat Pilot Today Jump to content. News. Today's news. Real estate. Sports. Today's sports news. Steamboat prep sports. Explore Steamboat. Comcast TV guide. DirecTV TV guide. E-edition. Today's e-edition. Facebook. Twitter. Steamboat Information. McInnis urges passing of forest restoration act. Email, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. Senate Agriculture and Natural Resource Committee recently approved a Healthy Forests Restoration Act written by Rep. Scott McInnis, R-Grand Junction, and the bill was placed on the full Senate legislative calendar for an upcoming discussion. McInnis' bill, which passed the House by a vote of 256 -170 in May, received a legislative hearing by the Agriculture Committee in June. McInnis urged the Senate to move with urgency to pass the forest health roadmap as soon as possible. "It's been over two months since the House passed this landmark environmental legislatio...
http://steamboattoday.com/news/2003/aug/06/mcinnis_urges_passing/
*  Cleared forest area in Canada | GRID-Arendal - Environmental Photo Library
Cleared forest area in Canada. GRID-Arendal - Environmental Photo Library. Photo Library. World Forest Ecosystems. Cleared forest area in Canada. Cleared forest area in Canada. Cleared forest area in Canada Size. Uploaded 31 Aug 2010 by Lawrence Hislop Year: 2010 From collection: World Forest Ecosystems Taken by: Lawrence Hislop Sustainable forest management involves the maintenance and enhancement of forest environments, ensuring longevity of forest ecosystems while allowing the best possible environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities now and into the future. Tags: Canada 118, Flora 324, Forestry 53 Cleared land in the Amazon Jungle, Brazil Deforestation in the Amazon area is driven mainly by industry and agriculture. By Riccardo Pravettoni. Fallen trees in a plantation, Canada Sustainable forest management involves the maintenance and enhancement of forest environments, ensuring longevity of forest ecosystems while allowing the best possible environmental, economic, social and cultural oppor...
http://grida.no/photolib/detail/cleared-forest-area-in-canada_3f18
*  Benefits of riparian forest buffers : Riparian buffer series : Agroforestry : Education : University
... of Minnesota Extension. University of Minnesota Extension www.extension.umn.edu 612-624-1222. Go to the U of M Extension home page. Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships. Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships. Forestry Agroforestry. Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships. About Family Development. Agroforestry Benefits of riparian forest buffers Benefits of riparian forest buffers Phyllis Bongard, Extension educator in agriculture production/water quality Gary Wyatt, Extension educator in agroforestry PDF version 214 K On this page What is a riparian forest buffer. A well-designed riparian forest buffer protects water quality, enhances aquatic and wildlife habitats and can provide income opportunities for landowners. Riparian forest buffers improve trout and wildlife habitats Minnesota is home to more than 450 miles of Department of Natural Resou...
http://extension.umn.edu/environment/agroforestry/riparian-forest-buffers-series/benefits-of-riparian-forest-buffers/
*  Tree Sap Removal
... 860 874-3018. Home. About Us. Contact. Why Us. FAQ's. Tree Sap Removal. Tree Removal Services. Tree Removal. Large Tree Removal. Small Tree Removal. Dead Tree Removal. Fallen Tree Removal. Fallen Branch Removal. Tree Grinding. Stump Removal Services. Tree Stump Removal. Tree Stump Grinding. Tree Trunk Removal. Tree Root Services. Tree Root Removal. We Remove. Cedar Trees. Maple Trees. Oak Trees. Pine Trees. We Give Away Free. Tree Wood Chips. Our Tree Removal Tools. Tree Stump Grinders. Tree Chippers. Chip Trucks. Front End Loader. Bucket Trucks. Tree Sap Removal Tips. Tree sap is messy and can stick to shoes, and stain clothes, car finishes and many other precious things. In order to remove tree sap, you should treat it as you would any other sticky substance. Lubricants Alcohol work well, and also letting the sap dry may help remove it from clothing. Some products we recommend to remove sap are:. WD40 my personal favorite Hand sanitizer Rubbing alcohol Nail polish remover Peanut butter Goof off Cooking...
http://treeservicesmanchester.com/tree/tree_sap_removal_manchester.htm
*  Trees Are Good
... MENU About. Tree Owner Information. Educational Activities. Find an Arborist. Get Involved. Newsroom. Shop. MENU Tree Owner Information. Benefits of Trees. Choosing the Right Tree. Managing Tree Hazards and Risks. Plant Health Care. Planting a Tree. Pruning Your Trees. Tree Owner's Manual. Why Hire an Arborist. Translated Brochures. . Home >. Tree Owner Information Tree Owner Information Basic knowledge of proper tree care helps individual tree owners understand the quality of care necessary for the health of their trees. An overview of tree care essentials is provided in this section. For additional information on the topics below, ISA also provides detailed educational brochures to help tree owners understand best management practices and to promote a greater awareness of the benefits that trees provide in our communities. The brochures offer guidance for management throughout the life of a tree, from tree selection and planting to mature tree care and risk assessment. Tree Care Topics and Related Broc...
http://treesaregood.org/treeowner/treeownerinformation.aspx
*  Community Agriculture Alliance: Routt entering new era of forest restoration | Steamboat Pilot & Tod
Community Agriculture Alliance: Routt entering new era of forest restoration. Steamboat Pilot Today. Real Estate. Sign in. Steamboat Pilot Today Jump to content. News. Today's news. Real estate. Sports. Today's sports news. Steamboat prep sports. South Routt prep sports. Today's events. DirecTV TV guide. Today's e-edition. Facebook. Twitter. Steamboat Information. Community Agriculture Alliance: Routt entering new era of forest restoration. Larry Sandoval/For the Steamboat Today Friday, April 19, 2013. Email, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. For more than a decade, Routt National Forest managers have directed much of their attention to the mountain pine beetle epidemic that has resulted in mortality of mature pine species across approximately 4 million acres in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming. With most of the important emergency mitigation work complete, in progress or underway, Routt National Forest managers now are shifting focus to accelerating restoration of future forest stands. With this in mind, Na...
http://steamboattoday.com/news/2013/apr/19/community-agriculture-alliance-routt-entering-new-/
*  Biodiversity and Conservation: Chapter 10:Forests and Deforestation
... HOME. HELP. PREFERENCES. Search. Titles A-Z. Filenames. EXPAND TEXT. EXPAND CONTENTS. DETACH NO HIGH- LIGHTING. Biodiversity and Conservation source ref: biobook.html. Metadata. Chapter 1:Introduction, History of Life. Chapter 2:The Age of Mammals. Chapter 3: Extinction And deplition From Over-Exploitation. Chapter 4:Whaling And Fishing. Chapter 5:Overexploitation Threatening Living Species. Chapter 6:Global Patterns of Biodiversity. Chapter 7:Values of Biodiversity. Chapter 8:Endangered Species Conservation. Chapter 9:Exotic Introductions. Chapter 10:Forests and Deforestation. Chapter 11:Endangered Aquatic Habitats. Chapter 12:Islands. Chapter 13:Protected Areas. Chapter 14:Habitat Pollution. Chapter 15:Captive Breeding and Reintroduction. Chapter 16:Human Population. Chapter 10:Forests and Deforestation Chapter 10: FORESTS AND DEFORESTATION. Ponderosa Pine forest ten years after harvest, Shoshone National Forest USDA Forest Service - Rocky Mountain Region Archives. . DEFORESTATION. TEMPERATE FORESTS Bi...
http://iimk.ac.in/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-000-00---0econom--00-0-0--0prompt-10---4------0-1l--1-en-50---20-help---00031-001-1-0utfZz-8-00&a=d&c=econom&cl=CL1&d=HASH018dcf41fc3536c60f211f1a.11
*  Tropical forest carbon absorption may hinge on an odd couple - Technology Org
... Technology Org Science and technology news. Tropical forest carbon absorption may hinge on an odd couple. A unique housing arrangement between a specific group of tree species and a carbo-loading bacteria may determine how well tropical forests can absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, according to a Princeton University-based study. Nearly 50 percent of the world s tropical forests are secondary forests that have regrown after clearing, agriculture or cattle grazing. Tropical forests thrive on natural nitrogen fertilizer pumped into the soil by trees in the legume family, a diverse group that includes beans and peas, the researchers report in the journal Nature. The researchers studied second-growth forests in Panama that had been used for agriculture five to 300 years ago. The presence of legume trees ensured rapid forest growth in the first 12 years of recovery and thus a substantial carbon sink, or carbon-storage capacity. Tracts of land that were pasture only 12 years before had already accumul...
http://technology.org/2013/09/16/tropical-forest-carbon-absorption-may-hinge-odd-couple/
*  USDA Forest Service
... Forest Service Home. About the Forest Service. Maps. Contact Us. Browse by Subject Research Programs Forest Inventory & Analysis. Publications Data. Tools Applications. Scientists Staff. Contact Information Northern Research Station 11 Campus Blvd., Suite 200 Newtown Square, PA 19073 610 557-4017 610 557-4132 TTY/TDD. You are here: Home / Research Programs / Forest Inventory and Analysis / Maps / Northern Forest Resource Maps. Average Annual Net Growth of Softwood Growing-Stock Trees on Timberland, 2002. Description This map shows the spatial distribution of the average annual net growth of softwood growing-stock trees on timberland, per county, in the area comprising the Northern Research Station. Use this map only to identify broad spatial trends. Virgin Islands, and a small number of counties in the lower 48 states Sources: USDA Forest Service, 2002 RPA data, available at: http://www.fia.fs.fed.us/tools-data/ Distributor: USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis. Layers: USDA Forest Service,...
http://nrs.fs.fed.us/fia/maps/nfr/descr/growthsw.asp
*  Temperate Rain Forest Food Web
... Science Notes. Web Links. Science Notes. Web Links. Science Notes. Web Links. Science Notes. Web Links. A Food Chain in the Temperate Rain Forest Biome. Although temperatures remain mild, animals and plants respond to the seasons in their growth and reproductive patterns. The Primary Producers of this forest are the plants that use their chlorophyll to create food for their own growth as well for the animals. The Ground Layer of this forest is covered with green mosses and small plants. Dead leaves, logs, needles, and twigs, provide food for the detritivores, who digest the dead materials and make them available for recycling. They produce edible seeds and provide a thick roof over the smaller trees. The vegetation is so thick that sometimes when snow falls it is caught by leaves and twigs so that it does not fall down to the ground. The Primary Consumers are mostly small animals. The forest provides food, shelter in the moss, mild temperatures and humidity, which encourages the growth of many kinds of i...
http://world-builders.org/lessons/less/biomes/rainforest/temp_rain/tempweb.html
*  How to Propagate a Sycamore Tree From a Clipping | Garden Guides
How to Propagate a Sycamore Tree From a Clipping. Garden Guides. go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Plants. About Plants. Annual Plants Flowers. Perennial Plants Flowers. Biennial Plants Flowers. Flowers. Trees Shrubs. Other Plants. Organic Gardening. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Plants. Trees & Shrubs. Propagating Trees & Shrubs. How to Propagate a Sycamore Tree From a Clipping. How to Propagate a Sycamore Tree From a Clipping Comments. Propagate the sycamore tree by taking softwood cuttings in the summer months of June and July and placing them in an environment for root development. Step 1 Take a 6- to 8-inch softwood cutting from a sycamore tree that has at least two to three pairs of leaves with one pair of buds on the bottom half of the stem. Step 2 Fill a clean root propagation tray with one-third sterile peat moss, one-third course sand and one-third perlite. Step 3 Remove all leaves from the bottom half of the sycamore stem, making sure to retain any bud growth. Dip the bo...
http://gardenguides.com/115931-propagate-sycamore-tree-clipping.html
*  Bacteria on old-growth trees may help forests grow
... Earth. Zoe Lindo, a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Biology at McGill University, and Jonathan Whiteley, a doctoral student in the same department, shows that large, ancient trees may be very important in helping forests grow. Cyanobacteria in mosses on the ground were recently shown to supply nitrogen to the Boreal forest, but until now cyanobacteria have not been studied in coastal forests or in canopies tree-tops. By collecting mosses on the forest floor and then at 15 and 30 metres up into the forest canopy, Lindo was able to show both that the cyanobacteria are more abundant in mosses high above the ground, and that they "fix" twice as much nitrogen as those associated with mosses on the forest floor. "You need trees that are large enough and old enough to start accumulating mosses before you can have the cyanobacteria that are associated with the mosses," Lindo said. Explore further: Forest canopies help determine natural fertilization rates More information: Old trees contribute bio-avai...
http://phys.org/news/2011-06-bacteria-old-growth-trees-forests.html
*  Friends of the Urban Forest
... is a non profit organization based in san francisco that plants and maintains trees within the city organized as a response to the city s lack of trees the group s first tree planted was a glossy privet on arbor day in noe valley as of it had planted trees san francisco was originally mostly sand dunes and has few native trees fog wind cold and salty air made it difficult for native and planted trees to survive only buckeye and pacific willow were common most of the trees in the city were planted in the s through s as part of large parks and properties monterey pine s and eucalyptus tree s were planted in the san francisco presidio stern grove and golden gate park however these monterey pines have been affected by pitch pine canker and have been dying at san francisco s tree canopy cover remains considerably under the national average benefits to planting more trees include aesthetics improved property values mature trees are said to increase surrounding property values by approximately helping with glob...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friends_of_the_Urban_Forest
*  One Last Ride Into a Northwest Forest Canopy . News
One Last Ride Into a Northwest Forest Canopy. News. OPB. Now Playing:. contribute. TV. Radio. News. Arts Life. EARTHFIX. Music. Kids Family. Support. You Make the Difference contribute now. Local. Nation. World. Economy. Environment. Politics. Health. Education. . TV. Radio. News. Local. Nation. World. Economy. Environment. Politics. Health. Education. Arts Life. EARTHFIX. Music. Kids Family. Support. About. Privacy Policy. News. Environment. Land One Last Ride Into a Northwest Forest Canopy by. Amelia Templeton. OPB. June 13, 2011 8 a.m. Fifteen years ago, scientists set up a 25 story yellow construction crane, the same machine that builds high-rises, in a pristine old growth forest about an hour from Portland. The crane, located in the Wind River Experimental forest, has allowed scientists in the Pacific Northwest to explore a kind of last frontier: the high canopy of a Douglas Fir and Mountain Hemlock forest. The trees in Oregon and Washington are among the tallest anywhere in the world. University of Wash...
http://opb.org/news/article/draft-scientists-enjoy-one-last-birds-eye-view-of-/
*  forest restoration | World Resources Institute
forest restoration. World Resources Institute. Skip to main content Making Big Ideas Happen Other Sites WRI Brasil. WRI China. WRI India. WRI Indonesia. WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities. CAIT 2.0 – WRI’s climate data explorer. Electricity Governance Initiative EGI. Environmental Democracy Index. GHG Protocol. Global Forest Watch. The Access Initiative TAI. View All Sites. Menu What We Do. Topics. Climate Energy Food Forests Water Sustainable Cities Business Economics Finance Governance Project Directory Top Outcomes Our Approach Support our Work Where We Work. Africa Brazil China India Indonesia More... Publications Maps Data. Charts Graphs Data Sets Data Visualizations Maps Presentations Videos Blog News Events About. Mission Goals Strategic Plan Managing for Results Experts Staff Board of Directors Annual Reports Donors Sustainability at WRI Get Involved: Individuals Get Involved: Corporations Careers. Internships Contact. Donate. Topics Climate Energy Food Forests Water Sustainable Cities. Search Sea...
http://wri.org/tags/forest-restoration
*  Small Tree Announces Support of 4 TB SATA Drives
... Mac Pro Community Mac Audio Pro Mac Design Pro Mac DVD Pro Mac Video Pro Final Cut Pro DVD Studio Pro Apple Motion Creative Mac. Small Tree Announces Support of 4 TB SATA Drives 4 TB Drives Provide Robust Stream Count Improvement over Previous Drives. DMN Newswire--2012-11-8-- Small Tree, the Mac shared storage and networking specialist, announced today that its GraniteSTOR TITANIUM and ST-RAID lines of shared storage systems now support Hitachi's new 4 TB SATA drives. As a result, media production professionals can achieve far greater performance on video-editing projects. "4 TB drives are definitely a win for media space customers as these drives work exceptionally well with large size files," says Modica. "With Hitachi's introduction of the 4 TB drives, RAIDs will be built with 4k sectors enabled and Small Tree's shared storage systems will simply migrate to a more efficient block size to deliver tremendous performance at a great price point.". GraniteSTOR TITANIUM products provide affordable, all-in-...
http://macanimationpro.com/article/Small-Tree-Announces-Support-of-4-TB-SATA-Drives-2286123
*  Platanus
... "Planetree". "plane tree". They are often known in English as 'planes' or 'plane trees'. Some North American species are called 'sycamores' especially ' Platanus occidentalis ', although the term sycamore also refers to the fig ' Ficus sycomorus ', the plant originally so named, and to the Sycamore Maple ' Acer pseudoplatanus '. Botany Phylogeny Species Diseases Uses Cultural history Footnotes References External links. Male and female flowers are separate, but borne on the same plant monoecious. Plane trees are wind-pollinated. kerrii', and subgenus 'Platanus', with all the others; recent studies in Mexico have increased the number of accepted species in this subgenus. orientalis' than it is to the other North American species. There are fossil records of plane trees as early as 115 million years the Lower Cretaceous. Despite the geographic separation between North America and Old World, species from these continents will cross readily resulting in fertile hybrid s such as the London Plane. File:Fossil ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platanus
*  Tree Facts - Learn About Trees
... Common Tree Facts Menu. Graviola Tree Katsura Tree Catalpa Tree Meyer Lemon Tree Red Bud Tree Black Cherry Tree. Tree Facts - Your Online Source for Information on Trees. The following are some interesting tree facts: Trees are the oldest form of life on earth. The oldest tree is Methuselah, a bristlecone pine almost 4,900 years old, living high in the mountains on the Nevada/California border. We literally cannot live without trees - they take carbon dioxide from the air and replace it with oxygen. Trees stop soil erosion by their long root systems. Trees that grow in cities have a very short life; on average living approximately 8 years. Trees lower the air temperature. Wildlife need trees for food and shelter. One of the most fascinating tree facts is there’s a tree in Australia whose root system takes up an acre of ground. It is 236 feet high. The annual oxygen produced by one tree is 260 pounds. Trees can increase the value of a house by 10%. The tallest tree in the world is a redwood in California ...
http://commontreefacts.com/index.html
*  Global warming: 'Cooling' forests can heat too -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Mobile. Follow. Subscribe. Breaking News :. Ancient Ocean Alga Was Pre-Set for Life On Land. Volcanic Eruptions Affect Flow of Major Rivers. Ocean Bacteria: Millions of Tons of Hydrocarbons. How the Brain Recognizes Objects. Chernobyl: The Animals Have Returned. Illegal Trade Puts Cacti On Most Threatened List. World's Largest Atom Smashers: Smallest Droplets. Crucial Hurdle Overcome in Quantum Computing. Your Visual Cortex Is Making Decisions. Anorexia Nervosa and Gut Bacteria Linked: Study. Science News from research organizations. Global warming: 'Cooling' forests can heat too. Date: January 25, 2010 Source: Weizmann Institute of Science Summary: Forests can trap heat as well as carbon. Recent research shows that in one type of semi-arid forest, it may take years for the effects of carbon capture to override those of heat retention. Share:. Total shares:. FULL STORY. Pine forest. The simple formula we've learned in recent years -- forests remove the greenhouse...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100121141112.htm
*  Adapting Forest Restoration Approaches to Local Contexts: Case-studies from Southeast Asia – Trop
... ical Resources Institute - Yale University. Yale School of Forestry Environmental Studies. Tropical Resources Institute. About Fellows Fellowships Partnerships Publications Tropical Studies News Contact Us. 2011 TRI Fellow in Thailand, Phillipines. Adapting Forest Restoration Approaches to Local Contexts: Case-studies from Southeast Asia. Forest rehabilitation is a common strategy for ameliorating the impacts of deforestation worldwide, despite the fact that its impacts on communities are poorly understood. Both successful and failed forest rehabilitation efforts have been documented to cause negative socio-economic impacts including land-use conflicts, forced evictions, and exacerbation of poverty. In Southeast Asia, communities have destroyed newly reforested areas that impinged upon local property regimes, or have been unable to maintain seedlings due to lack of appropriate incentives. In both cases, a restoration method suited to the local context was used. In Thailand, this was a local variant of Ass...
http://environment.yale.edu/tri/fellow/1325/
*  Forest are the lungs of Earth
... Thread: Forest are the lungs of Earth. Forest are the lungs of Earth. = Generally speaking,forest are the lungs of the Earth.Forest give us fresh air and such as a main things like food,oxygen,wood and many more things.Human are destroyed the forest because of they needed and it is a really nuclear problem for earth. In addition,forest are the lungs of the earth because in human body lungs provide energy by absorb the oxygen and produce the carbon dioxide and produce the oxygen and this cycle called 'photosynthesis'.Furthermore,forest are the main path for rain and because of forest our earth cycle change the atmosphere and that is why human and animals are live in earth.Therefore,forest are the lungs of the earth if it should be destroyed than our world would be shattered.On the other hand,oxygen is the main part of to create ozone rays and ozone rays protect the earth surface from direct rays of the sun.Sun direct rays should be harmfull for human and for animals. In contrast,we can see that there are ...
http://usingenglish.com/forum/threads/178895-Forest-are-the-lungs-of-Earth
*  The Amazon rainforest - a cloud factory | Max Planck Society
O Andreae Rainforest aerosols as biogenic nuclei of clouds and precipitation in the Amazon Science, 17 September 2010,. The Amazon rainforest - a cloud factory Scientists demonstrate that atmospheric aerosols above the Amazon rainforest are mainly produced by biological sources and are able to draw conclusions about the mechanisms of this ecosystem September 20, 2010 The forest in the Amazon Basin produces its own rain. During the wet season, aerosol particles, which serve to condensate clouds and precipitation here, mainly consist of organic material. This has been demonstrated by scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, who are now able to draw conclusions about the mechanisms of this ecosystem: the high content of organic material indicates that the Amazon Basin acts as a largely self-contained biogeochemical reactor during the rainy season. A self-contained biogeochemical reactor: The Amazon ecosystem produces organic aerosol particles, which serve as the ... A self-contained bioge...
http://mpg.de/622290/pressRelease20100920
*  Functions and Types of Forest in India
... Agronomy Horticulture Botany Soil Science Plant Pathology Entomology Extention Agril. Silviculture and Agro Forestry. Production Technology of Horticultural Fruit Crops. Introduction to Horticulture. Ornamental Horticulture. Production Technology Plantation Crops. Production Technology of Spices. Production Technology of Aromatic Crops. Production Technology of Medicinal Crops. Post Harvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables. Current Category. Silviculture and Agro Forestry Functions Types of Forest in India Function of forests:. Particulars. Functions. 1 Productive. They provide timer, fuel, charcoal, beedi, leaves, was and resins, fruits, tanning, materials, manure leaves, grass, bamboo, gums, lac etc. Forests add good appearance, landscaping and a thrilling atmosphere to the locality. Forest provides picnic resorts and opportunities for sport like hiking, trekking, wild life watching, bird watching. Study of ecological process can be made. Forests improve climate and reduce pollution. Forests improve...
http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=2&topicid=128
*  Colors Within: A Study of the Pigmentations in Deciduous and Broadleaf Evergreens
... During the growing season of deciduous trees, when the chlorophyll is the only pigment visible, the other pigments—the xanthophylls, carotenoids, and anthocyanins—are all present. But would these pigments show up in broadleaf evergreens that do not change color or lose their leaves in the fall. Because the accessory pigments seemed to be important in the well-being of a plant, I believed that the leaves from both the deciduous and the broadleaf evergreens would contain all the pigments: chlorophyll, xanthophylls, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. I also believed that the pigments in the deciduous plants would be more intense than the pigments in the broadleaf evergreens. I thought this because the pigments in the deciduous plants appear as vibrant colors during autumn season, but the broad leaves of the evergreens remain green. Both the broadleaf evergreens and the deciduous plants contained the pigment chlorophyll, as well as xanthophylls, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. My results showed that chlorophyll, ...
http://amnh.org/learn-teach/young-naturalist-awards/winning-essays2/2008-winning-essays/colors-within-a-study-of-the-pigmentations-in-deciduous-and-broadleaf-evergreens
*  .. Tree Growths — Cankers, Burls, Mushrooms, Diagnosis & Treatment .. Tree Growths .. Have Abnorm
Tree Growths — Cankers, Burls, Mushrooms, Diagnosis Treatment. April 1, 2013 By. Stefan Karlson. Tree Growths. Tree growths come in many forms and they don’t always indicate a “tree problem.” In many cases, they indicate harmless tree funguses, but not always. Some tree growths will weaken a tree’s structural integrity and broken limbs can be a safety concern as well as an entry point for disease and insects. Tree Canker Treatment. Tree Cankers are caused by fungus. Pruning  the affected limb s is the only remedy. Otherwise they are not treatable and not harmful to the health of your tree. However, they will create weak spots on trunks, limbs and branches. This makes them more susceptible to storm damage. Sometimes, when a tree has a canker on its trunk, we’ll thin out the canopy to decrease the “wind sale” affect and alleviate trunk stress. Tree Burls Treatment. They can form as a result of trama or stress and they can even be caused by wasps laying their eggs and aggravating the tissue of a tree. A...
http://arborscape.com/tree-growths-treatment/
*  .. Deforestation – environmental & human effects .. Advertisement
Deforestation – environmental human effects. May 28, 2009 By. admin. Leave a Comment. Rainforest Deforestation. There are many types of forest in the world from Temperate Forest to Tropical forest. The one thing all forests have in common is that the trees in them act as the lungs to our planet converting CO2 to Oxygen. In addition, forests provide a canopy or shading of the earth which helps maintain temperatures forming a cooling band around the earth. Forest ecosystems also provide medical value, provide habitat for animal species threatened with extinction and have spiritual value. Deforestation has become a growing concern amongst environmentalist. Forests are measured in hectares. Each hectare is 10,000 sq. meters or approximately 2.47 acres. As of 2005 there were approximately 1,442,819,000 hectares of forest on earth. The average deforestation rate from 2000 to 2005 was 6,855,997 hectares a year. At this rate of deforestation we could eliminate all natural Forest within 200 years. Eight thousand year...
http://dulabab.com/2009/05/28/deforestation-environmental-human-effects/
*  How Rainforests Work | Climate Change & Tropical Rainforests
How Rainforests Work. Climate Change & Tropical Rainforests. The Rainforest Story. The World's Rainforests. Rainforest Plants. Paradise Earth TV. Story-Home Rainforest Basics How Rainforests Work Biological Richness Much to Discover Rainforest Services Daily Lives Story-Conclusion. How Rainforests Work. The very conditions of warmth and moisture that are so favorable to the profusion of life in these forests are also responsible for rapid rates of decomposition. In contrast to cold or dry climates where decomposition is dramatically slow in comparison because of lack of warmth or moisture, in rainforests decomposition sets in almost the moment a leaf falls to the forest floor. In a stark contrast to temperate forests, there is little accumulation of leaf litter as a consequence of this rapid decomposition. In fact right below the thin leaf litter is a vast network of tiny roots actively taking up the nutrients as decay releases them. That is why rainforests generally have the vast majority of critical nutrien...
http://paradiseearth.com/work.html
*  Tree Care Services Fort Worth TX, Tree Trimming Colleyville, Stump Grinding
... 817-274-TREES 8733. Every tree service, tree program and tree health evaluation is performed by a certified arborist.Services we offer: Tree Removal, Tree Trimming, Stump Grinding, Tree Fertilization, Colored Mulch, Tree Disease Insect Control / Prevention and More. Call 817 274-8733 OR Click To Schedule A Free Consultation. A Few of The Tree Care Services Offered by JDavis Tree Care Tree Pruning tree trimming JDavis Tree Care Certified Arborists follow ANSI A300 pruning standards. As a JDavis Tree Care client you can be certain our team of highly trained tree care experts will prune your trees to maintain your trees health and optimal structure. Our experts will protect you, your property and your trees from damage and mistakes. Tree Trimming done wrong will severely impact the appearance of your property for years to come. When it s time to trim your trees we encourage you to use only ANSI A300 Certified Arborists. as you know your trees drastically improve the value of your property But we are also we...
http://jdavistreecare.com/
*  Universitat de Barcelona - Spanish forest ecosystems’ carbon emission will be higher than sequestr
Universitat de Barcelona - Spanish forest ecosystems carbon emission will be higher than sequestration. Home > News Spanish forest ecosystems carbon emission will be higher than sequestration... Spanish forest ecosystems carbon emission will be higher than sequestration. In a report, authors highlight that management strategies adapted to environmental changes are crucial to the conservation of Iberian forests. Spanish forest ecosystems will quite probably emit high quantities of carbon dioxide in the second half of the 21st century. This is the conclusion of a report that reviews the results obtained from the implementation of the forest simulation model GOTILWA+, a tool to simulate forest growth processes under several environmental conditions and to optimize Mediterranean forests management strategies in the context of climate change. In climate change scenarios simulated by the model GOTILWA+ within the Consolider-Ingenio project Montes and the research project Med-Forestream, net primary productivity of ...
http://ub.edu/web/ub/en/menu_eines/noticies/2014/02/060.html
*  Princeton University - Tropical forest carbon absorption may hinge on an odd couple
... Skip over navigation View Access Keys. Email. A to Z. Contacts. Site Map. News. Multimedia. Search Topics and People. Shortcuts Other News Emergency Info Media Central Event Streaming Public Events Calendar. Faculty News Student Publications The Daily Princetonian Campus Media Local News World News. About Princeton. Academics. Admission Aid. Arts. International. Library. Research. . Administration Services. Campus Life. Visiting Campus. Students. Faculty Staff. Alumni. Parents Families. Undergraduate Applicants. Graduate School Applicants. Mobile Princeton Web App. Mobile Princeton App for Android. Mobile Princeton App for iOS. Connect Subscribe Home » News » Archive » Tropical forest carbon absorption may hinge on an odd couple. News at Princeton Friday, Oct. 02, 2015. News Stories. FAQs. Events Calendars. Multimedia. For News Media. Share Your News Current Stories. Features. Science Tech. People. Emergency Alerts. University Bulletin. Archive. Web Stories To News Archive. « Previous by Date. Next by Da...
http://princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S37/90/75Q64/index.xml?from=2006-04-01&to=2006-05-01
*  ITTO helps to improve forest statistics in China | The International Tropical Timber Organization (I
ITTO helps to improve forest statistics in China. The International Tropical Timber Organization ITTO. ITTO Objective 2000. Sustainable forest management. Economic information & market intelligence. Industry development. Capacity building. Climate Change. ITTO-CITES Programme. Thematic Programmes. ITTO/CBD Collaborative Initiative for Tropical Forest Biodiversity. CEEP. FLEGT Independent Market Monitoring IMM. Documents. Decisions. Reports. International Tropical Timber Agreement. Projects. Upcoming meetings. Manuals for Project Formulation. Manuals for Projects under Implementation. Project Search. Tropical Forest Update. Market Information Service. Review of the World Timber Situation. Annual Report. Policy papers, manuals & guidelines. Technical reports. SFM Tropics 2011. Mission reports. General information. ITTO YouTube Channel. Meetings & workshops. ITTO at work >. ITTO-CITES Programme > ITTO helps to improve forest statistics in China. ITTO helps to improve forest statistics in China. A national statis...
http://itto.int/partner/id=3388
*  Princeton University - Natural levels of nitrogen in tropical forests may increase vulnerability to
... pollution. Skip over navigation View Access Keys. Email. A to Z. Contacts. Site Map. News. Multimedia. Search Topics and People. Shortcuts Other News Emergency Info Media Central Event Streaming Public Events Calendar. Faculty News Student Publications The Daily Princetonian Campus Media Local News World News. About Princeton. Academics. Admission Aid. Arts. International. Library. Research. . Administration Services. Campus Life. Visiting Campus. Students. Faculty Staff. Alumni. Parents Families. Undergraduate Applicants. Graduate School Applicants. Mobile Princeton Web App. Mobile Princeton App for Android. Mobile Princeton App for iOS. Connect Subscribe Home » News » Archive » Natural levels of nitrogen in tropical forests may increase vulnerability to pollution. News at Princeton Friday, Oct. 02, 2015. News Stories. FAQs. Events Calendars. Multimedia. For News Media. Share Your News Current Stories. Features. Science Tech. People. Emergency Alerts. University Bulletin. Archive. Web Stories To News Ar...
http://princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S33/09/57C28/index.xml?from=2004-10-01&to=2004-11-01
*  Authors
... HOME HELP PREFERENCES Authors. ERI Library. Search Authors Titles Dates Types Category. Forest thinning gets green light 1999 Ghioto.1999.ForestThinningGetsGreenLight.pdf. Forest restoration partners play hardball 1999 Ghioto.1999.ForestRestorationPartnersPlayHardball.pdf. Forest project leader quits 1999 Ghioto.1999.ForestProjectLeaderQuits.pdf. Forest restoration appeal reversed 1999 Ghioto.1999.ForestRestorationAppealReversed.pdf. Forest thinning stalled again 1999 Ghioto.1999.ForestThinningStalledAgain.pdf. Expert: Forest restoration critics misuse his research 2000 Ghioto.2000.ExpertForestRestorationCriticsMisuse.pdf. After the smoke clears 2000 Ghioto.2000.AfterTheSmokeClears.pdf. Both sides of forest restoration movement find common ground at conference 2000 Ghioto.2000.BothSidesOfForestRestoration.pdf. Forest Service offers new thinning plan 2000 Ghioto.2000.ForestServiceOffersNewThinning.pdf. Forest thinning foiled again 2000 Ghioto.2000.ForestThinningFoiledAgain.pdf. Experts fear backlash on pr...
http://library.eri.nau.edu/cgi-bin/library.cgi?e=d-01000-00---off-0erilibra--00-1----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-0l--11-en-50---20-help---00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00&a=d&c=erilibra&cl=CL1.7.11
*  AK'S Genealogy Research: The Committee Tree at Family Search
... Home My Pedigree Charts Research Goals John and Mary Forgey of Shelby County, Tennessee Cathorine Forgy Court Case John A. The Committee Tree at Family Search. "A mule is a horse designed by a committee." The Family Search tree is a tree designed by a committee. It draws the information needed for creating the Fan Chart see above from your Family Search tree. When I created a chart from my Family Search shared tree shared meaning it can be edited and changed by anyone I found quite a few wrong family connections on the chart. It's interesting that I matched several people who had Boyds in their family tree at FT DNA. For some reason all of the corrections I made at Family Search never showed up on the charts I created. Hugh Forgey was born about 1754 and his supposed son was born in 1732. This 9 generation chart provides such a nice view of where my Family Search tree stands. I hear that many people aren't interested in charts, but I don't think you can know where you stand without them. I am finding ent...
http://annettekapple.blogspot.com/2013/03/the-committee-tree-at-family-search.html?showComment=1363098931612
*  Nativ Nurseries - Grafted Fruit Trees
... Your Wishlist |. God. Family. Dirt... After God and family at Mossy Oak it's all about the dirt. We started with a fistful of dirt, limbs, and leaves and created a revolution in the outdoor industry resulting in one of the world's most recognized and trusted outdoor brands and enterprises. What is a Rapid Mast Seedling. Click here to learn why our trees grow faster, healthier, and produce acorns and fruit at an early age. Grafted Fruit Trees. Grafted fruit trees offer fruit production at a young age and are an excellent source of food for both wildlife and man. Our grafted fruit trees are sold in bundles of 4, each tree will have a 4 inch wide by 4 inch wide 10 inch deep container. We offer FREE Shipping on all grafted containerized fruit trees; trees are shipped via UPS and will typically arrive within 5 business days. Ayers Pear - Grafted. Keiffer Pear - Grafted. Orient Pear - Grafted. Plants for Wildlife Oak Trees Hybrid Oaks Specialty Oaks Nut Trees for Wildlife Fruit Trees for Wildlife Wildlife Tree...
http://nativnurseries.com/c-17-grafted-fruit-trees.aspx
*  Predicting and understanding forest dynamics using a simple tractable model - Microsoft Research
... Predicting and understanding forest dynamics using a simple tractable model Drew W Purves, Jeremy W Lichstein, Nikolay Strigul, and Stephen W Pacala 29 October 2008. The PPA is defined in terms of parameters measureable at the scale of individual trees, including allometry, growth and mortality. We estimated these parameters using short-term data = 15-year from individual trees, then compared model predictions and observations for long-term 100-year stand dynamics recorded in chronosequences. The PPA provides simple analytical metrics for early- and late-successional performance as a function of the species-specific, individual-level parameters. Decomposing showed that: 1 succession in this region is driven both by the superior understory performance, and the superior canopy performance, of late-successional species; 2 this performance difference is primarily due to differences in mortality rather than growth. Consistent with this finding, the PPA predicted that, on these soils, stands are now succeeding...
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/?id=68035
*  Point of Opinion: How on Earth Can We Save the Rainforest?
Point of Opinion: How on Earth Can We Save the Rainforest. Point of Opinion. How on Earth Can We Save the Rainforest. Almost half of the remaining tropical rainforest is to be found in South America. The rainforests of central Africa are home to more than 8,000 different species of plants. The climate of a rain forest is very hot and humid so the animals and plants that exist there must learn to adapt to this climate. Today tropical rainforests are disappearing from the face of the globe at a very quick rate. An area of a rainforest the size of a football field is being destroyed each second. But why are the trees disappearing. Large areas of rainforest are being cut down, often in order to remove just a few logs, and rainforest is being destroyed at double the rate of all previous estimates. One example of this is cattle ranching. However, what many people do not realize is that cattle are one of the worst animals to breed. However, cattle ranching in hot tropical places like the Amazon rainforest, there are...
http://callmeopinion.blogspot.com/2012/11/how-on-earth-can-we-save-rainforest.html
*  Save on Hotels with Pool in Central Black Forest (area) - Hotels.com
Save on Hotels with Pool in Central Black Forest area - Hotels.com. Hotels in Central Black Forest area Hotels with Pool in Central Black Forest area. Hotels with Pool in Central Black Forest area. Europa-Park Freizeitpark Erlebnis-Resort, Hotel Bell Rock  Outstanding 4.7 / 5. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. Hotels.com® Rewards For every 10 nights, get 1 free. 7 people looked at this hotel in the last hour See more Pool hotels in Central Black Forest area , Germany. See Central Black Forest area Pool hotels on a map Landmarks Europa-Park. Bo...
http://hotels.com/de1641659-am128/pool-hotels-central-black-forest-area-germany/
*  Findings: - Everything2.com
Here's the stuff we found when you searched for "rain forests". i feel like i'm single-handedly destroying the rain forest Sounds of the Tropical Rain Forest A promise the forest made to the rain Rain forest forest Forest of Fear The Forest of Treasures Forest. let it rain Forest Hills forest of sideways logic I went out to the forest and caught 100,000 fireflies Tongass National Forest riparian forest Medicine Bow National Forest Sitting in the rain at night Like a Hard Rain The Long Rain rain check Talk to me like the rain and let me listen Have You Ever Seen The Rain. My Daddy used to make me run in rain like this Sherwood Forest forest fire Forest Heights Gir forest Weary Forest dancing in the rain Rain in the gutters The smoke turned into rain Nobody, not even the rain, has such small hands Emerald Rain user Sometimes, it rains Rain is always the same, no matter where you are Thunder and rain strawberries oceans ships forest Forest Recollections Australian forests enchanted forest national forest Box of ...
http://everything2.com/title/rain forests
*  .. Dry Leaves Compost .. Related posts: .. Share and Enjoy .. Categories .. Search .. Sponsored Lin
Compost Dry Leaves Compost 2013-02 12 Dry Leaves Compost. Comments Off on Dry Leaves Compost. Dry leaves are good source for making compost for your garden. Compared with classic material for composting such as manure, tree leaves contain much more nutrients and minerals. Generally, the fallen leaves of deciduous trees have more minerals than the evergreen trees. Most deciduous trees have very deep root system which helps them to absorb nutrients from the deep side of the soil. Some of these nutrients are transmitted into leaves. So, regarding the nutrition, the fallen leaves from these trees are more valuable than other organic substances which are commonly used for making compost. They can build up humus which can improve the drainage ability of soil and air circulation. Also, they are helpful to keep moisture for some loose soil types. When making compost, the first thing you need to do is to shred your collected leaves into small pieces. They make the compost easy to deal with. Then you can make a mixture...
http://treekb.com/dry-leaves-compost/
*  Princeton University - Natural levels of nitrogen in tropical forests may increase vulnerability to
... pollution. News. Multimedia. Shortcuts Other News Emergency Info Media Central Event Streaming Public Events Calendar. Faculty News Student Publications The Daily Princetonian Campus Media Local News World News. About Princeton. Arts. Administration Services. Campus Life. Visiting Campus. Faculty Staff. Undergraduate Applicants. Mobile Princeton Web App. Connect Subscribe Home » News » Archive » Natural levels of nitrogen in tropical forests may increase vulnerability to pollution. News at Princeton Friday, Oct. News Stories. FAQs. Events Calendars. Multimedia. For News Media. University Bulletin. Archive. Web Stories To News Archive. Natural levels of nitrogen in tropical forests may increase vulnerability to pollution. This discovery by a Princeton University-led research team raises questions about how tropical forests might respond if they were to become exposed to additional nitrogen through water and air pollution. "The levels of nitrogen we found raise concerns about the fate of the forests and wa...
http://princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S33/09/57C28/index.xml?from=2009-01-01&to=2009-02-01
*  Tropical Landscapes, sub=tropical landscapes, list, pictures and articles
... Home. Buy Plants. Articles. Members. Sign Up. Remove Me. Ask a question. Learn About. Air Plants. Cactus Succulents. Exotics. Ferns. Florida Natives. Flowers Herbs. Fruit. Ground Covers. Hedges. Houseplants. Landscapes. Orchids. Palms. Policies. Shipping. Trees. USDA Climate Zone Maps. Vines. About Us. . This plant may be available to buy Click the banana to see. Tweet. Measure your health by your sympathy with morning and spring. If there is no response in you to the awakening of Nature -- if the prospect of an early morning walk does not banish sleep, if the warble of the first bluebird does not thrill you -- know that the morning and spring of your life are past. Thus may you feel your pulse Hendry David Thoreau. Tropical Landscapes. click pics to enlarge. The bad news. Most visitors to South Florida marvel at our exotic plants and beautiful Atlantic Ocean seaside settings. We agree and that's what this web site is all about; showing exciting tropical plants and flowers Residential home and commer...
http://mgonline.com/articles/landscapes.aspx
*  Growth and wood density predict tree mortality in Amazon forests - Chao - 2008 - Journal of Ecology
... - Wiley Online Library. Skip to Main Content. Log in / Register. Log In. E-Mail Address. Password. Forgotten Password. Remember Me. Register. Institutional Login. Home. Ecology. Plant Ecology. Journal of Ecology. Vol 96 Issue 2. Abstract. JOURNAL TOOLS Get New Content Alerts. Get RSS feed. Save to My Profile. Get Sample Copy. Recommend to Your Librarian. JOURNAL MENU Journal Home FIND ISSUES Current Issue. All Issues. Virtual Issues FIND ARTICLES Early View. Accepted Articles. Most Cited. GET ACCESS Subscribe / Renew. FOR CONTRIBUTORS OnlineOpen. Submit an Article. ABOUT THIS JOURNAL Contact. Editorial Board. Overview. Permissions. Advertise. SPECIAL FEATURES Journal Homepage. News Highlights. Editor's Choice. Guidelines for Authors. Latest Special Features. You have free access to this content Growth and wood density predict tree mortality in Amazon forests. Kuo-Jung Chao 1,*, Oliver L. Phillips 1, Emanuel Gloor 1, Abel Monteagudo 2,3, Armando Torres-Lezama 2,4 and Rodolfo V squez Mart nez 2 Article fir...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01343.x/abstract
*  OBN - A Forest Divided (Forest Fragmentation)Our Better Nature
OBN - A Forest Divided Forest Fragmentation. A FOREST DIVIDED. Forest fragmentation can decrease water quality. The encroachment of roads into forests greatly increases the odds that animals that are migrating, or seeking food, partners or breeding habitat will end up as flattened fauna. Forest fragmentation can also decrease water quality, as homes and impervious surfaces such as roads and parking lots replace woodland plants, wetlands and soil that previously stored carbon dioxide, produced oxygen, absorbed pollutants and protected against erosion. Breaking forests into small parcels can even impact human health. While fragments generally have fewer species than continuous habitat, some species like white-footed mice actually do better in small patches, probably because there are fewer predators and competitors left. White-footed mice populations are high in fragments smaller than about five acres, which could mean trouble for people living nearby, since the mice are the main carriers of Lyme disease bacter...
http://ourbetternature.org/forestfrag.htm
*  How stand productivity results from size- and competition-dependent growth and mortality - Micros
... oft Research. How stand productivity results from size- and competition-dependent growth and mortality John P. Stand growth, mortality, and yield are simulated for inventoried stands, and also for hypothetical stands differing in total volume and tree size distribution. Results: For a given diameter, tree growth decreases as CAIh increases, whereas the probability of mortality increases. For a given CAIh, diameter growth exhibits a humped pattern with respect to diameter, whereas mortality exhibits a U-shaped pattern reflecting senescence of large trees. For a fixed size distribution, stand growth increases asymptotically with total density, whereas mortality increases monotonically. However, for a fixed stand volume, mortality due to senescence decreases if the proportion of large trees decreases as overall density increases. Conclusions: Size-related variation in growth and mortality exerts a profound influence on the relationship between stand structure and productivity. Dense stands dominated by small...
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=157202
*  Inferred Causes of Tree Mortality in Fragmented and Intact Amazonian Forests
... dspace repository inferred causes of tree mortality in fragmented and intact amazonian forests login dspace home smithsonian tropical research institute stri staff publications view item javascript is disabled for your browser some features of this site may not work without it inferred causes of tree mortality in fragmented and intact amazonian forests d angelo sammya agra andrade ana c s laurance susan g laurance william f date show full item record files in this item name dangelo et al pdf size kb format pdf view open this item appears in the following collection s stri staff publications a collection of scientific publications by stri staff search dspace search dspace this collection browse all of dspace communities collections by issue date authors titles this collection by issue date authors titles my account login statistics view usage statistics dspace software copyright duraspace theme by contact us send feedback...
https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/6857
*  Tree Service - Tree Trimming - Tree Removal - Stump Removal - Tom Day Tree Service
... Home. Tree Removal. Tree Trimming. Stump Removal. Photo Gallery. Contact Us. . Tree Service - Tree Trimming - Tree Removal - Stump Removal Tree trimming, tree removal, stump removal, line clearing, and complete tree service requires a knowledgeable, licensed, bonded, and insured arborist, like Tom Day Tree Service. Protecting your trees and your property is our main concern. Professional Tree Care Since 1974 Emergency Tree Service Available "Healthy Trees for Generations To Come." State Contractors License # 746006 Why Trees Need Routine Care Trees do not live forever. Trees require care to reach their full life span. While a tree may be strong and tall, keeping them alive is a fragile endeavor. The "skin" of a tree lay just below the protective bark. One can think of it as a glove over the entire branch, trunk, and root system. It is only 3 cells thick. Very fragile. This "skin" is the only living tissue of the tree. Damage a significant portion of it, and the tree is in danger of dying. Further, each b...
http://tomdaytreeservice.com/
*  Tropical forests 'fix' themselves after logging - UPI.com
... About Us. UPI en Español. Log in or Register. Top News. U.S. News. World News. Entertainment. Movies. Music. TV. Odd News. The Almanac. Business. Security Industry. Energy Industry. Sports. Science. Health. Analysis. Photos. Latest Photos. News. Entertainment. Sports. Features. Archives. Archive. . Home / Science News Tropical forests 'fix' themselves after logging Tropical forests 'fix' themselves after logging and agricultural clearing to jump-start regrowth. By KRISTEN BUTLER, UPI.com. Sept. 16, 2013 at 10:01 AM Follow @upi. Comments. Researchers have found that tropical forests jump start their own recovery after logging or agricultural clearing -- capturing nitrogen and carbon faster in response. Scientists with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute STRI in Panama believe the discovery that trees can "turn up" their ability to "fix" nitrogen -- or capture it from the air and release it into the soil -- has far-reaching implications for forest restoration projects. "This is the first solid case...
http://upi.com/Science_News/Blog/2013/09/16/Tropical-forests-fix-themselves-after-logging/7781379336711/?st_rec=2351379347390
*  Tree Service | Rowlett, TX | 214-370-TREE | Tree Trimming & Tree Removal in Rowlett, Texas
Tree Service. Rowlett, TX. 214-370-TREE. Tree Trimming Tree Removal in Rowlett, Texas. Rowlett Tree Service. Dallas Arbor Care. Rowlett, TX. Tree Service in Rowlett, TX providing these Rowlett tree services; tree trimming, tree removal, stump grinding, tree sales planting, disease diagnosis, and fertilization for the entire Rowlett, Texas area. Dallas Arbor Care, is a premier provider of tree services in Rowlett, TX. With professionally trained arborists and knowledgeable tree experts available to answer all of your Rowlett tree questions. Whether you’re looking for an estimate or just need answers to common tree service problems we’re here to help. Please join our commitment to Rowlett’s tree preservation and call Dallas Arbor Care today. COMMITMENT TO OUR COMMUNITY We pledge to our customers a truly committed Rowlett tree service company. Our sales and office staff believe in nothing more than straight-forward answers to all your tree removal, tree trimming or stump grinding questions. Our professional crew...
http://rowletttree.com/index.html
*  Nitrogen alters carbon dynamics during early succession in boreal forest - Forest Service Research &
Nitrogen alters carbon dynamics during early succession in boreal forest - Forest Service Research Development. Skip to page content. Forest Service National Links Forest Service Home Employment Fire and Aviation International Forestry Just for Kids Maps and Brochures Passes and Permits Photo and Video Gallery Publications Recreational Activities Research and Development State and Private Forestry. Research Development Treesearch. Treesearch Home. About Treesearch. Contact Us. Research Development. Forest Products Lab. International Institute of Tropical Forestry. Northern. Pacific Northwest. Pacific Southwest. Rocky Mountain. Southern Research Station. Help. All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel and are in the public domain. You can also locate Treesearch publications by geography and/or full text searches using GeoTreesearch. US Forest Service P.O. Box 96090 Washington, D.C. 20090-6090. 202 205-8333. You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information. Publicatio...
http://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/39881
*  01/05/2012: EPA Issues CNMI Toxics Inventory Data for 2010
... A-Z Index. Advanced Search. What are you looking for. Search. Learn the Issues. Air. Climate Change. Emergencies. Green Living. Health Safety. Land Cleanup. Pesticides, Chemicals Toxics. Waste. Water. Science Technology. Air. Climate Change. Ecosystems. Health. Land, Waste Cleanup. Pesticides. Substances Toxics. Sustainable Practices. Water. Laws Regulations. By Business Sector. By Topic. Compliance. Enforcement. Laws Executive Orders. Policy Guidance. Regulations. About EPA. Administrator Lisa P. Jackson. Current Leadership. Staff Directory. Planning, Budget, and Results. Doing Business with Us. Working with Us. Jobs. Headquarters Offices. Regional Offices. Labs and Research Centers. Map of EPA Locations. . Contact Us Newsroom. You are here: EPA Home Newsroom. News Releases - Pesticides and Toxic Chemicals EPA Issues CNMI Toxics Inventory Data for .... News Releases - Pesticides and Toxic Chemicals. EPA Issues CNMI Toxics Inventory Data for 2010 Release Date: 01/05/2012 Contact Information: Dean Higuchi...
http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/eeffe922a687433c85257359003f5340/0a10ebcb61d150cb8525797c0069a6eb!OpenDocument
*  forest growth – Neuron Culture
forest growth Neuron Culture. Science Blogs Go to. Joan Bushwell s Chimpanzee Refuge Effect Measure Eruptions evolgen Evolution for Everyone Evolving Thoughts Framing Science Galactic Interactions Gene Expression Genetic Future Good Math, Bad Math Green Gabbro Guilty Planet Integrity of Science Intel ISEF Laelaps Life at the SETI Institute Live from ESOF 2014 Living the Scientific Life Scientist, Interrupted Mike the Mad Biologist Mixing Memory Molecule of the Day Myrmecos Neuron Culture Neurontic Neurophilosophy Neurotopia Not Exactly Rocket Science Obesity Panacea Observations of a Nerd Of Two Minds Omni Brain On Becoming a Domestic and Laboratory Goddess Oscillator Photo Synthesis Pure Pedantry Retrospectacle: A Neuroscience Blog Revolutionary Minds Think Tank Science + Society Science After Sunclipse Science is Culture ScienceOnline 2010: The Blog SciencePunk Science To Life Sciencewomen Seed/MoMA Salon See Jane Compute Shifting Baselines Signout Speakeasy Science Speaking Science 2.0 Stranger Fruit Super...
http://scienceblogs.com/neuronculture/tag/forest-growth/
*  Rate of tree die-off in Amazon higher than conventionally believed - TodayEco.com
... Latest Archives Sites. Energy. Latest Archives Sites. Transportation. Latest Archives Sites. Fashion. Latest Archives Sites. User. Account Profile. Sign up Sign in Sign out. Follow @todayeco. Archives. . Rate of tree die-off in Amazon higher than conventionally believed. news.mongabay.com. 10 Feb '13, 5pm. Tweet. Rate of tree die-off in Amazon higher than conventionally believed. Amazon rainforest failing to recover after droughts 12/24/2012 The impact of a major drought in the Amazon rainforest in 2005 persisted far longer than previously believed, raising questions about the world's largest tropical forest to cope with the expected impacts of climate change, reports a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Some Amazon trees more than 8 million years old 12/14/2012 Some Amazon rainforest tree species are more than eight million years old found a genetic study published in the December 2012 edition of Ecology and Evolution. Advanced technology reveals massive ...
http://todayeco.com/pages/11019885-rate-of-tree-die-off-in-amazon-higher-than-conventionally
*  Methods for Calculating Forest Ecosystem and Harvested Carbon with Standard Estimates for Forest Typ
... es of the United States. NE - RWU 4104 Welcome. People. Publications. Our Work. Mission. Work Unit Description. Contact Us. NE Durham. NEMO. CWD Workshop. History. Search all USFS sites:. Sites of interest. Disclaimers. Freedom of Information Act FOIA. Privacy Notice. Evaluate Our Service We welcome your comments on our service and your suggestions for improvement. Last modified 11/15/2005 Feedback/Inquiries. Smith, James E.; Heath, Linda S.; Skog, Kenneth E.; Birdsey, Richard A. Methods for Calculating Forest Ecosystem and Harvested Carbon with Standard Estimates for Forest Types of the United States. Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, General Technical Report NE-343. 216 p. Abstract: This study presents techniques for calculating average net annual additions to carbon in forests and in forest products. Forest ecosystem carbon yield tables, representing stand-level merchantable volume and carbon pools as a function of stand age, were developed for 51 forest types within 10 regions of the Unit...
http://fs.fed.us/ne/durham/4104/abstract/smith_heath_skog_2006.htm
*  .. Deforestation and the genetic resources of tropical trees .. Share this: .. Like this: .. Relat
← Who believes in climate change anyway. Biodiversity Brief newsletter – first issue →. Deforestation and the genetic resources of tropical trees Posted on. February 10, 2013. by. Andy Lowe. By Andrew Lowe, Stefan Caddy-Retalic, Eleanor Dormontt. Published in the University of Adelaide’s e-Science online magazine as “ Growing Solo: Deforestation and Genetic Diversity “. e-Science is available for iPad or Android, or viewable on the web here. Slash and burn agriculture in the Amazon Image by Threat to Democracy/Flickr. Licensed under Creative Commons license License. The human destruction of tropical forests has dramatically increased in recent decades, and the threat to tropical ecosystems is now a pressing issue. The most important impact of deforestation to biodiversity is the loss of habitat, but the loss of these ecosystems also leaves a lasting legacy with which plants and animals remaining in these fragmented systems must cope in the future. The degradation of forests results from two main processes: th...
https://biodiversityrevolution.wordpress.com/2013/02/10/deforestation-and-the-genetic-resources-of-tropical-trees/
*  Scientists Use Lasers To Measure Changes To Tropical Forests -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Scientists Use Lasers To Measure Changes To Tropical Forests. Date: January 27, 2009 Source: US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station Summary: New technology deployed on airplanes is helping scientists quantify landscape-scale changes occurring to Big Island tropical forests from non-native plants and other environmental factors that affect carbon sequestration. New technology deployed on airplanes is helping scientists quantify landscape-scale changes occurring to Big Island tropical forests from non-native plants and other environmental factors that affect carbon sequestration. "They also demonstrated what might be the most important environmental factors affecting forest biomass and carbon sequestration.". US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. "Scientists Use Lasers To Measure Changes To Tropical Forests." ScienceDaily. US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. Scientists Use Lasers To Measure Changes To Tropical Fore...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090123152547.htm
*  FAQ's about Tree & Shrub Service, Care Montgomery Co. Maryland | DC
FAQ's about Tree Shrub Service, Care Montgomery Co. DC. Testimonials. services. Pruning Shaping. Tree Stump Removal. Plant Diagnostics. Disease Pest Management. Consultations. Cabling Bracing. Mature Tree Preservation. Young Tree Care. Root Collar Correction. Subsurface Fertilization. Vertical Mulching. Soil Analysis/Management. Tree Shrub Inventory. Winter Burn Protection. MD DC Tree Shrub Work Examples. FAQ's. info. Newsletter. Watch Tree Care Videos. Accreditation. Contact us. Service Area MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD Ashton, MD Beallsville, MD Bethesda, MD Brookville, MD Burtonsville, MD Cabin John, MD Chevy Chase, MD Damascus, MD Gaithersburg, MD Germantown, MD Kensington, MD Laytonsville, MD Montgomery Village, MD Olney, MD Poolesville, MD Potomac, MD Rockville, MD Sandy Spring, MD Silver Spring, MD Takoma Park, MD WASHINGTON DC ZIPCODES 20007 20008 20009 20010 20011 20012 20015 20016 NORTHERN VA AREAS No. 10315 Kensington Parkway, Kensington MD 20895-3358. contact wood acres For Estimate. Tree shrub care serv...
http://woodacrestree.com/faq.html
*  Region 3 - Home
... Skip to main content United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Southwestern Region. Forest Service Home. About the Agency. Contact the National Office. Search Search form Search website. Go Site Map. Region 3 Home. Special Places. Recreation. Passes Permits. Maps Publications. Fire Aviation. Land Resource Management. Forest Grassland Health. State, Private Community Forests. Plants Animals. Learning Center. Working Together. Jobs Volunteering. About the Region. News Events. . Contact Information Southwestern Region 333 Broadway SE Albuquerque, NM 87102 505-842-3292. Contact Us. Welcome to the Southwestern Region. The Southwestern Region is 20.6 million acres. There are six national forests in Arizona, five national forests and a national grassland in New Mexico, and one national grassland each in Oklahoma and the Texas panhandle.The region ranges in elevation from 1,600 feet above sea level and an annual rain fall of 8 inches in Arizona's lower Sonoran Desert to 13,171-foot high Wheele...
http://fs.usda.gov/r3
*  Carbon Credit 2012 - Avoided Deforestation
... . Home Start Site. Who We Are About TopoGeo. Carbon Credit Learn more about Carbon Credits. Avoided Deforestation Learn more about the Avoided Deforestation. Contact Request more info about. The Planet Earth is in our hands. Let us help the Planet Earth to remain clean and free of global warming. You are here: Home. Avoided Deforestation. Preserve existing woods and forests, and contribute in reducing the GASEOUS GREENHOUSE with reduction of GLOBAL WARMING. PROJECTS IN REDD - Avoided Deforestation The system of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation REDD, its acronym in English. The Native Forest Deforestation is responsible for about 35% of emissions of Greenhouse Gases GHG, especially carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4, are derived from the clearing and burning of Native Forests. Tropical Forests are also essential as water catchments and act as "lungs" of the planet to promote the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen in the air. Moreover, these spaces contain very rich ecosystems, of wh...
http://carboncredit2012.com/site/index.php/avoided-deforestation
*  AF1009 Establishing and Managing Riparian Forest Buffers | University of Missouri Extension
University of Missouri Extension AF1009, New December 2005 Establishing and Managing Riparian Forest Buffers Editor's note The following abstract describes a publication that is intended for print distribution or as a downloadable PDF. Please see links to the PDF file and ordering information on this page. Agroforestry is an integrated set of land management practices that helps land and forest owners to diversify products, markets and farm income, while simultaneously improving soil and water quality, enhancing wildlife habitat and sustaining land resources for long-term use. The five practices of agroforestry alley cropping, silvopasture, riparian forest buffers, forest farming and windbreaks offer a landowner opportunities for short-term income from areas that may not be currently utilized, like the alleyways between crops or stream side forests. This Agroforestry in Action guide is intended to help you design and manage the interactive agroforestry practice of Riparian Forest Buffers. Properly applied...
http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPrinterFriendlyPub.aspx?P=AF1009
*  Ol Doinyo Orok
... The 'Ol Doinyo Orok' mountain in maasai language, also called 'Namanga Hills', is situated in southern Kenya next to the Tanzania n border in the Namanga Division. The mountain has a stretched triangular shape, almost like an arrow pointing north. The short side faces the Tanzanian border and one corner is actually crossing it. Ol Doinyo Orok Forest Reserve Participartory Forest Management Plan 2006-2011, A Partnership Between the Forest Department and Oldoinyo Orok Forest Management Association OLDOFOMAA, by East Africa Cross Border Biodiversity Project, 2005. Ol Doinyo Orok Mountain Forest Reserve Tourism References See also. Ol Doinyo Orok Mountain Forest Reserve. The Ol Doinyo Orok Mountain Forest Reserve is a government gazetted area, 117.84 square kilometres large. Being one of the few remaining patches in Kenya, it contains a large variety of plants, herbs and also several animal species not found in the surrounding semi-arid lowlands. thumb|Cloud forest on Ol Doinyo Orok. Many of these migrate to...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ol_Doinyo_Orok
*  Environmentalists Praise Jane Goodall's Call for Calif. Governor to Protect Tropical Forests | Envir
Governor to Protect Tropical Forests. Environmental Defense Fund. Governor to Protect Tropical Forests. Jane Goodall to Governor Jerry Brown, calling for California to open a pathway to accept credits for reductions in tropical deforestation in its climate change program. California is now poised to develop a solution that benefits forest communities and helps the state’s businesses meet emissions reductions goals cost-effectively,” said Environmental Defense Fund Tropical Forest Program Director Steve Schwartzman. Goodall is calling attention to an important provision of California s climate change program that could multiply two- or three-fold its contribution to slowing climate change. Nearly 15% of the global carbon dioxide emissions that cause climate change come from deforestation, much of which occurs in the Brazilian Amazon. Reductions in emissions from deforestation, in particular in the Amazon, have made a major contribution to global efforts to control global warming; since 2005 the Amazon has seen...
https://edf.org/media/environmentalists-praise-jane-goodalls-call-calif-governor-protect-tropical-forests
*  .. Tree Pruning: volume 1, Why to Prune Trees in Austin, TX by Keith BrownApril 1
home → blog → Tree Pruning: volume 1, Why to Prune Trees in Austin, TX Tree Pruning: volume 1, Why to Prune Trees in Austin, TX by Keith Brown April 15, 2009. Tree Pruning in Austin is complicated by many factors. There are several subjects that should be examined such as when to prune, what to prune and how to prune. In this article I’m going to focus on why to prune trees and what factors relate specifically to Austin. Health, cosmetics and safety make up the meat of the formula I use to understand why you should prune your trees. Let’s start with pruning for tree health. Most everybody loves trees; we want them to live long and prosper. Just like your doctor can prescribe you exercises and eating habits that will help you live longer, tree pruning can add to the overall life expectancy of a tree; as long as the pruning is done right. In Austin, we have to worry about Oak Wilt. Pruning a tree to remove dead limbs helps the tree heal the wound and limits overall stem decay in the tree. The motivating fac...
https://austintreeexperts.com/blog/tree-pruning-volume-1-why-to-prune-trees-in-austin-tx/
*  Pit-and-mound topography
Formation of a pit Formation of a mound Disturbances Disturbance scale. Biodiversity Macrofauna. Formation of a pit. Wet soil can loosen the hold a tree's roots have on the soil, and dry soil can help hold the tree in place. It has been observed that they can act as important soil disruptors and microsites for biodiversity and plant establishment. Mounds are generally observed to be warmer and drier than the forest floor or the corresponding pit; Similarly, the pit is generally found to be colder and have a higher soil moisture content than either the forest floor or the mound. Studies have observed that both pits and mounds generally have lower carbon and nitrogen soil content than the undisturbed forest floor, although they have carbon to nitrogen ratios that are not significantly different from the ratios observed on the forest floor. Pit and mound topography and its influence on storage of carbon, nitrogen, and organic matter within an old-growth forest. Pit and mound topography and its influence on stora...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pit-and-mound_topography
*  MODIS Website
... home asner gp knapp de balaji a paez acosta g automated mapping of tropical deforestation and forest degradation claslite journal of applied remote sensing abstract monitoring deforestation and forest degradation is central to assessing changes in carbon storage biodiversity and many other ecological processes in tropical regions satellite remote sensing is the most accurate and cost effective way to monitor changes in forest cover and degradation over large geographic areas but the tools and methods have been highly manual and time consuming often requiring expert knowledge we present a new user friendly fully automated system called claslite which provides desktop mapping of forest cover deforestation and forest disturbance using advanced atmospheric correction and spectral signal processing approaches with landsat spot and many other satellite sensors claslite runs on a standard windows based computer and can map more than km at m spatial ...
http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/sci_team/pubs/abstract.php?id=00927
*  Urban forest
Air pollution reduction. Air pollution reduction. Trees reduce temperatures and smog With an extensive and healthy urban forest air quality can be drastically improved. Healthy urban forests decrease temperatures, and reduce the formation of ozone. Large shade trees can reduce local ambient temperatures by 3 to 5 °C Maximum mid-day temperature reductions due to trees range from 0.04 °C to 0.2 °C per 1% canopy cover increase. Lower temperatures reduce emissions in parking lots Temperature reduction from shade trees in parking lots lowers the amount of evaporative emissions from parked cars. Cars parked in parking lots with 50% canopy cover emit 8% less through evaporative emissions than cars parked in parking lots with only 8% canopy cover. Due to the positive effects trees have on reducing temperatures and evaporative emissions in parking lots, cities like Davis, California, have established parking lot ordinances that mandate 50% canopy cover over paved areas. Interception of particulate matter In addition t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_forest
*  Guidelines for Developing and Evaluating Tree Ordinances - Site Map
... Guidelines for Developing and Evaluating Tree Ordinances Citation for this website: Swiecki, T. A Guidelines for Developing and Evaluating Tree Ordinances. Download Adobe Acrobat PDF version of this site version date 10/31/01 - 1690 KB This document will display best using Adobe Acrobat Reader The ISA website also provides a PDF download of this site at: http://www.isa-arbor.com/education/onlineResources/treeOrdinanceGuidelines.aspx Note that the PDF version may not be current. Site search About this site How to use this site Part 1. Developing a community forest management strategy. Evaluating the urban forest and ordinance performance Methods for evaluating tree ordinances and the urban forest ecosystem Sampling from populations. Statistical bias Random sampling and random numbers Stratified sampling Sample size Links to sample size calculators. Uses Materials needed Notes Sampling considerations for photogrammetry Estimating tree canopy cover from aerial images Visual ocular method for estimating cano...
http://phytosphere.com/treeord/index.htm
*  Dhlinza Forest
... the dlinza forest is a subtropical forest or coastal scarp forest in eshowe zululand south africa one of five natural forest s running in a km line running northwest from the coast http www kznwildlife com dlinza forest html others are the ongoye entumeni nkandla and qudeni forests they are the most important forests in southern africa from the aspect of unique biodiversity it contains rare bird s chameleon s snail s butterflies moth s frog s and beetle s dlinza is the home of more than species of birds including the endangered spotted ground thrush which breeds here http birp adu org za species summary php spp rare delegorgue s pigeon magnificent purple crested turaco and narina trogon the name dlinza is derived from zulu meaning a gravelike place of meditation after the peaceful setting occasional church services are held here and every years a nativity play written by selwyn moberley in is staged in the forest canopy boardwalk first of its kind in southern africa the boardwalk winds through the forest...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhlinza_Forest
*  Signs of Dying, Dead or Diseased Trees | J and F
Signs of Dying, Dead or Diseased Trees. J and F. Home About Locations Contact Reviews Articles Privacy Policy Gallery. Services Home Tree Service Videos Tree Service Tree Removal Stump Removal Tree Trimming Tree Stump Removal Dead Wooding Wind Thins Support Systems Saving A Tree Service History Tree Support Systems Tree Problems From Pest And Disease Insects Attacking Trees Problems Of Tree Topping Analyzing Construction and Weather Damage on Trees. FREE ESTIMATES 503-747-0625 LICENSED • BONDED • INSURED Serving Entire Portland Metro Area CCB# 201618 Wa# JFTREFT898DD. PORTLAND tree service. Signs of Dying, Dead or Diseased Trees. Post Created 11/12/2010. Most people take great pride in their property and enjoy looking out over a well-maintained yard, shrubs and plant life. The trees on their property are tall and healthy. Or are they. While it takes an arborist with all their skill and knowledge to prune and thin a tree to maintain a healthy tree, you can help them by inspecting your trees when you do your ya...
http://jandftreeservice.com/signs-of-dying-dead-or-diseased-trees.html
*  Best Trees for Growing in Lawns
... Gardening "How To" Best Trees for Growing in Lawns Trees for Lawns Article by Thomas Ogren In order to be a good tree to grow in a lawn it needs a number of things going for it. In particular a good lawn tree: Should be deciduous, meaning it should loose all of its leaves in the winter. This will let in light in the wintertime, when light levels are lowest. Deciduous trees also do not block any warming winter sunlight from reaching the house. Trees on the south or east sides of any house should always be deciduous, never evergreen. Should have roots that do not creep upward into the lawn where they'll be hit by lawnmowers. Roots that grow up into the lawn are a real pain, hard to get rid of, and will easily ruin a lawnmower. Should be attractive, or why else even plant it. Should be fairly easy to grow, not too fussy. Always select trees that are know to be disease resistant. Should be able to adapt to the irrigation a lawn will receive. Certain trees grow well in lawns and others, such as oaks, do not. ...
http://gardening.albertarose.org/how_to/Ogren_best_lawn_trees.htm
*  .. Preparing Your Trees for Winter
University of Illinois Extension Home Current Issue Archive Podcasts Preparing Your Trees for Winter This drought ravaged summer was extremely hard on our trees, said Candice Miller, U of I horticulture educator. “Trees have been suffering all summer long from drought stress and extreme heat. As a result, it’s particularly important this year that we prepare trees for winter by utilizing a couple of different methods,” said Miller. Evergreens in particular should be a large concern. The problem facing evergreens is desiccation, or drying out from the wind or sun. It’s going to be most important that evergreens are well watered up until the ground freezes. “Since evergreens do not drop their leaves like deciduous trees, they are still living and breathing throughout the winter and need to be able to uptake water as a result,” Miller said. Shrubs in very exposed sites may benefit from additional watering and protection as well. Several options for protection include loosely wrapping with burlap, putting up a sn...
http://extension.illinois.edu/gardenerscorner/issue_09/winter_05_13.cfm
*  What Happens to a Tree When it is Moved
Colorado Master Gardener SM, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Denver County. A minimum standard is eight inches of root ball for each inch of trunk caliper for needled evergreens and nine inches of root ball per inch of trunk caliper for deciduous trees. A caliper is measured six inches above ground. Some think that when using a larger spade to dig up a tree, such as 90, root pruning may not be necessary because a larger portion of the roots is being salvaged with the tree. For a tree in leaf, this huge reduction in the availability of minerals and water through the root system to the leaves is stressful as the tree struggles to maintain its existing growth with a much reduced feeder system. Rebuilding the root system is necessary to restore the feeding system of the tree so that all of the vegetative growth above ground level, the trunk, branches, twigs, leaves, and flowers, are able to function and survive. A dormant tree s roots are less affected than a tree in leaf is by the shutdown in ph...
http://colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/4DMG/Trees/movetree.htm
*  Ecosystem Ecology
... and Forest Dynamics. The mist that envelopes the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve is an important factor in forest dynamics, structure, and ecosystems processes. Photo by Michael and Patricia Fogden. A synopsis of this section is being prepared. Thank you for your patience. Bibliographic Citations on Ecosystem Ecology and Forest Dynamics. Data Sets. Return to Monteverde Home Page. Bibliographic Citations on Ecosystem Ecology and Forest Dynamics Go to Full Bibliographic Citation Listing. Ackerman, J. D and J. C Montalvo. 1990. Short and long term limitations to fruit production in a tropical orchid. Ecology 71:263-272. Aide, T. M 1987. Limbfalls: a major cause of sapling mortality for tropical forest plants. Biotropica 19:284-285. Anderson, I., J. Levine, M. Poth, and P. Riggan. 1988. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning. Journal of Geophysical Research 93:3893-3898. Ashton, P. S 1969. Speciation among tropical forest trees: some deductions in the ...
http://academic.evergreen.edu/n/nadkarnn/monteverde/EcosystemEcology.html
*  In vitro propagation of tropical hardwood tree species — A review (2001-2011) - Forest Service
In vitro propagation of tropical hardwood tree species #151; A review 2001-2011 - Forest Service Research Development. Forest Service National Links Forest Service Home Employment Fire and Aviation International Forestry Just for Kids Maps and Brochures Passes and Permits Photo and Video Gallery Publications Recreational Activities Research and Development State and Private Forestry. Research Development Treesearch. International Institute of Tropical Forestry. All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel and are in the public domain. US Forest Service P.O. Title: In vitro propagation of tropical hardwood tree species A review 2001-2011. ; Beasley, Rochelle R.; Lawson, Shaneka S. ; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Stevens, Micah E.; Wang, Ying.;. Because of the high value of tropical tree species, in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration, cryopreservation, genetic transformation, micrografting, protoplast culture, shoot tip and nodal culture, and somatic embryogenesis propagation technol...
http://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/40408

Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Recursive partitioning: Recursive partitioning is a statistical method for multivariable analysis. Recursive partitioning creates a decision tree that strives to correctly classify members of the population by splitting it into sub-populations based on several dichotomous independent variables. The process is termed recursive because each sub-population may in turn be split an indefinite number of times until the splitting process terminates after a particular stopping criterion is reached.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Pinus pinasterBotryosphaeria corticola: Bot canker of oak is a disease on stems, branches and twigs of oak trees in Europe and North America. The casual agent of Bot canker of oak is the fungus Botryosphaeria corticola .Tupaia (navigator): Tupaia (also known as Tupaea) (c. 1725 – December, 26 1770) was a Polynesian navigator and arioi (a kind of priest), originally from the island of Ra'iatea in the Pacific Islands group known to Europeans as the Society Islands.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Wood fibre: Wood fibers are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees and used to make materials including paper.Fagus grandifolia: Fagus grandifolia (American beech or North American beech) is the species of beech tree native to the eastern United States and Canada. The genus name [is Latin] for "beech", and the species name [comes from grandis "large" and folium "leaf".Eucalyptus globulus: The Tasmanian blue gum, southern blue gum or blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from tall.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).EcosystemPith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.Populus tremula: Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British IslesJames Kilkelly Irish native Aspen tree east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan. It also occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria.History of the New York State College of Forestry: The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.http://foresthistory.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Coles PhillipsCanna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.List of Acacia species used for tannin production: This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are used for the production of tannins.Plan Toys: PlanToys is a toy manufacturer located in Trang in the south of Thailand. It was founded in 1981 and makes its toys out of rubberwood, a sustainable by-product of the latex industry's harvesting of trees used for natural rubber production once their productivity declines.AstringinBert (horse): Bert}}Eutypella parasitica: Eutypella canker is a plant disease caused by the fungal pathogen Eutypella parasitica. This disease is capable of infecting many species of maple trees and produces a large, distinguishable canker on the main trunk of the tree.List of Copper Country minesCS-BLASTGenetic variation: right|thumbMac OS X Server 1.0Betula pendula: Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes. Its range extends into Siberia, China and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus and northern Iran.Carl Barks: "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.Roberto Arias: Roberto Emilio Arias (1918 – 1989), known as "Tito", was a Panamanian international lawyer, diplomat and journalist who was the husband of Dame Margot Fonteyn. Arias was from a prominent Panamanian political family, whose members had reached the Presidency four times; amongst them, his own father, Harmodio Arias.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Fraxinus latifolia: Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash) is a member of the ash genus Fraxinus, native to western North America. The Oregon ash is dioecious.Pepsi Wild Cherry: Pepsi Wild Cherry is a cherry-flavored cola first introduced in 1988 by PepsiCo as a replacement for Cherry Cola Slice, introduced as part of the line in 1986. A sugar-free version is also available, with zero calories, named Diet Pepsi Wild Cherry.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.AmborellaInterval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Sago: Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak, rabia and sagu.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Ficus deltoidea: Ficus deltoidea, commonly known as mistletoe fig (Mas Cotek in Malaysian or สาลิกาลิ้นทอง in Thai) is a large shrub or small tree species native to Southeast Asia, and widely naturalized in other parts of the world.Xylem: Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other. The word xylem is derived from the Greek word ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood"; the best-known xylem tissue is wood, though it is found throughout the plant.Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionIndex of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Alnus sieboldiana: Alnus sieboldiana (オオバヤシャブシ in Japanese) is an alder species found on the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Suwanose-jima in Japan.Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.American Chestnut Cooperators Foundation: The American Chestnut Cooperators Foundation is a nonprofit dedicated to re-establishing the American chestnut, Castanea dentata, as a viable species using only pure American chestnut genetic stock. They differ from the American Chestnut Foundation, which is seeking to re-establish the species using hybrid stock.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAmplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Mercurialis annua: Mercurialis annua is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family known by the common name annual mercury. It is native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle EastKew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesAltervista Flora Italiana, Mercorella comune, ortiga muerta, urtiga-morta, Einjähriges Bingelkraut, mercuriale annuelle, Annual Mercury, Mercurialis annua L.Dipterocarpus tuberculatus: Dipterocarpus tuberculatus (Khmer khlông,DY PHON Pauline, 2000, Plants Used In Cambodia, self-published, printed by Imprimerie Olympic, Phnom Penh Indian English gurjuntreeCouncil of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, 1952, The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products: Raw materials, Delhi, 3:93–94) is a species of tree in the family Dipterocarpaceae found in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The tree is found in clear forests of plains, at altitudes up to 800-1000m.PollenBark: Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs.Larix kaempferi: Larix kaempferi, known as Japanese larch or karamatsu (唐松) in Japanese) is a species of larch native to Japan, in the mountains of Chūbu and Kantō regions in central Honshū.Farjon, A.Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Cedrus deodaraSalix Pharmaceuticals: Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a specialist American pharmaceutical company.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Juniperus chinensis 'Shimpaku': Juniperus chinensis 'Shimpaku' (the shimpaku juniper) is a dwarf, irregular vase-shaped form of the Chinese juniper, Juniperus chinensis. Originally native to Japan, they were first collected in the 1850s in Japan.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Meramec Conservation AreaTrichilia catigua: Trichilia catigua is a flowering plant species in the genus Trichilia.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Community Fingerprinting: Community fingerprinting refers to a set of molecular biology techniques that can be used to quickly profile the diversity of a microbial community. Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present.Biological dispersalDeforestation in Borneo: Borneo, the third largest island in the world, divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei, was once covered with dense rainforests, but along with its tropical lowland and highland forests, there has been extensive deforestation since the 1960s, as the native economies of the region experienced rapid industrialisation. In the 1980s and 1990s the forests of Borneo underwent a dramatic transition.Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Ulmus 'Willis': Ulmus 'Willis' is a hybrid cultivar which originated as a crossing made by a Mr Minnick of Kansas and treated simply as a hybrid. Almost certainly derived from a crossing of the Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila (female parent) and the Red Elm Ulmus rubra, it was originally believed that the American parent was the American Elm Ulmus americana, not the Red Elm.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Tamarix aphylla: Tamarix aphylla is the largest known species of Tamarix (height: to18 metres—60 ft) . The species has a variety of common names, including Athel pine, Athel tree, Athel tamarisk, and saltcedar.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Citrus productionOntario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Melaleuca vinnula: Melaleuca vinnula is a plant in the myrtle family Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a newly-described (2004) species from a review of broombrush (originally Melaleuca uncinata) .Mountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Persea borboniaMicrosatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Walnut oil: Walnut oil is oil extracted from walnuts Juglans regia (Persian walnuts). Each 100 g of oil provides about 63.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Bennettites: Bennettites refers to an extinct genus of the order Bennettitales.AlnusiinLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.

(1/3351) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(2/3351) Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

(3/3351) The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems.

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

(4/3351) Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition.

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

(5/3351) Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.

Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.  (+info)

(6/3351) Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan.

This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria.  (+info)

(7/3351) Inhibitory effect of sulfur-containing compounds in Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. on the aggregation of rabbit platelets.

The inhibitory effects of three pure compounds isolated from wood garlic, 2,4,5-trithiahexane (I), 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane (II), and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 2,2-dioxide (III), on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, U46619, ADP (adenosine 5'-diphosphate), PAF (platelet aggregating factor), and thrombin were studied in vitro. The anti-aggregating activity of 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4,4-dioxide (IV) was also measured with collagen and arachidonic acid. I, II, III, and IV inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by all tested agonists. I, II, and III exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect against the thrombin-induced aggregation of GFP (gel-filtered platelets) than against the aggregation induced by the other agonists. Notably, the IC50 value for III was 4 microM, which is approximately 2.5 times stronger than MATS (methyl allyl trisulfide), a major anti-platelet compound isolated from garlic. In inhibiting collagen-induced aggregation, II was as potent as MATS and aspirin, with a marked disaggregation effect on the secondary aggregation by arachidonic acid, at the rate of 47.05%/min at a concentration of 10(-4) M. I, II, and III also suppressed U46619-induced aggregation. These results suggest that sulfur-containing compounds in wood garlic not only inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism but also suppress aggregation in association with the function of the platelet plasma membrane.  (+info)

(8/3351) Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)


How often should I water my grass and trees? Should I be doing this more often?


So I have been frequently walking around watering my grass and full grown trees. I do this about once a day. Should I be doing this more? I dont want my grass and trees to die so how can I preserve them? I dont have time to water more then 3 times a day, should I hire a professional? How often do you water your grass/trees? Also what is the best way to water a full grown tree?
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You should stop.


Whats the difference between lime and lemon trees?


Is there a difference between lime and lemon trees?? and how can you tell the difference
how can u tell the difference between a lime tree and an unripe lemon tree?
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Lemon trees have large thorns* The fruit is yellow.......


What meaning would a shirt have if it has trees and a tractor on it?


The other day a friend of mine told me, that a while ago his sister said she loved her shirt. It apparently had trees and a tractor on it. He didn't bother to asking her what it meant, now we can't figure it out. Anybody have any ideas?
It has some sort of "deeper meaning" apparently. One of those that you kind of have to think about to get it.
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It has no "deeper" meaning. . . it's probably just a John Deere shirt. Nothing special, I think she was just trying to make her outfit seem important somehow. . .?!?! No offense to his sister!


What kind of corn do you have to plant to grow tortilla shell trees??


Does one kind make the soft shells, and another for the crunchy ones?

How big do the trees get?
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You can use either, they both come randomly it depends on how much sun each one of them gets. They often get pretty big.


Does anyone in the Greater Vancouver area have organic unsprayed or organic fruit trees that need picking?


Help! I'm in despair!
I have jumped through all sorts of hoops trying to find organic or unsprayed fruit, especially tree fruit and in larger quantities (for eating, canning, drying and freezing). Having come from Europe, where we had our own organic orchard and generally organic food was readily available and inexpensive in all its varieties, I cannot believe that I can't find the simplest basics, such as healthy fruit in season, for my growing children and the baby.
Please, even if you just have a few trees that need picking, let me know!

Thanks to all!
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your bolder than I 
advertise in YOUR local paper were international
PS did you know that if a plant gets a foreign substance on it the plant sheds like a layer of skin Negating your silly organic opinion
you cant get away from the tons of over spray, bird po, bugs laying eggs,, there are poison oils from the exhaust of autos 
Then your holy produce is Picked,, labeled and 
PUT into the industrial system the warehouses (many) especially treated by Terminix and Orkin ,,if not by them the janitorial staff,, then in a semitrailer "you know he don't want bugs in his equipment" another warehouse ,,,then the stores back room,, at this point forget organic,,, it sits on the open shelf for days.. 
well it is summer so I can't point out people and their fire places 
YOU must wash all your holy products any how 
just silly  and cost ALL of us  more
 with no additional  nutritional value mentioned  except by the fools who started the mess in their web
Sorry please do your thing keep an open mind


I have two trees full of ripe sour cherries, and I am looking for recipes.?


Hello,  like I said I have two trees that are full of ripe cherries, but they are very sour.  So I am looking for recipies that will allow me to use them and sweeten them up.  Would love to have recipies for preserves, salsa, cobbler, and anything else you might have.
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How to Make a Super Sweet Smoothie With 7up and Cherries

Have you ever thought that smoothies weren't sweet enough?? Well, thats probably because you haven't made a 7up-marashino-cherry-canned-pears kind of smoothie!!!!


Ingredients

    * Marashino Cherrys (the juice too)
    * A can of 7up (or sprite)
    * Canned Pears (Juice optional)

Steps

   1. Gather the ingredients at the top of the page.
   2. Put as many marashino cherrys as you want into the blender
   3. Dump at least a half of the can of pears in the blender
   4. Get a can of 7up or sprite and put that in
   5. Turn the Blender on (the hi, low, or medium setting doesn't really matter)
   6. Tadaa!!! You made a super-sweet smoothie!!


 Tips

    * You don't have to put the milk or water in like you would a regular "healthier" smoothie. That's what the cherry juice and 7up is for.
    * This smoothie tastes really sugary!!!!
    * This is most likely more nutritional than a coke! And still really sweet!


Do pineapples grow on trees or bushes?


I figured they grew on trees, but my ag teacher is pretty insistant they grow on bushes. I have never seen any sort of pineapple plant. So I am just curious.
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It's more of a plant than a tree or bush:

http://www.deadprogrammer.com/photos/pineapple-plant.jpg
http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=9637&rendTypeId=4


What causes pine trees to die prematurely?


Two summers ago one of my pine trees in my yard died. A few months ago, I lost another one in another location in my yard. Now it looks as if the one right next to the dead one might be dying too. What is causing this and what can I do to prevent this?
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If you live in western north america, it is likely the pine beetle.  They are killing trees left right and center out there.  I don't know if there are any pesticide sprays or anything available for that.

If you don't live there, it may be some other bug, or a lack of nutrients or water.  If your soil is too basic, or too well-drained, it may not be an ideal location for large pine trees, so they may be dying when they get to a certain size.