No data available that match "Time Factors"



No data available that match "Time Factors"



No data available that match "Time Factors"



(1/174666) Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents.

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

(2/174666) Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart.

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

(3/174666) Myocardial uptake of digoxin in chronically digitalized dogs.

1 The time course of myocardial uptake of digoxin, increase in contractility and changes in myocardial potassium concentration was studied for 90 min following an intravenous digoxin dose to long-term digitalized dogs. 2 Nineteen dogs were investigated by the use of a biopsy technique which allowed sampling before and after administration of digoxin. 3 Ten minutes after administration of digoxin the myocardial concentration increased from 60 to 306 nmol/kg tissue, the myocardial concentration of digoxin was significantly lower (250 nmol/kg tissue) after 30 min and then increased again. 4 The transmural myocardial distribution of digoxin was uniform before and 90 min after administration of digoxin in long-term digitalized dogs but at 10 min after administration, both the subepicardial and the subendocardial concentration of digoxin were significantly lower than that of the mesocardial layer. 5 During the first 10 min the dp/dtmax increased to 135% of the control level. The increase remained unchanged during the rest of the study. 6 Myocardial potassium decreased throughout the study. 7 The M-configuration of the myocardial uptake curve and the non-uniformity of myocardial distribution of digoxin observed at 10 min after administrating digoxin to long-term digitalized dogs indicate that the distribution of myocardial blood flow may be changed during chronic digitalization.  (+info)

(4/174666) Studies on the mechanism of action of amantadine.

1 The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on various aspects of catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain has been investigated. 2 Amantadine failed to have any significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline even when administered daily for 9 days. 3 Amantadine had no effect on the rate of decline of noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. 4 In vitro amantadine inhibited dopamine uptake into synaptosomes only at high concentrations, and caused little release of dopamine from synaptosomes. 5 There is no evidence from these results to suggest that the anti-Parkinsonian effect of amantadine is related to an action on dopaminergic mechanisms.  (+info)

(5/174666) A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C.

1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds.  (+info)

(6/174666) Effect of intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leg compression on incidence of postoperative pulmonary embolism.

The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was measured in 50 matched pairs of patients undergoing common surgical procedures with preoperative and postoperative ventilation-perfusion lung scans and the fibrinogen uptake test. One patient in each pair was treated with intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leggings. The incidence of pulmonary embolism among the treated patients was significantly reduced from 24% to 8%, but the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly reduced (34% to 24%).  (+info)

(7/174666) Weak autoantibody reactions to antigens other than sperm after vasectomy.

Autoantibody activity against various antigens was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in 97 men about to undergo vasectomy and 170 men who had undergone the operation up to six years earlier. There was a significantly higher prevalence of weakly positive autoantibody reactions among those who had undergone vasectomy. There was, however, no evidence that vasectomy could induce stronger autoantibody reactions such as those associated with autoimmune disease.  (+info)

(8/174666) Prednisone in MOPP chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.

High remission rates have been produced by MOPP (mustine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease, but the prednisone component has caused adverse effects in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The remission rates and length of remission were reviewed in 211 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received chemotherapy either with or without prednisone. In contrast to the findings of a British study, there were no significant differences in remission rates or length of remission between patients who had received prednisone and patients who had not. There were differences between the British prospective study and this retrospective one, but it is difficult to know what accounted for the substantial differences in the findings.  (+info)


What factors did you have to consider before planning for baby number 2?


What factors did you have to consider before planning for baby number 2?
How did you weigh up the pros and cons?
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Nephel ur a morin!

Factors that i thought about were 
wether or not we could afford another child, 
how my son would cope with a sibling, 
how i would cope with 2 rather then 1, 
how we would cope with the space required for more children for toys ect, 
how it would effect things when the time came to return to work, 
how it would impact on our marriage

i no thats a lot of how comes and what ifs but they are reasonable things to consider! we had thought about it all and said that 1 more would be ok- only 2 find out i am carrying twins...LOL what are the chances of that- not great considering i dont really fit the criteria for twins.


What are key factors you consider when chossing a tattoo shop?


Those who have gotten tattoos (or planning on it) what are key factors that made you choose the tattoo shop to get it done at?

Reviews/recommendations, pricing, hours, artist, atmosphere, cleanliness, type of art done (color/gray/portrait)???
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There are a few factors to consider when chosing an artist/shop.

1. When you walk in, what do you smell? Look for a shop that smells clean. My tattoo shop smells like bleach/alcohol

2. Have you viewed he artists portfolio? Have you seen what tattoos they have done?

3. Is the airconditioning working? Might sound silly, but I went to a tattoo shop once, and everything was great except their air conditioning wasn't working.... getting tattooed while youre hot and sweaty is HORRIBLE!

4. What have other people said about this shop/artist? Facebook is a good place to lurk, as people will usually post on the shops wall about their experiences.

5. As for price, well, you get what you pay for... My tattoo artist is $150 per hour, but does give discounts for larger pieces. Some places charge by the hour, others charge by piece.

Hope this helps!


How do environmental factors affect memory and how does loud music interfere with memory?


How do environmental factors affect memory and how does loud music interfere with memory?
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I've never heard of loud music interfering with memory, but environmental factors like pollution and poisons, like lead and mercury can affect memory and brain function.  It's especially important where young children may be exposed because it affects them most of all.


What factors affect the weight of someone?


We all know the obvious one which is food: fatty foods is increase in weight, and dieting such as only eating vegetables will decrease.

Are there other factors that increase how heavy someone weighs? For example, I've read somewhere that staying up late and not sleeping as much leads you to look older and weigh less (unverified). Does anyone else know of any thoughts on this?
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Genetics is the biggest factor affecting a persons weight. If you have bigger parents, logically you'll probably be bigger too. Environmental factors such as upbringing and where you live and what you do for work can affect your weight in ways such as mum filling your bowls up so you won't go hungry, if you live in a city as opposed to a rural area you are often heavier, and how and where you work (where you buy lunch, desk or outdoor job, etc). I've heard that eating before you go to bed affects your weight, but I'm not too sure about that one. 
It's basically nature vs nurture, genetics vs your own choices that makes you fat.


What are some risk factors for type 1 and type 2 diabetes?


What are some risk factors for type 1 and type 2 diabetes? What went wrong with the insulin production and how does that affect the body’s ability to fuel itself with blood sugar? This is a bit confusing to me so I would appreciate any help. Thank you.
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Type 1: In majority of cases, the causes is unknown (idiopathic diabetes). In other cases, immune disorders can cause type 1 diabetes. Factors that precipitate the diabetes onset include certain bacteria, viruses and some food chemical toxins. Other factors include: family history; ethnicity (non-Hispanic population such as Americans, Caucasians); auto-immune disorder (celiac or thyroid diseases); when your mom has stopped breastfeeding you in the first three months; being a men. 

In this case your body recognizes its cells as "stranger" and begins to fight them. Therefore, beta cells of pancreas are destroyed and cannot produce anymore insulin. 

Type 2: Risk factors are divided in a) those you can control (weight; diet; alcohol intake; smoking; stress; malnutrition), and b) those you can't control (family history; age; being part of high-risk population).

In this case, beta cells of pancreas can still produce insulin; however for the above-mentioned factors, this insulin is not effective in the periphery (muscle or fat cells). 

In both cases (type 1 and 2 diabetes); what we have inherited in our genes is a major factor.


What are the structural factors in relation to obesity?


I think I know what structural factors are -- the focus on institutions and government and stuff rather than the individual?
But I cant think how they relate to childhood obesity or just obesity in general?
Thanks
My essay is about prevention and I have explained how to prevent obesity in relation to individual factors (exercise, healthy food) but now I need to explain how to prevent it in relation to structural factors and im not really sure what that means. Thanks
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A tid-bit of info for your research:  recent studies have shown that the weight of a mother while she is pregnant has an effect on the child's tendancy to become overweight/obese.  I was reading it in an article in Time magazine.  Apparantly, an overweight mom gives birth to babies who tend to become overweight.  The same mom, after weightloss surgery, had two more babies. They each had healthy weights as adults, even though all three kids had the same genetic and environmental factors. Go figure!

As far as "structural factors", I'm a bit at a loss.  You could explore the concept of advertisement in elementary and middle schools, or look at the unhealthy foods that people are allowed to buy with food stamps.


What's the difference between different Sunblock factors?


what's the difference between the different sunblock factors? This might be a dumb question but i generally don't know so whatever i'm gonna ask. :)
What difference would it make if i bought a factor 50 over a factor 100 sunblock?
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Higher protection against Ultraviolet Radiation which is damaging to the skin. Factor 50 would protect the skin but allow some rays through, whereas 100 would allow fewer. The higher the factor the more time your skin can safely be exposed to the sun without incurring sun damage and reducing the risk of Skin Cancer.


What factors should I consider when buying a massage table?


I am a massage student and I want to purchase a massage table. What factors should I consider when buying the table?
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IIt depends on what kind of massage they usually perform.For those who always perform sports massage, the massage table with strong top and light weight foam will be the best choice. A cradle is also a necessary accessory of the table because it allows the clients rest their heads. 
Some people think the massage table is the wider the better. Actually, this is a misunderstanding. There is no doubt that a wide table will leave the client comfortable. But one thing needs to keep in mind: this is a massage table but not a bed. If the table is over wide it will be troublesome when you need to access the client. It will also be difficult when you need to move around the table. 

Beside the width, the height of the massage couch is another factor you need to serious consider when you buy a massage table. The height of the table should not affect anything and you should select it by considering your height. For the standard measurement, the table must not come over the hip and should be lower so that you do not strain your body during the exercise.