Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Tarsiidae: The single family of PRIMATES in the infraorder TARSII, suborder HAPLORHINI. It is comprised of one genus, Tarsius, that inhabits southern Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Specialties, Surgical: Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.HydrazinesFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Lorisidae: A family of Primates of the suborder Strepsirhini containing six genera. The family is distributed in parts of Africa, India, Asia, and the Philippines. The six genera are: Arctocebus (golden potto), GALAGO (bush babies), Loris (slender loris), Nycticebus (slow loris), and Perodicticus (potto). Lorises and pottos are relatively common except for Arctocebus, the golden potto. All are arboreal and nocturnal.Papio ursinus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.IndazolesSeed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Osmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain osmium as an integral part of the molecule.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Larrea: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. It is sometimes called chaparral but that is a generic word which is used with a number of other plants. Members contain NORDIHYDROGUAIARETIC ACID.Agrin: A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Strepsirhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.PrimatesAir Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.LizardsNeural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Pandanaceae: A plant family of the order Pandanales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Adiantum: A plant genus of the family Pteridaceae. Members contain TRITERPENES. Some species in this genus are called maidenhair fern which is also a common name occasionally used for Lygodium (FERNS) and POLYPODIUM.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesAphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSpeech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Nissl Bodies: Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.ReadingParietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Ectothiorhodospira: A genus of vibrioid or rod-shaped cells which are motile by polar flagella. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellar stacks and contain bacteriochlorophyll a or b and carotenoids. Growth occurs photoautotrophically under anaerobic conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.

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*  Dr. Chula Shrilal Wijesurendra - Genito-urinary Medicine specialist Gillingham
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*  Internal Medicine Specialists in Mint Hill, NC
Get Reviews & Information on 720,000 Doctors Nationwide HOME SPECIALTY LOCATION SYMPTOM/CONDITIONS INSURANCE ACCEPTED NAME COUNTY ZIP CODE advertisement Home >> Doctor-Directory >> Specialty >> Internal Medicine >> North Carolina >> Mint Hill Internal Medicine Specialists in Mint Hill, NC Find a Internist - Last name starting with A Physician Name Specialty Erin Herrick Haynes DO Internal Medicine Michael S Richardson MD Internal Medicine Stephanie Y Simon MD Internal Medicine advertisement advertisement Search your Doctor's name: Find by Doctor specialty and location: select a specialty Acupuncturist Addiction Medicine Adolescent Medicine Adult Care Aerospace Medicine Allergist Allergy & Immunology Alternative Ambulatory Care Anesthesiologist Audiologist Bariatrician Cardiac Electrophysiology Cardio Thoracic Surgeon Cardiologist Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Surgeon Child Neurology Child Psychiatrist Chiropractor Clinical Laboratory Immunology Clinical Pathology Clinical Pharmacology Colon/Rectal...
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*  Hospice and Palliative Medicine Specialist
... UW Health. Skip to Content UW Health SMPH. American Family Children's Hospital Home. Online Services. Bill Pay. CarePages. Classes and Support Groups. Donate. Greeting Cards. MyChart. Prescription Refill. Contact. Services. Clinics Hospitals. Search. Health Information. Temas de salud A-Z. Hospice and Palliative Medicine Specialist Skip to the navigation Hospice and palliative medicine specialists are medical doctors who help prevent and relieve suffering of patients who have a serious illness or who have only a short time left to live. They can be board-certified in internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and other specialties. Author: Healthwise Staff Medical Review: Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine. E Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions. To learn more about Healthwise, visit Healthwise.org 1995-2015 Healthwise, I...
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*  About Us | Orthopedic Medicine Specialists in Arlington TX
about us orthopedic medicine specialists in arlington tx home contact us get directions make a payment patient forms en espa ol about us meet our team specialties what we treat our services how we help schedule appointment book a time to see us providers staff in the news patient testimonials patient resources joseph borrelli jr m d lindsey n dietrich m d shushan jacob m d dina rahhal m d lauren milleville p a c urvi patel p a c meet our team orthopedic injuries can be especially complex patients with these types of injuries often have limited mobility due to pain weakness and limited range of motion at orthopedic medicine specialists we have the expertise and training to help you regain your strength and mobility so you can heal quickly and completely our goal is to partner with you and your primary physician to promote good health and minimize pain in your joints and bones we take a compassionate conservative approach to orthopedic care pursuing all available surgical and non surgical treatments that will r...
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*  Find Doctors and Dentists by Name - A - Page 7 - Vitals.com
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*  Find Doctors and Dentists by Name - A - Page 237 - Vitals.com
... Vitals. Insurance Company. Browse Health. Browse Specialties. Dentists. Internists. Pain Management Doctors. Featured Guides Breast Cancer Prepare to discuss the different options with your doctor. Atrial Fibrillation Get educated. Top Guides. Atrial Fibrillation. Breast Cancer. Migraines. Multiple Sclerosis. About Vitals. Browse Specialties Find a doctor by specialty. About Vitals. Sign Up. Dentists. Internists. Pain Management Doctors. A Page 237 Find a doctor or dentist by name Doctors and Dentists with Last Name Starting with 'A' - page 237 Recent. Ikbal E Alkhafaji Pathologist, Pediatric Specialist Duncansville, PA 16635. Muhammad B Alkhan Critical Care Specialist, Internist Janesville, WI 53548. Fadi W Alkhankan Internist, Sleep Medicine Specialist Huntington, WV 25701. Amer A Alkhatib Internist, Gastroenterologist digestive Tulsa, OK 74133. Mhd A Alkhatib Psychiatrist, Pediatric / Adolescent Psychiatrist Atlanta, GA 30338. Mohammad Alkhatib Internist, Infectious Disease Specialist virus, bacteria,...
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*  Find Doctors and Dentists by Name - U - Page 12 - Vitals.com
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*  Home - Types of Medical Specialists
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*  .. Why women pregnant with multiple babies need special care .. Post navigation .. Share this: .. P
← How to increase your family’s intake of heart-healthy fats. We can make a difference for kids, but we need your help →. Why women pregnant with multiple babies need special care. Cresta Jones, MD March 12, 2013. But, a pregnancy of multiples can have additional risks for the mother and unborn babies, and often is considered a high-risk pregnancy. In these cases, the obstetrician will most likely refer the mother to a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, also known as a perinatologist, who specializes in high-risk pregnancies. If pregnant with identical twins, the perinatologist will determine if the babies share a placenta. The Fetal Concerns Center of Wisconsin  is one of a few centers in the country specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of complications in pregnancies of multiples. The Multi-Fetal Pregnancy Program is lead by Julian De Lia, MD, world-renowned pioneer in the study and treatment of twin-related conditions, along with a team of maternal-fetal medicine specialists and pediatric surgeons...
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*  Search Results for Vascular Surgery - Danville Regional Medical Center | Danville, VA
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*  Tell Us About Your Experience with Dr. Katherine Kruse, MD - Pediatric Critical Care Medicine & Crit
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*  Critical Care Practitioners in Des Moines, IA - Read Patient Reviews - Vitals
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*  Im having pain centrally located in the base of my stearum
Health. Ask Your Health Question and Get an Answer ASAP Not a Health Question. Ask Dr. Anil Kumar Your Own Question. Dr. Anil Kumar, General Physician Category: Health Satisfied Customers: 7047 Experience: M.D. with over 30 years of experience in practice. Dr. Category: Health. Dr. Anil Kumar replied 2 years ago. Pain in left arm. Ask Your Own Health Question. Customer: replied 2 years ago. Dr. Anil Kumar replied 2 years ago. Ask Your Own Health Question. Customer: replied 2 years ago. Dr. Anil Kumar replied 2 years ago. Hello, Prilosec can he helpful however as you have pain in left arm,jaw so Ischemic heart disease should be ruled out at first place. Dr. Anil Kumar, General Physician Category: Health Satisfied Customers: 7047 Experience: M.D. with over 30 years of experience in practice. Dr. Anil Kumar and 3 other Health Specialists are ready to help you Ask your own question now. What Customers are Saying:. I have been dealing with an extremely serious health crisis for over three years, and one your physi...
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*  Researchers test whether Red Queen hypothesis makes species resilient | Iowa Now
Researchers test whether Red Queen hypothesis makes species resilient. Iowa Now. Skip to main content. The University of Iowa Toggle Search. Search Terms. News For... News About... News From... Academics Achievements Administration Arts Athletics Campus Diversity Events Giving Health Care Impact International Research Safety Sustainability Writing Arts Alumni Friends Faculty News Media Parents Families Staff Students Carver College of Medicine College of Dentistry College of Education College of Engineering College of Law College of Liberal Arts Sciences College of Nursing College of Pharmacy College of Public Health Continuing Education Facilities Management Graduate College Human Resources International Programs Libraries Office of the President Office of the Provost Student Life Tippie College of Business University College. Researchers test whether Red Queen hypothesis makes species resilient Researchers test whether Red Queen hypothesis makes species resilient Researchers test whether Red Queen hypothesi...
http://now.uiowa.edu/2014/05/researchers-test-whether-red-queen-hypothesis-makes-species-resilient
*  Evolutionary Conflict: HIV-Like Viruses and the Primate Immune System | Britannica Blog
Evolutionary Conflict: HIV-Like Viruses and the Primate Immune System. Britannica Blog. . Home About us Britannica.com. Evolutionary Conflict: HIV-Like Viruses and the Primate Immune System. Kara Rogers - January 28, 2013. Tracking down the evolutionary origin of HIV is an important part of AIDS research, particularly because of its potential to shed light on how the virus so effectively weakens the human immune system. That ability, it turns out, is the product of at least five million years of evolutionary conflict between HIV-related viruses and the primate genome, according to a study published recently in the journal PLOS Pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus HIV infects a type of white blood cell known as a helper T cell, which plays a central role in mediating normal immune responses. Bright yellow particles are HIV, and purple is epithelial tissue. Credit: Visuals Unlimited/Corbis. The authors examined the genomes of different species of Old World monkeys, looking specifically for natural variation ...
http://blogs.britannica.com/2013/1/evolutionary-conflict-hiv-like-viruses-and-the-primate-immune-system
*  Evolutionary Novelties: Evolutionary Novelty: Get Milk?
Evolutionary Novelties: Evolutionary Novelty: Get Milk. Evolutionary Novelties. Evolutionary Novelty: Get Milk. Although I am not a mammalian biologist meaning I don't study mammals, despite being one myself, this is the third mammalian novelty I have highlighted here see also placenta and hair. Mammalian genome biology is ahead of other animal groups, for obvious reasons. All my mammalian novelty posts tell a common story: the building blocks of complex biological features pre-date the origin of the integrated traits themselves. What I wrote for hair, can also apply to milk and mammary glands:. In the case of hair, it mainly got science as far as Figure 1, which leads to the inference that hair evolved a bit before the common ancestor of living mammals. It is a complex of building blocks, including structural genes like and developmental processes. Today, scientists can decompose a trait, like hair, into its components and study the evolutionary history of each part separately, tracing the parts through vari...
http://evolutionarynovelty.blogspot.com/2009/05/evolutionary-novelty-get-milk.html?showComment=1241357100000
*  Evolutionary Novelties: Evolutionary Novelty: Get Milk?
Evolutionary Novelties: Evolutionary Novelty: Get Milk. Evolutionary Novelties. Evolutionary Novelty: Get Milk. Although I am not a mammalian biologist meaning I don't study mammals, despite being one myself, this is the third mammalian novelty I have highlighted here see also placenta and hair. Mammalian genome biology is ahead of other animal groups, for obvious reasons. All my mammalian novelty posts tell a common story: the building blocks of complex biological features pre-date the origin of the integrated traits themselves. What I wrote for hair, can also apply to milk and mammary glands:. In the case of hair, it mainly got science as far as Figure 1, which leads to the inference that hair evolved a bit before the common ancestor of living mammals. It is a complex of building blocks, including structural genes like and developmental processes. Today, scientists can decompose a trait, like hair, into its components and study the evolutionary history of each part separately, tracing the parts through vari...
http://evolutionarynovelty.blogspot.com/2009/05/evolutionary-novelty-get-milk.html?showComment=1241371980000
*  Reason For Almost Two Billion Year Delay In Animal Evolution On Earth Discovered -- ScienceDaily
... They have discovered that a deficiency of oxygen and the heavy metal molybdenum in the ancient deep ocean may have delayed the evolution of animal life on Earth for nearly 2 billion years. A deficiency of oxygen and the heavy metal molybdenum in the ancient deep ocean may have delayed the evolution of animal life on Earth for nearly 2 billion years. A deficiency of oxygen and the heavy metal molybdenum in the ancient deep ocean may have delayed the evolution of animal life on Earth for nearly 2 billion years. They have discovered that a deficiency of oxygen and the heavy metal molybdenum in the ancient deep ocean may have delayed the evolution of animal life on Earth for nearly 2 billion years. "Reason For Almost Two Billion Year Delay In Animal Evolution On Earth Discovered." ScienceDaily. "Reason For Almost Two Billion Year Delay In Animal Evolution On Earth Discovered." ScienceDaily. RELATED TOPICS. Earth Climate. Rare Early Jurassic Corals of North America Ancestor of the Black Death in Ancient Flea ...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080326142229.htm
*  Evolution - November 1998: Re: The Evolutionist: Liar, Believer In Miracles, King of Criminals.
evolution november re the evolutionist liar believer in miracles king of criminals re the evolutionist liar believer in miracles king of criminals joseph mastropaolo mastropaolo net com mon nov messages sorted by next message joseph mastropaolo re the evolutionist liar believer in miracles king of criminals previous message joseph mastropaolo re the evolutionist liar believer in miracles king of criminals well joseph when no one accepted your betting challenges you called them four flushing liars so since you have not accepted my betting challenging by your own criteria that means that you too are a four flushing liar so we are all liars can we know dispense with betting challenges and discuss the facts like gentlemen kevin l o brien i accepted and demanded that the wager be put in escrow to insure its proper distribution with the force of law you do not submit to the law which is based on morality and that was why you reneged and why you are still stuck with liar until you can submit to the law and morality ...
http://www2.asa3.org/archive/evolution/199811/0039.html
*  Rise in oxygen drove evolution of animal life 550 million years ago -- ScienceDaily
... Rise in oxygen drove evolution of animal life 550 million years ago. Researchers funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council BBSRC at the University of Oxford have uncovered a clue that may help to explain why the earliest evidence of complex multicellular animal life appears around 550 million years ago, when atmospheric oxygen levels on the planet rose sharply from 3% to their modern day level of 21%. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. "Rise in oxygen drove evolution of animal life 550 million years ago." ScienceDaily. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. Rise in oxygen drove evolution of animal life 550 million years ago. Retrieved October 5, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101217145647.htm Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. "Rise in oxygen drove evolution of animal life 550 million years ago." ScienceDaily. RELATED TOPICS. Plants Animals. Plants Animals News October 5, 2015. read more. read more. rea...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101217145647.htm
*  The Mystery of Childhood Leukemia: An Evolutionary Approach
... This website was created by Shannon McGlauflin, Jolene Munger, and Rebecca Nelson as a class project for ANTP 347: “Humans, Disease, and Death,” a class focusing on evolutionary medicine. This approach applies the principles of biological evolution to the diseases and conditions that affect people today, viewing them as the products of natural selection. Each disease has a proximate explanation, which explains why a particular person as opposed to others has come down with it, as well as an evolutionary explanation, which explains why the human population is subject to this disease at all. Evolutionary medicine seeks to understand why diseases are still present in the human population, why natural selection has not eliminated them. It is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood, which occurs when bone marrow creates excess, malformed white blood cells. The chronic forms of the disease are less severe, and the prognosis for patients with chronic leukemia is better than for those with acute leukemia. Acute My...
http://rebeccanelson.com/leukemia/home.html
*  Evolutionary Biology at SDSU
... Collections Facilities. Graduate Students. Masters Program. Program. Starting from the premise that evolution underlies all of biology, the primary mission of the Evolutionary Biology Program Area is to discover and share knowledge about the processes and patterns of biological evolution. We aim to advance the field of evolutionary biology through excellence in teaching, research, and mentoring, to actively demonstrate the relevance of evolutionary theory throughout the sciences, and to increase public awareness of evolution, especially as it relates to the origin and conservation of biodiversity. Graduate Programs in Evolutionary Biology at SDSU. The Evolutionary Biology M.S. Program The Evolutionary Biology PhD Program. at SDSU. Biodiversity Studies include research on the diversification of life, both extinct and extant, across all biological levels of organization, from the DNA molecule to the ecological community. Faculty: Berta, Bohonak, Burns, Hedin, Kelley, Reeder, Simpson. Comparative and Integr...
http://bio.sdsu.edu/eb/index.html
*  Biology-Online • View topic - question for evolutionary biologist.
Biology-Online View topic - question for evolutionary biologist. Biology-Online. question for evolutionary biologist. 27 posts. Reply with quote. question for evolutionary biologist. Garter Posts: 2 Joined: Sat Aug 18, 2012 3:56 am. Top. Reply with quote. Re: question for evolutionary biologist. Coral Posts: 227 Joined: Thu Aug 17, 2006 7:20 am. Top. Reply with quote. Re: question for evolutionary biologist. Death Adder Posts: 60 Joined: Tue Jan 18, 2011 5:57 pm. Top. Reply with quote. Re: question for evolutionary biologist. Tue Aug 21, 2012 6:55 pm scottie wrote: Abiogenesis is the stuff of fairies at the bottom of the garden. Wed Aug 22, 2012 3:26 pm scottie: so, because we can grow plants in garden, no plants are able to grow without us. Thu Aug 23, 2012 3:02 am One of the main theories is that the first main metabolic molecules were RNAs, which can template proteins as well as be active themselves. Viper Posts: 1272 Joined: Thu Mar 02, 2006 5:29 pm Location: New York, USA. Sat Aug 25, 2012 10:40 pm wbla3...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about25821.html?p=144612&hilit=Feel
*  Darwin's God: Evolutionists Think This Incredible Design is “Simple”
Darwin's God: Evolutionists Think This Incredible Design is Simple. Darwin's God. Friday, March 9, 2012. Evolutionists Think This Incredible Design is Simple. Such an anchor is also used to transport certain membrane proteins. The oily tail anchors the proteins to an internal membrane. Eventually these proteins disassociate from the cell membrane, have their oily tail detached by yet another protein , and make their way back to the internal membrane where they have a new tail attached and are transported back to the cell outer membrane for more duty. Incredibly evolutionists describe this process as simple:. So having a cysteine available on the surface could be a way to tag these proteins that should be sent to the membrane:. It would then be transported automatically to the cell membrane. This simple rule would require that a cysteine end up on the surface of these proteins after they fold. And likewise, the rule would require that there be no cysteines on the surface of other proteins, which are not suppos...
http://darwins-god.blogspot.com/2012/03/evolutionists-think-this-incredible.html
*  AOL.com Search Video - The Comparison Between Human And Animal Life
... . Back to Mobile View. 0 nb cid nb clickOther -tt-nb this.style.behavior='url #default#homepage ';this.setHomePage 'http://www.aol.com/?mtmhp=optinnewaol network-banner-promo mtmhpBanner. X. 14. http://portal.aolcdn.com/p5/forms/26319/4480a515-748d-418d-870e-064d5af6be66.png. AOL.com Search Video - The Comparison Between Human And Animal Life. Sign In. Sign Up. My Account. Set AOL as Homepage. AOL Mail. News. Sports. Entertainment. Lifestyle. Finance. Weather. Videos. Set Location. Weather. Weather. 300. Change Location. SearchResults. Videos: Find a video. The Comparison Between Human and Animal Life |12|1 1 - 12 out of 420 results. The Comparison Between Human and Animal Li... 02:30 Ingrid Newkirk, president of PETA, discusses whether it is possible to compare human life to animal life. Date: May 31, 2010 Source: BigThink. The Incredible Bond Between Human and Hors... 02:37 The bond and mutual trust between horses and humans is absolutely amazing. Here's a great example showing how special it can reall...
http://aol.com/search/video/?q=The Comparison Between Human and Animal Life &tag=true
*  ASA - September 2003: Re: RFEP & ID
Re: RFEP ID. From: Howard J. Next message: Sarah Berel-Harrop: "Re: RFEP ID" Previous message: George Murphy: "creation sabbath Was Re: Questions to Allen Roy " Maybe in reply to: Howard J. Van Till: "RFEP ID" Next in thread: Sarah Berel-Harrop: "Re: RFEP ID" Reply: Sarah Berel-Harrop: "Re: RFEP ID" Messages sorted by:. We will have to figure it out by context. predictions in the life sciences. These sequences form clusters. defined by the set of all globin sequences. Is there a large, single region. large region model, but there is much more to learn, and the results will. have an inside track on what sort of distribution of functional proteins in. sequence space would be characteristic of the Intelligent Designer's style. find the Intelligent Designer's style manual. Evolutionists typically view them as the result of. the Evolutionist camp. In other words, there is no functional reason for the. This is typical for evolutionary theory. for a function, evolutionary theory quickly concludes that a design is. e...
http://www2.asa3.org/archive/asa/200309/0867.html
*  Knowledge Class: Levels of Biological Organization
... Knowledge Class. A Blog for Biology, Chemistry, Physics and General Science Students. Levels of Biological Organization. The structure and function of living things are dependent upon chemicals. Any think that takes up space and has mass is called matter. A matter can exist in as a solid, liquid and gas form. All matters are composed of basic substances called elements. There are six elements commonly found in all living things. These are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur, which are also called bioelements. Atoms. A matter is made up of atom. Every atom is made up of subatomic particles protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of the atom. Electrons revolve around the nucleus. Levels of Biological Organization. Molecules. Molecules L moles, mass. are collection of atoms bound together. Molecules can be made up of atoms of the same elements and atoms of different elements combined in a definite ratio are called compound. Macromolecules. Organ...
http://knowledgeclass.blogspot.com/2013/08/levels-of-biological-organization.html
*  Sandwalk: Monday's Molecule #24
... Monday, April 30, 2007. Monday's Molecule #24. Moran. Reply Delete. Tuesday, May 01, 2007 12:30:00 PM Thiamine pyrophosphate is the molecule but I'm really bad at guessing the Laureate. Reply Delete. Reply Delete. Reply Delete. Reply Delete. Moran. Larry Moran is a Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto. The Sandwalk is the path behind the home of Charles Darwin where he used to walk every day, thinking about science. Principles of Biochemistry 5th edition. Quotations. Charles Darwin 1859 Science reveals where religion conceals. What's in Your Genome Evolution Is a Fact Just-So Stories What Is a Gene. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Theistic Evolution: The Fallacy of the Middle Ground Why I'm not a Darwinist Evolution by Accident Evolution and Abiogenesis Macroevolution Random Genetic Drift Michael Denton and Molecular Clocks The Modern Synthesis of Genetics and Evolution Evolution Is a Fact and a Theory What Is Evolution. October 1. September 20. August 31. Steph...
http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2007/04/mondays-molecule-24.html
*  Recovery From MS Through Natural Healing
... News and Press Release Distribution, Since 1995. News. Recovery From MS Through Natural Healing. Monday, September 17, 2007 Summary: There is growing evidence that recovery from MS can occur partially or completely through natural healing. ----------------------------------------------------- People who have been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis often believe that mainstream medicine is their only hope for recovery from MS. Within the first month after the onset of her symptoms, she went through a 10-day, intensive inpatient neurological evaluation at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and was formally diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. For the first time since the onset of her symptoms, she found herself again able to engage in a full range of daily activities, instead of having to carefully ration her energy with frequent naps throughout the day. Please understand, therefore, that it was NOT a particular nutritional supplement that produced my wife’s full recovery from MS; rather, by utilizing the ...
http://webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=47840
*  Sandwalk: And the Winner Is .....
... Sunday, December 25, 2011. Moran. Tuesday, December 27, 2011 12:04:00 AM he hasn't blogged very much recently nothing since December 2009 which is quite unfortunate because The Daily Transcript was one of the few science blogs at scienceblogs.com. Moran. Larry Moran is a Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto. Principles of Biochemistry 5th edition. Quotations. What's in Your Genome Evolution Is a Fact Just-So Stories What Is a Gene. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Theistic Evolution: The Fallacy of the Middle Ground Why I'm not a Darwinist Evolution by Accident Evolution and Abiogenesis Macroevolution Random Genetic Drift Michael Denton and Molecular Clocks The Modern Synthesis of Genetics and Evolution Evolution Is a Fact and a Theory What Is Evolution. October 1. September 20. August 31. July 28. June 21. April 14. March 34. February 29. January 29. December 21. November 1. October 18. September 20. August 30. July 11. June 8. Stephen Jay Gould 1982 I have ...
http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2011/12/and-winner-is.html
*  .. Posts Tagged ‘evolutionists’ .. ‘Junk’ DNA Proves Functional; Helps Explain Human Differ
Posts Tagged ‘evolutionists’ ‘Junk’ DNA Proves Functional; Helps Explain Human Differences From Other Species. Using the latest sequencing technologies, GIS researchers showed that many transcription factors, the master proteins that control the expression of other genes, bind specific repeat elements. Over evolutionary time, these repeats were dispersed within different species, creating new regulatory sites throughout these genomes. “Because a lot of the biomedical research use model organisms such as mice and primates, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the differences between these model organisms and humans in order to explain our findings,” said Guillaume Bourque, Ph.D., GIS Senior Group Leader and lead author of the Genome Research paper. “Our research findings imply that these surveys must also include repeats, as they are likely to be the source of important differences between model organisms and humans,” added Dr. “The better our understanding of the particularities of the human ge...
http://s8int.com/WordPress/tag/evolutionists/
*  Sandwalk: Name These Geneticists
Wednesday, December 02, 2009. This is a collection of "geneticists" from the latest issue of Genetics November 2009. Moran. Wednesday, December 02, 2009 9:27:00 PM Darwin. Moran. Larry Moran is a Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto. The Sandwalk is the path behind the home of Charles Darwin where he used to walk every day, thinking about science. Principles of Biochemistry 5th edition. Quotations. What's in Your Genome Evolution Is a Fact Just-So Stories What Is a Gene. October 2. September 20. August 31. July 28. June 21. April 14. March 34. February 29. January 29. December 21. November 1. October 18. September 20. August 30. Stephen Jay Gould 1982 I have championed contingency, and will continue to do so, because its large realm and legitimate claims have been so poorly attended by evolutionary scientists who cannot discern the beat of this different drummer while their brains and ears remain tuned to only the sounds of general theory. Stephen Jay Gould 2002 p.1339 The ...
http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2009/12/name-these-geneticists.html
*  Sandwalk: Les Invalides
... Thursday, February 21, 2008. Moran. Reply Delete. Saturday, March 01, 2008 11:10:00 AM From the name, I thought Les Invalides would be a hospital. Reply Delete. Saturday, March 01, 2008 11:11:00 AM Sorry, it's Monado using the LotStreetWiz computer. Reply Delete. Moran. Larry Moran is a Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto. The Sandwalk is the path behind the home of Charles Darwin where he used to walk every day, thinking about science. Principles of Biochemistry 5th edition. Quotations. What's in Your Genome Evolution Is a Fact Just-So Stories What Is a Gene. October 1. September 20. August 31. July 28. June 21. April 14. March 34. February 29. January 29. December 21. November 1. Stephen Jay Gould 1982 I have championed contingency, and will continue to do so, because its large realm and legitimate claims have been so poorly attended by evolutionary scientists who cannot discern the beat of this different drummer while their brains and ears remain tuned to only the ...
http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2008/02/les-invalides.html
*  CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction From OpenWetWare CH391L/S12 Revision as of 15:45, 13 February 2012 by Jared Ellefson Talk. 1 What is Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. 1.1 Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes 1.1.1 Methods of Inferring Ancient Sequences 1.1.2 Gene Synthesis 1.1.3 Testing Ancestral Variants. 1.2 Examples of Ancestral Sequence Reconstructions 1.2.1 Evolution of Coral Pigments 1.2.2 Inferring the Paleoenvironment of ancient Earth. What is Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. Sequence Reconstruction Example. Sequences from extant species of the desired common ancestral gene and outgroup genes are aligned. The ancestral gene is inferred based on evolutionary models typically maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood. Ancestral genes are cloned and tested for function. Methods of Inferring Ancient ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&oldid=583945
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. ==Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes==...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=677463&oldid=677462
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 19:53, 24 February 2013 view source Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs → Evolution of Coral Pigments ← Previous diff. Revision as of 19:55, 24 February 2013 view source Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs → Evolution of Coral Pigments Next diff →. Line 30:. Line 30:. One example of ancestral sequence reconstruction was done by the Matz group currently residing at the University of Texas at Austin. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red cite #Ugalde /cite. The details of the evolution of fluorescent color in the GFP superfamily was not fully understand. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. One example of ancestral sequence reconstruction was done by the Matz group currently residing at the University of Texas at Austin. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wav...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=678933&oldid=678932
*  Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001)
branching order of bacterial phyla gupta branching order of bacterial phyla gupta bacterial phyla there are several models of the branching order of bacterial phyla one of these was proposed in by gupta based on conserved indels or protein termed protein signatures an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels however they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla one feature of the cladogram obtained with this method is the clustering of cell wall morphology with some exceptions from monoderms to transitional diderms to traditional diderms in the cladogram below yellow pseudopeptidoglycan monoderms gram variable red thick peptidoglycan monoderms gram positive blue thin peptidoglycan diderms gram negative green atypical see note in parethesis cladex style width auto bar gold archaea cladex bar crimson firmicutes cladex bar crimson actinobacteria see also branching order of bacterial phyla woese branching order ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branching_order_of_bacterial_phyla_(Gupta,_2001)
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. Sequences for the common ancestor nodes were synthesized and tested for their activity. The common ancestor to all the superfamily had a green emission peak. The more recent common ancestor of Green/Red had two emission peaks; a strong green peak and a smaller red peak. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. Sequences for the common ancestor nodes were synthesized and tested for their activity. The common ancestor to all the superfamily had a green emission peak. The more recent common ancestor of Green/Red had two emission peaks; a strong green peak and a smaller red peak. 1.2 Examples of Ancestral Sequence Reconstructions 1.2.1 Evolution of Coral Pigments 1.2.2 Inferring the...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=678913&oldid=678912
*  The FASTML Server - Server for computing Maximum Likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction
the fastml server server for computing maximum likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction home overview gallery source code citing credits old version the fastml server server for computing maximum likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction type your multiple sequence alignment msa fasta format only or upload your multiple sequence alignment msa file sequences type amino acids nucleotides codons type your phylogenetic tree optional newick format only or upload phylogenetic tree file newick format only model of substitution jtt default lg mtrev for mitochondrial proteins cprev for chloroplasts proteins wag dayhoff jc model jukes and cantor t model tamura hky model hasegawa kishino and yano gtr generalised time reversible yang for codon sequences empiricodon for codon sequences please enter your email address optional your email address will be used to update you the moment the results are ready load an example advanced options phylogenetic tree method maximum likelihood ml neighbor joining optimize branch ...
http://fastml.tau.ac.il/
*  Comparison of Protein Sequences: BLAST searching and Phylogenetic Tree Construction
... Inquiry-based Integrated Instructional Units Comparison of Protein Sequences: BLAST searching and Phylogenetic Tree Construction. It accompanies several weeks of wet lab work in which students clone cDNAs encoding Cytochrome P450 1A CYP1A from animals primarily fish collected locally and exposed to pollution compounds that induce expression of the enzyme. In this exercise, students perform BLAST searches of reported CYP1A sequences and construct phylogenetic trees using CYP1A amino acid sequences from various vertebrate species, especially those with multiple CYP1A paralogs. Thus, evolutionary analysis of CYP1A sequences from many species provides an opportunity to explore the number and timing of gene duplications during vertebrate evolution. Three short readings about gene duplication in evolution and phylogenetic analysis are provided at least one week prior to class. These readings complement earlier readings that specifically concern the cloning and evolutionary analysis of CYP1A genes in fish. Mate...
http://serc.carleton.edu/genomics/units/19100.html
*  Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. From OpenWetWare. Talk:CH391L/S13 Revision as of 00:02, 24 February 2013 by Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs. diff ←Older revision. Current revision diff. Newer revision→ diff. Jump to: navigation, search. Gabriel Wu 16:59, 18 February 2013 EST : Remove the cost and methods of gene synthesis or just reference the dna assembly section we've already gone over. Expand the codon optimization section unless this fits better in somewhere else. Gabriel Wu 16:59, 18 February 2013 EST : How does Pauling's proposal for ancestral gene construction relate to the actual discovery of DNA structure. Benjamin Gilman 13:21, 21 February 2013 EST : The Pauling and Zuckerkandl paper came out when the only protein sequence information we had came from limited peptide sequencing methods like Edman degradation N-terminal sequencing. You might add something about the shift to using DNA or RNA sequences to infer protein sequence once techniques like Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequenc...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&direction=prev&oldid=678776
*  Ancestral reconstruction
'Ancestral Reconstruction' also known as 'Character Mapping' or 'Character Optimization' is a method in evolutionary biology by which one can attempt to understand the phenotypic and genetic states of organisms that lived millions of years ago. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum likelihood. They are: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and the Bayesian Inference. Maximum parsimony is the method that came about first. Maximum likelihood accounts for what we know about the likelihood of various events, which is that they are not all equal. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum likelihood. The main difference between this and maximum parsimony is that the maximum likelihood test accounts for the fact that not all events are equally likely to happen. When this is the case, maximum parsimony may actually be more accurate because it is more willing to make large, unlikely leaps than maximum likelihood is. Maximum likelihood has been shown to be quite reliable in reconstructing character states however it does no...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancestral_reconstruction
*  Viral phylodynamics
... Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread,. Methods Coalescent theory and phylodynamics. Examples Phylodynamics of Influenza. Phylodynamics of HIV. The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure see figure 2 Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. For example, an application to HIV sequences within infected hosts showed that viral substitution rates dropped to effectively zero following the initiation of antiretroviral drug therapy. If the population size N t changes over time, the coalescent rate \lambda n t will also be a function of time. derived this rate for a time-varying population size under the assumption o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_phylodynamics
*  Diagnostic characters from Consortium of mx users. - Encyclopedia of Life
... Diagnostic characters. 2011, by Lewis L. Deitz and Matthew S. Wallace. Add to a collection. Diagnostic characters. Distance from eye to base of forewing usually greater than half eye width exceptions: Deiroderes and many Nicomiinae. Pronotum usually produced posteriorly over scutellum exceptions: Endoiastinae, Nicomiinae, Deiroderes, Abelus, and Hemicentrus, often also with anterior, lateral, or dorsal projections. Forewings with vein M fused with Cu basally share common stem; exceptions: some Nicomia and some Smiliinae. Prothoracic trochanter and femur not fused. Male abdominal segment IX usually with lateral plates discrete from pygofer exceptions: fused to pygofer in few members of various tribes; lateral plates absent in Anchistrotus and some Stegaspidini. Female pygofer not strongly produced posteroventrally. Nymph with abdominal tergum IX forming sheath around segment X, anal opening dorsal or posterior. Latest updates. No one has provided updates yet. Learn how to contribute. Add a new comment. Yo...
http://eol.org/data_objects/12685167
*  Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew | QUT ePrints
Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew. Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew Statistics dashboard. Review. Book Chapter Phillips, Matthew J. Penny, David 2010 Mammalian phylogeny., Phillips, Matthew J. PLoS ONE, 10 5, e0125723., Carrano, Matthew T. Systematic Biology. Phillips, Matthew J., Gibb, Gillian C. 2014 Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and habitat preference evolution of marsupials. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31 9, pp., Phillips, Matthew J. Phillips, Matthew J., Gibb, Gillian,. Bunce, Michael 2013 Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes. PLoS ONE, 8 2, pp. Phillips, Matthew J. Current Biology, 23 14, R603-R605., Phillips, Matthew J. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 59 3, pp., Phillips, Matthew J. 2010 Evolutionary relationships and divergence times among the native rats of Australia. 2009 The evolutionary history of the extinct ratite moa and New Zealand Neogene paleogeography. 2009 Accounting for calibration uncertainty in phylogenetic estimation of evo...
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/view/person/Phillips,_Matthew.html
*  Wiegmann Lab: Current Research
Insect Molecular Systematics at NCSU. phylogenetic relationships and testing hypotheses about the evolution and diversification of insects. A major component of these studies is uncovering patterns and processes of DNA sequence evolution and using these to improve interpretation of morphological and developmental evolutionary pathways. Molecular Phylogenetics of Diptera: FLYTREE - NSF - Assembling the Tree of Life project on Diptera a Collaborative Research Effort in Dipteran Phylogenetics. The need for new, large, comprehensive datasets for Diptera phylogeny motivates our collaborative, National Science Foundation funded, Assembling the Tree of Life ATOL project-- FLYTREE. Within this study, we are assembling multiple phylogenetic data sets to simultaneously assess dipteran phylogenetic relationships and the information content of specific character systems. For example, we will compare large by character data sets 1st tier; 45 taxa; 15-20 genes and mt genomes to those with increased numbers of taxa by taxa ...
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/users/b/bwiegman/public_html/labweb/currentresearch.html
*  Talk:CH391L/S13/DirectedProteinEvolution - OpenWetWare
Gabriel Wu Talk. *' ] 21:45, 21 February 2013 EST ':It would be nice if you added literature examples of Directed Evolution of Proteins for each approach as done in the Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction or take a similar approach. *' ] 21:45, 21 February 2013 EST ':It would be nice if you added literature examples of Directed Evolution of Proteins for each approach as done in the Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction or take a similar approach. + *' ] 15:33, 2 March 2013 EST ':It would be nice to put some numbers on the typical plasmid screening in 'E. + ****' ] 14:03, 4 March 2013 EST ': This is an interesting point. *' ] 04:13, 27 February 2013 EST ':I thought it'd be nice to have a section explaining fitness landscapes and moving through sequence space. *' ] 04:13, 27 February 2013 EST ':I thought it'd be nice to have a section explaining fitness landscapes and moving through sequence space. It's true that many times the selection will result in being trapped in a local optima, but other times the selection wi...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Talk:CH391L/S13/DirectedProteinEvolution&diff=680636&oldid=680003
*  Systematics
thumb|400px|A comparison of phylogenetic and phenetic concepts Biological '''systematics''' is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. Phylogenetic trees of species and higher taxa are used to study the evolution of traits e.g., anatomical or molecular characteristics and the distribution of organisms biogeography. Systematics, in other words, is used to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Definition and relation with taxonomy Taxonomic characters See also References Notes. Definition and relation with taxonomy. Europeans tend to use the terms "systematics" and "biosystematics" for the field of the study of biodiversity as a whole, whereas North Americans tend to use "taxonomy" more frequently. Taxonomic characters. Molecular characters. Immunological distance Electrophoretic differences Amino acid sequences of proteins DNA hybridization DNA and RNA sequences Restriction endonuclease analyses Other molec...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systematics
*  Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" - EEBedia
Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" From EEBedia. Chris Simon. Chris Simon. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Lab%208.%20Kasey%20Pregler%20MiniPresentation%2012April12.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 8. Kasey Pregler MiniPresentation 12April12.pdf. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Lab%208.%20Kasey%20Pregler%20MiniPresentation%2012April12.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 8. Kasey Pregler MiniPresentation 12April12.pdf. Instructor: Chris Simon, Biopharm 305D, 6-4640, chris.simon@uconn.edu Graduate Assistant: Chris Owen, Biopharm 325A, christopher.l.owen@uconn.edu ; 6-3947. Readings: will be posted as PDF’s. Lectures will examine some of the most serious problems in evolutionary tree construction: nucleotide bias, alignment, homoplasy, among-site rate variation, taxon sampling, long branches, big trees, heterogeneous rates of evolution among branches, covarion shifts. Syllabus Molecular Systematics rev 28 Mar 12.pdf Assignment 1. How molecules evo...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Molecular_Systematics_Spring_2012&diff=21831&oldid=21782
*  Molecular phylogenetics
'Molecular phylogenetics ' is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. History of molecular phylogenetics Techniques and applications Theoretical background Limitations of molecular systematics See also Notes and references Further reading External links. A comprehensive step-by-step protocol on constructing phylogenetic tree, including DNA/Amino Acid contiguous sequence assembly, multiple sequence alignment, model-test testing best-fitting substitution models and phylogeny reconstruction using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, is available at Nature Protocol Bast, F. These have been replaced in recent times largely by DNA sequencing, which produces the exact sequences of nucleotides or 'bases' in either DNA or RNA segments extracted using different techniques. In a molecular systematic analysis, the haplotypes are determined for a defined area of genetic material ; a substantial s...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_phylogenetics
*  CH391L/S13/DNA Computing - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S13/DNA Computing From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 11:55, 1 April 2013 view source Dwight Tyler Fields Talk. contribs m New page: Hello world. ← Previous diff. Revision as of 12:03, 1 April 2013 view source Dwight Tyler Fields Talk. contribs m Next diff →. Line 1:. Line 1:. - Hello world. + ] ]. + =Introduction=. + Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. It enables scientists to synthesize biomolecules from extinct organisms. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. + ]. + + ==Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes==. + # Sequences from extan...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/DNA_Computing&diff=687401&oldid=687389
*  Phylogenetic Classification ( Real World ) | Biology | CK-12 Foundation
Phylogenetic Classification Real World. Help. Help. You are viewing an older version of this Concept. Go to the latest version. Phylogenetic Classification. Practice Phylogenetic Classification Practice. 0% Practice Now. Evolution. Resources. Published. Cows Gone Wild. The "cows" you see are Aurochs Bos primigenius. They are the species of bovine that humans domesticated to form our modern day cows. Looking at the cave paintings of aurochs, you may get the sense that they were a bit different than our domesticated cattle. The characteristics which made aurochs successful in the wild were not the characteristics that humans thought were most useful. For example, packing on lots of meat may be a great trait in a cow for a cattle rancher, but if that meat hampers mobility, then it can make a cow an easy target to predators. This is one of the differences between artificial selection and natural selection. However, it does not take 600 years for noticeable changes to appear in bred species once the artificial sel...
http://ck12.org/biology/Phylogenetic-Classification/rwa/21st-Century-Auroch/r8/
*  Filosofía, especie y sistemática
Host structure of the Phylogeny of West Nile Virus WNV: Does it shape the spatiotemporal structure. Methods Sequence Data: All the available sequences of complete genome of WNV, with collection times, and geographic locations 453 sequences, from 25 countries, and 79 hosts species were retrieved from GenBank. Phylogeny inferred using a Maximum likelihood analysis of 53 sequences. Phylogeny with Host structure for WNV. Just Testudines present a different resutl, where the non-nuclear and nuclear partitions had the lowest values Fig. Estimating Evolutionary Rates and Times to the last Common Ancestor DEV-2, using partitions vs complete coding region. Several studies have been aimed at understanding the epidemiology of DENV, rates and dates of evolution, and selection pressure in its different genes and genotypes Rico-hesse Rico-hesse, 1990; Rico-Hesse et al., 1997; S. The objectives of this study were to infer the time to the Most recent common ancestor MRCA of the DENV2 genotypes, and estimate the evolutionary ...
http://elecsist.blogspot.com/
*  PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. | Broad Institute of MIT and
PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Home. News & Publications:Scientific Publications PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. Recent Broad Publications Inherited CHST11/MIR3922 deletion is associated with a novel recessive syndrome presenting with skeletal malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Ferritinophagy via NCOA4 is required for erythropoiesis and is regulated by iron dependent HERC2-mediated proteolysis. Read More / View Supplemental ...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3822
*  Phylogenomics
It is a group of techniques within the larger fields of phylogenetics and genomics. Phylogenomics draws information by comparing entire genomes, or at least large portions of genomes. 1 Phylogenetics compares and analyzes the sequences of single genes, or a small number of genes, as well as many other types of data. Prediction of gene function Establishment and clarification of evolutionary relationships Gene family evolution Prediction and retracing lateral gene transfer. Prediction of Gene Function Prediction and Retracing Lateral Gene Transfer Gene family evolution Establishment of Evolutionary Relationships Databases See also References. Before the use of phylogenomic techniques, predicting gene function was done primarily by comparing the gene sequence with the sequences of genes with known functions. 3 This prediction was based on the fact that this organism has a gene for which the sequence is highly similar to genes from other species in the "MutS" gene family which included many known to be involved ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenomics
*  Wikiomics:RNA phylogenetics - OpenWetWare
... Wikiomics:RNA phylogenetics From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 17:04, 3 March 2008 view source Torsten Waldminghaus Talk. contribs added tags ← Previous diff. Current revision 05:34, 20 October 2009 view source Albert Vilella Talk. contribs adding rnasalsa. One intermediate revision not shown. Line 16:. Line 16:. * Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny. Allows secondary structure models. * Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny. Allows secondary structure models. * Designed specifically for use with RNA sequences that have a conserved secondary structure, e.g., rRNA and tRNA. Substitution models of sequence evolution that consider pairs of sites rather than single sites are implemented in this package along with standard nucleotides substitution models used nowadays. When a RNA molecule with a secondary structure is used in conjunction with a RNA substitution model, PHASE requires a structure-based alignment of the sequences with the consensus secondary structure ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Wikiomics:RNA_phylogenetics&diff=360520&oldid=189099
*  Polyphyly
Image:Monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly.png File:Phylogenetic-Groups.svg|thumbnail|300px|Phylogenetic groups: A monophyletic taxon in yellow, the group of "reptiles and birds" contains a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A paraphyletic taxon in cyan, the reptiles contains its most recent common ancestor, but does not contain all the descendants of that ancestor. A polyphyletic in red, the group of all warm-blooded animals taxon does not contain the most recent common ancestor of all its members. A 'polyphyletic' Greek for "of many races" group is characterized by one or more homoplasies : phenotype s which have converged or reverted so as to appear to be the same but which have not been inherited from common ancestors. For example, warm-bloodedness evolved separately in the ancestors of mammals and the ancestors of birds 1. Researchers concerned more with ecology than with systematics may take polyphyletic groups as legitimate subject matter; the similarities in activity within the fungus group ' Alte...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphyly
*  Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" - EEBedia
Chris Simon. Chris Simon. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/EEB%205350%20Lab%209.%20Minipresentation%20RT-PCR%20Brigette.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 9. Minipresentation RT-PCR Brigette.pdf. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/EEB%205350%20Lab%209.%20Minipresentation%20RT-PCR%20Brigette.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 9. Minipresentation RT-PCR Brigette.pdf. Combining Data/Comparing Trees. + + :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Comparing%20Trees%20Combining%20Data%20Readings%202012.pdf}}Comparing Trees Combining Data Readings 2012.pdf. + + Reading for next week: :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Simon%2C%20Buckley%2C%20Frati%2C%20Stewart%2C%20Beckenbach%202006%20AREES%20%26%20supplement.pdf}}Simon, Buckley, Frati, Stewart, Beckenbach 2006 AREES supplement.pdf. Lectures will examine some of the most serious problems in evolutionary tree construction: nucleotide bias, alignment, homoplasy, among-site rate variation, ...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Molecular_Systematics_Spring_2012&diff=21847&oldid=21846
*  Darwin's Evolutionary Tree 'Annihilated' | The Institute for Creation Research
Darwin s Evolutionary Tree Annihilated. Timely news related to creation and evolution. Life Sciences. Problems with Evolution. Evidence for Creation. Evidence for Truth. Evidence from Science. Apologetics Articles. ICR Store. Darwin's Evolutionary Tree 'Annihilated' by Brian Thomas, M.S. * Resources. Life Sciences Resources. Problems with Evolution. In 1837, Charles Darwin drew his first evolutionary tree in his B notebook, with the words I think scrawled above it, to illustrate his idea that all of today s species arose from a single common ancestor. But the poor fit of gene sequence data is forcing scientists to abandon the tree. A non-Darwinian evolutionary view has been offered, but this proposition is actually just the old Hopeful Monster with a twist. 3 Darwin s tree illustrated a long macroevolutionary past that never happened. 4 Finally, evolutionary biologists seem to be catching up with creation biologists. 5 Michael Syvanen, co-editor of Horizontal Gene Transfer 1998 and a medical biochemist at the...
http://icr.org/articles/view/4404/295/
*  Phylogenetic profiling
... 'Phylogenetic profiling' is a bioinformatics technique in which the joint presence or joint absence of two traits across large numbers of species is used to infer a meaningful biological connection, such as involvement of two different proteins in the same biological pathway. Along with examination of conserved synteny, conserved operon structure, or "Rosetta Stone" domain fusions, comparing phylogenetic profiles is a designated a "post-homology" technique, in that the computation essential to this method begins after it is determined which proteins are homologous to which. A number of these techniques were developed by David Eisenberg and colleagues; phylogenetic profile comparison was introduced in 1999 by Pellegrini, 'et al.' Pellegrini M, Marcotte EM, Thompson MJ, Eisenberg D, Yeates TO. Method Theory Advances and Challenges Notes. For a given protein family, its presence or absence in each genome in the original formulation is represented by 1 present and 0 absent. The large number of complete genom...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenetic_profiling
*  Structural Biochemistry/Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction
... - Wikibooks, open books for an open world. Structural Biochemistry/Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction. 1 Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction. Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction. Learning how protein sequence determines structure and function as well as learning the processes that generated the diverse structures and functions of extant proteins requires knowledge of the distribution of structures and functions through the multidimensional space of possible protein sequences. The outcomes of that massive experiment are preserved in the sequences, structures, and functions of modern-day protein families. Evolutionary analysis of these families can provide key insights into the nature of protein sequence space and the determinants of protein structure and function. Horizontal and Vertical Analysis. One way to study protein families is to identify candidate amino acid differences betwe...
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Analyzing_protein_structure_and_function_using_ancestral_gene_reconstruction
*  Patrocladogram
2 " and is used exclusively to determine the amount of divergence of a characteristic from a common ancestor. This means that cladistic and patristic distances are combined to construct a new tree using various phenetic algorithms. 3 The purpose of the patrocladogram in biological classification is to form a hypothesis about which evolutionary processes are actually involved before making a taxonomic decision. 4 Patrocladograms are based on biostatistics that include but are not limited to: parsimony, distance matrix, likelihood method s, and Bayesian probability. Some examples of genomically related data that can be used as inputs for these methods are: molecular sequences, whole genome sequences, gene frequencies, restriction site s, distance matrices, unique characters, mutations such as SNPs, and mitochondrial genome data. Cautions with patrocladogram usage Programs for patrocladogram analysis PATRISTIC. RAMI. Further reading References External links. Cautions with patrocladogram usage. Patrocladograms a...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrocladogram
*  SMART: DUF1866 domain taxonomic distribution
smart duf domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with duf domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing duf domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DUF1866
*  SMART: DUF3700 domain taxonomic distribution
smart duf domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with duf domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing duf domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DUF3700
*  SMART: PTPc motif domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with PTPc motif domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing PTPc motif domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=PTPc_motif
*  SMART: HOX domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with HOX domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing HOX domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=HOX
*  SMART: Citrate ly lig domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with Citrate ly lig domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Citrate ly lig domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Citrate_ly_lig
*  SMART: Catalase domain taxonomic distribution
smart catalase domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with catalase domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing catalase domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Catalase
*  SMART: LRR RI domain taxonomic distribution
smart lrr ri domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with lrr ri domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing lrr ri domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=LRR_RI
*  SMART: Fib alpha domain taxonomic distribution
smart fib alpha domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with fib alpha domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing fib alpha domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Fib_alpha
*  SMART: Frataxin Cyay domain taxonomic distribution
smart frataxin cyay domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with frataxin cyay domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing frataxin cyay domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Frataxin_Cyay
*  SMART: Integrin B tail domain taxonomic distribution
smart integrin b tail domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with integrin b tail domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing integrin b tail domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Integrin_B_tail
*  SMART: BMC domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with BMC domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing BMC domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=BMC
*  SMART: GA domain taxonomic distribution
smart ga domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with ga domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ga domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=GA
*  SMART: ELK domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with ELK domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ELK domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=ELK
*  SMART: SEC14 domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with SEC14 domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing SEC14 domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=SEC14
*  SMART: CP12 domain taxonomic distribution
smart cp domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with cp domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing cp domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=CP12
*  SMART: NH domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with NH domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing NH domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=NH
*  SMART: DM13 domain taxonomic distribution
smart dm domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with dm domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing dm domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DM13
*  SMART: LY domain taxonomic distribution
smart ly domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with ly domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ly domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=LY
*  SMART: zf-AD domain taxonomic distribution
smart zf ad domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with zf ad domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing zf ad domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=zf-AD
*  SMART: Ami 3 domain taxonomic distribution
smart ami domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with ami domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ami domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Ami_3
*  SMART: MutL C domain taxonomic distribution
smart mutl c domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with mutl c domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing mutl c domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=MutL_C
*  SMART: NRF domain taxonomic distribution
smart nrf domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with nrf domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing nrf domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=NRF
*  SMART: PA14 domain taxonomic distribution
smart pa domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with pa domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing pa domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=PA14

Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Sertoli cell nodule: A Sertoli cell nodule, also Pick's adenoma, testicular tubular adenoma and tubular adenoma of the testis, is a benign proliferation of Sertoli cells that arises in association with cryptorchidism (undescended testis). They are not composed of a clonal cell population, i.EcosystemCerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.F1 hybrid: An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F1 hybrids are used in genetics, and in selective breeding, where it may appear as F1 crossbreed.List of Falkland Islands-related topicsSpermatid: The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes. As a result of meiosis, each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary spermatocyte.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Tarsius fuscus: Tarsius fuscus is a species of tarsier. Its range is in Indonesia in the southwestern peninsula of the island of Sulawesi, near Makassar.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Pink skunk clownfish: Amphiprion perideraion also known as the pink skunk clownfish or pink anemonefish, is a species of anemonefish from the skunk complex that is widespread from northern Australia through the Malay Archipelago and Melanesia. Like all anemonefishes it forms a symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones and is unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone.Silent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Hydrazine sulfateLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Loris AzzaroSexual swelling: Sexual swellings are enlarged areas of the perineal skin occurring in some female primates that vary in size over the course of the menstrual cycle. In ovariectomized chimpanzees, estrogen stimulation can induce such tumescence and progesterone can inhibit it.Coles PhillipsIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Camponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Motu MatakoheIndazoleBiological dispersalCypripedium irapeanum: The Irapeao's Cypripedium or Pelican Orchid (Cypripedium irapeanum) is a species of orchid. It has a widespread distribution from the central Mexico states of Sinaloa and Durango south to Guatemala and Honduras.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.List of Acacia species used for tannin production: This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are used for the production of tannins.Beak (band): Beak (stylized as BEAK>) is a UK based band, consisting of Geoff Barrow (of Portishead) with Billy Fuller (Robert Plant) and Matt Williams (MXLX, Fairhorns).Thief of ThievesEvolution in Variable EnvironmentEnd-plate potential: End plate potentials (EPPs) are the depolarizations of skeletal muscle fibers caused by neurotransmitters binding to the postsynaptic membrane in the neuromuscular junction. They are called "end plates" because the postsynaptic terminals of muscle fibers have a large, saucer-like appearance.HyperintensityList of diseases of the honey bee: Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include:Aeolothripidae: The Aeolothripidae are a family of thrips. They are particularly common in the holarctic region, although several occur in the drier parts of the subtropics, including dozens in Australia.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Horseshoe bat: Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized.Index of information theory articles: This is a list of information theory topics, by Wikipedia page.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Kamenny Island Palace: Kamenny Island Palace (Каменноостровский дворец) is a former imperial palace on the south-western promontory of Kamenny Island in St. Petersburg.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Caninia (genus)Triosmium dodecacarbonylAuditory scene analysis: In psychophysics, auditory scene analysis (ASA) is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital: The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (informally the RNOH) is a specialist orthopaedic hospital located in Greater London, United Kingdom and a part of Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust. It provides the most comprehensive range of neuro-musculoskeletal health care in the UK, including acute spinal injury, complex bone tumour treatment, orthopaedic medicine and specialist rehabilitation for chronic back pain.Face.com: Face.com was a Tel Aviv-based technology company that developed a platform for efficient and accurate facial recognition in photos uploaded via web and mobile applications.Gene duplication: Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.AmbulocetidaePodiceps: Podiceps is a genus of birds in the grebe family.Larrea tridentataEpiboly: Epiboly is a cell movement that occurs in the early embryo, at the same time as gastrulation. It is one of many movements in the early embryo that allow for dramatic physical restructuring (see morphogenesis).Swim bladder: The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at its current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming. Also, the dorsal position of the swim bladder means the center of mass is below the center of volume, allowing it to act as a stabilizing agent.Tokay gecko: The tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) is a nocturnal arboreal gecko, ranging from northeast India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, throughout Southeast Asia, Philippines to Indonesia and western New Guinea. Its native habitat is rainforest trees and cliffs, and it also frequently adapts to rural human habitations, roaming walls and ceilings at night in search of insect prey.Oblique dendrite: An oblique dendrite is a dendrite that branches from an apical dendrite which emerge from the apex of a pyramidal cell. Oblique dendrites typically branch one to two times before terminating.WormsgrabenBlood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Isotopic signature: An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.Equivalent rectangular bandwidth: The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.

(1/1237) The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study.

To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field.  (+info)

(2/1237) Problems with implementing guidelines: a randomised controlled trial of consensus management of dyspepsia.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and benefit of developing guidelines for managing dyspepsia by consensus between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists and to evaluate their introduction on GPs' prescribing, use of investigations, and referrals. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of effect of consensus guidelines agreed between GPs and specialists on GPs' behaviour. SETTING: Southampton and South West Hampshire Health District, United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 179 GPs working in 45 practices in Southampton district out of 254 eligible GPs, 107 in the control group and 78 in the study group. MAIN MEASURES: Rates of referral and investigation and costs of prescribing for dyspepsia in the six months before and after introduction of the guidelines. RESULTS: Consensus guidelines were produced relatively easily. After their introduction referral rates for upper gastrointestinal symptoms fell significantly in both study and control groups, but no significant change occurred in either group in the use of endoscopy or radiology, either in terms of referral rates, patient selection, or findings on investigation. No difference was observed between the control and study group in the number of items prescribed, but prescribing costs rose by 25% (from 2634 pounds to 3215 pounds per GP) in the study group, almost entirely due to an increased rate of prescription of ulcer-healing agents. CONCLUSION: Developing district guidelines for managing dyspepsia by consensus between GPs and specialists was feasible. However, their acceptance and adoption was variable and their measured effects on some aspects of clinical behaviour were relatively weak and not necessarily associated with either decreased costs or improved quality of care.  (+info)

(3/1237) Registrars' and senior registrars' perceptions of their audit activities.

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the level and quality of audit activity among junior doctors, their attitudes to audit, and their views on its educational value. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey in April 1991. SETTING: Yorkshire region. SUBJECTS: All 610 registrars and senior registrars recorded as employed in the region. MAIN MEASURES: Grade, current specialty, details of last audit participated in and its educational usefulness, and attitude to audit. RESULTS: 255 (41.8%) completed questionnaires were returned, 148 from registrars and 101 from senior registrars; grade was not indicated in six. 27 respondents were in general medicine, 26 in general surgery, 30 in anaesthetics, and 36 in psychiatry; other specialties had fewer than 20 respondents. About a fifth (54) of respondents, most in psychiatry (19/36, 53%), had not participated in audit. Among the 201 who had participated, the audit topics covered most components of care (access to services (47, 23%), communication (51, 25%), and appropriateness (158, 79%) and effectiveness (157, 78%) of treatment); only 84 (41%) audits set standards, and in only half of them had the doctors been involved in doing so. Doctors responsible for gathering data and those responsible for collating and reporting data found their experience significantly less useful than those who were not. 172 (86%) respondents considered that audit had helped patient care. Suggested improvements to the educational value of audit were mostly for better methods but included requests for less "witch hunting," better feedback, more training, more time, and more participation by consultants. CONCLUSIONS: The educational value of audit to junior doctors could be improved by better audit methods, guidance, and feedback.  (+info)

(4/1237) Diabetes care: who are the experts?

OBJECTIVES: To identify issues that patients and professionals consider important in diabetes care and differences in their priorities for care and to determine patients' and professionals' judgements of the relative importance of their chosen priorities. DESIGN: Structured group interviews using the nominal group technique. SETTING: Five district health authorities on Tyneside. SUBJECTS: Five nominal groups: expert (seven), non-expert (seven) health care professionals; insulin dependent (four), non-insulin dependent patients (eight); and carers of diabetic patients (eight). MAIN MEASURES: Items important in diabetes care to each nominal group (themes of care), ranked into a series of "top 10" items for each group, and allocated a score according to relative importance to individual members; scores were standardised by individual weighting and group weighting for comparison within and between groups. RESULTS: Patients and professionals agreed that information given to patients, interaction between professionals and patients, patient autonomy, and access were important for good diabetes care, but the importance assigned to each differed. Thus the professionals emphasised empathy and aspects of good communication and patients the desire to know enough to live a "normal" life. Differences were also found within the patient groups; these related to changes in patients' needs at specific points in the development of their illness and in their orientations to care. CONCLUSION: Patients differ from professionals in their orientation to diabetes care, and they can, and should, be involved in setting priorities for care. Since these priorities are dynamic further work is needed to explore the nature of patient satisfaction with diabetes care.  (+info)

(5/1237) The relationship and tensions between vertical integrated delivery systems and horizontal specialty networks.

This activity is designated for physicians, medical directors, and healthcare policy makers. GOAL: To clarify the issues involved with the integration of single-specialty networks into vertical integrated healthcare delivery systems. OBJECTIVES: 1. Recognize the advantages that single-specialty networks offer under capitated medical care. 2. Understand the self-interests and tensions involved in integrating these networks into vertical networks of primary care physicians, hospitals, and associated specialists. 3. Understand the rationale of "stacking" horizontal networks within a vertical system.  (+info)

(6/1237) Patterns of anti-inflammatory therapy in the post-guidelines era: a retrospective claims analysis of managed care members.

Published and widely disseminated guidelines for the care and management of asthma characterize asthma as a chronic, inflammatory disease and propose specific recommendations for therapy with inhaled anti-inflammatory medications. In a retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data of approximately 28,000 asthmatic members from five managed care settings, the dominant pattern of pharmacologic therapy that emerged was the use of bronchodilators without inhaled anti-inflammatory drug therapy. In addition, a significant proportion of asthmatic patients received no prescription drug therapy for asthma. Less than one third of asthmatic patients received any anti-inflammatory therapy and the majority of these received one or two prescriptions per year. Specialist physicians were two to three times more likely than non-specialists during a study period of 1 year to prescribe an anti-inflammatory medication, and were half as likely to have their asthmatic patients experience an emergency department or hospital event. This database analysis suggests that greater conformity with guidelines and/or access to specialist physician care for asthmatic members will lead to improved patient outcomes.  (+info)

(7/1237) Referrals by general internists and internal medicine trainees in an academic medicine practice.

Patient referral from generalists to specialists is a critical clinic care process that has received relatively little scrutiny, especially in academic settings. This study describes the frequency with which patients enrolled in a prepaid health plan were referred to specialists by general internal medicine faculty members, general internal medicine track residents, and other internal medicine residents; the types of clinicians they were referred to; and the types of diagnoses with which they presented to their primary care physicians. Requested referrals for all 2,113 enrolled prepaid health plan patients during a 1-year period (1992-1993) were identified by computer search of the practice's administrative database. The plan was a full-risk contract without carve-out benefits. We assessed the referral request rate for the practice and the mean referral rate per physician. We also determined the percentage of patients with diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, who were referred to specialists. The practice's referral request rate per 100 patient office visits for all referral types was 19.8. Primary care track residents referred at a higher rate than did nonprimary care track residents (mean 23.7 vs. 12.1; P < .001). The highest referral rate (2.0/100 visits) was to dermatology. Almost as many (1.7/100 visits) referrals were to other "expert" generalists within the practice. The condition most frequently associated with referral to a specialist was depression (42%). Most referrals were associated with common ambulatory care diagnoses that are often considered to be within the scope of generalist practice. To improve medical education about referrals, a better understanding of when and why faculty and trainees refer and don't refer is needed, so that better models for appropriate referral can be developed.  (+info)

(8/1237) Physicians' attitudes toward managed care: assessment and potential effects on practice behaviors.

This study was designed to identify the key components of physicians' attitudes toward managed care and develop a tool to assess these components. We developed a questionnaire based on physicians' reactions to managed care, as reflected in the published literature. We mailed this questionnaire to a sample of 753 community physicians in the greater Sacramento area. A factor analysis of these data (n = 315) identified five unifactorial scales, which we labeled managed care quality, need to adapt to managed care, cost-containment effectiveness of managed care, personal knowledge of managed care, and inevitability of managed care. Physicians were most negative about the quality of managed care and most in agreement about the need to adapt to it. Correlations among these five scales, while statistically significant, were modest in size, suggesting that these physicians were quite discriminating in their evaluations. In comparison with medical/surgical specialists, primary care physicians rated the quality of managed care, their knowledge of it, and the inevitability of a national transition to managed care more positively. These measures predicted the physicians' intentions to alter their medical behaviors to comply with managed care practices.  (+info)