Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Aliivibrio fischeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. A. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Bradyrhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Mesorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family PHYLLOBACTERIACEAE. They are able to invade root-hairs of a wide range of plants, inciting the production of PLANT ROOT NODULES.Frankia: Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Buchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Rhizobium etli: A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Laccaria: A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Azorhizobium caulinodans: A species of AZORHIZOBIUM which forms nodules on the roots of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Prochloron: A genus of PROCHLOROPHYTES containing unicellular, spherical bacteria without a mucilaginous sheath. They are found almost exclusively as extracellular symbionts of colonial ASCIDIANS on subtropical or tropical marine shores.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Phosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Sesbania: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Cannabaceae: A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is most notable for the members, Cannabis and Hops.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Ulmaceae: A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Epichloe: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Azorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, obligate aerobes which are motile by peritrichous flagella on solid medium and one lateral flagellum in liquid medium. Under microaerobic conditions Azorhizobium fixes nitrogen. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Sinorhizobium fredii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is a fast-growing and soybean-nodulating innoculant.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Vicia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.Neotyphodium: The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Rhizobium tropici: A species of gram-negative bacteria and an nitrogen inoculum that displays a high intrinsic tolerance to acidity.Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Rhodospirillales: An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Methylobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cistaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.

*  BibMe: Generate Symbiosis website citations for your bibliography
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ......
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*  randuwa: Symbiosis
I was born on a bitterly cold end of January night in the year 1961. It was seven years to the day after the birth of Oprah Winfrey, and one year before the death of Robert Frost on that same day. Cool associations both. I was the first child of older parents (my mother was 42). I love the color yellow. I am single, and fascinated with life ......
http://randuwa.blogspot.com/2017/05/symbiosis.html
*  SYMBIOSIS official website :: Welcome to Symbiosis realm
You can find Symbiosis on Valerio Orlandini My industrial / dark ambient project Black Death ... Label which released some Symbiosis stuff and printed a great t-shirt Downward Design Research ... French label for black metal, ritual ambient and related styles, releasing the new Symbiosis album ......
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*  SYMBIOSIS official website :: Welcome to Symbiosis realm
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*  The Secret Tablet: Fafner: Dead Aggressor - (SUB) - 25 - Symbiosis (The Final...
www.funimation.com Kazuki and his fleet take off to face the North Pole Mir. With millions of lives hanging in the balance, their success in the do or die mission is imperative-if one of them is killed, everyone's chances of survival are close to. Read more .... ......
http://thesecrettablet.blogspot.com/2012/11/fafner-dead-aggressor-sub-25-symbiosis.html
*  Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Result 2010, Symbiosis National Aptitude ...
Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Result 2010, Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Result 2010- ... Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Result 2010, Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Result 2010- ... Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Test is a common written test for the admission to all the Post ... Graduate Institutes of Symbiosis International University. The Result of SNAP has been declared ......
http://iloveindiaa.blogspot.com/2011/01/symbiosis-national-aptitude-snap-result.html
*  Insten Symbiosis Hybrid Stand Hard Case w/ Diamond For LG Optimus F60 LG...
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*  The Drawing Center - Viewing Program - Amber Stucke
What is symbiosis? I connect this question to my current project on symbiosis state. I started it ... It is a project exploring and investigating how I embody the idea of symbiosis through an intensive ... Parasitic Relationships No.1 (Symbiosis State). Graphite, Gouache & Ink on Animal Skin Vellum ... Her thesis titled Embodying Symbiosis: A Philosophy of Mind in Drawing is published in an ......
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*  Eclipse DemoCamps Helios 2010/Pune - Eclipsepedia
Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research Atur Centre, Gokhale Cross Road,. Model Colony ......
http://wiki.eclipse.org/index.php?title=Eclipse_DemoCamps_Helios_2010/Pune&oldid=202437
*  Getting into Government Consulting
Symbiosis is reality: Finding your niche means working with others. So you've learned the language ......
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*  Symbiosis - Books
... Symbiosis. From Books. Revision as of 13:58, 19 January 2012 by Garyhall. Talk. contribs. diff ← Older revision. Latest revision diff. Newer revision → diff. Jump to: navigation, search. Ecologies, Assemblages and Evolution. ISBN: 978-1-60785-271-1. edited by Janneke Adema and Pete Woodbridge. Contents. 1 Introduction: Symbiosis as a Living Evolving Critique 2 Symbiosis and Evolution. 2.1 Endosymbiosis 2.2 Symbiogenetics. 3 Symbiosis and Ecology. 3.1 Community Ecology 3.2 Biodiversity and complexity 3.3 Interdependence 3.4 Life Systems and Gaia Hypothesis 3.5 Media Ecologies. 4 Symbiosis and Posthumanism. 4.1 Human/Machine Symbiosis 4.2 Symbiotic Intelligence 4.3 Human-animal hybrids, chimeras and symbiosis 4.4 Machinic assemblages: Bugs, machines and viruses. 5 Symbiosis and Augmentation 6 Attributions 7 A 'Frozen' PDF Version of this Living Book. Introduction: Symbiosis as a Living Evolving Critique. Different species, interacting in a symbiotic fashion, living together over a prolonged period of time,...
http://livingbooksaboutlife.org/wiki/index.php?title=Symbiosis&oldid=4353
*  Industrial symbiosis
... Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16: 28–37. The industrial symbiosis model devised and managed by International Synergies Limited is a facilitated model operating at the national scale in the United Kingdom NISP - National Industrial Symbiosis Programme, and at other scales around the world. Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2015 Industrial symbiosis is a subset of industrial ecology, with a particular focus on material and energy exchange. Literature review on eco-industrial development initiatives around the world and the methods employed to evaluate their performance / effectiveness, Consultancy Report prepared for Databuild Ltd. Literature review on eco-industrial development initiatives around the world and the methods employed to evaluate their performance / effectiveness, Consultancy Report prepared for Databuild Ltd. and National Industrial Symbiosis Programme, 7 May 2006, Available fro...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_symbiosis
*  Symbiosis
... Index to this page. Mutualism Endosymbiosis. The pea aphid and its endosymbiont. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Cleaning Symbiosis. Commensalism. Epiphytes. Parasitism. Rabbits in Australia. The "Degeneracy" of Parasites. M. leprae. Links to examples. The Evolution of Symbiosis. Symbiosis. Most of the interactions between species involve food: competing for the same food supply eating predation avoiding being eaten avoiding predation These interactions are often brief. There are many cases, however, where two species live in close association for long periods. Such associations are called symbiotic "living together". In symbiosis, at least one member of the pair benefits from the relationship. The other member may be injured = parasitism relatively unaffected = commensalism may also benefit = mutualism. Some people restrict the term symbiosis to only these mutually beneficial interactions, but we shall not. Mutualism. Symbiotic relationships in which each species benefits are mutualistic. There are hundred...
http://home.comcast.net/~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/S/Symbiosis.html
*  Root nodule
'Root nodules' occur on the roots of plants primarily Fabaceae that associate with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Under nitrogen -limiting conditions, capable plants form a symbiotic relationship with a host-specific strain of bacteria known as rhizobia. 1 Within legume nodules, nitrogen gas from the atmosphere is converted into ammonia, which is then assimilated into amino acids the building blocks of proteins, nucleotides the building blocks of DNA and RNA as well as the important energy molecule ATP, and other cellular constituents such as vitamin s, flavone s, and hormones. Legume nodules harbor an iron containing protein called leghaemoglobin, closely related to animal myoglobin, to facilitate the conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia.root nodules are present in leguminous plants sweet pea. Root nodule symbiosis Legume family. Root nodule symbiosis. They contain symbiotic bacteria called rhizobia within the nodules, producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plan...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_nodule
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Citrate cycle (TCA cycle) - Secondary endosymbiont of Heteropsylla cubana
KEGG PATHWAY: Citrate cycle TCA cycle - Secondary endosymbiont of Heteropsylla cubana. Citrate cycle TCA cycle - Secondary endosymbiont of Heteropsylla cubana. [ Pathway menu Organism menu Pathway entry. Download KGML Show description User data mapping ]. The citrate cycle TCA cycle, Krebs cycle is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-car...
http://genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?sehc00020
*  Dive and Discover : Expedition 13 : Hot Topics - Sediment Traps
15 : Dark Life at Deep-Sea Vents : 2014 Dive into Deeper Discovery Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins Deep Ocean Circulation Earth’s Anatomy. This kind of relationship, in which both organisms obtain some benefit from the other, is known as mutualism. Symbiosis can occur between any two kinds of organisms, such as two species of animals, an animal and microbes, a plant and a fungus, or a single-celled organism such as a protist and bacteria. Mutualistic symbiosis in the ocean A well-known example of mutualism occurs in shallow, sunlit waters around the world, where corals live a symbiotic life with one-celled algae. The algae live inside the coral polyp and perform photosynthesis, converting energy from the sun and carbon dioxide into organic matter and chemical energy. Mutualistic relationships also occur in the deep ocean, between microbes and a wide range of animals including corals, tubeworms, and mussels. At cold seeps and hydrothermal vents, there are many chemicals that microbes can use to create food and ...
http://divediscover.whoi.edu/expedition13/hottopics/symbiosis.html
*  Symbiosis Center of Health Care
... schc is an organization under symbiosis society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff http www schcpune org schcnewsite it is also involved in programmes of public awareness about health http articles timesofindia indiatimes com pune cardiac health spread awareness cardiac rehabilitation schc has a distance education department which offers four exclusive post graduate diploma courses in hospital healthcare management medico legal systems clinical research health insurance management http articles timesofindia indiatimes com pune clinical research clinical data management national aids research institute references category medical and health organisations based in india category symbiosis society...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiosis_Center_of_Health_Care
*  MGI 6.0 - Gene Ontology Browser
GO term: positive regulation of catalytic activity Synonym: activation of enzyme activity Synonym: positive regulation of enzyme activity Synonym: stimulation of enzyme activity Synonym: up regulation of enzyme activity Synonym: up-regulation of enzyme activity Synonym: upregulation of enzyme activity GO id: GO:0043085 Definition: Any process that activates or increases the activity of an enzyme. positive regulation of catalytic activity in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction +. positive regulation of catalytic activity in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction +. modulation of catalytic activity in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction +. positive regulation of catalytic activity in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction +. positive regulation of catalytic activity in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction +. positive regulation of ligand-dependent nuclear receptor transcription coactivator activity. positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding tr...
http://informatics.jax.org/searches/GO.cgi?id=GO:0043085
*  Fearless Freddie Discovers a symbiotic relationship from ...
... Funny Or Die. Browse. Search. Fearless Freddie Discovers a symbiotic relationship. Close. History. Close. Already have an account. Sign In. Forgot Password. Stay signed in. Don't have an account. Sign Up. Close. Share. iframe src= //www.funnyordie.com/embed/d1fbf28162 width= 448 height= 376 frameborder= 0 allowfullscreen webkitallowfullscreen mozallowfullscreen /iframe div style= text-align:left;font-size:x-small;margin-top:0;width:448px; a href= http://www.funnyordie.com/videos/d1fbf28162/fearless-freddie-discovers-a-symbiotic-relationship title= 'from Fearless Freddie #39;s Jungle Discoveries Fearless Freddie Discovers a symbiotic relationship /a - watch more a href= http://www.funnyordie.com/ title= on Funny Or Die funny videos /a /div. Fearless Freddie Discovers a symbiotic relationship. By Fearless Freddie's Jungle Discoveries see what fearless freddie discovers about a symbiotic relationship between a worm and leave Published February 27, 2012 9 views. Full Credits Fearless Freddie's Ju...
http://funnyordie.com/videos/d1fbf28162/fearless-freddie-discovers-a-symbiotic-relationship
*  Symbiosis (Star Trek: The Next Generation)
Symbiosis Star Trek: The Next Generation. Symbiosis Star Trek: The Next Generation. Series = Star Trek: The Next Generation. Teleplay = "'Symbiosis'" is the twenty-second episode of the American science fiction television series ' Star Trek: The Next Generation '. The guest cast included Judson Scott and Merritt Butrick who had both appeared in ' Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan ' 1982. "Symbiosis" marked the final filmed appearance of Denise Crosby as Tasha Yar until her return in " Yesterday's Enterprise ". Two, T'Jon Merritt Butrick and Romas Richard Lineback, are scruffy and unshaven, while the other two, Sobi Judson Scott and Langor Kimberly Farr, are groomed and well dressed. It is explained that the barrel contains Felicium, a medicine for a plague which is ravaging the planet Ornara. Captain Jean-Luc Picard Patrick Stewart offers to return them each to their homeworlds and provide replacement parts for their freighters. The Brekkans offer two doses of Felicium for T'Jon and Romas' immediate needs. Be...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiosis_(Star_Trek:_The_Next_Generation)
*  Flora (microbiology)
flora microbiology flora microbiology in microbiology flora plural floras or floræ refers to the collective bacteria and other microorganism s in an ecosystem e g some part of the body of an animal host while the term microflora is common it is technically a misnomer since flora pertains to the kingdom plantae some textbooks now use the term microbiota microorganism s with animal like characteristics are classed as microfauna bacterial flora the bacterial flora is a community of bacteria that exists on or in the body and possesses a unique ecological relationship with the host bacterial flora encompasses a wide variety of microorganisms and the interactions between microbes and host creates a mutualistic relationship that both entities benefit from humans for example provide a diversified ecosystem for a large variety of microbes an average human adds million bacteria to the air an hour in a given space the mutualistic relationship has a significant impact on the host and is thought to influence human traits ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_(microbiology)
*  Trophic mutualism
... Specifically, "trophic mutualism" refers to the transfer of energy and nutrients between two species. Although there are many examples of trophic mutualisms, the heterotroph is generally a fungus or bacteria. Examples History of Trophic Mutualism Research See also References. 'Rhizobia'- Rhizobia are bacteria that conduct Nitrogen fixation for legume plants. Bergman, Root-based N2-fixing symbioses: Legumes, actinorhizal plants, Parasponiasp. Harper, Essentials Of Ecology Third Edition 2008, Malden, MA: Backwell Publishing Although the exact means of interaction between the Rhizobia and plant varies with genus and species, all forms of this interaction are made up of the infection of bacteria, bacteria colonization, control of O 2, and exchange of Carbon and Nitrogen. Bergman, Root-based N2-fixing symbioses: Legumes, actinorhizal plants, Parasponiasp. 'Mycorrhizae'- Mycorrhizae are similar to rhizobia in that they interact with plants at their roots. Whereas Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen, mycorr...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trophic_mutualism
*  Giant Deep-sea Tubeworm's Meal Ticket Comes In As A Skin Infection -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Giant Deep-sea Tubeworm's Meal Ticket Comes In As A Skin Infection. Date: May 19, 2006 Source: Penn State Summary: Giant tubeworms that thrive near undersea hydrothermal vents obtain all of their nourishment from symbiotic bacteria living inside their bodies. Uncovering a novel mechanism of symbiont acquisition, researchers at Penn State and the University of Vienna have shown that the symbiotic bacteria infect tubeworm larvae through their skin. Since symbiosis is so widespread, understanding the mechanisms of symbiont acquisition is a first order question for modern biologists.". Penn State. "Giant Deep-sea Tubeworm's Meal Ticket Comes In As A Skin Infection." ScienceDaily. Penn State. Giant Deep-sea Tubeworm's Meal Ticket Comes In As A Skin Infection. Retrieved October 4, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060519152139.htm Penn State. "Giant Deep-sea Tubeworm's Meal Ticket Comes In As A Skin Infection." ScienceDaily. RELATED TOPICS. Plants Animals...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060519152139.htm
*  evolution.berkeley.edu
... How important is endosymbiosis. : When two become one Jeon's colonies of amoebae seem perfectly happy living with their permanent guests, the x-bacteria, inside of them. This kind of relationship two or more different species living in close association is called symbiosis. 3 kinds of symbiosis:. mutualism a symbiosis in which both organisms benefit commensalism a symbiosis in which one organism benefits without helping or harming the other parasitism a symbiosis in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other. Each amoeba and its x-bacteria work together for mutual benefit but they are still separate organisms. Each bacterium or amoeba divides on its own, gets its own energy, uses its own genes, and makes its own proteins mostly. However, with their close relationship, it seems possible that after many years of evolving together, these cells could become not just a team, but a single integrated organism with a common set of genes and proteins. A future scientist discovering the descendents of...
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/print/printable_template.php?article_id=endosymbiosis_02&context=_0_0
*  ..
as the most ancient and diverse form of life bacteria harbor the majority of the planet s biomass form the foundation of our biosphere and generate more than half of the oxygen we breathe â â the number of bacterial cells on earth an estimated to out number eukaryotic cells by several orders of magnitudes and your own body contains ten times more bacterial cells than human cells â beneficial symbiotic bacteria perform essential functions for many plants animals fungi and protists and are woven into the evolutionary trajectories of these groups â without bacteria other organisms would not have evolved and could not survive today we study the evolutionary and ecological processes that shape bacterial diversity in the natural environment â much of our work explores how symbiotic interactions influence genome content and architecture metabolic functions and genetic diversity of the species involved â conversely we also explore how genome level changes can impact microbial functions and host interactions â our cur...
http://sites.duke.edu/wernegreenlab/
*  Symbiotic bacteria
... are bacteria living in symbiosis with another organism or each other for example zoamastogopera found in the stomach of termites enable them to digest cellulose definition...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiotic_bacteria
*  GO:0052055 modulation by symbiont of host molecular function
... Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. QuickGO A fast browser for Gene Ontology terms and annotations. EBI Databases QuickGO GO:0052055 modulation by symbiont of host molecular function. Search for terms by keyword or ID: apoptosis GO:0006915 Search for proteins by name or accession: tropomyosin P06727. Web Services. Dataset. Term Basket. Term Information ID GO:0052055. Name modulation by symbiont of host molecular function. Ontology Biological Process. Definition The process in which an organism effects a change in the function of a host protein via a direct interaction. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction. GONUTS GO:0052055 Wiki Page. Synonyms. Synonyms are alternative words or phrases closely related in meaning to the term name, with indication of the relationship between the name and synonym given by the synonym scope. Click on the icon for more details. Type Synonym. exact modification by symbiont of host protein function. exact modificat...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/GTerm?id=GO:0052055
*  NIF | Searching in Literature
NIF. Searching in Literature. SciCrunch relies heavily on JavaScript. Many functions on the site will not work if you continue with JavaScript disabled. Login. Register. NIF LinkOut Portal. About. Add a Resource. Literature. Go. X. Sign In. Log In. X Forgot Password. If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email. Send. X. Leaving Community. Are you sure you want to leave this community. Leaving the community will revoke any permissions you have been granted in this community. No. Yes. Literature. Home Literature. Turning the table: plants consume microbes as a source of nutrients. Interactions between plants and microbes in soil, the final frontier of ecology, determine the availability of nutrients to plants and thereby primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrient cycling in soils is considered a battle between autotrophs and heterotrophs in which the latter usually outcompete the former, although recent studies have questioned the...
https://scicrunch.org/20689833/resource/nif-0000-24396
*  Mycorrhizal network
'Mycorrhizal networks' also known as 'common mycorrhizal networks' - CMN are underground hyphal networks created by mycorrhizal fungi that connect individual plants together and transfer water, carbon, and nutrients. Substances transferred through mycorrhizal networks Types of mycorrhizal networks Benefits of mycorrhizal networks for plants Mycorrhizal networks and mycoheterotrophic and mixotrophic plants Importance of mycorrhizal networks at the forest community level References. "Fungal Ecology" 2: 21-33. "Journal of Plant Ecology" 2 3 :107–118. The flux of nutrients and water through hyphal networks has been proposed to be driven by a source-sink model, where plants growing under conditions of relatively high resource availability e.g., high light or high nitrogen environments transfer carbon or nutrients to plants located in less favorable conditions. A common example is the transfer of carbon from plants with leaves located in high light conditions in the forest canopy, to plants located in the shaded un...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycorrhizal_network
*  Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and Rhizobium on nutrient content and water relations in drought
... stressed alfalfa - Springer. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and Rhizobium on nutrient content and water relations in drought stressed alfalfa. Drought stress decreased nutrient content of leaves and roots of noninoculated plants. Leaves of M plants were similar in content of nutrients to N plants. However, roots of M and MR plants had significantly lower nutrient content. Results indicate an enhancement of nutrient content in mycorrhizal alfalfa plants during drought that affected leaf water relations during drought stress. arbuscular mycorrhizae drought Medicago sativa alfalfa mineral nutrition Rhizobium. Share Share this content on Facebook Share this content on Twitter Share this content on LinkedIn. Bot. New Phytol. Antolín M C and Sánchez-Díaz M 1992 Photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency, nodule activity and solute accumulation in drought stressed alfalfa plants. New Phytol. Plant Physiol. Physiol. New Phytol. Plant Physiol. J Plant Physiol. Physiol. Goicoechea N, Dolézal K, Antolín MC, Strnad...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1004216225159
*  Organic Eprints - Nutrient use efficiency and arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonisation of winter wh
... eat cultivars in different farming systems of the DOK long-term trial. Nutrient use efficiency and arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonisation of winter wheat cultivars in different farming systems of the DOK long-term trial. Hildermann, Isabell ; Messmer, Monika ; Dubois, David ; Boller, Thomas ; Wiemken, Andres and Mäder, Paul 2010 Nutrient use efficiency and arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonisation of winter wheat cultivars in different farming systems of the DOK long-term trial. Online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.4048/abstract Summary BACKGROUND: For organic farming, cultivars are required with high nutrient use efficiency under nutrient limited conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF are known to contribute to nutrient uptake under low input conditions. We compared nutrient use efficiency NUE of old and modern organically and conventionally bred cultivars in organic and conventional systems and assessed AMF-root colonisation AMF-RC in relation to nutrient concentrations. In ...
http://orgprints.org/17911/
*  Glomus intraradices
... 'Glomus intraradices' is an arbuscular mycorrhiza l fungus used as a soil inoculant in agriculture and horticulture. 'Glomus intraradices' is also commonly used in scientific studies of the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant and soil improvement. Mycorrhiza l Fungi Endomycorrhizal Fungi Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi 'Glomus intraradices'. Ecology and distribution Distribution. Spores. 'Glomus intraradices'.'International Culture Collection of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi'. 'Glomus intraradices' colonization peaks earlier than many of the other fungi in the Glomus genus. At times the spores are densely clustered or patchily distributed, depending on the host species. intraradices' for 'G. All fungi reproduce through spores. Hyphae grow from original spores and eventually the fungus creates fruiting bodies mushrooms that will release more spores, starting the cycle over again. Ecology and distribution. Distribution. 'Glomus intraradices' can be found in almost all soils, especially t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glomus_intraradices
*  Mycorrhizal fungi and soil carbon storage
... While much research has been done on how plants, free-living microbial decomposer s, and soil minerals affect this pool of carbon, it is recently coming to light that ' mycorrhizal fungi '—symbiotic fungi that associate with roots of almost all living plants—may play an important role in maintaining this pool as well. Ecology, 87: 816-822 and in some ecosystems the biomass of mycorrhizal fungi can be comparable to the biomass of fine roots. 2012 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase organic carbon decomposition under elevated CO2. The role of chitin in the decomposition of ectomycorrhizal fungal litter. Effects on fine root decomposition. Ecology Letters, 9: 955-959. There is much evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase soil aggregate formation, and that aggregate formation may be mediated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal protein glomalin. 2012 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase organic carbon decomposition under elevated CO2. Roots and fungi accelerate carbon and nitrogen cycling in forests ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycorrhizal_fungi_and_soil_carbon_storage
*  Genetic diversity and host plant preferences revealed by simple sequence repeat and mitochondrial ma
... rkers in a population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices › Research Explorer. Search. Frontpage. Staff. Activities. Research output. Clippings. Genetic diversity and host plant preferences revealed by simple sequence repeat and mitochondrial markers in a population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Research output : Scientific - peer-review › Article. Overview. Cite this. Documents PDF 693 KB, PDF-document Request copy DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02381.x. D Croll L. Lammers N. Corradi I.R. Sanders Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF are important symbionts of plants that improve plant nutrient acquisition and promote plant diversity. Although within-species genetic differences among AMF have been shown to differentially affect plant growth, very little is actually known about the degree of genetic diversity in AMF populations. This is largely because of difficulties in isolation and cultivation of the fungi in a clean system allowing reliable genotyping to be per...
https://pure.knaw.nl/portal/en/publications/uuid(24adb4d7-05f1-483a-8074-3dfbf37e3bcd).html
*  The Plantbio January 1997 Archive by subject
brateaver at aol.com best nutritional vegitables. Walker colchicine used to improve vegetable crops klevin colchicine used to improve vegetable crops gsm coldpress. Arnold Heliophylla coronpifolia Derek van Rensburg Help needed re food plants Julian Barker Help needed re food plants Christoph Metelmann Help needed re food plants Antique Books Help needed re food plants Peter Selby Help needed re food plants Julian Barker Help needed re food plants Julian Barker help with black spot Jan Robey help with black spot Michael L Roginsky. Mike Barnes Mutual Benefit JMSCO Mycological Maps Andrew Gillett mycorrhizae tolerance to fertilizer don at bio-organics.com mycorrhizae tolerance to fertilizer Michael Roberts mycorrhizae tolerance to fertilizer Eric Grunden mycorrhizae tolerance to fertilizer brateaver at aol.com mycorrhizae tolerance to fertilizer brateaver at aol.com mycorrhizae tolerance to fertilizer brateaver at aol.com mycorrhizae tolerance to fertilizer don at bio-organics.com mycorrhizae tolerance to fert...
http://bio.net/hypermail/plant-biology/1997-January/subject.html
*  Arbuscular mycorrhiza
Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Molecular evidence. Molecular genetic analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Overview of methods. Molecular evidence. AM fungal spores germinate given suitable conditions of the soil matrix, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH, and phosphorus concentration. 7 Hyphal growth The growth of AM hypha e through the soil is controlled by host root exudates known as strigolactone s, and the soil phosphorus concentration. Host recognition Root exudates from AMF host plants grown in a liquid medium with and without phosphorus have been shown to affect hyphal growth. This chemotaxic fungal response to the host plants exudates is thought to increase the efficacy of host root colonization in low-phosphorus soils. Further evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi exhibit host-specific chemotaxis, that enable hyphal growth toward the roots of a potential host plant: Spores of 'Glomus mosseae' were separated from the roots of a host plant, nonhost plants, and dead host plant by a membrane ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arbuscular_mycorrhiza
*  Uta Paszkowski
2006 Contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to heavy metal phytoremediation Vera Göhre Department of Molecular Biology and Plant Biology, University of Geneva, 30 Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland Planta 223:1115-22. 2006 A journey through signaling in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses 2006 Uta Paszkowski University of Geneva, Department of Plant Biology, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland New Phytol 172:35-46. 2006 Comparative transcriptomics of rice reveals an ancient pattern of response to microbial colonization Sonia Guimil Laboratory of Plant Genetics, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:8066-70. 2002 Rice phosphate transporters include an evolutionarily divergent gene specifically activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis Uta Paszkowski Torrey Mesa Research Institute, San Diego, CA 92121, USA Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13324-9. Contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to heavy metal phytoremediation Vera Göhre Department of M...
http://labome.org/expert/switzerland/university/paszkowski/uta-paszkowski-959904.html
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Help! (about arbuscular mycorrhiza)
biology online view topic help about arbuscular mycorrhiza login welcome to biology online org please login to access all site features create account log me on automatically each visit join for free members answers to all your biology questions home blog forum dictionary articles tutorials books directory share your work biology online skip to content advanced search board index general biology microbiology change font size advanced search faq register login help about arbuscular mycorrhiza about microscopic forms of life including bacteria archea protozoans algae and fungi topics relating to viruses viroids and prions also belong here moderator bioteam post a reply post page of reply with quote help about arbuscular mycorrhiza by fwcyue tue jun am can somebody tell me the wet sieving and decanting met...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-123155.html
*  Organic Eprints - A systems approach to the management of arbuscular mycorrhiza
organic eprints a systems approach to the management of arbuscular mycorrhiza   home     about     browse     search     latest     help   login create account a systems approach to the management of arbuscular mycorrhiza kahiluoto helena a systems approach to the management of arbuscular mycorrhiza forskningsnytt om økologisk landbruk i norden p pdf kb summary helena kahiluoto granskar i sin doktorsavhandling möjligheterna att bevara den ekosystemtjänst som mykorrhizans funktion utgör och stödja sig på utnyttjandet av denna i en hållbar fosforhushållning i avhandlingen som är den första doktorsavhandlingen inom ekologisk odling i finland undersöktes också den metodologiska frågan om systemansatsens system approach utmaningar eprint type journal paper keywords mykorrhiza fosfor subjects farming systems research affiliation finland mtt agrifood research related links http www cul slu se information publik fnytt fnytt pdf deposited by...
http://orgprints.org/4089/
*  Succession of mycorrhizal fungi on birch: infection of seedlings planted around mature trees - NER
... C Open Research Archive. nerc.ac.uk. Help. Contact us. Browse. NERC Staff Login. Succession of mycorrhizal fungi on birch: infection of seedlings planted around mature trees. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS Simple Metadata iShare HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote Dublin Core iShare OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. V 1983 Succession of mycorrhizal fungi on birch: infection of seedlings planted around mature trees. 10.1007/BF02182661. Abstract/Summary Non-mycorrhizal seedlings ofBetula pendula were planted around an 11-year old tree ofB. pubescens in an experimental plot at Bush Estate, south of Edinburgh. Half 23 of the seedlings were in untreated planting positions and half 24 in positions that had been cored to sever connections of the roots with the parent tree. After 17 weeks, seedlings in the non-cored positions bore mycorrhizas mainly ofLactarius...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/8754/
*  Nitrogen nutrition in the arbuscular mycorrhizal system
... 'Nitrogen nutrition in the arbuscular mycorrhizal system'. Govindarajulu, Manjula; Pfeffer,Philip E.; Jin, Hairu; Abubaker, Jehad; Douds, David D; Allen, James W.; Bucking, Heike; Lammers, Peter J.; Shachar-Hill, Yair 2005. Allen, James W. and Shachar-Hill, Yair 2009. "New Phytologist " 181:199ñ207 Working with an ' in vitro ' system, studies have shown that as much as 29% Govindarajulu, Manjula; Pfeffer,Philip E.; Jin, Hairu; Abubaker, Jehad; Douds, David D; Allen, James W.; Bucking, Heike; Lammers, Peter J.; Shachar-Hill, Yair 2005 "Nitrogen transfer in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis". J.; Shachar-Hill, Yair 2005. "The uptake, metabolism, transport and transfer of nitrogen in an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis". For example, the detection and measurement of gene expression has enabled researchers to determine which genes are up-regulated in the plant and fungus under various nitrogen conditions. Govindarajulu, Manjula; Pfeffer,Philip E.; Jin, Hairu; Abubaker, Jehad; Douds, David D; Allen, James ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_nutrition_in_the_arbuscular_mycorrhizal_system
*  Frontiers | How membranes shape plant symbioses: signaling and transport in nodulation and arbuscula
Simple TEXT file. In arbuscular mycorrhiza AM and in root nodule symbiosis RNS , AM fungi and rhizobia, respectively, penetrate roots and accommodate within the cells of the plant host. See Table A1 and the main text for more information on the respective genes and their function in symbiosis. Interestingly, only the full length SYMRK of nodulating plant species among the eurosids can fully complement nodulation in the L. Surprisingly, full length SYMRK of the non-nodulating Tropaeolum was able to restore nodulation in L. Based on sequence comparison, the predisposition to bacterial symbiosis may be related to the third LRR motif in the full-length SYMRK. PEN1 forms a SNARE complex with SNAP33 Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Adaptor Protein 33 , VAMP721 and/or VAMP722, thereby providing an exocytotic delivery system for antifungal substances that contribute to full immunity in non-host resistance Kwon et al., 2008. MtSTR and MtSTR2 were found to heterodimerize creating a full-size transporter that ...
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2012.00223/full
*  Fungi and Mycorrhizae FAQs
... London, Jr. 5 What is biological control in the context of plant disease management. Return to Top of Document Return to FAQ Table of Contents Return to PMRC HomePage. Return to Top of Document. secreted by fungal cells. Return to Top of Document. They are important sources of biological control for insect problems and plant disease in forestry, agricultural and horticultural crops. Fungi can be beneficial also to the growth of plants by forming mutualistic symbiotic associations with roots called mycorrhizae. Return to Top of Document. The amendment of soil with organic material will enhance the activity of decomposer fungi in the soil. Some of these fungi may also be antagonistic to fungal pathogens of plants and lead to suppression of disease. So, using this fumigant to kill plant pathogenic nematodes in greenhouse soil will also kill pathogenic fungi and kill the mycorrhizal fungi that are beneficial to plants. Return to Top of Document. 4 Mycorrhizae and their significance Mycorrhizae are mutualistc...
http://ibiblio.org/london/agriculture/feedback/new-links/msg00235.html
*  Arbuscular mycorrhiza
The growth of AM hyphae through the soil is controlled by host root exudates and the soil phosphorus concentration. Root exudates from AMF host plants grown in a liquid medium with and without phosphorus have been shown to effect hyphal growth. The fungi grow in the exudates from roots starved of phosphorus had increased hyphal growth and produced tertiary branches compared to those grown in exudates from plants given adequate phosphorus. This chemotaxic fungal response to the host plants exudates is thought to increase the efficacy of host root colonization in low phosphorus soils. This demonstrates that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have chemotaxic abilities which enable hyphal growth toward the roots of a potential host plant. The benefit of mycorrhizae to plants is mainly attributed to increased uptake of nutrients, especially phosphorus. Mycorrhizal can be much more efficient than plant roots at taking up phosphorus. In some cases the role of phosphorus uptake can be completely taken over by the mycorrhiz...
http://bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Arbuscular_mycorrhiza.html
*  Mycorrhizae
... Home Catalog Mushrooms Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae: Plant-Fungus Partners. Unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. They absorb their food from dead organic matter, or other living organisms. The source of their food is called a substrate if it is dead, and a host if it is living. The body mycelium of a fungus is made of threads called hyphae. Hyphae absorb nutrients from the substrate, spread, grow, and produce fruiting bodies. The fruiting body of the fungus is the part that we can see, and touch. Fruiting Bodies. Black Truffle Cup Fungus Morel Giant Puffball Mushroom Earth Star. Mycorrhizae result from the symbiosis partnership between a fungus' hyphae and a living plant root. Symbiotic partnerships occur only between living organisms. If a fungus obtains its carbohydrates from dead organic matter it is a decomposer and not symbiotic. Symbiotic partnerships are formed in three ways. A parasitic relationship benefits the fungus but harms the host. In mutual symbiosis, both fungus and host benefit f...
http://herbarium.usu.edu/fungi/funfacts/Mycorhiz.htm
*  Agrociencia - Bacterias que se asocian al micelio extraradical de un hongo arbuscular en suelo conta
Bacteria associated with the extraradical mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in an As/Cu polluted soil. Microscopy was used to study the interaction between the hyphae of an AM fungus Glomus claroideum BEG134 from an As/Cu polluted soil and bacteria in polluted soil cultures. Under natural conditions soil bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi may be associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF Vanc ra et al., 1989; Walley and Germida, 1996. In germinating AMF spores the expression of nif nitrogen fixation genes could indicate that the Burkholderia endobacteria supply the fungus with nitrogen during its pre infection growth Minerdi et al., 2001 ; however, studies by Bianciotto and Bonfante 2002 did not confirm this. AMF are beneficial to plants in polluted soils Gonz lez Ch vez et al., 2004a. The objective of this research was to microscopically study the interaction of bacteria associated with the ERM of Glomus claroideum BEG134 from an As/ Cu polluted soil, simulating polluted conditions. Different...
http://scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-31952008000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso
*  .. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Indigenous to Peru and a Flavonoid on Growth, Yield, and Lea
influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae indigenous to peru and a flavonoid on growth yield and leaf elemental concentration of yungay potatoes by fred t davies jr constantino m calderon and zosimo huaman abstract the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi amf and the flavonoid formononetin were tested on growth yield and leaf elemental concentration of the peruvian potato solanum tuberosum l yungay plant started from tissue culture produced prenuclear minitubers of yungay were subjected to seven treatments which included noncolonized non amf plants fertilized with long ashton nutrient solution modified to supply p at and ug ml all amf plants received low p ug ml and were inoculated with either a sierra maize mixed isolate sierra papa mixed isolate pure isolate of g intraradices sierra maize mixed isolate dormononetin or a sierra papa mixed isolate formononetin plants were grown in l containers under shade house conditions in lima peru non amf plants at lo...
http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/faculty/davies/research/abstracts/79.html
*  Facilitation of plant phosphate acquisition by arbuscular mycotrhizas from enriched soil patches -
... CUI - 1996 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library. Previous article in issue: Distribution of phosphorus and calcium from nodal roots of Trifolium repens: the relative importance of transport via xylem or phloem Next article in issue: Facilitation of plant phosphate acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizas from enriched soil patches. Next article in issue: Facilitation of plant phosphate acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizas from enriched soil patches. Facilitation of plant phosphate acquisition by arbuscular mycotrhizas from enriched soil patches I. Publication History Issue published online: 28 April 2006 Article first published online: 28 April 2006. GOLLADAY, Response of three floodplain tree species to spatial heterogeneity in soil oxygen and nutrients, Journal of Ecology, 2007, 95, 6, 1274 Wiley Online Library 17 Marie Šmilauerov, Petr Šmilauer, Co-occurring graminoid and forb species do not differ in their root morphological response to soil heterogeneity, Folia Geobotanica, 2006, 41, 2...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1996.tb01912.x/abstract?wol1URL=/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1996.tb01912.x/abstract®ionCode=US-VA&identityKey=076ccbb3-30c8-4ceb-b0c8-a86c0d155aea
*  Fungal Spore Germination and Pre-symbiotic Mycelial Growth – Physiological and Genetic Aspects - S
They form spores in the soil, which are able to germinate and grow, but are unable to complete their life cycle without establishing a functional symbiosis with a host plant. CrossRef. Ames RN, Mihara KL, Bayne HG 1989 Chitin-decomposing actynomycetes associated with a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus from a calcareous soil. New Phytol 111:67–71. CrossRef. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:6208–6215. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. Mycol Res 102:985–990. CrossRef. Can J Microbiol 55:242–253. CrossRef. PubMed. New Phytol 147:631–639. CrossRef. Soil Biol Biochem 19:417–419. CrossRef. Soil Biol Biochem 21:639–644. CrossRef. Plant Soil 82:133–138. CrossRef. Trans Br Mycol Soc 86:337–340. CrossRef. CrossRef. Plant Physiol 121:263–271. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. Plant Soil 244:189–197. CrossRef. Plant Physiol 128:108–124. CrossRef. Butehorn B, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Franken P 1999 Quantification of beta-tubulin RNA expression during asymbiotic and symbiotic development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus...
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-9489-6_1
*  Mycorrhizosphere
The 'mycorrhizosphere' is the region around a mycorrhiza l fungus in which nutrients released from the fungus increase the microbial population and its activities. The roots of most terrestrial plants, including most crop plants and almost all woody plant s, are colonized by mycorrhiza-forming symbiotic fungi. In this relationship, the plant roots are infected by a fungus, but the rest of the fungal mycelium continues to grow through the soil, digesting and absorbing nutrients and water and sharing these with its plant host. The mycorrhizosphere consists of roots, hypha e of the directly connected mycorrhizal fungi, associated microorganisms, and the soil in their direct influence. The mycorrhizosphere involves a community of microorganisms. There are three divisions of fungi that can form mycorrhizae, the Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Ascomycota fungi form ericoid mycorrhiza s with plants of the order Ericales, and ectomycorrhizas with trees. In some cases, mycorrhizal fungi in the mycorrhizo...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycorrhizosphere
*  .. Mycorrhizal Fungi: The Secret to Healthier Plants .. What is Mycorrhizal Fungi? .. Thrive sam
Grow Great Tomatoes Without Using Chemicals. You’ve seen me mention Thrive, a sponsor, before and asked me about their line of products. Thrive is a liquid mycorrhizal fungi for your garden. What is Mycorrhizal Fungi. What is mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi is an all-natural, beneficial fungus in the soil. THRIVE is an all-natural, no harsh chemical product. So you cannot over-treat with THRIVE but of course you can over-water your vegetation. It is safe to use with a fertilizer or plant food that you currently use. THRIVE contains no harsh chemicals and is an all-natural blend of beneficial bacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi. But it can be used all year around and will only help your plants and vegetation. THRIVE will make all vegetation grow, even weeds, so caution to where you apply it. Then check out this article from Thrive about how mycorrhizal fungi works. Thrive samples and free shipping. Thrive is offering free shipping on all orders and also offering free samples,. http://www.UrbanOrganicGardener.c...
http://urbanorganicgardener.com/2012/04/mycorrhizal-fungi-the-secret-to-healthier-plants/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed: UrbanOrganicGardener (Urban Organic Gardener)
*  Molecular Plant Nutrition - IPK Gatersleben
... HOME. SITEMAP. MEDIA. DIRECTIONS. CONTACT. DISCLAIMER. Institute Research Career Resources. Research. Genebank. Breeding Research. Molecular Genetics. Physiology and Cell Biology. Independent Research Groups. Bioinformatics. Molekulare Pflanzenernährung Molecular Plant Nutrition. Choose a site Travel Jobs Conferences People. Molecular Plant Nutrition. Projects. Nutrient sensing. Stress adaptation. N-Retranslocation. N fertilizer forms as signals. Iron and heavy metal acquisition. Ionomics. PGPR. Team. Publications. Applied Biochemistry. Yeast Genetics. Plant Reproductive Biology. Structural Cell Biology. Metalloid Transport. Systems Biology. You are here:. Physiology and Cell Biology. Molecular Plant Nutrition. Molecular Plant Nutrition Head: Prof Nicolaus von Wirén. Research in our group is focussed on the transport and sensing of nutrients, on genotypical factors determining nutrient efficiency in plants, and on mechanisms causing plant growth promotion by associative rhizosphere bacteria. Employing a ...
http://ipk-gatersleben.de/en/dept-physiology-and-cell-biology/molecular-plant-nutrition/
*  Fair Trade at Plant Roots | The Scientist Magazine®
Fair Trade at Plant Roots. The Scientist Magazine. News & Opinion. Fair Trade at Plant Roots Plant and fungal symbionts swap more resources with partners that provide a greater return of nutrients. Close-up of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi connecting roots of plant hosts IMAGE COURTESY OF YOSHIHIRO KOBAE Nutrient exchanges between plant and fungal symbionts are relatively fair, with partners that provide the most resources being rewarded with more nutrients in return. Mycorrhizae are mutualistic associations between plants and fungi, in which plants trade carbohydrates for nutrients, such as phosphorous and ntrogen, and other benefits provided by the fungi. Heike B cking, a professor at South Dakota State University, and her team grew the legume Medicago truncatula with three species of mycorrhizal fungi that contribute different levels of phosphorous to the plant. Over the span of a day, the researchers saw that the most generous species received the highest levels of carbon in return, suggesting the plants s...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/31024/title/Fair-Trade-at-Plant-Roots/flagPost/67285/
*  Ectomycorrhizal responses to organic and inorganic nitrogen sources when associating with two host s
... pecies PDF Download Available. For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Article Ectomycorrhizal responses to organic and inorganic nitrogen sources when associating with two host species. Meghan Avolio. Meghan Avolio National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center SESYNC Message author. Remove suggestion. Amy R Tuininga. Amy R Tuininga. Remove suggestion. James D Lewis. James D Lewis Fordham University Message author. Remove suggestion. Michael Marchese. Michael Marchese Albany Medical College Message author. Remove suggestion. Louis Calder Center and Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, 53 Whippoorwill Road, Armonk, NY 10504, USA. Mycological Research. Impact Factor: 2.81. 06/2009; 113 Pt 8 :897-907. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2009.05.001 Source: PubMed. ABSTRACT While it is established that increasing atmospheric inorganic nitrogen N deposition reduces ectomycorrhizal fungal biomass and...
http://researchgate.net/publication/26236736_Ectomycorrhizal_responses_to_organic_and_inorganic_nitrogen_sources_when_associating_with_two_host_species
*  Mycorrhizal Fungi Root Builder
... Loading... Please wait... Free Shipping on Orders over $50, USA Lower 48. Shopping Cart. Menu. My Account. Sign in or Create an account. Connect with us. Shopping Cart. Search. Environmentally Friendly Lawn & Garden Supplies  Since 1998 FREE SHIPPING on orders over $50. Categories. Garden Garden and Hand Tools Composting Bins Rain Barrels for Rainwater Collection Gardening Accessories Gardening Tips. Featured Clearance Free Shipping Items. Push Reel Lawn Mowers Home Products Weathervanes Decorative Outdoor Thermometers Ironing Boards. Quick Links About Us. Press. Shipping Returns. Info Blog. How to Make Compost. Push Reel Mower Buyer’s Guide. 199 Different Things You Can Compost. Tips on choosing and using a manual reel mower. Top Houseplants for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Ultimate Guide to Raising Backyard Chickens. Explanation of NPK Fertilizers. 8 Easy Ways to Improve Your Lawn. 5 Tips for Improving Your Raised Bed Garden Soil. How to compost egg shells, meat and sour milk. How to get rid of Cra...
http://cleanairgardening.com/mycorrhizal-fungi-root-builder/
*  Eco Tree Care & Conservation - Woodland Management, Firewood Logs, Consultancy, Tree Surgery, Tree S
Eco Tree Care Conservation - Woodland Management, Firewood Logs, Consultancy, Tree Surgery, Tree Surgeons and Conservation in Hertfordshire & Essex. Woodland Tree Planting. Native Hedge Planting Native Hedge Planting Guide. Orchard Planting. Woodland Tree Planting. Native Hedge Planting. Orchard Planting. Native Hedge Planting Guide. Mycorrhizal Inoculation. Further to this the fungus part of the mycorrhizae also grows out a very fine network of cotton-like strands, almost like roots themselves. This network consists of individual strands called hyphae. These strands of hyphae collectively form a huge network termed a mycelium network. The mycelium network is the white velvety coating on the rotting vegetation; the larger strands are the mycelium. The close association of the roots of trees with certain fungi was described as long ago as 1885 by a German forester, Albert Bernhard Frank in a paper called On the Nourishment of Trees through a Root Symbiosis with Underground Fungi 1885. Some trees are obligate. ...
http://ecotreecare.co.uk/mycorrhizal-inoculation-biology.htm
*  Glomus (fungus)
Glomus fungus. Glomus fungus. 'Glomus' is a genus of arbuscular mycorrhiza l AM fungi, and all species form symbiotic relationships mycorrhiza s with plant root s. 'Glomus' is the largest genus of AM fungi, with 'ca.' 85 species described, but is currently defined as non- monophyletic. Classification Ecology Life cycle ] Agricultural significance Species See also References. Some members of the genus were originally described as 'Sclerocystis' species, but this genus has been entirely transferred to 'Glomus'. As with other AM fungi, all 'Glomus' species are thought to be obligate symbionts, dependent on their mycorrhizal association with plant roots to complete their life cycle. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can provide numerous benefits to their plant hosts, including improved nutrient uptake, drought resistance, and disease resistance. 1 Life cycle. 'Glomus' species were considered to be entirely asexual until recently see Meiosis section below. Spores are produced at the tips of hyphae either within the h...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glomus_(fungus)
*  Science Inventory | US EPA
You are here: EPA Home » Science Inventory » Controls of Isotopic Patterns in Saprotrophic and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi. Controls of Isotopic Patterns in Saprotrophic and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi. Controls of Isotopic Patterns in Saprotrophic and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi. Description: Isotopes of nitrogen δ15N and carbon δ13C in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi contain important information about ecological functioning, but the complexity of physiological and ecosystem processes contributing to fungal carbon and nitrogen dynamics has limited our ability to explain differences across taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were classified by hydrophobicity of ectomycorrhizae and by patterns of hyphal exploration; saprotrophic fungi were classified into wood decay and litter decay fungi. For δ15N, caps of hydrophobic taxa averaged 8.6‰, hydrophilic taxa 3.2‰, and saprotrophic taxa 0.5‰, whereas needles averaged 3‰ and soil at 5–12 cm averaged 2‰. Isotopic enrichment of caps relative to stipes was greater in hydrophobic taxa 3...
http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=238359
*  Symbiosis, Volume 57, Issue 3 - Springer
... Search Options. Advanced Search. Search Help. Search Menu. Sign up / Log in English. Academic edition. Corporate edition. Skip to: Main content Side column. Contact Us. Browse Volumes Issues. Look Inside. Get Access. Find out how to access preview-only content. Symbiosis All Volumes Issues Volume 57, Issue 3, July 2012 ISSN: 0334-5114 Print 1878-7665 Online In this issue 5 articles. OriginalPaper Research on arbuscular mycorrhizae in Mexico: an historical synthesis and future prospects. Noé Manuel Montaño, Alejandro Alarcón, Sara Lucía Camargo-Ricalde. Look Inside. Get Access. OriginalPaper The kleptoplastic sea slug Elysia clarki prolongs photosynthesis by synthesizing chlorophyll a and b. Middlebrooks, Susan S. Pierce Pages 127-132. Look Inside. Get Access. OriginalPaper Nodulation and ecological significance of indigenous legumes in Scotland and Sweden. James, Pietro P. Look Inside. Get Access. OriginalPaper Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of three host plants in the farmi...
http://link.springer.com/journal/13199/57/3/page/1
*  Dynamic accumulator
... For instance, clover s will mine great quantities of nitrogen out of the air via a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. These bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into a form available to the clover, and exchange this nitrogen for exudates/sugars given by the clover. When the clover dies or is cut down, the green matter breaks down and releases the nitrogen into the soil. These plants become rich in a certain substance and can then be cut down. This can be used as a fertilizer or as part of a fertilizer mix for other plants that may be deficient in those particular nutrients. The use of a nitrogen dynamic accumulator, such as a clover patch, could potentially replace nitrogen-rich fertilizers. These types of plants play an important role in many permaculture guilds. Microbiologist Kristine Nichols of the University of Maryland showed that grasses like switchgrass, blue grama, Indian grass not only send down deep roots but increase glomalin levels and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi help "glue" th...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_accumulator
*  International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI)
International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI. English Language Preference English French Chinese Portuguese Russian Spanish. About IPNI. Store. Site Map. Search. Publications. Research. News. Topics. Regional Programs. Close Topics A. B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T V W Y Z Category. Crop. Nutrient. 06 Oct 2015. Webinar Series - Getting It Right with Precision Agriculture October 14, 2015. Dr. Phillips will explain how the principle of precision agriculture is intrinsically linked with 4R Nutrient Stewardship. Read More. 28 Sep 2015. Silicon Silicon Si is generally not considered an essential element for plant growth. However, due to its important role in plant nutrition, particularly under stressful conditions, it is now recognized as a “beneficial substance” or “quasi-essential.” Read More. 28 Sep 2015. The Nutrients Solution A scalable pilot project, initiated by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network and based on the 4R Nutrient Stewardship framework. Read More. 18 Sep 2015. From Science to Farmi...
http://windia.ipni.net/
*  Saprotrophic nutrition
... Image: Mycelial cord made up of a collection of hyphae; an essential part in the process of saprotrophic nutrition, it is used for the intake of organic matter through its cell wall. 'Saprotrophic nutrition' is a process of its chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of dead or decayed organic matter. 'Advanced biology principles', p 296—states the purpose of saprotrophs and their internal nutrition, as well as the main two types of fungi that are most often referred to, as well as describes, visually, the process of saprotrophic nutrition through a diagram of hyphae, referring to the Rhizobium on damp, stale whole-meal bread or rotting fruit. 'Advanced Biology Principles', p296, fig 14.16—Diagram detailing the re-absorption of substrates within the hypha. 'Advanced Biology Principles', p296 fig 14.17—A diagram explaining the optimal conditions needed for successful growth and repair. Optimal conditions refers to several conditions which optimise the growth of saprotrophic o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saprotrophic_nutrition
*  .. Troy Peters Grants
Troy Peters Grants. ID Title Principal Investigator s Additional Personnel. 101 The potential for data-based irrigation management adoption to improve the sustainability of water and nitrogen resources Brady, M. Desta, K. Peters, T. 083 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Plant Growth and Productivity Poovaiah, J. Du, Liqun....
http://csanr.wsu.edu/investigators/peters-troy/
*  Lactarius scoticus
... 'Lactarius scoticus' is a member of the large milk-cap genus ' Lactarius ' in the order Russulales. It is found in Europe, where it grows in peat bog s in a mycorrhiza l association with birch. Taxonomy Description Habitat and distribution See also References External links. Taxonomy. The species was first described by British mycologists Miles Joseph Berkeley and Christopher Edmund Broome in 1879. The type collection was made near Aboyne a village located near the edge of the Scottish Highlands in 1862; the type locality is referred to in the specific epithet 'scoticus' Scotland. Description. The cap is initially convex before developing a central depression, sometimes becoming funnel-shaped, and reaches diameters of 1.4–. The colour is initially pale cream to whitish, later becoming pale pinkish- buff to cream, with a more yellowish to yellowish-brown centre. Whitish to pale pinkish-buff in colour, they are sometimes forked near the stipe attachment. The stipe measures 2.0– long by 0.4– in diameter, an...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactarius_scoticus
*  .. Role of flavins in the resistance of Sinorhizobium meliloti – alfalfa association to Aphanomyc
Role of flavins in the resistance of Sinorhizobium meliloti – alfalfa association to Aphanomyces root rot CSANR Project 126 Status: Complete Project Summary. Priority area:. Novel approaches to disease and fertility management that transcend traditional organic approaches and seek to exploit and integrate biological and chemical processes. Flavins riboflavin, FMN and FAD; vitamin B2 are bioactive molecules that have a beneficial effect on plant growth and soil quality. Recently we found that mutations in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway affect the abundant flavin secretion by the nitrogen-fixing plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. We also have found that flavins play a critical role in the ability of S. meliloti to promote plant-host adaptation to environmental stresses – the features defining the efficiency of bacterial inoculums used as a part of Rhizobium-Legume crop system. However, the impact of rhizobia on the ability of the associated alfalfa to resist a pathogen attack or the effect of disease o...
http://csanr.wsu.edu/grants/role-of-flavins-in-the-resistance-of-sinorhizobium-meliloti-alfalfa-association-to-aphanomyces-root-rot/
*  Protein Lounge: Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in S. meliloti
... Citations About Us Contact Us. Login to Protein Lounge. Pathways. Databases. Kinase-Phosphatase. GPCR. Transcription Factors. Peptide Antigens. Protein Interaction. siRNA. Biochemical Compounds. Proteins. Tools. Pathway Builder. Protein Hydroplotter. Clone Easy. Peptide Finder. Easy siRNA. Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in S. meliloti. This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. Rhizobia are generally described as root-nodule-forming nitrogen-fixing symbionts belonging to one of five species, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Azorhizobium, and Mesorhizobium. meliloti Sinorhizobium meliloti genome consists of a circular chromosome and two large circular elements mega plasmids, one of which is essential for growth and Quorum-sensing Ref.1 2. In this Gram-negative bacterium the metabolism of amino acids like Glycine is indispensable for functioning of one-carbon metabolism and for the establishment of a fully effective, nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis. Glycine ac...
http://proteinlounge.com/Pathway/Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in S. meliloti
*  Protein Lounge: D-Alanine Metabolism in S. meliloti
... Citations About Us Contact Us. Login to Protein Lounge. Home. Pathways. Databases. Kinase-Phosphatase. GPCR. Transcription Factors. Peptide Antigens. Protein Interaction. siRNA. Biochemical Compounds. Proteins. Tools. Pathway Builder. Protein Hydroplotter. Clone Easy. Peptide Finder. Easy siRNA. Protein Vision. Animations. News. Featured. Cell Biology. Health & Medicine. Genetics. Molecular Biology. Microbiology. ePath3D. Clientele. Video Tutorials. . D-Alanine Metabolism in S. meliloti. This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages. Description. Sinorhizobium meliloti formerly Rhizobium meliloti, is a common Gram-negative soil and rhizosphere bacterium, that forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain genera of leguminous plants, including Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella sp. Inside the nodules, differentiated bacteria called bacteroids fix atmospheric nitrogen i.e. reduce N2 into NH3 to the benefit of the plan...
http://proteinlounge.com/Pathway/D-Alanine Metabolism in S. meliloti
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Sulfur metabolism - Sinorhizobium meliloti AK83
... Sulfur metabolism - Sinorhizobium meliloti AK83. [ Pathway menu Organism menu Pathway entry. Download KGML Show description User data mapping ]. Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide H2S. Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate or sulfur is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form ade...
http://genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?smk00920
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Mismatch repair - Sinorhizobium meliloti SM11
... Mismatch repair - Sinorhizobium meliloti SM11. [ Pathway menu Organism menu Pathway entry. Download KGML Show description User data mapping ]. DNA mismatch repair MMR is a highly conserved biological pathway that plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability. MMR corrects DNA mismatches generated during DNA replication, thereby preventing mutations from becoming permanent in dividing cells. MMR also suppresses homologous recombination and was recently shown to play a role in DNA damage signaling. Defects in MMR are associated with genome-wide instability, predisposition to certain types of cancer including HNPCC, resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents, and abnormalities in meiosis and sterility in mammalian systems. The Escherichia coli MMR pathway has been extensively studied and is well characterized. In E. coli, the mismatch-activated MutS-MutL-ATP complex licenses MutH to incise the nearest unmethylated GATC sequence. UvrD and an exonuclease generate a gap. This gap is filled by pol III an...
http://genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?smx03430 SM11_pC1481
*  Geneviève Alloing
Publications Proline betaine uptake in Sinorhizobium meliloti: Characterization of Prb, an opp-like ABC transporter regulated by both proline betaine and salinity stress Geneviève Alloing Unité Interactions Plantes Microorganismes et Santé Végétale, UMR6192 CNRS INRA Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Centre INRA Agrobiotech, 400 Route des Chappes, BP167, 06903 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France J Bacteriol 188:6308-17. 2004 Two Sinorhizobium meliloti glutaredoxins regulate iron metabolism and symbiotic bacteroid differentiation Sofiane M Benyamina UMR Institut Sophia Agrobiotech INRA 1355 CNRS 7254 Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 400 Routes des Chappes, 06903 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France Environ Microbiol 15:795-810. Detail Information Publications 3 Proline betaine uptake in Sinorhizobium meliloti: Characterization of Prb, an opp-like ABC transporter regulated by both proline betaine and salinity stress Geneviève Alloing Unité Interactions Plantes Microorganismes et Santé Végétale, UMR6192 CNRS INRA Un...
http://labome.org/expert/france/alloing/genevi--ve-alloing-970730.html
*  zwf - Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase - Rhizobium meliloti (strain 1021) (Ensifer meliloti)
zwf - Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase - Rhizobium meliloti strain 1021 Ensifer meliloti. p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences">More… /a> /p>. Skip Header. UniProtKB. x UniProtKB Protein knowledgebase UniParc Sequence archive Help Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. UniRef Sequence clusters Proteomes Protein sets from fully sequenced genomes Annotation systems Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy: UniRule Manually curated rules. SAAS System generated rules. Supporting data Select one of the options below to target your search: Literature citations. Taxonomy. Keywords. Subcellular locations. Cross-referenced databases. Human diseases. Advanced Search. x Searching in. Home. BLAST. Align. Retrieve/ID mapping. Contact. Help. You ...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9Z3S2
*  Lehman College - Department of Biological Sciences - Faculty Haiping Cheng
... Lehman College. The molecular switch consists of at least ExoR, ExoS, and ChvI proteins. ExoR functions in periplasm and forms ExoR-ExoS protein complex to regulated sensing activities of ExoS and indirectly regulates expression of hundreds of genes regulated by the ExoS/ChvI system. The expression of these hundreds of genes are likely required to the support either free living or invasion into its hosts. Publications Hai-Yang Lu, Li Luo, Meng-Hua Yang, and Hai-Ping Cheng. J Bacteriology. 194 15 : 4029-4040 Hai-Yang Lu and Hai-Ping Cheng. Autoregulation of Sinorhizobium meliloti exoR gene expression. Microbiology 156: 2092-2101 Shi-Hua Shen, Feng Chi, Kuixian Ji, Yu-xiang Jing, Ming-Feng Yang, Hai-Ping Cheng, Frank B. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20 2 : 238-244 Ming-Sheng Qi, Li Luo, Hai-Ping Cheng, Jia-Bi Zhu, Guan-Qiao Yu. 72:2738-2748 Feng Chi, Shi-Hua Shen, Hai-Ping Cheng, Yu-Xiang Jing and Frank B. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 71:7271-7278 Li Luo, Shi-Yi Yao, Anke Becker, Silvia...
http://lehman.cuny.edu/academics/biology/fac-cheng.php
*  UniProt: P18398
Ontology 7. Protein sequence 2. Protein domain 13. AC P18398; DT 01-NOV-1990, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DE RecName: Full=Nitrogen fixation protein FixI; DE AltName: Full=E1-E2 type cation ATPase FixI; DE EC=3.6.3.-; GN Name=fixI; OrderedLocusNames=RA0659; ORFNames=SMa1209; OS Rhizobium meliloti strain 1021 Ensifer meliloti Sinorhizobium OS meliloti. RC STRAIN=RCR2011 / SU47; RX PubMed= 2536685 ; RA Kahn D., David M., Domergue O., Daveran M.-L., Ghai J., Hirsch P.R., RA Batut J.; RT "Rhizobium meliloti fixGHI sequence predicts involvement of a specific RT cation pump in symbiotic nitrogen fixation."; RL J. RC STRAIN=1021; RX PubMed= 11481432 ; DOI=10.1073/pnas.161294798; RA Barnett M.J., Fisher R.F., Jones T., Komp C., Abola A.P., RA Barloy-Hubler F., Bowser L., Capela D., Galibert F., Gouzy J., RA Gurjal M., Hong A., Huizar L., Hyman R.W., Kahn D., Kahn M.L., RA Kalman S., Keating D.H., Palm C., Peck M.C., Surzycki R., Wells D.H., RA Yeh K.-C., Davis R.W., Federspiel N.A., Long S.R.; RT "Nucleotid...
http://genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?uniprot:P18398
*  Medicago radiata
... or ray podded medick is a plant species of the genus medicago it is found throughout the eastern mediterranean and in asia it forms a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti which is capable of nitrogen fixation gallery image medicago radiata seeds jpg seeds external links radiata category plants described in...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_radiata
*  Medicago marina
... image medicago marina mhnt bot jpg medicago marina is a plant species of the genus medicago it is native to the mediterranean basin but is found worldwide it forms a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti which is capable of nitrogen fixation common names include coastal medick and sea medick external links marina category plants described in...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_marina
*  Medicago falcata
... is a plant species of the genus medicago it is native to the mediterranean basin but is found throughout the world it forms a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti which is capable of nitrogen fixation its common names include blue alfalfa sickle alfalfa sickle medick yellow lucerne and yellow flowered alfalfa external links falcata category plants described in...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_falcata
*  Medicago brachycarpa
... is a plant species of the genus medicago it is found throughout the middle east it forms a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti which is capable of nitrogen fixation external links brachycarpa...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_brachycarpa
*  Medicago coronata
... or crown medick is a plant species of the genus medicago it is found throughout the mediterranean basin it forms a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti which is capable of nitrogen fixation external links coronata...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_coronata
*  Medicago noeana
... is a plant species of the genus medicago it can be found throughout the middle east it forms a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti which is capable of nitrogen fixation external links noeana...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_noeana
*  Medicago praecox
... mediterranean medick or early medick is a plant species of the genus medicago it is found throughout the northern mediterranean it forms a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium sinorhizobium meliloti which is capable of nitrogen fixation references external links praecox...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicago_praecox
*  TIGR03414
TIGRFAMs. JCVI Home. TIGRFAMs Home. Genome Properties. TIGRFAMs Home. TIGRFAMs Terms. TIGRFAMs Complete Listing. TIGRFAMs FTP site. TIGRFAMs Resources. TIGR03414 Seed Alignment. HMM Summary Page: TIGR03414. Accession. ABC choline bnd. Function. choline ABC transporter, periplasmic binding protein. Gene Symbol. choX. Trusted Cutoff. Domain Trusted Cutoff. Noise Cutoff. Domain Noise Cutoff. HMM Length. Transport and binding proteins. GO:0015220 : choline transmembrane transporter activity molecular function. GO:0055052 : ATP-binding cassette ABC transporter complex, substrate-binding subunit-containing cellular component. Haft DH. Partial phylogenetic profiling PMID:16930487 vs. the genome property of glycine betaine biosynthesis from choline consistently reveals a member of this ABC transporter periplasmic binding protein as the best match, save for the betaine biosynthesis enzymes themselves. Genomes often carry several paralogs, one encoded together with the permease and ATP-binding components and another en...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/tigrfams/HmmReportPage.cgi?acc=TIGR03414
*  KEGG T00058: SM b20515
... Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021: SM b20515. Entry SM b20515 CDS T00058. Definition RefSeq chemotaxis methyltransferase. KO K13924. two-component system, chemotaxis family, CheB/CheR fusion protein. Organism sme Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Pathway sme02020. Two-component system. sme02030. Bacterial chemotaxis. Brite KEGG Orthology KO Environmental Information Processing Signal transduction 02020 Two-component system SM b20515 Cellular Processes Cell motility 02030 Bacterial chemotaxis SM b20515 Enzymes 2. Transferases 2.1 Transferring one-carbon groups 2.1.1 Methyltransferases 2.1.1.80 protein-glutamate O-methyltransferase SM b20515 3. Hydrolases 3.1 Acting on ester bonds 3.1.1 Carboxylic-ester hydrolases 3.1.1.61 protein-glutamate methylesterase SM b20515 Two-component system CheA family CheA-CheYBV SM b20515 Bacterial motility proteins Flagellar system Chemotaxis proteins Two component system proteins SM b20515. SSDB. Motif Pfam: CheB methylest CheR HWE HK PAS 10 PAS 4 PAS 9 CheR N PAS HisKA 2 PAS 3 PAS 8 ...
http://genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?sme:SM_b20515
*  iverilog/elab expr.cc at v8-s20060822 · nickg/iverilog · GitHub
... Skip to content. Sign up Sign in. This repository. Explore. Features. Enterprise. Pricing. Watch. 2. Star. 3. Fork. 51. nickg. / iverilog. forked from steveicarus/iverilog. Code Issues. Pull requests. Pulse Graphs HTTPS clone URL. Subversion checkout URL. You can clone with. . HTTPS or. . Subversion. Download ZIP. Permalink. Tag: v8-s20060822. Switch branches/tags. Branches. Tags. coverage. cvshead. generics. master. v0 6-branch. v0 8-branch. v0 8-devel. var-array-rework. verilog-ams. version0 1. vhdl. vhdl2. Nothing to show. v8-s20060822. v0 8 6. v0 8 5. v0 8 4. v0 8 3. v0 8 2. v0 8 1. v0 8. v0 7. v0 6 1. v0 6. v0 4rc1. v0 4. v0 3rc2. v0 3rc1. v0 2rc2. v0 2rc1. v0 1rc3. v0 1rc2. v0 1rc1. s20080429. s20080314. s20080111. s20070812. s20070608. s20070421. s20070227. s20061210. s20061209. s20061009. s20060809. s20060618. s20060409. s20060215. s20060124. s20051127. s20051012. s20050829. s20050617. s20041004. s20040915. s20040828. s20040606. s20040220. s20040209. s20040118. s20031202. s20031009. s20030924. s2...
https://github.com/nickg/iverilog/blob/v8-s20060822/elab_expr.cc
*  iverilog/elab expr.cc at s20021109 · nickg/iverilog · GitHub
... Skip to content. Sign up Sign in. This repository. Explore. Features. Enterprise. Pricing. Watch. 2. Star. 3. Fork. 51. nickg. / iverilog. forked from steveicarus/iverilog. Code Issues. Pull requests. Pulse Graphs HTTPS clone URL. Subversion checkout URL. You can clone with. . HTTPS or. . Subversion. Download ZIP. Permalink. Tag: s20021109. Switch branches/tags. Branches. Tags. coverage. cvshead. generics. master. v0 6-branch. v0 8-branch. v0 8-devel. var-array-rework. verilog-ams. version0 1. vhdl. vhdl2. Nothing to show. v8-s20060822. v0 8 6. v0 8 5. v0 8 4. v0 8 3. v0 8 2. v0 8 1. v0 8. v0 7. v0 6 1. v0 6. v0 4rc1. v0 4. v0 3rc2. v0 3rc1. v0 2rc2. v0 2rc1. v0 1rc3. v0 1rc2. v0 1rc1. s20080429. s20080314. s20080111. s20070812. s20070608. s20070421. s20070227. s20061210. s20061209. s20061009. s20060809. s20060618. s20060409. s20060215. s20060124. s20051127. s20051012. s20050829. s20050617. s20041004. s20040915. s20040828. s20040606. s20040220. s20040209. s20040118. s20031202. s20031009. s20030924. s2003...
https://github.com/nickg/iverilog/blob/s20021109/elab_expr.cc
*  Nodulation, NolB (IPR016775) < InterPro < EMBL-EBI
Nodulation, NolB IPR016775 InterPro EMBL-EBI. Skip to main content. Skip to local navigation. Skip to EBI global navigation menu. Skip to expanded EBI global navigation menu includes all sub-sections. Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. . Your browser does not support JavaScript or you turned off JavaScript options. Some features on this website won't work properly Click here to enable JavaScript. InterPro. Examples: IPR020405, kinase, P51587, PF02932, GO:0007165. Home. Search. Release notes. Download. About InterPro. Help. Contact. By sequence. By domain architecture. Training tutorials. FAQs. Documentation. Overview. Proteins matched 32. Domain architectures. Pathways interactions. Species. Structures. Literature. Cross-references. Add your annotation. Add your annotation. Family. Nodulation, NolB IPR016775. Short name: Nodulation NolB. Family relationships. None. Description. This group represents a nodulation protein, NolB type. Contributing signatures. Signatures from InterPro member databa...
http://ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR016775
*  KEGG SSDB Gene Cluster Search Result: efi:OG1RF 12076
KEGG ID : efi:OG1RF 12076 1025 a.a. Definition: cryptic beta-D-galactosidase subunit alpha; K12111 evolved beta-galactosidase subunit alpha. Include: best hits Gap size:. Search against: All organisms Selected organism group Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Bacteria Archaea Cyanobacteria. efs EFS1 2167 EFS1 2168 EFS1 2169 EFS1 2170 EFS1 2171 EFS1 2172 EFS1 2173 K03575 EFS1 2174 K03565 EFS1 2175 EFS1 2176 EFS1 2177 K12111 EFS1 2178 EFS1 2179 EFS1 2180 EFS1 2181 K02935 EFS1 2182 K02864 EFS1 2183 K02863 EFS1 2184 K02867 EFS1 2185 K19350 EFS1 2186 K01752 EFS1 2187 K01752. efd EFD32 2317 EFD32 2318 EFD32 2320 EFD32 2321 EFD32 2322 EFD32 2323 EFD32 2324 K03575 EFD32 2325 K03565 EFD32 2326 EFD32 2327 EFD32 2328 K12111 EFD32 2329 EFD32 2330 EFD32 2331 EFD32 2332 K02935 EFD32 2333 K02864 EFD32 2334 K02863 EFD32 2335 K02867 EFD32 2336 K19350 EFD32 2337 K01752 EFD32 2338 K01752. mhg   MHY 10610           MHY 10010 K03565     MHY 19880 K12111 MHY 19890 MHY 17150   MHY 20600 K02935 MHY 20610 K028...
http://kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_gclust?org_gene=efi:OG1RF_12076
*  From the Inside 003
... Linkin Park News. LPA News. The Band. Chester Bennington. Mike Shinoda. Brad Delson. Phoenix. Joe Hahn. Rob Bourdon. Releases. Full Discography. All Songs. Gallery. Downloads. Behind the Site. Contact LPA. YouTube. LPA Gallery Music Videos Meteora From the Inside From the Inside 003. Linkin Park. -- -- Official Photos. -- -- Live and Fan. -- -- Magazines. -- -- Promotional... -- Chester Bennington. -- -- Official Photos. -- -- Live and Fan. -- -- Magazine. -- -- Promotional... -- Rob Bourdon. -- -- Official Photos. -- -- Live and Fan. -- -- Magazine. -- -- Promotional... -- Brad Delson. -- -- Official Photos. -- -- Live and Fan. -- -- Magazine. -- -- Promotional... -- -- Official Photos. -- -- Live and Fan. -- -- Magazine. -- -- Promotional... -- Joe Hahn. -- -- Official Photos. -- -- Live and Fan. -- -- Magazine. -- -- Promotional... -- Mike Shinoda. -- -- Official Photos. -- -- Live and Fan. -- -- Magazine. -- -- Promotional... -- Fort Minor. -- Dead By Sunrise. -- A Thousand Suns... -- LIVING THINGS.....
http://lpassociation.com/gallery/v/musicvideos/meteora/fromtheinside/From the Inside 003.jpg.html
*  https://www.ttuhsc.edu/Health.edu/(S(3naicyqmdhyprafh1lpu1h45))/newenrollment.aspx
... => https://www.ttuhsc.edu/Health.edu/(S(3naicyqmdhyprafh1lpu1h45))/1810;url=/Health.edu/(S(3naicyqmdhyprafh1lpu1h45))/SignOut.aspx?auto=true...
https://ttuhsc.edu/Health.edu/(S(3naicyqmdhyprafh1lpu1h45))/newenrollment.aspx
*  Comparing MacRuby:master...jamaher:1efd63f6df4add4d52899a5360f544e47d75cef9 · MacRuby/MacRuby · Gi
... tHub. Skip to content. Sign up Sign in. This repository. Explore. Features. Enterprise. Pricing. Watch. 110. Star. 1,857. Fork. 205. MacRuby. / MacRuby. Code Pull requests. Wiki. Pulse Graphs HTTPS clone URL. Subversion checkout URL. You can clone with. . HTTPS or. . Subversion. Download ZIP. Permalink. Comparing changes. Choose two branches to see what’s changed or to start a new pull request. If you need to, you can also compare across forks. Open a pull request. Create a new pull request by comparing changes across two branches. If you need to, you can also compare across forks. base fork: MacRuby/MacRuby. Choose a Base Repository. MacRuby/MacRuby. 1nueve/MacRuby. Afront/MacRuby. AlphaB/MacRuby. DenisBazhan/MacRuby. Develomentional/MacRuby. DevelomentionalLLC/MacRuby. DocPsy/MacRuby. EthanSeaver/MacRuby. GeertVL/MacRuby. Halfnhav/MacRuby. HumbleRepose/MacRuby. Hunter-Dolan/MacRuby. IcooN/MacRuby. JSnyder28/MacRuby. Jacob640/MacRuby. Jaharmi/MacRuby. JeanPerriault/MacRuby. JosephKu/MacRuby. Ju2ender/Mac...
https://github.com/MacRuby/MacRuby/compare/master...jamaher:1efd63f6df4add4d52899a5360f544e47d75cef9
*  Comparing cjilyy:master...MacRuby:1efd63f6df4add4d52899a5360f544e47d75cef9 · cjilyy/MacRuby · GitH
... ub. Skip to content. Sign up Sign in. This repository. Explore. Enterprise. Pricing. Watch. 1. Star. 0. Fork. 205. cjilyy. / MacRuby. forked from MacRuby/MacRuby. Code Pull requests. Pulse Graphs HTTPS clone URL. Subversion checkout URL. You can clone with. . HTTPS or. . Subversion. Download ZIP. Permalink. Comparing changes. Choose two branches to see what’s changed or to start a new pull request. If you need to, you can also compare across forks. Open a pull request. Create a new pull request by comparing changes across two branches. If you need to, you can also compare across forks. base fork: cjilyy/MacRuby. Choose a Base Repository. cjilyy/MacRuby. MacRuby/MacRuby. 1nueve/MacRuby. Afront/MacRuby. AlphaB/MacRuby. DenisBazhan/MacRuby. Develomentional/MacRuby. DevelomentionalLLC/MacRuby. DocPsy/MacRuby. EthanSeaver/MacRuby. GeertVL/MacRuby. Halfnhav/MacRuby. HumbleRepose/MacRuby. Hunter-Dolan/MacRuby. IcooN/MacRuby. JSnyder28/MacRuby. Jacob640/MacRuby. Jaharmi/MacRuby. JeanPerriault/MacRuby. JosephKu/Ma...
https://github.com/cjilyy/MacRuby/compare/master...MacRuby:1efd63f6df4add4d52899a5360f544e47d75cef9
*  http://www.leadingre.com/listingdetails/usa/mo/strafford/0-north-lot-36-vermillion-drive-65757 0x35916d7e5c652a918b889efd426fc0c4/
... => http://www.leadingre.com/listingdetails/usa/mo/strafford/0-north-lot-36-vermillion-drive-65757 0x35916d7e5c652a918b889efd426fc0c4...
http://leadingre.com/listingdetails/usa/mo/strafford/0-north-lot-36-vermillion-drive-65757_0x35916d7e5c652a918b889efd426fc0c4/
*  http://www.leadingre.com/listingdetails/usa/nv/reno/2574-spring-flower-dr-89521 0x56b3913d7bd0efd0ecf2b6edec213fe0/
... => http://www.leadingre.com/listingdetails/usa/nv/reno/2574-spring-flower-dr-89521 0x56b3913d7bd0efd0ecf2b6edec213fe0...
http://leadingre.com/listingdetails/usa/nv/reno/2574-spring-flower-dr-89521_0x56b3913d7bd0efd0ecf2b6edec213fe0/
*  Comparing chorfa672m:master...MacRuby:1efd63f6df4add4d52899a5360f544e47d75cef9 · chorfa672m/MacRuby
... · GitHub. Skip to content. Sign up Sign in. This repository. Explore. Features. Enterprise. Pricing. Watch. 1. Star. 1. Fork. 205. chorfa672m. / MacRuby. forked from MacRuby/MacRuby. Code Pull requests. Pulse Graphs HTTPS clone URL. Subversion checkout URL. You can clone with. . HTTPS or. . Subversion. Download ZIP. Permalink. Comparing changes. Choose two branches to see what’s changed or to start a new pull request. If you need to, you can also compare across forks. Open a pull request. Create a new pull request by comparing changes across two branches. If you need to, you can also compare across forks. base fork: chorfa672m/MacRuby. Choose a Base Repository. chorfa672m/MacRuby. MacRuby/MacRuby. 1nueve/MacRuby. Afront/MacRuby. AlphaB/MacRuby. DenisBazhan/MacRuby. Develomentional/MacRuby. DevelomentionalLLC/MacRuby. DocPsy/MacRuby. EthanSeaver/MacRuby. GeertVL/MacRuby. Halfnhav/MacRuby. HumbleRepose/MacRuby. Hunter-Dolan/MacRuby. IcooN/MacRuby. JSnyder28/MacRuby. Jacob640/MacRuby. Jaharmi/MacRuby. JeanP...
https://github.com/chorfa672m/MacRuby/compare/master...MacRuby:1efd63f6df4add4d52899a5360f544e47d75cef9
*  MSU News - Lecture on biological nitrogen fixation set for Feb. 23 at MSU
... Directories A-Z Index. University Communications. MSU News Lecture on biological nitrogen fixation set for Feb. 23 at MSU February 9, 2011 -- MSU News Service. Subscribe to MSU Newsletters E-mail:. Bobcat Bulletin Bobcat Bulletin is a weekly e-newsletter designed to bring the most recent and relevant news about Montana State University directly to friends and neighbors via email. Visit Bobcat Bulletin. MSU Today MSU Today e-mail brings you news and events on campus thrice weekly during the academic year. Visit the MSU Today calendar. Subscribe. Recent News Fifth Annual Cat Walk set for Aug. 22. Open house at MSU’s Brick Breeden Fieldhouse set for Aug. 20. MSU suggests routes to help students navigate one-way streets during move-in period. MSU earns top Montana spot in global ranking. Online course helps parents, professionals assist traumatized children. MSU News Service Tel: 406 994-4571 msunews@montana.edu. BOZEMAN -- A free public lecture about biological nitrogen fixation will be given on Wednesday, ...
http://montana.edu/news/9458/lecture-on-biological-nitrogen-fixation-set-for-feb-23-at-msu
*  WQ261 Nitrogen in the Environment: Nitrogen Fixation | University of Missouri Extension
University of Missouri Extension WQ261, Reviewed October 1993 Nitrogen in the Environment: Nitrogen Fixation Scott C. Killpack and Daryl Buchholz Department of Agronomy Nitrogen can be found in many forms in our environment. Nitrogen is also very important for plants to live. The earth's atmosphere is made up of 78 percent nitrogen in the form of a colorless, odorless, nontoxic gas. The same nitrogen gas found in the atmosphere can be found in spaces between soil particles. However, plants are unable to use this form of nitrogen. Certain microorganisms found in the soil are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into forms plants can use. This is called biological nitrogen fixation. Types of nitrogen fixation In addition to biological fixation that takes place by microorganisms in the soil, fixation can also take place chemically. An example of this is in the fertilizer industry where atmospheric nitrogen N 2 can be combined with hydrogen H + to make anhydrous ammonia NH 3 and other nitrogen fertilizer prod...
http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPrinterFriendlyPub.aspx?P=WQ261
*  Nitrogen Fixation Process In Plants To Combat Drought In Various Species Of Legumes -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Nitrogen Fixation Process In Plants To Combat Drought In Various Species Of Legumes. Date: January 25, 2008 Source: Basque Research Summary: The regulation of the biological fixation of nitrogen in hydric stress conditions varies with the different species of legume plants studied. The regulation of the biological fixation of nitrogen in hydric stress conditions varies with the different species of legume plants studied. Biological fixation of nitrogen. These nitrogen-fixing organisms also called diazotrophs , can fix nitrogen either as free living or in symbiosis with plants. What happens in drought or hydric stress. These results show that the regulation of the BFN in Soya, in hydric stress conditions, is produced at a localised level, in the nodule itself, and that the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen is involved in this. "Nitrogen Fixation Process In Plants To Combat Drought In Various Species Of Legumes." ScienceDaily. Nitrogen Fixation Process In Plants To...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080123085302.htm
*  Biological nitrogen fixation
... redirect nitrogen fixation biological nitrogen fixation...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_nitrogen_fixation
*  Late-season nitrogen for soybean? | Ag Professional
Log in or register to post comments. Log in or register to post comments. Log in or register to post comments. aileen123 1 month 2 weeks ago ideal and little stress, ideal and little stress, there is some evidence that the biological nitrogen fixation that is taking place in the soybean root nodule cannot keep up with the plant’s N needs. Log in or register to post comments. aileen123 1 month 2 weeks ago ideal and little stress, ideal and little stress, there is some evidence that the biological nitrogen fixation that is taking place in the soybean root nodule cannot keep up with the plant’s N needs. Log in or register to post comments. aileen123 1 month 2 weeks ago conditions are ideal and conditions are ideal and little stress, there is some evidence that the biological nitrogen fixation that is taking place in the soybean root nodule cannot keep up with the plant’s N needs. Log in or register to post comments. Log in or register to post comments. Log in or register to post comments. aileen123 1 month 2 wee...
http://agprofessional.com/resource-centers/crop-fertility/nitrogen/news/Late-season-nitrogen-for-soybean-218355711.html
*  Nitrogen fixation
... Industrial nitrogen fixation Haber process. Ambient nitrogen reduction. 4 Biological nitrogen fixation 'BNF' occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by an enzyme called a nitrogenase. Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include the legume family. They contain symbiotic bacteria called rhizobia within nodules in their root systems, producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plants. Although by far the majority of plants able to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules are in the legume family Fabaceae, there are a few exceptions:. Industrial nitrogen fixation. The Ostwald process for the production of nitric acid was discovered in 1902. Frank-Caro process and Ostwald process dominated the industrial fixation of nitrogen until the discovery of the Haber process in 1909. The first dinitrogen complex to be reported was Ru NH 3 5 N 2 2+. Synthetic nitrogen reduction Yandulov 2003|thumb|right In 2003 a related molybdenum amido complex was found to catalyze...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
*  PLOS Computational Biology: Metabolic Reconstruction and Modeling of Nitrogen Fixation in Rhizobium
... etli. Other Article Types. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Metabolic Reconstruction and Modeling of Nitrogen Fixation in Rhizobium etli. Article. This reconstruction spans 26 metabolic pathways involving central metabolism 44 reactions, amino acids metabolism 136 reactions, purine and pyrimidine metabolism 89 reactions, PHB synthesis 8 reactions, and nitrogen metabolism 19 reactions. Metabolic Pathways for Rhizobium etli The metabolic reconstruction for R. After reviewing the available literature, we can postulate an OF for use in FBA, which represents symbiotic nitrogen fixation in R. From a physiological point of view, there are some other possible explanations for reduced nitrogen fixation when the myo-inositol dehydrogenase enzyme is inactive. From our in silico analysis, we observe that a deletion of myo-inositol dehydrogenase enzyme decreases nitrogen fixation activity, although it is not essential for...
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030192

Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Arbuscular mycorrhiza: An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.Nod factorDiazotroph: Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.Medicago truncatula: Medicago truncatula (barrel medic or barrel medick or barrel clover) is a small annual legume native to the Mediterranean region that is used in genomic research. It is a low-growing, clover-like plant 10–60 cm tall with trifoliate leaves.Water supply in Miyakojima: The water supply in Miyakojima involves the history and development of the current water supply in Miyakojima, a small coral island with only one river, which is administered by Okinawa Prefecture, in Japan.Euprymna scolopes: __NOTOC__Geosiphon: Geosiphon is a genus of fungi in the Geosiphonaceae family. The genus is monotypic, containing the single species Geosiphon pyriformis, first described by Kützing in 1849 as Botrydium pyriforme.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.RhizobiaBradyrhizobium elkaniiMedicago lupulina: Medicago lupulina, commonly known as black medick, nonesuch, or hop clover, is a familiar lawn plant belonging to the legume or clover family. Plants of the genus Medicago, or bur clovers, are closely related to the true clovers (Trifolium) and sweet clover (Melilotus).Lingulodinium polyedrum: Lingulodinium polyedrum is the name for a motile dinoflagellate (synonym Gonyaulax polyedra), which produces a dinoflagellate cyst called Lingulodinium machaerophorum (synonym Hystrichosphaeridium machaerophorum).Candidatus Liberibacter: Candidatus Liberibacter is a genus of gram-negative bacteria in the Rhizobiaceae family. The term Candidatus is used to indicate that it has not proved possible to maintain this bacterium in culture.Casuarina glauca: Casuarina glauca, commonly known as the swamp she-oak, swamp oak, grey oak, or river oak, is a species of Casuarina native to the east coast of Australia. It is found from central Queensland south to southern New South Wales.Rhizobium leguminosarum exopolysaccharide glucosyl ketal-pyruvate-transferase: Rhizobium leguminosarum exopolysaccharide glucosyl ketal-pyruvate-transferase (, PssM) is an enzyme with system name phosphoenolpyruvate:(D-GlcA-beta-(1->4)-2-O-Ac-D-GlcA-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-(3-O-CH3-CH2CH(OH)C(O)-D-Gal-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-beta-(1->6))-2(or3)-O-Ac-D-Glc-alpha-(1->6))n 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethan-1,1-diyl)transferase . This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionBuchnera (bacterium): Buchnera aphidicola, a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and has been studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Buchnera is believed to have had a free-living, Gram-negative ancestor similar to a modern Enterobacteriaceae, such as Escherichia coli.Carboxyl transferase domain: In molecular biology, proteins containing the carboxyl transferase domain include biotin-dependent carboxylases. This domain carries out the following reaction: transcarboxylation from biotin to an acceptor molecule.Sea pansyOnykia robusta: Onykia robusta, also known as the robust clubhook squid and often cited by the older name Moroteuthis robusta,Bolstad, K.S.Endophyte: An endophyte is an endosymbiont, often a bacterium or fungus, that lives within a plant for at least part of its life cycle without causing apparent disease. Endophytes are ubiquitous and have been found in all species of plants studied to date; however, most of the endophyte/plant relationships are not well understood.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Pochonia: Pochonia is a genus of fungi within the order Hypocreales and is described as anamorphic Metacordyceps; eight species are described. Previously placed in the genus Verticillium, these fungi are known to be pathogenic to nematodes and are being developed and commercialized as biological pesticides.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Coles PhillipsPhaseolus maculatus: Phaseolus maculatus (Metcalfe bean, prairie bean, spotted bean) is a plant native to Mexico and the southwestern United States from Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. It is found on dry, rocky hillsides in meadows and in wooded areas from 1500–2400 m (5000–8000 ft) in elevation.Camponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)White band disease: White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease completely destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals, specifically elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Chromera velia: Chromera velia, also known as a "chromerid", is a unicellular photosynthetic organism in the superphylum Alveolata. It is of interest in the study of apicomplexan parasites, specifically their evolution and accordingly, their unique vulnerabilities to drugs.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Odostomia proxima: Odostomia proxima is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Pyramidellidae, the pyrams and their allies.WoRMS (2011).Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Amanita xanthocephala: The vermilion grisette, also known as pretty grisette or vermilion Amanita (Amanita xanthocephala) is a colourful mushroom of the genus Amanita. However, although it is often referred to by the common name "grisette", it is not closely related to other edible species that carry this common name, such as Amanita vaginata and Amanita fulva.Razor strop: A razor strop (or razor strap) is a flexible strip of leather or canvas used to straighten and polish the blade of a straight razor, a knife, or a woodworking tool like a chisel. Unlike honing or sharpening a blade, in which a whetstone removes metal bent out of alignment from the blade's edge, stropping the blade re-aligns the indentations without removing any material.Azorhizobium caulinodans: Azorhizobium caulinodans is a species of bacteria that forms a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with plants of the genus Sesbania.Cladonia rangiferina: Cladonia rangiferina, also known as reindeer lichen (c.p.ProchloronMycelium Running: Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World is the sixth book written by American mycologist Paul Stamets.Medicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Photorhabdus: Photorhabdus is a genus of bioluminescent, gram-negative bacilli which lives symbiotically within entomopathogenic nematodes, hence the name photo (which means light-producing) and rhabdus (rod-shape)TPCN2: Two pore segment channel 2 (TPC2) is a human protein encoded by the TPCN2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TPCN2 gene. TPC2 is an ion channel, however, in contrast to other calcium and sodium channels which have four homologous domains, each containing 6 transmembrane segments (S1 to S6), TPCN1 only contains two domain (each containing segments S1 to S6).DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Crotalaria longirostrataAlnus sieboldiana: Alnus sieboldiana (オオバヤシャブシ in Japanese) is an alder species found on the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Suwanose-jima in Japan.Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesPlanera aquatica: Planera aquatica, the planertree or water elm, is a single species in the southeastern United States, a small deciduous tree 10–15 m tall, closely related to the elms but with a softly, prickly nut 10–15 mm diameter, instead of a winged seed. It is the sole species in the genus Planera.Pelagibacter ubique: Pelagibacter, with the single species P. ubique, was isolated in 2002 and given a specific name, although it has not yet been validly published according to the bacteriological code.Monotropa hypopitys: Monotropa hypopitys — called Dutchman's pipe, false beech-drops, pinesap, or yellow bird's-nest — is a herbaceous perennial plant, formerly classified in the families Monotropaceae or Pyrolaceae, but now included within the subfamily Monotropoideae of the blueberry family (Ericaceae). It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and is scarce or rare in many areas.African coral reefs: African coral reefs are coral reefs mainly found along the south and east coasts of Africa. The east coast corals extend from the Red Sea to Madagascar in the south, and are an important resource for the fishersmen of Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar.Nitrogen deficiencyStrider Knives: Strider Knives, Inc. is a custom and production knifemaking facility headed by Mick Strider and Duane Dwyer based in San Marcos, California.Mushy peasVicia cracca: Vicia cracca (tufted vetch, cow vetch, bird vetch, blue vetch, boreal vetch), is a species of vetch native to Europe and Asia. It occurs on other continents as an introduced species, including North America, where it is a common weed.Loline alkaloidSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Global microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Leghemoglobin: Leghemoglobin (also leghaemoglobin or legoglobin) is a nitrogen or oxygen carrier, because naturally occurring oxygen and nitrogen interact similarly with this protein; and a hemoprotein found in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. It is produced by legumes in response to the roots being colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, termed rhizobia, as part of the symbiotic interaction between plant and bacterium: roots not colonized by Rhizobium do not synthesise leghemoglobin.Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaCoprinellus curtus: Coprinellus curtus is a species of mushroom in the Psathyrellaceae family. It was first described as Coprinus curtus by Károly Kalchbrenner in 1876 before being transferred to the genus Coprinellus in 2001.Plantago: Plantain}}Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Burkholderia kururiensis: Burkholderia kururiensis is a species of proteobacteria.Cytoplasmic incompatibility: Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a phenomenon that results in sperm and eggs being unable to form viable offspring. The effect arises from changes in the gamete cells caused by intracellular parasites like Wolbachia, which infect a wide range of insect species.Chlorella pyrenoidosa: Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a species of the freshwater green algae genus Chlorella. It occurs world wide.Signature-tagged mutagenesis: Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a genetic technique used to study gene function. Recent advances in genome sequencing have allowed us to catalogue a large variety of organisms' genomes, but the function of the genes they contain is still largely unknown.Methylobacterium mesophilicum: Methylobacterium mesophilicum is a Gram-negative, soil-dwelling bacterium, reported to be an opportunistic pathogen in immunocomprimised patients.Fish gill: Most fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx (throat). Gills are tissues which consist of cloth and fabric structures called filaments.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Hudsonia tomentosa: Hudsonia tomentosa is a species of flowering plant in the rockrose family known by the common names woolly beachheather, beach heather, and sand heather. It is native to northeastern North America, including central and eastern Canada and the northeastern United States.

(1/4230) Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans.

A secondary intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the haemolymph of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and cultured in Aedes albopictus cell line C6/36. Pure-culture isolation of this bacterium was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture under a microaerobic atmosphere. After isolation of strain M1T, a range of tests was performed to determine the phenotypic properties of this bacterium. Considering the results of these tests, along with the phylogenetic position of this micro-organism, it is proposed that this intracellular symbiont from G. m. morsitans should be classified in a new genus Sodalis gen. nov., as Sodalis glossinidius gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain M1T is the type strain for this new species.  (+info)

(2/4230) Diversity of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes of bacteria associated with the deep-sea hydrothermal vent polychaete annelid Alvinella pompejana.

A unique community of bacteria colonizes the dorsal integument of the polychaete annelid Alvinella pompejana, which inhabits the high-temperature environments of active deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise. The composition of this bacterial community was characterized in previous studies by using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes. In the present study, a pair of PCR primers (P94-F and P93-R) were used to amplify a segment of the dissimilatory bisulfite reductase gene from DNA isolated from the community of bacteria associated with A. pompejana. The goal was to assess the presence and diversity of bacteria with the capacity to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. A clone library of bisulfite reductase gene PCR products was constructed and characterized by restriction fragment and sequence analysis. Eleven clone families were identified. Two of the 11 clone families, SR1 and SR6, contained 82% of the clones. DNA sequence analysis of a clone from each family indicated that they are dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes most similar to the dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Desulfovibrio gigas, Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, and Desulfobacter latus. Similarities to the dissimilatory bisulfite reductases of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, the sulfide oxidizer Chromatium vinosum, the sulfur reducer Pyrobaculum islandicum, and the archaeal sulfate reducer Archaeoglobus fulgidus were lower. Phylogenetic analysis separated the clone families into groups that probably represent two genera of previously uncharacterized sulfate-reducing bacteria. The presence of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes is consistent with recent temperature and chemical measurements that documented a lack of dissolved oxygen in dwelling tubes of the worm. The diversity of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes in the bacterial community on the back of the worm suggests a prominent role for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the ecology of A. pompejana.  (+info)

(3/4230) Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme.

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

(4/4230) Further studies of the role of cyclic beta-glucans in symbiosis. An NdvC mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum synthesizes cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-glucosyl.

The cyclic beta-(1-->3),beta-(1-->6)-D-glucan synthesis locus of Bradyrhizobium japonicum is composed of at least two genes, ndvB and ndvC. Mutation in either gene affects glucan synthesis, as well as the ability of the bacterium to establish a successful symbiotic interaction with the legume host soybean (Glycine max). B. japonicum strain AB-14 (ndvB::Tn5) does not synthesize beta-glucans, and strain AB-1 (ndvC::Tn5) synthesizes a cyclic beta-glucan lacking beta-(1-->6)-glycosidic bonds. We determined that the structure of the glucan synthesized by strain AB-1 is cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucosyl, a cyclic beta-(1-->3)-linked decasaccharide in which one of the residues is substituted in the 6 position with beta-laminaribiose. Cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucosyl did not suppress the fungal beta-glucan-induced plant defense response in soybean cotyledons and had much lower affinity for the putative membrane receptor protein than cyclic beta-(1-->3),beta-(1-->6)-glucans produced by wild-type B. japonicum. This is consistent with the hypothesis presented previously that the wild-type cyclic beta-glucans may function as suppressors of a host defense response.  (+info)

(5/4230) Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene.

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

(6/4230) LB-AUT7, a novel symbiosis-regulated gene from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor, is functionally related to vesicular transport and autophagocytosis.

We have identified LB-AUT7, a gene differentially expressed 6 h after ectomycorrhizal interaction between Laccaria bicolor and Pinus resinosa. LB-Aut7p can functionally complement its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, which is involved in the attachment of autophagosomes to microtubules. Our findings suggest the induction of an autophagocytosis-like vesicular transport process during ectomycorrhizal interaction.  (+info)

(7/4230) A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph.  (+info)

(8/4230) Isolation and characterization of the catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata.

A catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata, was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The Rhizobium DNA of about 280 bp was amplified using two PCR primers synthesized from the conserved sequences of the type I catalase gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment revealed three regions that were conserved in the catalase, showing it as being part of the catalase gene. A genomic Southern hybridization using this fragment as a probe showed that the 5.5 kb PstI, 1.8 kb EcoRI, and 0.7 kb StyI fragments hybridized strongly with the probe. The Rhizobium genomic library constructed into the EMBL3 vector was screened, and one catalase clone was selected. The nucleotide sequence of the 5.5 kb PstI fragment from the clone revealed an open reading frame of 1455 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 485 amino acids with a molecular mass of 54,958 Da and a pI of 6.54. The predicted amino acid sequence of the catalase is 66.3% identical to that of Bacteroides fragilis, but was only 53.3% identical to the Rhizobium meliloti catalase.  (+info)


Can I buy a bird that will clean my teeth?


I've seen wildlife shows of birds cleaning hippos' teeth, and this is one of the most commonly used examples of symbiosis. Since I don't always have the time to do it, can I buy a bird that will clean my teeth? If so, what kind of bird will do this, where can I get one and how much does it cost?
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ewwww this is gross birds wash their feet and lick themselves so you want germs and poop inside your mouth? also it takes a long time to get the bird to trust you sometimes year. you always need to brush your teeth day and night or risk mouth issues


What are some tips to get mentally and physically prepared for child birth? I am very scared.?


I have no idea what to expect other than lots of pain and I don't like pain whatsoever. I know that it will be easier if I accept my fate and begin to prepare for it.
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1 Don't get pregnant until you're married.

Should We Live Together?
Rutgers University Study
Cohabiting couples breakup three times more than married couples.  Cohabiting couples that later marry have a 46% higher rate of divorce than those who did not cohabit prior to marriage.
http://marriage.rutgers.edu/Publications/SWLT2%20TEXT.htm

#2 Don't get married until age 24.

THE RIGHT AGE FOR MARRIAGE
Leaving out the opinions on this, I’m going to cover the facts of what’s it’s like to be in a “LONG TERM” relationship. 

First, it is an established statistical fact that relationships involving people who co-habitat and/or get married prior to age 24 have an 85% failure rate.  Biologically, this is when females reach full mature on the physical, emotional, and hormonal levels.  At this point, a woman is fully prepared to have and handle children, as well as a male that is still not fully mature. 

Males don’t reach full physical and hormonal maturity until age 30.  This is also when they reach their peak emotional maturity, but not to the point of being fully independent.  Half of the male emotional health comes from a woman.  The biochemical frequency range of the male brain adjusts itself to match that of the female, developing an emotional symbiotic relationship.

Couples who begin cohabiting and/or get married prior to age 24 can find themselves drawing away from each other as each reaches full maturity.  Their whole view of the world, and each other, changes.  This doesn’t happen to all couples, but clearly it is a factor in most relationship breakdowns.

In a couple, who has made the right choices, and found that person who truly compliments them, a symbiotic relationship develops also on the physical level.  There is a reason why humans were designed to be monogamous.  It comes down to the sexual experience that goes beyond pleasure and reproduction.

Seminal plasma (fluid carrying semen) and vaginal fluids contain addition chemicals that the other sex needs.  Chemicals in seminal plasma help strengthen the Uterine Wall, not only making it stronger for the carrying of a fetus, but also because the uterus provides physical support for other organs, such as the bladder and the intestinal tract.  For males, vaginal fluid reinforces their immune system and affects future production of semen.  But, there’s a downside.

The human body adapts to the specific molecular makeup of the seminal plasma and vaginal fluid.  The two bodies develop a symbiotic relationship that becomes dependent upon the other.  Having multiple partners keeps these functions in constant disarray, always trying to adapt to a new molecular makeup, affecting the overall health of the individual.

This is one of the reasons, and benefits, of developing a long term monogamous relation.  For men, there are additional reasons.

A married male lives 20 years longer than a single male, on average.  Aside from the physical symbiosis, because a woman provides emotional support, he has less stress, an overall cause of frequent death in males.

For a female, her reproductive and sexual health last longer, not only with the ability to reproduce into her 40s and even 50s, but also continue the ability for sexual pleasure well into the later years.

A monogamous couple become a single, symbiotic unit, standing ready to take on what the world throws at them.  They provide the umbrella of strength for the family and the protection of the children.  They are core from which the children draw their knowledge and experience of what a family should be, so that they may follow the example of the parents, when they reach maturity and venture out into the world.

This is what it is truly like to be in a relationship, when you make the right choices.

Proper Care and Feeding of Husbands
http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Proper-Care-and-Feeding-of-Husbands/Laura-Schlessinger/e/9780060520625/?itm=8

The Proper Care and Feeding of Marriage 
http://search.barnesandnoble.com/The-Proper-Care-and-Feeding-of-Marriage/Dr-Laura-Schlessinger/e/9780061142826/?itm=4


Woman Power: Transform Your Man, Your Marriage, Your Life 
http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Woman-Power/Laura-Schlessinger/e/9780641817847/?itm=6


Is Amoxicillin a antibiotic that will kill bad bacteria as well as good bacteria in the body?


Or do they call good bacteria white blood cells?
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Amoxcillin does indeed kill good bacteria as well as bad bacteria. Usually the good bacteria bounces back quickly, but occasionally antibiotics like amoxicillin can cause diaherrea or other symptoms associated with bacterial imbalances.

However, if you're prescribed amoxicillin, it's always best to take the whole dose. Our "good" bacteria is far more resilient than the bad bacteria because the bad bacteria also has the immune system working against it. It's better to get rid of the bad stuff and let the good stuff bounce back by itself.

Good bacteria and white blood cells are two different things. White blood cells are part of our own bodies, they are human cells and not bacteria at all. White blood cells attack foreign substances in our body, including bad bacteria.

"Good" bacteria is bacteria that our body is adapted to live in symbiosis with. It helps keep bad bacteria out by eating all the food and basically outcompeting bad bacteria. Some good bacteria also contribute to our health by helping to digest food in our intestines or serving other healthful purposes. They are not human cells at all, but rather entirely separate species that live inside us.


What all should I include in my diet so that I have good energy levels throughout the day and stay healthy ?


im vegetarian , in my mid 20's
yeah i think i dnt have enough iron and vitamins
pls dont give thumbs down to anyone as all are just advicing and being helpful
onlymat... I dont live in America . I live in India .I dont eat soy and use none of the oils u mentioned but i agree though tht its tough going 4 vegetarians these days
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Breakfast :- a cup of Coffee or Assam tea or Cylon(Srilanka) Green tea(Polyphenols in it are good anti-oxidants)--Idli medium size 3 or 4 with onion chutney(No Total fat/no trans fat--NoCholeterol-steam cooked-healthy).
Lunch:- Danddori chapathi--3 or 4 with boiled,salted,mildly spicy Vegeatables(from Punjab or Haryana or Dehradoon)--one green leaf item(ferrous iron)--Dahi(Yogurt-Lactobacillus casei)--any one seasonal fruit(Koolu) apple/orange/banana/mango(alphanso/banganapalli) 

Supper;- sona masuri par-boiled steam cooked rice-2 -3 cups-Toor dal with onion/garlic--with one vegetable--or salad--Takram(thick butter milk-salted lassi)--(include enough fenugreek=medhi-Jeera=cumin seeds-Sarson=mustard--lemon )
When going to bed if it is 10.00p.m one cup milk.
Vitamin B12;- do not bother--Intestinal flora(Lactobacillus casei etc) by Symbiosis will provide enough vitamin B12--this is for 20 year old--for pregnant women Ferrous/B12 supplements are needed.
For a sedantary person(white collar) 1200 to 1500 Calories are sufficient.one gram carbohydrate or protein provides 4 calories--one gram fat 9 calories.


Does strep throat mean there are living things inside my throat?


Is there life in my throat if I have strep throat? Living things in my throat?
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There is life everyfreaking where. Outside and inside.

But relax MOST of the bacterias live in symbiosis with us its kinda like a Company. If it wants a new develope Airplane for example it goes to different suppliers and get the Parts.

Same with us, there is much food we cannot process by ourself and with the help of bacterias we can get the vital things.

There are approximatly 10x More bacterial cells then your own. Dont forget Bacterias where first, we evolved later. We had to come up with Some kind of agreement.


What is the difference between pulses, lentils and legumes?


Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. Pulses are used for food and animal feed.

The term pulses, as used by the FAO, is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry grain. This therefore excludes green beans and green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Also excluded are crops which are mainly grown for oil extraction (oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts), and crops which are used exclusively for sowing (clovers, alfalfa).

Pulses are important food crops due to their high protein and essential amino acid content. Like many leguminous crops, pulses play a key role in crop rotation due to their ability to fix nitrogen.





The lentil (Lens culinaris) is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40cm tall and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each. The plant originated in the Near East, and has been part of the human diet since the aceramic Neolithic, being one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. With 25% protein it is the vegetable with the highest level of protein other than soybeans, and because of this it is a very important part of the diet in many countries, and especially India which has a large vegetarian population.

A variety of lentils exist with colors that range from yellow to red-orange to green, brown and black. The colours of the seeds when removed from the pods also vary, and there are large and small varieties. They are sold in many forms, with or without the pods, whole or split.
The seeds have a short cooking time (especially for small varieties with the husk removed, such as the common red lentil) and a distinctive earthy flavor. Lentils are used to prepare an inexpensive and nutritious soup all over Europe and North America, sometimes combined with some form of pork. They are frequently combined with rice, which has a similar cooking time. Lentils are used throughout the Mediterranean regions and the Middle East.

In India, lentils are known as Dal, as however are most sorts of dried legumes. The dishes made predominantly of lentils are also known as Dal. India is the largest producer of lentils in the world.





The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants, whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). Thus, "legume" can be:

The common name for plant species in the Family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae); 
The name of a type of fruit, characteristic of leguminous plants: 
A legume is a simple dry fruit which develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a "pod", although pod is also applied to a few other fruit types. Well-known plants that bear legume fruits include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lupins and peanuts. A peanut is not a nut in the botanical sense; a peanut is an indehiscent legume, that is, one that does not spontaneously split open along a seam. 
Legumes are noteworthy for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, an accomplishment attributable to a symbiotic relationship with certain bacteria known as rhizobia found in root nodules of these plants. The ability to form this symbiosis reduces fertilizer costs for farmers and gardeners who grow legumes, and means that legumes can be used in a crop rotation to replenish soil that has been depleted of nitrogen.


Is it possible that people can live with no food what so ever kinda like a plant?


I was thinking i wish i could just be like a plant and just use the sun to create symbioses to make my own food is it possible for someone to become half plant
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Nope, you need to eat food for your body to live. Plants transfer light into food, but plants also need roots to absorb nutrients, even floating plants have roots.

This would be a good invention, considering millions of people starve each year because they do not have food to eat but they get lots of sunlight.


how to make homemade sourdough bread?


i tried with sourdough starter, but the bread never rose any good - i put it on a low heat source for a long time but it rose maybe just a little bit - i really would like to make a nice bread, any tips are appreciated. THANKS
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How to Make Easy Sourdough Bread 

Sourdough simply uses wild yeast in place of commercial yeast to leaven the bread.  It relies on the wild yeasts that are in the air all around us and cultures those yeasts in a warm, wet environment created with water, flour, and sometimes other components.

When creating a sourdough starter, we always felt like we were on an expedition trying to trap invisible yeastie beasties with our flour and water concoctions.  Because we couldn't see the beasties, we were never sure what we had captured.  While usually successful, we never felt like we were in control.  Maybe that is the way sourdough bread should feel, a symbiosis with nature.

But there is an easier way: use commercial yeast in the starter.  I know, that's heresy to the sourdough bread zealot but we only care about the bread.  Using commercial yeast is easier, it's the alcohol from the long cool fermentation that creates the sourdough-like flavor, and the wild yeasts will eventually take over the starter anyway.   Because it's easy, it?s no big deal if you abandon your starter after a few weeks; you can readily start another when you're back in the mood or have the time. 

Using this recipe for sourdough bread, a small amount of yeast is used in the starter.  As the starter is used and refreshed with new feedings of flour and water, wild yeasts are introduced and cultivated.    

Here is the recipe:

For the starter:

1 cup warm water (about 110 degrees)
1/4 teaspoon yeast
1 cup high gluten unbleached flour.    

Mix the starter in a glass or steel bowl, cover with plastic wrap, and set it aside at room temperature until it is doubled and bubbly, maybe 4 to 6 hours.

For the sponge:  

A sponge is a pre-ferment, a wet mixture of flour and yeast that acts as an incubation chamber to grow yeast at the desired rate.  It is added to the dough.

1 cup of the starter
3/4 cup warm water
2 cups flour 

Mix the one cup starter with the flour and water, cover, and set aside to ferment until it has tripled in volume.  At room temperature, it will take four to eight hours.  You can put it in a cool place--about fifty degrees--and let it perk all night.  (In the winter, your garage may be just right.)  You can also put it in the refrigerator overnight.  At temperatures of forty degrees, the yeast will be inactive but the friendly bacteria will still be working and enhance the sour flavor of the bread.  If you retard the growth with lower temperatures (“retard” is the correct term for slowing the growth of the yeast), simply bring the sponge to room temperature and let it expand to three times its original volume before proceeding.  

For the dough: 
 
All of the sponge
11/2 cups flour (more or less)
2 teaspoons salt

Mix the salt with the flour.  Knead the combination into the sponge by hand until you have a smooth, elastic, slightly sticky dough, adding more flour as needed.  Put the dough in an oiled bowl and let it rise again until doubled, about an hour.

Bakers note:  Notice that the salt is not added until the last stage.  Salt in the sponge would inhibit yeast growth.  
 
Form the loaves:  

Though you can make this bread in pans, it works best as a large freestanding round or oval loaf or two smaller loaves.  Place a clean cotton cloth in a bowl or basket in which to hold the loaf.  Lightly dust the interior of the bowl with flour.  Place each formed loaf upside down in a bowl on top of the dusted flour.  Cover the loaves with plastic and let them rise again until doubled.  This rising will probably take less than an hour. 

Bakers note:  You want a light dusting of flour on the cloth to be transferred to the bread, not a heavy caking.  Softly sifting flour from a strainer is the easiest way to achieve an even coating.   A stainless steel strainer is available in The Student Commissary.  

If you choose to bake the bread in pans, omit this step.  Instead, let the dough rise in a greased bowl covered with plastic until doubled.  Form the loaves for pans, place the loaves in greased pans, and let rise until well-expanded and puffy.  Bake at 350 degrees until done, about 30 minutes.  

To bake crusty bread:

To form the thick, chewy crust that is typical of artisan breads, follow these instructions:  Place a large, shallow, metal pan in the oven on the lowest shelf.  You will pour hot water in this pan to create steam in the oven.  (High heat is hard on pans so don't use one of your better pans and don?t use a glass or ceramic pan which might shatter.)    An old sheet pan is ideal.  Fill a spray bottle with water.  You will use this to spray water into the oven to create even more steam.  

Preheat the oven to 425 degrees.   When the oven is hot and the bread is fully risen and is soft and puffy--being very careful not to burn yourself with the rising steam and with a mitted hand—turn your head away and pour two or three cups of very hot water in the pan in the oven.  Quickly close the oven door to capture the steam.   With spray bottle in hand, open the door and quickly spray the oven walls to create more steam and close the door.  The oven is now ready for the loaves.  

Work quickly to get the bread in the oven before the steam subsides.  Gently invert the loaf or loaves onto a slightly greased non-insulated baking sheet on which a little cornmeal has been dusted.  With your sharpest knife, quickly make two or three slashes 1/4-inch deep across the top of each loaf.   This will vent the steam in the bread and allow the bread to expand properly.  Immediately, put the bread in the steamy oven.  After a few moments, open the door and spray the walls again to recharge the steam.  Do this twice more during the first fifteen minutes of baking.  This steamy environment will create the chewy crust prized in artisan breads.  

Let the bread bake at 425 degrees for fifteen minutes in the hot steamy oven  then reduce the temperature to 375 degrees and bake for a total of 35 to 40 minutes.  Check on the bread ten minutes before the baking should be complete.  If the top is browning too quickly, tent the loaf with aluminum foil for the remainder of the baking to keep it from burning.  The bread is done when the crust turns a dark golden brown and the internal temperature reaches 210 degrees.   It is important that the bread is well-baked to drive moisture from the loaf.  If the bread is under baked, the excess moisture will migrate to the crust and you will no longer have the dry chewy crust of a great artisan loaf.  

This sourdough bread is to die for.  The prolonged rising gives the yeast plenty of time to convert the starch to sugars and the friendly bacteria a chance to impart their nut-like flavors.  

Storing your crusty bread: 

Unused crusty bread should be stored in a paper bag at room temperature.  If the bread is stored in a plastic bag, the crust will become soft.