Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria, AerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Bacteria, AnaerobicAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Communicable DiseasesPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.MycosesDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Hospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Ethmoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.History of MedicineHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.PhenazinesAgar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overSputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Laboratory Proficiency Testing: Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Streptococcus milleri Group: A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.

*  Climate changing gas from some surprising microbia... ( The climate changing...
Society for General Microbiology. Source:Eurekalert. 2. GOOD. Related biology news :. 1. Specially-designed soils could help ... Compost can turn agricultural soils into a carbon sink, thus protecting against climate change. 9. Climate change has major ...
http://bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Climate-changing-gas-from-some-surprising-microbial-liaisons-2686-1/
*  Microbial ecology and bio-monitoring of total petroleum contaminated soil...
Theses and Dissertations (Microbiology and Plant Pathology) 276 Search UPSpace. Search UPSpace. This Collection. ... The substrate utilisation pattern and 16S DNA fragments of the soil microbial communites in different soil layers at a diesel ... However, further work is required to investigate the importance of soil heterogeneity in community studies of soil environments ... to evaluate the effects of hydrocarbons on the soil microbial communities of both the contaminated and non-contaminated soil ...
http://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/27508
*  Items where Division is "AWI Organizations | Geosciences | Periglacial Research...
Soil Atlas of the Northern Circumpolar Region , Soil Atlas of the Northern Circumpolar Region : an initiative of the European ... Handbook of hydrocarbon and lipid microbiology / Kenneth N. Timmis Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, ISBN: 978-3-540-77584-3 . ... Microcosm experiments for simulation of freeze-thaw cycles and studying methane dynamics in permafrost-affected soils , ... Handbook of hydrocarbon and lipid microbiology / Kenneth N. Timmis Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, ISBN: 978-3-540-77584-3 .
http://epic.awi.de/view/divisions/awi-2005-0103/2010.html
*  Mark A. Young - Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology | Montana State University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008;74(13):4164-4174. Ortmann AC, Brumfield SK, Walther J, McInnerney K, Brouns SJJ, ... Prokaryote diversity in an extreme thermal soil. Appl. Environ Microbiol. 2001. Botero, L., Fredericks, J., Burr, M., Wraith, J ... Characterization of the nitrogen cycle in an extreme thermal soil. NASA Life in Extreme Environments Workshop. Big Sky, MT ... B.S. Soils and Plant Nutrition, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1980 ...
http://plantsciences.montana.edu/facultyorstaff/faculty/young/
*  The Academia
Microbiology / Agricultural Microbiology / Soil Science OR Agricultural Chemistry / Botany / Agricultural Botany / Plant ... Microbiology / Agricultural Microbiology / Soil Science OR Agricultural Chemistry / Botany / Agricultural Botany / Plant ...
http://amity.edu/course-list.aspx?fd=Organic Agriculture&Programs=Post Graduate
*  A Short Essay On Nelson Mandela | Best Essay Writers
Research Papers On Soil Microbiology. In this txt, the dissertation was applying for an difficulty report, just he was given ...
http://nvartseducation.org/277-a_short_essay_on_nelson_mandela.html
*  Download E-books Surface Forces PDF - strange native Library
... soil technological know-how, microbiology, and interplay among organic cells. This publication is the 1st finished monograph ...
http://strangenative.com/lib/surface-forces
*  Participants 2015 - AIARD Association for International Agriculture & Rural...
Victoria Barth is an M.S. student in soil microbiology at Washington State University. A former state FFA officer, Victoria ... After graduation, she intends to continue working in soil health and rural development.. Ms. Taya Brown attends Texas A&M ... Her research is supported by a Borlaug Global Food Security Graduate Fellowship where she is evaluating the impact of soil ... Cobb has worked on projects in soil health, permaculture, and water quality. After graduation, he plans on working in ...
http://aiard.org/participants-2015.html
*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024675/00001
... microbiology, neuroscience, pharmacology, virology, zoology Ecology: soil sciences, agriculture, life sciences, atmospheric, ... 147 neuroscientist, pharmacologi st, virologist, zoologist) 6Ecologist (soil scientist, life scientist, atmospheric scientist, ... Craving a young girl desperate to lose weight begins drinking homemade shakes made with vegetables grown in soil that has b een ... soil scientist, life scientist, atmospheric scientist, toxicologist) 7Geologist (mineralogist, seismologist,
http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024675/00001
*  Balkan Ecology Project : January 2016
Soil Microbiology Analysis - Thank you to Vitalia Baranyai and Birgit Albertsmeier who volunteered to study the microbiology of ... Soil Analysis Physical Analysis - See soil test card in main spreadsheet.. The soil health card we used was developed as part ... the soil samples from the gardens. See soil microbiology results in the main spreadsheet. ... Mineral Analysis - Soil samples were taken in early spring before fertility inputs and sent to the NAAS of the Ministry of ...
http://balkanecologyproject.blogspot.ca/2016/01/
*  Annual report of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station :: State Publications
16 Control One ounce to four gallons One ounce to three gallons One ounce to two gallons One ounce to one gallon 989 984 984 973 925 98.9 98.4 98.4 97.3 92.5 17 20 19 18 —.5 —.5 -1.6 -6.4 Table V. 30 Control One ounce to four gallons One ounce to three gallons 895 883 855 821 790 89.5 88.3 85.5 82.1 79.0 29 28 —.2 —.4 27 One ounce to two gallons —7.4 26 One ounce to one gallon —10.5 Table VI. 1 Control 903 922 930 901 730 90.3 92.2 93.0 90.1 73.0 2 3 One ounce to four gallons One ounce to three gallons +1.9 +2.7 4 —.2 5 One ounce to two gallons One ounce to one gallon —17.3 Table VIII. 390 390 300 300 300 300 300 Soil 1867 Soil 1867 Soil 1867 Soil 1867 Soil 1867 Soil 1867 Soil 1867 10 10 10 10 10 .2 .2 240 240 127.3 12.73 127.3 127.3 12.73 NH 4 2S04 NH4 2S04 NH 4 2S04 NH4 2S04 NH 4 2S04 NH4 2S04 NH 4 2S04 Table VI.—-Showi]vg Nitrification ooa M o o P 03 O - So Medium. 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 12-2-08 12-2-08 12-2-08 12-2-08 12-2-08 12-2-08 28 ...
http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/p249901coll22/id/505862/rec/11
*  Australian Soils and Landscapes, Neil McKenzie, David Jacquier, Ray Isbell and Katharine Brown, 978
... 0643069589. Australian Soils and Landscapes An Illustrated Compendium. CSIRO Land and Water. CSIRO Land and Water. CSIRO Land and Water. Australian Soils and Landscapes will be a valuable resource for farmers, natural resource managers, soil and environmental scientists, students and anyone with an interest in Australia's unique environment. Provides an introduction to soil properties, processes, and their significance for land use and management. Acknowledgements Introduction 1 Properties of soil 2 The evolution of Australian soils 3 Characteristic Australian landscapes 4 Soil function within ecosystems 5 Land use, soil change and future management Compendium of Australian Soils Rationale and format Anthroposols - soils formed by humans Calcarosols - soils dominated by carbonate Chromosols - neutral to alkaline soils with sharp increases in texture Dermosols - structured B horizons and minor changes in texture Ferrosols ...
http://publish.csiro.au/pid/3821.htm
*  Soil systems
... . Home. Nearest stockist. Contact. Downloads. Products. Soil systems. Products. Soil systems. Installation. Case Studies. Literature. CAD Files. Standards. VIdeo. CIBSE approved CPD seminar. HDPE drainage. Products. HDPE drainage. Installation. Case Studies. Literature. CAD Files. Videos. Acoustic drainage. Products. Acoustic drainage. Installation. Case Studies. Literature. CAD Files. Standards. Waste systems. Products. Waste Pipe Fittings and Waste Systems. Installation. Case Studies. Literature. CAD Files. Standards. Video. Sanitary systems. Rainwater systems. Products. Rainwater systems. Case Studies. Literature. CAD Files. Videos. Standards. Life4. Underground drainage. Products. Underground Drainage Systems. Installation. Water jetting PVCu drains and sewers. Case Studies. Literature. CAD Files. Standards. Products. Sustainable drainage. Installation. Case Studies. Literature. CAD Files. Videos. Aluminium rainwater. Information. CAD drawings. NBS spec clauses. Literature downloads. ...
http://marleyplumbinganddrainage.com/content/1/803/soil-systems.html
*  Black Garden Soil from Weed-A-Way
 Black Garden Soil from Weed-A-Way. Username:. Password:. Login Register. Call or Book Online 905-858-3100 Free Delivery. Order NOW. Home. About Us. Employment. Resources. Lawn Fertilization. Care Lawn. Grass Seed. Topsoil. Lawn and Garden. Lawn Service. Weeds Killer. Lawn Seed. Organic Lawn. Tips. Promotions. Lawn Care. Lawn Care Packages. Premium Program. Basic Program. Intermediate Program. Advanced Program. Weed Control. Seed Feed. Core Aeration. Overseeding Core Aeration. Grub Treatment. Lime Treatment. Surface Insect Control. Bags of Soil. Black Garden Soil. Organic Top Dressing. Disposable Bags. Bags of Mulch. Cedar Mulch. Coloured Mulch. Pine Mulch. Grass Seed. Contact Us. Tyson's Tips. You are here: Home. Bags of Soil. Black Garden Soil. Bags of Soil. Black Garden Soil. Back to: Bags of Soil Black Garden Soil. Price:. $118.95 $138.95 Discount: $20.00. Price / kg:. Size. 1 Cubic Yard No additional charge 1/2 Cubic Yard $-20.95. ...
http://weedaway.com/bags-of-soil/black-garden-soil
*  Gemmatimonadetes
... the gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria given their own phylum gemmatimonadetes this bacterium makes up about of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils yet there are currently only six cultured isolates gemmatimonadetes have been found in a variety of arid soils such as grassland prairie and pasture soil as well as eutrophic lake sediments and alpine soils this wide range of environments where gemmatimonadetes have been found suggests an adaptation to low soil moisture a study conducted showed that the distribution of the gemmatimonadetes in soil tends to be more dependent on the moisture availability than aggregation reinforcing the belief that the members of this phylum prefer dryer soils the phylum gemmatimonadetes is distinct from the phylum cyanobacteria and may have diverged in early microbial evolution at least billion years ago the first member of this phylum was discovered in in ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemmatimonadetes
*  BISC209/S13: Lab4 - OpenWetWare
You will count the number of individual colonies showing a clear zone halo around the colony using the plate with 30-300 total colonies and compare those numbers with the number at the same soil dilution that grew on NA- a general purpose, non-differential medium. You will count the number of individual colonies showing a clear zone halo around the colony using the plate with 30-300 total colonies and compare those numbers with the number at the same soil dilution that grew on NA- a general purpose, non-differential medium. 1 LAB 4: Community Level Testing for Richness as Functional Metabolic Diversity for Community Co-operative Behavior 2 Assessment of Digestive Exo-Enzymes 3 Analysis of Carbon Source Utilization Data 4 What to do with your data: 5 Isolation of Interesting and Diverse Bacteria 6 Assessing Bacterial Morphology by Simple Stain 7 Use of the Compound Light Microscope 8 CLEAN UP 9 Assignment 10 Links to Labs. You will count the number of individual colonies showing a clear zone ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=BISC209/S13:_Lab4&diff=prev&oldid=680786
*  BISC209/S12: Lab4 - OpenWetWare
... 1 LAB 4: Community Level Testing for Richness as Functional Metabolic Diversity for Community Co-operative Behavior 2 Isolation of Interesting and Diverse Bacteria 3 Analysis of Carbon Source Utilization Data 4 What to do with your data: 5 CLEAN UP 6 Assignment 7 Links to Labs. You will count the number of individual colonies showing a clear zone halo around the colony using the plate with 30-300 total colonies and compare those numbers with the number at the same soil dilution that grew on NA- a general purpose, non-differential medium. If you divide the number of colonies counted by the amount of inoculum plated times the dilution factor of that plate, you will obtain the number of cultivatable bacteria per gram of soil. number CFU/dilution plated*dilution factor = number of CFU/gram. 5 Calculate the % positive for the enzymatic activity for each assay # positive colonies x dilution factor/total colony count x dilution factor on nutrient agar X 100. You have been asked to calculate ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=BISC209/S12:_Lab4&oldid=586856
*  EDGAR ONLINE - MILES BRAUFMAN - SEC FILINGS
... Welcome. Help. About EDGAR Online. Login. Dashboard. Today. Company. Industry. Search. Screener. Analytics. People Filing Results - MILES BRAUFMAN. Form Type Company Name Received 424B3 SAJAN INC 2/5/2007. POS AM SAJAN INC 1/31/2007. 424B1 SAJAN INC 5/12/2006. S-1/A SAJAN INC 5/5/2006. POS AM KUHLMAN COMPANY, INC 4/20/2006. POS AM KUHLMAN COMPANY, INC 4/10/2006. SB-2/A KUHLMAN COMPANY, INC 10/11/2005. SB-2 KUHLMAN COMPANY, INC 9/9/2005. S-3/A WITS BASIN PRECIOUS MINERALS INC 3/20/2002. S-3/A WITS BASIN PRECIOUS MINERALS INC 3/18/2002. S-3/A WITS BASIN PRECIOUS MINERALS INC 12/10/2001. S-3 WITS BASIN PRECIOUS MINERALS INC 8/21/2001. S-3 FAMOUS DAVES OF AMERICA INC 7/19/2001. 424B3 HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS INC /MN 10/11/2000. S-3 HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS INC /MN 7/27/2000. 424B3 ECO SOIL SYSTEMS INC 5/10/2000. 10KSB POPMAIL COM INC 4/4/2000. S-3/A HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS INC /MN 8/25/2000. 424B3 HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS INC /MN 8/28/2000. 424B3 HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS INC /MN 9/1/2000. Results 1 ...
http://yahoo.brand.edgar-online.com/PeopleFilingResults.aspx?PersonID=3081834&PersonName=MILES BRAUFMAN
*  What Is Sandy Loam Soil? | Garden Guides
What Is Sandy Loam Soil. Organic Gardening. Organic Gardening Troubleshooting. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Soil Basics. What Is Sandy Loam Soil. What Is Sandy Loam Soil. close Report This Article What Is Sandy Loam Soil. Overview Sandy loam soil is a type of soil used in plant beds and pots that require ample drainage for the plants to thrive. Soil types are based on the ratio of materials in the soil. Identification Sandy loam soil is a mixture that is generally well-balanced, but has sand as a dominant component. Perfect loamy soil is ideal for most growing, and contains an even mixture of sand, silt and clay in roughly even proportions. Sand, silt and clay are defined by different particle types in soil identification. Features Each soil type has distinct properties that change when water is added to the soil. Benefits Sandy loam is ideal for plants that need more soil drainage than ...
http://gardenguides.com/113913-sandy-loam-soil.html
*  Viewing a thread - soil structure and health
AgTalk Home. Search Forums. View previous thread :: View next thread. Forums List -> Crop Talk Message format. SW MN and Gold Canyon AZ CRJ one can say the same thing about farms that do not have tile. Its a proven fact that a well tiled farm has less surface runoff then a non tiled farm. What about the tons and tons of corn stalks I have from the manure application?. The ground would never dry out in the spring for planting on time. soil structure and health - scmn 06 : 11/17/2012 07:53. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 09:00. RE: soil structure and health - Cardinal Farms : 11/17/2012 11:02. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 11:27. RE: soil structure and health - Cardinal Farms : 11/17/2012 20:34. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 20:46. RE: soil structure and health - Cardinal Farms : 11/17/2012 21:11. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 21:20. RE: soil ...
http://talk.newagtalk.com/forums/thread-view.asp?tid=344412&posts=28&mid=2702303
*  Organic Eprints - Enhancing and testing soil quality
... Enhancing and testing soil quality. {Project} Enhancing and testing soil quality. Project Leader s : Tolonen, Kaisa, ProAgria Association of Rural Advisory Centres. Online at: http://tripunix.mtt.fi/cgi-bin/thw/?${BASE}=arktui ${HTML}=docu eng ${SNHTML}=nosyn eng ${TRIPSHOW}=for=www eng NR=244-14 Summary At present, soil fertility testing is based on soil chemical analysis. Organic amendments, either as manure and compost or residue from preceding crops and green manure, are essential for maintaining and enhancing soil quality and nutrient management in organic farming. Thus, organic farming is dependent on biologically mediated processes and functions of the whole soil system. Soil quality can be defined as soil's ability to function, it is dependent on the purpose of soil use, and it is based on chemical, physical, and biological soil properties. To achieve this, the following goals are set: i to indicate the most important ...
http://orgprints.org/5683/
*  Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe | QUT ePrints
Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe. QUT ePrints. QUT Home Contact. Home Browse About Login. Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe. Chan, Derek, Rajeev, Pathnmanathna, Gallage, Chaminda,. Kodikara, Jayantha 2010 Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe. In Li, John. Lin, Meei-Ling Eds. Proceedings of The Seventeenth Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference, Taiwan Geotechnical Society/Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 92-95. Draft Version PDF 521kB. View at publisher. Abstract The neutron logging method has been widely used for field measurement of soil moisture content. This non-destructive method permitted the measurement of in-situ soil moisture content at various depths without the need for burying any sensor. Twenty-three sites located around regional Melbourne have been selected for long term monitoring of soil moisture content using neutron ...
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/38965/
*  Index of soil-related articles
L Lahar - Laimosphere - Land improvement - Lateral earth pressure - Leaching agriculture - Leaching pedology - Leaching model soil - Leptosols - Lessivage - Liming soil - Linear aeration - Lixisols - Loam - Loess - Lunar soil. S SahysMod - Saline seep - Salinity in Australia - Salt marsh - Salting the earth - SaltMod - San Joaquin soil - Sand - Sand boil - Sandbag - Scobey soil - Seitz soil - Serpentine soil - Shear strength soil - Shear strength test - Shrub swamp - Silt - Slope stability - Slump - Sodium adsorption ratio - Soil - Soil alkalinity - Soil acidification - Soil amendment - Soil and water assessment tool - Soil Association - Soil biodiversity - Soil biology - Soil carbon - Soil cement - Soil chemistry - Soil classification - Soil compaction - Soil conditioner - Soil conservation - Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act - ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_of_soil-related_articles
*  Soil Horizons and Profiles ( Read ) | Earth Science | CK-12 Foundation
Soil Horizons and Profiles Read. Earth Science. Soil Horizons and Profiles. The three major soil horizons include topsoil, subsoil and the C-horizon. Practice Soil Horizons and Profiles Practice. Earth Science. Resources. Soil Horizons and Profiles. Soils are so different. A thick, thick layer of clay is found in this area. Soil Horizons and Profiles A residual soil forms over many years, as mechanical and chemical weathering slowly change solid rock into soil. The soil develops soil horizons, as each layer becomes progressively altered. All together, these are called a soil profile. Soil is an important resource. The simplest soils have three horizons. Topsoil Called the A-horizon, the topsoil is usually the darkest layer of the soil because it has the highest proportion of organic material. In the topsoil, minerals may dissolve in the fresh water that moves through it ...
http://ck12.org/earth-science/Soil-Horizons-and-Profiles/lesson/Soil-Horizons-and-Profiles/r26/
*  Soil structure & why it's important
Soil structure why it's important. FAQs. My Account. Trade Customers. Customer Services. Rolawn TV. Product Calculator. Login/Register. Rolawn Search our site. 0845 604 6060 8am to 10pm - 7 days a week. Call charges vary between providers. We do not add a service fee. Turf. Medallion® Turf. Turfmaster® System. Topsoil. Blended Loam Topsoil Bulk Bag. Turf & Lawn Seeding Topsoil Bulk Bag. Beds & Borders Topsoil Bulk Bag. Vegetable & Fruit Topsoil Bulk Bag. Bark. Landscaping Bark Bulk Bag. Play Grade Bark Bulk Bag. Soil Improver. Soil Improver Bulk Bag. Lawn Care Products. Medallion® Premium Lawn Seed 1.5kg. Medallion® Premium Lawn Seed 20kg. Minster Pro® Ornamental Lawn Seed. GroRight® Lawn Establishment Fertiliser. GroRight® Lawn Fertiliser, Weed & Moss Killer. Lawn Topdressing Bulk Bag. Information Centre. Buy Online. Find a Stockist. Login/Register. Rolawn Menu. . Turf. Topsoil. Bark. Soil Improver. Lawn Care Products. Information ...
http://rolawn.co.uk/soil-structure
*  Soil Amendments, Organic Soil Amendments - Ohio Earth Food
... Lawns Turf. Gardens. Farms. Natural Fertilizers Potting Soil Soil Amendments Mycorrhizal Fungi Foliar Sprays Insect Disease Control Insect Identifier Herbicides Animal Repellents Soil Testing Animal Feed Supplements Volume Discounts About Ohio Earth Food Contact Us Home. Hartville Store Hours: Monday-Friday: 8am-5pm Saturdays in April and May 8 A.M. to noon. Soil Amendments Soil fertility. Is your soil alive with an abundance of nutrients and microbial activity. The success of any garden, farm, or lawn begins with the quality of its soil. Our role is to help best feed your soil so the soil can feed your plants. Soil is not an organism by itself, but it has rich and manifold life in it. Organic fertilizers and soil amendments encourage this life in micro organisms and plant roots by promoting good soil structure through a wide variety of easily assimilated primary nutrients, trace minerals and organic matter. This ...
http://ohioearthfood.com/soil-amendments.html
*  Course Schedule Soil 2125
... Schedule for Soil 2125 Fall Semester 2012 - Schedule Soil 2125 Class Schedule. P Outline Exams Web Lab Unit Lab Inv. Soil of the Week Suggested Read. 9/05 WThF Intro A Intro to Soil Science Intro B-What is Soil. Team Exam Intro in Recitation Intro to the Web Units. No Lab Inv. 9/10 MTWTh 1a Soil from Rocks - 1b Soil as a Resc. Webexam 1 Team Exam 1 Web 1 - The Materials for Making Soil LI 1= Rocks Weathering- -- Lester. 9/17* MTWTh 2a Soil Texture - 2b Soil Texture Webexam 2 Team Exam 2 Web 2. Soil Texture LI 2= Soil Texture -- Fargo. 9/24 MTWTh 3a Soil Horizons -- 3b Writing profile descriptions Webexam 3 Team Exam 3 Web 3. Soil Horizons LI 3= Soil Structure, Color Horizons-- Zimmerman. 10/01 MTWThF 4a Soil Forming Factors - PM Glaciation as a PM video Climate 4b Soil F.F. Soil Forming Factors LI 4=Soil Forming Factors -- Nashwauk. 10/08 MTWTh* 5a Soil Taxonomy - ...
http://swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/doc/crscd1a.htm
*  Using green seaweed (Ulva spp.) as a soil amendment: Effects on soil quality and yield of sweet corn
as a soil amendment: Effects on soil quality and yield of sweet corn Zea mays L. as a soil amendment: Effects on soil quality and yield of sweet corn Zea mays L. Complete - Pre-seaweed application October 2011, pre-corn seeding May 2012, and post-harvest September/October 2012 sampling – Aggregate stability, bulk density, available water capacity, and infiltration - Monthly October-November 2011 and April-October 2012 sampling – Soil respiration and earthworm abundance in-field analysis ; insect collection; bulk sample collection for soil pH, electrical conductivity EC, nitrate NO3-, ammonium NH4+, phosphate HnPO4n-3, potassium K, active C, potentially mineralizable N PMN, trace nutrients, sulfate SO42-, soil organic matter SOM, nematode abundance and community composition, and heavy metals - Complete soil quality analyses field and laboratory : bulk density, available water capacity, infiltration, soil respiration, pH, EC, and extraction for ...
http://mysare.sare.org/mySARE/ProjectReport.aspx?do=viewRept&pn=GNE11-026&y=2012&t=0
*  Measuring Soil Texture in the Field | Fact Sheets | soilquality.org.au
Measuring Soil Texture in the Field. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. Fact Sheets Measuring Soil Texture in the Field. Soil Texture Measuring in the Field. Soil texture affects the physical and chemical properties of a soil. Field or hand texturing is a measure of the behaviour of a small handful of soil when moistened and kneaded into a ball slightly larger than the size of a golf ball NSW Agriculture, 1988 or bolus and pressed out to form a ribbon between the thumb and forefinger figure 1. Gravel particles 2 mm is removed from the soil prior to texturing because it does not contribute to chemical and some physical properties of soils. The common term for measuring ...
http://soilquality.org.au/factsheets/soil-texture
*  Organic Soil Management For Organic Gardeners
... Organic Fertilizer Guide. Blog. About. Organic Soil Management For Organic Gardeners. Organic soil management is a science and an art. Conventional soil science teaches that soil is a relatively inert medium, an anchor for plants made of sand, silt and clay and a handful of nutrients for plant growth. If soil has enough nutrients, gardener’s will be okay. Of course, organic soil management is so much more than that. Yet traditionally, not much has been mentioned about organic matter and next to nothing on the soil food web. In many soil textbooks, you would likely find multiple chapters on fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium NPK and next to nothing on organic matter and botany. Fertilization is seen as the number one soil management strategy in many textbooks. But this is organic gardening, and I'd like to present the story of healthy soil as a vibrant, living community. Of course, even organic soil is ...
http://smilinggardener.com/organic-soil-management/
*  .. Posts Categorized: Soil Composition .. Soil Degradation: Another Carbon Story .. N
filed under General, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure. filed under Earthworks Earth Resources, Education, Food Food Support Systems, General, Plants, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition. This is Part Three B of a series of Articles, that critically discuss’s the Nottinghill Forest Garden Project from Analysis – to Implementation – to Future Idea’s. filed under Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation. filed under Design, General, Land, Soil, Soil Composition, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure. filed under Earthworks Earth Resources, Education, Food Food Support Systems, General, Plants, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition. This is Part two of a series of Articles, that critically discuss’s the Nottinghill Forest Garden Project from Analysis – to Implementation – to Future Idea’s. filed ...
http://permacultureusa.org/category/soil/soil-composition/
*  ARS | Publication request: Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in
Publication request: Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in the Constant Capacitance Model ARS : Research. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in the Constant Capacitance Model Authors. Submitted to: Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2007 Publication Date: November 8, 2007 Citation: Goldberg, S.R., Lesch, S.M., Suarez, D.L. Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in the Constant Capacitance Model. Technical Abstract: The constant capacitance model, a chemical surface complexation model, was applied to selenite, Se IV, adsorption on 36 soils selected for variation in soil chemical properties. The constant capacitance model was able to fit Se IV adsorption by optimizing one monodentate Se IV surface ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=220715
*  Soil Structure Decline - Tas | Fact Sheets | soilquality.org.au
Fact Sheets. Home Fact Sheets. Calculators. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. Fact Sheets Soil Structure Decline - Tas. Soil Structure Decline Tasmania. If you can see a soil structure problem, it is costing you money in lost yield. Degraded soil structure results in increased soil strength, reduces infiltration and water available to plants. Soil structure describes how mineral particles and organic matter are arranged to form aggregates, as well as how pore spaces are arranged within and between aggregates. Soil structure is the clods and aggregates that you can see rather than soil texture which you can feel. Compaction can lead to reduced aeration when wet, ...
http://soilquality.org.au/factsheets/soil-structure
*  .. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner .. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum So
Soil Gardening. Soil Conditioner. Soil Conditioner Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. admin@soilgardening.com on September 17, 2013 · 0 comments. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. Liquid “Gypsum” Soil Conditioner is a soil amendment that remedies sodium and or salt problems, clay and compact soils, soggy soils, and water drainage problems. It also addresses soil erosion and problems associated with poor or reclaimed irrigation water. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. A Soil Conditioner is a item which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, in particular its ability to offer nutrition for plants. In common usage the term soil conditioner is generally believed of as a subset of the category Soil Amendments which far more ...
http://soilgardening.com/fix-soil-problems-with-liquid-gypsum-soil-conditioner/
*  Soil permeability: Definition with Soil permeability Pictures and Photos
... Lexic.us. Medical Definition of Soil permeability 1. The ease with which gases, liquids or plant roots penetrate or pass through a layer of soil. 09 Oct 1997. Soil Permeability Pictures. Click the following link to bring up a new window with an automated collection of images related to the term: Soil Permeability Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Soil Permeability soil biochemistry soil chemistry soil conservation soil erosion soil genesis soil horizon soil hue soil management soil matrix soil mechanics soil mechanics and engineering soil microbiology soil mineralogy soil permeability current term soil phase soil physics soil pipe soil pollutants soil pollution soil pore soil profile soil science soil scientist soil series soil stack soil sterilant soil sterilants ...
http://lexic.us/definition-of/soil_permeability
*  Soil Food Web - What's All The Fuss About?
Soil Food Web - What's All The Fuss About. Organic Fertilizer Guide. Blog. About. Soil Food Web - What's All The Fuss About. The soil food web refers to an army of tireless workers in the soil - 20,000 to 30,000 different species of soil organisms in a teaspoon of healthy soil. We call it a web to focus on not only the soil life, but more importantly on how they relate to each other, how they interact. There are 6 kingdoms of life: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, animals and plants. My focus tends to be as much on what they do as on what they look like. You may wonder why it’s so important to learn about all of this soil biology when you're learning about organic gardening. It turns out they’re as important to the garden as the soil, fertilizer, water and everything else. Soil Food Web Drawing. I hope this soil food web drawing helps explain in more detail what the food web is all about. Why Is The Soil Food Web So ...
http://smilinggardener.com/soil-food-web/
*  Soil Management
Base Cations. Base Cations The base cations described in this section include potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg. Forms and Functions of Base Cations Forms of the Base Cations K: K + Ca: Ca 2+ Mg: Mg 2+ Functions of the Base Cations Potassium Involved in many enzymatic reactions Functions in the synthesis of the energy compounds Required for translocation of carbohydrates within the plant Involved regulating gas exchange and water relations during transpiration. Amount of K-bearing minerals in the soil: Soils that are inherently high in potassium minerals generally have greater potassium availability than soils which are inherently low in potassium. Type of clay minerals in the soil: Since highly weathered clay soils typically have a low cation exchange capacity, exchangeable potassium may be limited in these soils. When acidic soils are limed, exchangeable K increases due to increases in the cation exchange capacity. Exchangeable Ca Calcium is the ...
http://ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_nutrients03.aspx
*  ARS | Publication request: SOIL CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO AGRICHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS AND OCCURRENC
ARS. Publication request: SOIL CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO AGRICHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS AND OCCURRENCE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE MIDWEST U.S. ARS : Research. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. ARS Home. About ARS. National Programs. International Programs. Scientific Software/Models. Site Map. You are here: MIDWEST AREA Home / AGRICULTURAL LAND AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH / Research / Publication #102060. Related Topics Programs and Projects. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. ARS International Research Partnerships. Title: SOIL CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO AGRICHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS AND OCCURRENCE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE MIDWEST U.S. Technical Abstract: A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to groundwater. This paper examines the relation of soil ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=102060
*  soilquality.org.au | Soil Quality and Soil Health Information for Australia
Calculators. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. South Australian Soil Quality Program. The GRDC s Soil Biology Initiative and the associated website www.soilquality.org.au provide the Australian grains industry with a unique resource on soil quality including soil biology, chemistry and physics. The Soil Biology Initiative is a wide wide ranging program that involves research into new techniques and is benchmarking soil quality throughout grain growing Australia, while being a resource for information on a range of soil related issues. The GRDC s Soil Biology Initiative and the associated website www.soilquality.org.au provide the Australian grains industry ...
http://soilquality.org.au/factsheets/category/general
*  Ways to Loosen Clay Soil | Motherhood - ModernMom
Ways to Loosen Clay Soil. Ways to Loosen Clay Soil by Dawn Denmar. If your garden has clay soil, growing plants successfully may be difficult, and it will be a challenge to loosen the soil and prepare it for planting. Some positive aspects to clay soil are that soil moisture levels will be high and it generally holds more nutrients than sandy soils. Before Planting The best time to loosen clay soil is prior to planting; you can check the soil pH levels at the same time. Organic matter is the best addition for loosening clay soils. Working a 2- to 3-inch mixture of compost and aged manure into the top 6 to 8 inches of your soil will start the process of lightening the clay and improving the soil's drainage. Use grass clippings, leaves or compost to further loosen your clay soil. Regular cultivation and planting of clay soils will also assist in aerating the soil and loosening it. Further Additions Expanded ...
http://motherhood.modernmom.com/ways-loosen-clay-soil-5789.html
*  What Is Soil Amendment? | Garden Guides
What Is Soil Amendment. Garden Guides. Toggle navigation. Toggle search. . go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Follow Us. Home. Plants. Plant Taxonomy. 100 Most Popular Plants. About Plants. Annual Plants Flowers. Perennial Plants Flowers. Biennial Plants Flowers. Flowers. Flower Bulbs. Roses. Trees Shrubs. Vegetables. Herbs. Fruits Nuts. Fruits Vegetables. Grasses. Grass - Ornamental. Grass - Lawn. Vines Climbers. Cacti Succulents. Ferns Mosses. Fungi Lichens. Other Plants. Garden Design. Landscape Design. Dry Gardens. Edible Gardens. Flower Gardens. Garden Styles. Wet Gardens. Wildlife Gardens. Gardens by Color. Gardens by Light. Gardens by Season. Gardens by Type of Space. Gardening Spaces. Indoor Gardens. Container Gardens. Greenhouses. Urban Gardens. Small Space Gardens. Yards Lawns. Pests Diseases. Animal Control. Disease Control. Insect Control. Weeds. Weed Control. Gardening Phases. Garden Preparation. Beginning a Garden. Maintenance Improvement. Harvesting. Cutting ...
http://gardenguides.com/119805-soil-amendment.html
*  Organic Eprints - Impact of soil management practices on soil fertility and disease suppressiveness
... home about browse search latest help. Login. Create Account. Impact of soil management practices on soil fertility and disease suppressiveness. Tamm, Lucius ; Bruns, Christian ; Leifert, Carlo ; Fuchs, Jacques G. ; Thürig, Barbara ; Specht, Nicole and Fliessbach, Andreas 2006 Impact of soil management practices on soil fertility and disease suppressiveness. Paper at: Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denmark, May 30-31, 2006. PDF. 33Kb. Summary Soil management practices are targeted to provide adequate crop nutrition and to ensure durable soil fertility and to avoid negative environmental impacts. Soil management also aims to reduce pest and disease pressure on crops. Organic farming is believed to increase soil suppressiveness towards soil-borne diseases as well aerial diseases. In this paper we will discuss the potential of soil manage-ment as a tool to improve disease suppressiveness in practice. EPrint Type: Conference paper, ...
http://orgprints.org/8286/
*  Gardening in Sandy Soil
... Facts About Soil Improving Garden Soil Changing Soil pH Improving Clay Soil The Soil Food Web My sister is a Master Gardener in northern Michigan. Increasing soil organic matter is the key to gardening in sandy soil. Garden Compost is the Best Form of Organic Matter to Add. The resulting "char" is ground into loose shavings that can be mixed into soil to soak up and hold moisture, and provide habitat for bacteria, fungi, and the soil food web. I wouldn't think of starting a garden without bio-char. Why Use Coir Instead of Peat Moss. Instead of gardening in sandy soil, you’ll be gardening in loam. To improve water retention in flower and vegetable beds, apply a 1-2” 2.5-5 cm layer of coir to the surface with compost and other organic soil amendments, and cultivate in before planting. Municipal Compost, Animal Manures, and Other Kinds of Organic Matter What if you don’t have access to “good” garden compost, but have ready access ...
http://grow-it-organically.com/gardening-in-sandy-soil.html
*  Use of Sulfur to Lower Soil pH
... It is difficult to make exact recommendations for amounts of chemicals needed to lower soil pH. Light soils require lesser and heavy soils need greater quantities of acidifying agents. A soil high in organic matter has a different requirement than one low in organics. If the organic matter in the soil has been reduced to humus, the buffering effect of the humus usually increases the amount of pH alteration material needed. To lower soil pH of light sandy loams one full point i.e., from pH 6.0 to 5.0 as a guideline the use of sulfur, 10 pounds of dusting sulfur per 1,000 square feet, should be about right. In medium loam soil, add 15 pounds, and to heavy clay loam, 20 pounds. Ordinarily dusting sulfur is perfectly satisfactory; no need to pay a premium for special grades. If not enough material was applied, simply add more. If too much, there is no harm in using lime to undo the effects of the use of sulfur to lower soil ph. My gardening preference ...
http://improve-your-garden-soil.com/use-of-sulfur-to-lower-soil-ph.html
*  Soil Conditions | Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership
Soil Conditions. Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership. Carbon Sequestration, Climate Change, and CO 2. CO 2 Sources and Emissions Geologic CO 2 Storage Potential Terrestrial Sinks. Terrestrial Carbon Sink Variables -- Land Cover -- Soil Conditions -- Land Resources -- Climate. News and Publications. Soil Conditions Soil characteristics that affect the accumulation of carbon include the soil order type , soil texture, drainage, and acidity. 1 The soil order reflects the native environment under which the soil was formed, and this can be helpful in determining the soil's innate capacity to sequester organic carbon under ideal conditions. 2 In continuously wet soils with limited oxygen capacity, such as those found in wetlands, and areas of poor drainage, an ideal setting is provided for slowing decomposition, thereby increasing the carbon stock. 3 Further, research indicates that soil wetness as indicated by drainage classes is an ideal ...
http://undeerc.org/PCOR/Region/Terrestrial/SoilConditions.aspx
*  .. Posts Categorized: Soil Conservation .. Report on 5-Day Permaculture Workshop for
filed under Aid Projects, Community Projects, Compost, Courses/Workshops, Food Plants - Annual, Food Plants - Perennial, Nurseries Propogation, Seeds, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Trees. Tiger Hill Permaculture: Phase 1, Water Harvesting Earthworks. filed under Commercial Farm Projects, Demonstration Sites, Education Centres, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Water Conservation, Water Harvesting. filed under Animal Forage, Land, Livestock, Plant Systems, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Trees. filed under Compost, Food Plants - Annual, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure, Urban Projects. filed under Commercial Farm Projects, Global Warming/Climate Change, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure. filed under Building, Compost, Soil Conservation, Soil Erosion Contamination, Soil Rehabilitation, Waste Systems Recycling, Water ...
http://permaculture.org.au/category/soil/soil-conservation/page/2/
*  Soil biodiversity
Soil and biodiversity Soil management and biodiversity Soil process impacts. Catchment scale impacts. Soil management and biodiversity. Impacts of Acid Soils in Victoria, A report for Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Goulburn Broken Catchment Management Authority and North East Catchment Management Authority Many of the soils in the Australian state of Victoria are naturally acidic; however, about 30,000 square kilometres or 23% of Victoria's agricultural soils suffer reduced productivity due to increased acidity. Extremely low pH soils may suffer from structural decline as a result of reduced microrganisms and organic matter; this brings a susceptibility to erosion under high rainfall events, drought, and agricultural disturbance. Soil structure decline. 6 Well-developed, healthy soils are complex systems in which physical soil structure is as important as chemical content. Soil structure is essential to ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_biodiversity
*  Tight Clay Soils, Calcium Sulfate | How it works
Tight Clay Soils, Calcium Sulfate. How it works. Close X. What is GYPSOIL. What is GYPSOIL Video. Soil amendment. How it works. Economic impact study. Bulletin download. Research library. Close X. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Research library. Midwest Territory Managers. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Research library. Mid-South Territory Managers. GYPSOIL for peanuts. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Research library. Close X. Close X. Soil Symposium. Close X. GET YOUR GYPSOIL ON. Sodic Soils and GYPSOIL. Research Library. Economic study. Bulletin Download. Close X. Mineral cations with positively charged surfaces are attracted to these negative ...
http://gypsoil.com/what-is-gypsoil/how-it-works
*  Soil Acidification: How to Lower Soil pH, AGF-507-07
... Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet. School of Environment and Natural Resources. 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Soil Acidification: How to Lower Soil pH. AGF-507-07 Robert Mullen, Edwin Lentz, and Maurice Watson Many plant species require acid soil conditions to thrive. Throughout Ohio and many other parts of the Midwest surface soils are neutral to slightly alkaline. Elemental sulfur can be applied as a soil amendment to decrease the pH or acidify such soils. Due to the cost, the application of sulfur to acidify soils is more practical for horticultural crops than agronomic crops. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide interested individuals agronomic and horticultural with rates necessary to adjust soil pH. Sulfur reaction in the soil is slow, and quick changes in soil pH should not be expected. It may take a few months or longer to change soil pH to the desired level because the process of sulfur ...
http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0507.html
*  soilquality.org.au | Soil Quality and Soil Health Information for Australia
soilquality.org.au. Soil Quality and Soil Health Information for Australia. Toggle Navigation. Home Fact Sheets. Calculators. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. Videos. About Us Links Contact. Soil Tests Soil Nitrogen Supply - 0 -10cm. Overview. As the active microbial biomass decomposes soil organic matter and fresh plant residues nitrogen can be released in inorganic mineral forms that are plant available. Potentially mineralisable nitrogen or Soil Nitrogen Supply is a simple laboratory assay that reflects this release of soil nitrogen and thus provides a ranking system for the capacity of a soil to turnover soil organic matter. The higher the number the ...
http://soilquality.org.au/soil_tests/soil-nitrogen-supply-0-10
*  ISO - ISO Standards - ISO/TC 190 - Soil quality
Standards catalogue. Standards catalogue. Standards catalogue. 115 ISO/FDIS 15009 Soil quality -- Gas chromatographic determination of the content of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons -- Purge-and-trap method with thermal desorption 50.00 13.080.10 ISO/TC 190/SC 3. 169 ISO/DIS 18187 Soil quality -- Quality of solid samples -- Solid contact test using the dehydrogenase activity of Arthrobacter globiformis 40.99 13.080.30 ISO/TC 190/SC 4. 184 ISO/DIS 18400-204 Soil quality -- Sampling -- Part 204: Guidance on sampling of soil gas 40.00 13.080.05 ISO/TC 190/SC 2. 194 ISO/NP 19648 Soil quality -- Parameters for geochemical modelling of the leaching and speciation of constituents in soils and materials -- Guidance for the application of ISO 12782 10.99. 204 ISO/NP 21268-1 Soil quality -- Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological testing of soil and soil materials -- Part 1: Batch ...
http://iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_tc_browse.htm?commid=54328&development=on&includesc=true
*  ARS | Publication request: EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY. ARS
Publication request: EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY. EVALUATING cokriging for imporving soil nutrient sampling efficiency. Crop need is determined by analyzing soil samples from different parts of the field. More soil samples result in a more accurate map of fertilizer needs, but collecting and analyzing soil samples is expensive. This study found that using information on the soil texture the amount of sand, silt, and clay in the soil in different parts of the field along with information on fertilizer need reduced the number of soil samples needed to get the same accuracy for some soil nutrients. Soil texture does not change very much over the years. This means that a large number of soil texture samples could be collected just one time and the information would be ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=152655
*  Effects of urine on soil microbial biomass, methanogenesis, nitrification and denitrification in gra
... ssland soils - Springer. Search Options. Advanced Search. Search Help. Search Menu. Sign up / Log in English. Deutsch. Academic edition. Corporate edition. Skip to: Main content Side column. Home. Contact Us. Look Inside. Get Access. Find out how to access preview-only content. Article. Plant and Soil October 1996, Volume 186, Issue 2, pp 265-273 First online:. Effects of urine on soil microbial biomass, methanogenesis, nitrification and denitrification in grassland soils. R D Lovell. Affiliated with Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research., S. C Jarvis. Affiliated with Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research. . Rent the article at a discount Rent now. * Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT. Get Access. Abstract Urine was added under controlled conditions to intact turfs taken from long-term permanent pasture on clay loam and sandy loam soils in South West England. Methane exchanges were small +/−0.03 μg CH 4 m -2 min -1 and overall ...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02415522
*  Soil pH
' Blue ' = alkaline soil. A pH below 7 is acid ic and above 7 is alkaline. Effect of soil pH on plant growth Acid affected soils. Nutrient availability in relation to soil pH. Sources of Acidity. Plant root activity: Plants take up nutrients in the form of ions NO 3 −, NH 4 +, Ca 2+, H 2 PO 4 −, etc. Some plants will also exude organic acids into the soil to acidify the zone around their roots to help solubilize metal nutrients that are insoluble at neutral pH, such as iron Fe. This is due to an accumulation of soluble salts which are classified as either saline soil, sodic soil, saline-sodic soil or alkaline soil. All saline and sodic soils have high salt concentrations, with saline soils being dominated by calcium and magnesium salts and sodic soils being dominated by sodium. thumb|right|Nutrient availability in relation to soil pH. 3 Acid affected soils. 2002 Plants grown in acid soils can experience a ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_pH
*  How to Deal With Clay Soil | Garden Guides
How to Deal With Clay Soil. Garden Guides. go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Plants. About Plants. Other Plants. Organic Gardening. Organic Gardening Tips. Organic Gardening Troubleshooting. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Types of Soil. How to Deal With Clay Soil. How to Deal With Clay Soil Comments. Modify clay soil using tools and additives to break up compaction, and enrich clay soil with organic material to improve its ability to nurture a variety of garden plants. Step 1 Break up the soil using a hoe or hand shovel to prepare the clay for the gypsum lime. Gypsum, or calcium sulfate, is a garden additive that will not raise the soil's pH level, while potentially improving soil quality--particularly soils that are alkaline. Step 3 Mix the gypsum into the soil and water it well. Allow the gypsum to absorb into the soil, which may take several hours. You begin to see the soil ...
http://gardenguides.com/104774-deal-clay-soil.html
*  ARS Project: Improving the Cqestr Model Accuracy for Tropical Soils (424473) Soil and Water Conserv
ARS Project: Improving the Cqestr Model Accuracy for Tropical Soils 424473 Soil and Water Conservation Research : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. ARS Research. ARS Careers. You are here: Pacific West Area Home / Soil and Water Conservation Research / Research / Research Project #424473. Research Project: Improving the Cqestr Model Accuracy for Tropical Soils. Location: Soil and Water Conservation Research. Objective: The objective of this cooperative research project is to modify the CQESTR model for tropical conditions i.e., the presence of amorphous clay, oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum, high acidity, and low cation exchange capacity. Specifically this project is conducted to: 1 evaluate possibilities of necessary adaption of CQESTR model for tropical climate areas; 2 correlate the degree of humification of soil organic matter SOM to the stability of recalcitrant soil organic carbon SOC ; 3 examine the impact of amorphous clay, acidity and cation ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?accn_no=424473
*  ARS Soil Resource Management National Program (202) ARS : REAP Information
ARS Soil Resource Management National Program 202. ARS : REAP Information. ARS Home. About ARS. National Programs. Research Projects. International Programs. Site Map. You are here: ARS Home / Research / National Programs / National Program 202 : Soil Resource Management / REAP Information. Related Topics ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. ARS International Research Partnerships. Annual Reports. Assessment Reports. REAP Information. Project Information List of Projects in this Program. List of Project Annual Reports in this program. National Program 202: Soil Resource Management REAP Information. 1 - REAP Main Page 2 - REAP Links and Photo Gallery 3 - REAP Publications and Presentations. REAP Main Page. Renewable Energy Assessment Project REAP. However, limits must be placed on the amount of crop residue removed for bio-energy production to protect lands from erosion and to sustain soil organic carbon ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?np_code=202&docid=15193
*  Soil conditioner
A 'soil conditioner' is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, especially its ability to provide nutrition for plants. In general usage the term soil conditioner is often thought of as a subset of the category 'soil amendments', which more often is understood to include a wide range of fertilizer s and non-organic materials. 1 Soil conditioners can be used to improve poor soils, or to rebuild soils which have been damaged by improper management. They can make poor soils more usable, and can be used to maintain soils in peak condition. 2 Composition Purpose Soil structure. Soil nutrients. Cation exchange. Water retention. References. Composition. A wide variety of materials have been described as soil conditioners due to their ability to improve soil quality. Some examples include biochar, bone meal, peat, coffee grounds, compost, coir, manure, straw, vermiculite, sulfur, lime, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_conditioner
*  Soil crust
... 'Soil crusts' are soil surface layers that are distinct from the rest of the bulk soil, often hardened with a platy surface. Depending on the manner of formation, soil crusts can be biological or physical. Biological soil crusts are formed by communities of microorganisms that live on the soil surface whereas physical crusts are formed by physical impact such as that of raindrops. Biological soil crusts Physical soil crusts References External links. Biological soil crusts. Biological soil crust. Biological soil crusts are communities of living organisms on the soil surface in arid- and semi-arid ecosystems. They are found throughout the world with varying species composition and cover depending on topography, soil characteristics, climate, plant community, microhabitats, and disturbance regimes. Biological soil crusts perform important ecological roles including carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_crust
*  Organic Soil Amendments
... By Steve Cramer, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Good soil is a pre-requisite for good Gardening. Don't, however, expect soil improvement to occur overnight. It can take 10 years or longer to build productive Garden soil. If a soil contains too much sand or too much clay, the solution to both is the same -- add organic material. Organic materials, also known as organic amendments, break apart tight clays and hold water and nutrients in loose sands. Organic materials include compost, peat moss and manures. To amend soil, add a two-inch layer of organic material over the soil surface. Use four cubic yards of organic material per 1,000 square feet of Garden area. When growing vegetables and annual flowers, you have the opportunity to add amendments every year. With perennial plants, such as trees and shrubs, you have only one chance to amend the soil and that is at planting time. The best organic amendments are coarse materials. Fibrous ...
http://colostate.edu/Dept/CoopExt/4dmg/Soil/organic.htm
*  1938 USDA soil taxonomy
... Overview. The 1938 soil taxonomy divided soils between three orders dependent on dominant soil forming factors. Intrazonal soils. 'Intrazonal' soils have more or less well-defined soil profile characteristics that reflect the dominant influence of some resident factor of relief or parent material over the classic zonal effects of climate and vegetation. There are 3 major sub-types, 2 of which have 2 further sub-types each. :Calcimorphic or calcareous soils develop from a limestone. It has two sub-types: :: Rendzina soils are thin soils with limited available water capacity. ::Terra Rossa soils are deep red soils associated with higher rainfall than Rendzina. :Hydromorphic soils form in wetland conditions. There are two sub-types: :: Gley soil s - These occur when the pore spaces between the grains become saturated with water and contain no air. This lack of oxygen leads to anaerobic conditions which reduce the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1938_USDA_soil_taxonomy
*  Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor | Streat Instruments
Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor. Streat Instruments. Tel : +64 3 384 8900 Fax : +64 3 384 8901 Toggle navigation. Manage Your Irrigation Soil Growth. Use Aquaflex to optimise your soil moisture and soil temperature. Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor. Aquaflex Sensors Aquaflex Smart Aquaflex for Arable Aquaflex for Golf Greens Aquaflex for Orchard Aquaflex for Pasture Aquaflex for Turf Aquaflex for Vines FAQ Installation methods Sensor versions. Soil Water Soil Temperature In the shoulders of the growing season soil temperature is the main limiting factor to growth. The Aquaflex soil moisture sensor enables you to balance the soil moisture and soil temperature to minimise the time until the soil temperature increases to the point where pasture growth rate increases. At the same time the soil must not be so dry as to limit growth a delicate balancing act only possible with the correct data. Optimise Plant Production Plant ...
http://streatsahead.com/Products/Aquaflex
*  Soil salinity control
... salinity control removing salt from water desalination image mustard jpg soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land the aim of soil salinity control is to prevent soil degradation by salination and reclaim already salty saline soils soil reclamation is also called soil improvement rehabilitation remediation recuperation or amelioration the primary man made cause of salinization is irrigation river water or groundwater used in irrigation contains salts which remain behind in the soil after the water has evaporated the primary method of controlling soil salinity is to permit of the irrigation water to leach the soil be drained and discharged through an appropriate drainage system the salt concentration of the drainage water is normally to times higher than that of the irrigation water thus salt export matches salt import and it will not accumulate the soil ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_salinity_control
*  Xstrata Gravel Road Construction - Soil Solutions
... Soil Solutions. Value Engineered Solutions ® for Soil Stabilization, Erosion Control Sustainable Dust Control. About Soil Solutions. Dust Control. Erosion Control. Gravel Airstrip Runway. Gravel Roads. Soil Solutions. Xstrata Gravel Road Construction. Home » Portfolio » MINE ACCESS ROADS » Xstrata Gravel Road Construction. Soil Solutions was contacted by Xstrata Coal Witbank, South Africa to construct and stabilize the gravel access road to the mine. Scarifying the existing subgrade soil to the required depth as indicated on the plans and required specification. Milling the wearing course to the indicated depth and adding EBS Soil Stabilizer to bring the material up to the Optimum Moisture Content OMC. The wearing course was then sealed with EBS Soil Stabilizer and left to cure before opening the road for traffic. As a result, the surface only requires minimal maintenance including a routine sweeping to clear any debris left from haul trucks, a ...
http://soilsolutions.com/xstrata-gravel-road-construction/
*  Soil Survey Technical Notes | NRCS
Soil Survey Technical Notes. Natural Resources Conservation Service Soils. Soil Use. Hydric Soils. Urban Soils. Maps. World Soil Resources. Technical References. International Year of Soils. Soil Survey. Soil Survey - Home. Publications. Soil Classification. Soil Health. Soil Health - Home. Soil Health Management. Resources Publications. Soil Survey Releases. You are Here: Home / Technical References / Soil Survey Technical Notes. Soil Survey Technical Notes Technical Note 10 Posted: March 2011 revised July 2014 Buried Soils and Their Effect on Taxonomic Classification Buried Soils and Their Effect on Taxonomic Classification DOCX; 1.64 MB. Technical Note 9 Posted: July 2005 Populating Taxonomic Moisture Class and Subclass in NASIS Populating Taxonomic Moisture Class and Subclass in NASIS DOC; 263 KB. Technical Note 8 Posted: July 2005 Use of Reaction pH in Soil Taxonomy Use of ...
http://nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/ref/?cid=nrcs142p2_053566
*  ARS | Publication request: Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence i
Publication request: Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling Area, China ARS : Research. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling Area, China Authors. Zheng, Fenli - ISWC-CAS YANGLING PR CHIN. Zhang, Feng - ISWC-CAS YANGLING PR CHIN. Submitted to: Catena Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: July 7, 2008 Publication Date: November 15, 2008 Citation: An, S., Zheng, F., Zhang, F., Van Pelt, R.S., Hamer, U., Makeshin, F. Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling Area, China. We looked at a chronosequence of soils that had been cleared of secondary growth forest and cultivated to measure the loss in soil quality as a function of time, make inferences about the processes responsible for the degradation, and to look for convenient measures of soil ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=221135
*  Lesson 4. Soil Chemical Properties
... Major Elements Eight chemical elements comprise the majority of the mineral matter in soils. Of these eight elements, oxygen, a negatively-charged ion anion in crystal structures, is the most prevalent on both a weight and volume basis. The next most common elements, all positively-charged ions cations, in decreasing order are silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium. Ions of these elements combine in various ratios to form different minerals. More than eighty other elements also occur in soils and the earth's crust, but in much smaller quantities. Soils are chemically different from the rocks and minerals from which they are formed in that soils contain less of the water soluble weathering products, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, and more of the relatively insoluble elements such as iron and aluminum. Old, highly weathered soils normally have high concentrations of aluminum and iron oxides. The organic fraction of a soil, ...
http://organiclifestyles.tamu.edu/soilbasics/soilchemical.html
*  How to Loosen Clay Soil | Garden Guides
How to Loosen Clay Soil. Garden Guides. go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Dry Gardens. Wet Gardens. Gardens by Season. Organic Gardening. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Loosening Soil. How to Loosen Clay Soil. How to Loosen Clay Soil Comments. There's little space between particles in clay soil, and this results in poor drainage. If you want to loosen the clay soil before planting your garden, you can turn the soil, add amendments and treat the soil for long-term health. Make the ground wet enough that you break up the crusty surface, but not so wet the water puddles on the soil surface. Step 2 Use a shovel to break up the top of the soil the next morning. Step 3 Use a rototiller to aerate the soil after breaking it up with the shovel. A rototiller will break up the soil to a depth of approximately 2 to 3 inches. Step 4 Add a 1-inch layer of granulized gypsum over the soil ...
http://gardenguides.com/82008-loosen-clay-soil.html
*  How to Garden in Limestone Soils | Garden Guides
How to Garden in Limestone Soils. Garden Guides. go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Plants. About Plants. Annual Plants Flowers. Perennial Plants Flowers. Biennial Plants Flowers. Other Plants. Flower Gardens. Gardens by Color. Container Gardens. Gardening Phases. Organic Gardening. Organic Gardening Tips. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Soil pH. How to Garden in Limestone Soils. How to Garden in Limestone Soils Comments. Overview All soil has a rating on the pH scale from 1 to 10. If soil is balanced, its pH rating is 7.0. Soils with a lower rating are said to be acid, while soils with a higher rating are more alkaline. Each plant has a pH rating as well. Plants that are planted in soil that is optimal for their pH range can take up nutrients from the soil more effectively. Limestone soils are more alkaline in nature, and tend to be rated with a pH higher than 7.0. Gardeners must typically ...
http://gardenguides.com/108964-garden-limestone-soils.html
*  ARS | Publication request: Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy Central
ARS. Publication request: Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy Central Plains Resources Management Research : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. ARS Careers. You are here: Plains Area Home / Central Plains Resources Management Research / Research / Publication #299015. Related Topics Programs and Projects. Location: Central Plains Resources Management Research. Title: Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy Authors. Submitted to: Advances in Agronomy Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: January 27, 2014 Publication Date: May 6, 2014 Citation: Parikh, S., Goyne, K.W., Margenot, A.J., Mukome, F., Calderon, F.J. Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy. Interpretive Summary: This is a review of the state of the science dealing with the application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of soils. The different modes of vibrational spectroscopy can be used to study many important ...
https://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=299015
*  Liming (soil)
Liming soil. Liming soil. 'Liming' is the application of calcium - and magnesium -rich materials to soil in various forms, including marl, chalk, limestone, or hydrated lime. This neutralises soil acidity and increases activity of soil bacteria. However, oversupply may result in harm to plant life. Lime is a basic chemical, the effect of it makes the soil more basic thus making acidic soils neutral. thumb|Liming of a field in Devon The degree to which a given amount of lime per unit of soil volume will increase soil pH depends on the cation exchange capacity CEC. Soils with low CEC will show a more marked pH increase than soils with high CEC. But the low-CEC soils will witness more rapid leaching of the added bases, and so will see a quicker return to original acidity unless additional liming is done. Over-liming is most likely to occur on soil which has low CEC, such as sand which is deficient in buffering agents ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liming_(soil)
*  ARS | Publication request: Crop Management Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in Northern Texas ARS
Interpretive Summary: The influence of management practices on crop residue C and N inputs to the soil, SOC sequestration, and NO3-N leaching potential under irrigated, continuous crop production in northern Texas was evaluated for 8 years. Two N management levels N1 and N2 were established in 1999 in irrigated fields located near Dalhart Dallam fine sandy loam soil and Texline, TX Conlen and Dumas clay loam soils using reduced-till RT, continuous corn production systems. At Dalhart, winter wheat was inserted into the rotation in 2003, with a corn-wheat rotation followed in 2004 – 2006, with dryland corn rather than wheat on the N2 site in 2006. Total soil N TSN and SOC levels increased linearly from 1999 through 2003 in the 0-6 inch soil depth with linear SOC sequestration rates of about 1122 lb C/A per year at Dalhart and 1464 lb C/A per year at Texline, then leveled off or declined from 2004 through 2006 with cropping system changes at Dalhart and extensive corn residue ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=205944
*  Alternative Soil Amendments | Publication Summary | ATTRA | National Sustainable Agriculture Informa
Alternative Soil Amendments. Publication Summary. ATTRA. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. To gain access and reap all the benefits of our website you must subscribe. Subscription Benefits Our subscription packages are designed to help you add value to your existing Sustainable Agriculture resources. Your subscription not only helps us keep the project on its feet, it also helps the movement toward a more sustainable and healthy agricultural system become a reality. Weekly E-mail Newsletter. We also offer a free weekly newsletter. Events. Funding. Publications. Search This Site What Is Sustainable Agriculture. Master Publication List Search Our Databases Energy Alternatives Beginning Farmer Field Crops Horticultural Crops Livestock Pasture Local Food Systems Marketing, Business Risk Management Organic Farming Pest Management Soils Compost Water Management Other Resources Home Page Newsletters. Privacy Policy. Newsletter Archives XML Feeds RSS 2.0: Events, Breaking News, ...
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=284
*  Agricultural soil science
... 'Agricultural soil science' is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber. Agricultural soil scientists develop methods that will improve the use of soil and increase the production of food and fiber crops. Aeration in this context refers to the mechanisms by which air is delivered to the soil. Drainage: In soils of bad drainage the water delivered through rain or irrigation may pool and stagnate. In soils of excess drainage, on the other hand, plants don't get to absorb adequate water and nutrients are washed from the porous medium to end up in groundwater reserves. Water potential : Water potential describes the tendency of the water to flow from one area of the soil to another. Agricultural soil scientists also examine the development of roots and their relation to the soil. Some agricultural soil scientists try to understand the structure and ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_soil_science
*  Soil color
... 'Soil color' does not affect the behavior and use of soil; however, it can indicate the composition of the soil and give clues to the conditions that the soil is subjected to. Brady, Nyle C. Weil 'Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils', page 95. Prentice Hall, 2006. Soil can exhibit a wide range of colour; gray, black, white, reds, browns, yellows and under the right conditions green. Varying horizontal bands of colour in the soil often identify a specific soil horizon. The development and distribution of color in soil results from chemical and biological weathering, especially redox reactions. Aerobic conditions produce uniform or gradual color changes, while reducing environments result in disrupted color flow with complex, mottled patterns and points of color concentration. Causes of soil color Classification References Further reading. Causes of soil color. Yellow or red soil indicates the presence of iron ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_color
*  Wiley: Fundamentals of Soil Science, 8th Edition - Henry D. Foth
United States Change My Account Cart Home Subjects About Wiley Contact Us Help Search Form Search Input Print this page Share Home / All Textbooks & Course Offerings / Agriculture / Agriculture / Soil Textbook Fundamentals of Soil Science, 8th Edition Henry D. Foth ISBN: 978-0-471-52279-9 384 pages August 1990, ©1990 Description This major revision of a bestselling text shows that soil is three-dimensional and dynamic. This concept is developed in the first two chapters and is built on throughout the book. Chapters 3 through 7 explore soil physical properties and water, with expanded coverage of tillage and traffic and an increased emphasis on water and wind erosion processes. Chapters 8 through 11 discuss the biological aspects of soils as well as their mineralogical and chemical properties. In Chapters 12 through 15, the general area of soil fertility and fertilizer use is covered. Other chapters examine soil genesis, taxonomy, geography, land use and ...
http://wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471522791.html?filter=TEXTBOOK
*  The Regional Institute - Managing the microbial community for soil carbon management
Managing The Microbial Community For Soil Carbon Management. Managing the microbial community for soil carbon management. The activity and composition of the soil microbial community regulates the conversion of plant carbon into soil organic matter. Experiments with mycorrhizal fungi have demonstrated that increased colonization and extraradical hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi increased water-stable soil macroaggregates, as well as the amount of C retained in the soil. In native systems with already high soil carbon, increases soil carbon can maybe achieved by alterations of the soil microbial community. soil carbon sequestration, microbial communities, mycorrihizal fungi, water stable aggregates. Increasing soil C storage in agricultural systems, which have the potential to sequester 0.4 to 1.2 Gt C y -1, may effectively assist in offsetting atmospheric CO 2 increases, Lal, 2004. For example, conservation tillage practices have been ...
http://regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004/s10/oral/1489_ricec.htm
*  Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum | GYPSOIL
Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum. GYPSOIL. About Us. What we do. Soil improvement expertise. Where we market. Company history. Employment opportunities. Close X. What is GYPSOIL. What is GYPSOIL Video. Fertility tool. Soil amendment. How it works. Environmental impact. Economic impact study. Bulletin download. FAQs. Research library. Ask Our Agronomist. Close X. Reasons To Use. Midwest. Make Your Soil More Productive. Add sulfur. Increase profitability. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil biology. Testimonials. Sorghum Yield Winner. Iowa Customer Information. Research library. Midwest Territory Managers. Mid-South. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil ...
http://gypsoil.com/improving-your-soil/midwest/midwest-soil-improvement-symposium
*  Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum | GYPSOIL
Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum. GYPSOIL. About Us. What we do. Soil improvement expertise. Where we market. Company history. Employment opportunities. Close X. What is GYPSOIL. What is GYPSOIL Video. Fertility tool. Soil amendment. How it works. Environmental impact. Economic impact study. Bulletin download. FAQs. Research library. Ask Our Agronomist. Close X. Reasons To Use. Midwest. Make Your Soil More Productive. Add sulfur. Increase profitability. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil biology. Testimonials. Sorghum Yield Winner. Iowa Customer Information. Research library. Midwest Territory Managers. Mid-South. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil ...
http://gypsoil.com/improving-your-soil/midwest/what-does-gypsoil-do/expands-roots-zone
*  The Intertwining Importance Of Soil And Water Environmental Sciences Essay
UK essays. UK Essays. Essay Writing. Essay Writing Service. About UK Essays. As the first module within the Soil and Water Management SWM course, this module introduces basic physical, chemical and biological properties that affect agricultural soils. Understand relationships between soil chemical properties to exchange capacity, pH and salt-affected soils, and. Figure 1. Soil is comprised of minerals, soil organic matter SOM, water, and air Figure 1. Figure 2. Below the A horizon will be either an E horizon, usually not present in grassland/agricultural soils, or a B horizon, the horizon of accumulation. Colloids are an important soil fraction due to properties that make them the location of most physical and chemical activity in the soil. Granular structure is characteristic of many A horizons, particularly those with high SOM content and biological activity. Fine-textured soils are more tightly arranged and have more small micro pores ...
http://ukessays.com/essays/environmental-sciences/the-intertwining-importance-of-soil-and-water-environmental-sciences-essay.php
*  Boron dynamics in alkaline calcareous soils and its availability under wheat-cotton cropping system
... - Pakistan Research Repository. Boron dynamics in alkaline calcareous soils and its availability under wheat-cotton cropping system. Niaz, Abid 2010 Boron dynamics in alkaline calcareous soils and its availability under wheat-cotton cropping system. Almost all the soils were calcareous in nature 92 % area, alkaline in reaction 83 % area had pH 8 and 100 % area had OM 1 %. Whereas, B concentration was more in tubewell waters as compared to that in canal waters. Field experiments were conducted at three different textured soils loam, sandy clay loam and silt loam. Foliar use of B 0.50 kg B ha-1 increased the seed cotton yield by 25.60 % over control on loamy soil followed by that on silt loam soil 23.80 %, however during the next year 2007, seed cotton yield mildly decreased compared to first year at the same B application level of 0.50 kg B ha-1 but it remained significantly higher than control by 8 and 21.50 % at loam and silt loam soil 23.80 %, ...
http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/6923/
*  Spectral Estimation of Soil Properties in Siberian Tundra Soils and Relations with Plant Species Com
... position. Due to its large spatial extent and large stocks of soil organic carbon, changes to organic matter decomposition rates and associated carbon fluxes in Arctic permafrost soils will significantly impact the global carbon cycle. This analysis shows that variation of soil properties is large within vegetation classes, but vegetation composition can be used for qualitative estimation of soil properties. The objectives of this study are 1 to evaluate if reflectance spectroscopy operated in the field or in slightly controlled conditions can be successfully applied to assess soil properties that influence carbon turnover and vegetation development in a Siberian arctic tundra environment 2 to investigate the variation and distribution of major soil properties in this area, and 3 to investigate the relation between vegetation composition and soil properties of the organic layers and evaluate if plant species composition can be used as a proxy to estimate ...
http://hindawi.com/journals/aess/2012/241535/
*  .. Soil temperature is Important When Planting Tomatoes .. Post navigation .. Rate this: .. Share
Soil temperature is Important When Planting Tomatoes. by giant veggie gardener. Now is the time to start planting our tomatoes and other warm season veggies outside in our gardens. So often we concentrate on only the air temperature to decide when to plant these crops but the soil temperature is actually just as important. Tomatoes should be planted when the soil temperature reaches a minimum of 60°F in the daytime. If you plant too early in cold soil, tomato and pepper seedlings sulk and will not be happy. The plants could show phosphorus deficiency which shows up as stunted plants with purple leaves on the underside. The tomatoes will just sit there until the soil temperature is optimum. To measure the soil temperature, use a soil thermometer. I prefer using a compost thermometer because they are much longer, usually around 24″ and can be used to check both the temperature of my compost pile and the soil in my vegetable bed before I plant tomatoes. ...
http://giantveggiegardener.com/2013/05/11/soil-temperature-is-important-when-planting-tomatoes/
*  Did the drought hurt the soil, as well as crop yields? | Sugar Producer Magazine
Did the drought hurt the soil, as well as crop yields. Did the drought hurt the soil, as well as crop yields. The Iowa State researchers reported that drought conditions, which were pervasive throughout their state, caused fracturing and cracking in the upper 6 to 15 inches of the soil, with the potential for deeper cracking depending on soil minerals and clay content. Al-Kaisi reports that soil management practices can improve the way water is stored in the soil, and when available for plants, it will reduce the impact of the drought. Such management practices will enhance the soil aggregation, water storage, water infiltration, and reduce potential erosion, all with management techniques:. Tillage of dry soil damages soil structure, and when moisture is available the moisture will not be held in the soil and will result in erosion. Surface residue retards erosion in heavy rain, and good residue will allow more water to enter and remain ...
http://sugarproducer.com/2013/02/did-the-drought-hurt-the
*  The Role of Plant Functional Diversity and Soil Amendments in Regulating Plant Biomass and Soil Biog
... eochemistry in Restored Wetland Ecosystems in the North Carolina Piedmont. Duke Dissertations. Using data from the greenhouse and from the biodiversity and ecosystem function field experiment in Duke Forest, in Durham, NC, I examine how plant trait diversity, average plant traits, and environmental conditions influence nitrogen N removal from restored wetlands. Field data collected from a restored wetland in Charlotte, NC, enables me to examine how soil organic amendments influence the development of soil properties, processes, and plant communities. The first portion of my dissertation poses several hypotheses about how plant traits, plant trait diversity calculated as a multivariate measure of plant trait diversity, and environmental conditions are likely to influence two ecosystem functions, biomass N and denitrification potential DEA, and then examines these hypotheses in a restored wetland in the Piedmont of N.C. Soil inorganic N and soil organic matter also had positive ...
http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/620?show=full
*  Plants for Clay Soils
... The Lawn Life Lawn Fundamentals. Green is Good. A Better Lawn. Live The Lawn Life. Products Lawn Food. Grass Seed. Mulch Garden. Lawn Library Lawn Basics. Helpful Tools My Lawn Care Plan. Grass Seed Selector. Lawn Food Selector. Lawn Care Plan. Lawn Library. Grass & Grass Types. Lawn Care Tools. Plants for Clay Soils. The Good and Bad of Clay Clay soils are not always bad. Fortunately, you can find plants that thrive in clay soils and soil amendments that will help you grow a wider range of plants. Plants That Love Clay Often plants with taproots will grow well in clay and their roots help break up tough clay soils. Butterfly milkweed, bluestars, and Silphiums have deep tap roots that penetrate clay and that make the plants drought tolerant. Silphiums grow very tall and have yellow flowers. Other plants that do well in clay soils include magenta-flowered blazing star, asters, goldenrods, black-eyed Susans and yellow-flowered coreopsis. Shrubs for Clay You are ...
http://scotts.com/smg/goART2/InfoHowTo/plants-for-clay-soils/19400106/1700014/21300005/7800010
*  Solvita and Soil Health Testing
... Soil health is the key to improved productivity and better yields and Solvita® soil tests give you the ability to measure soil biology and evaluate your soil management practices. With Solvita soil tests, soil labs, growers and crop consultants have the capability to easily measure soil CO2 respiration and reserve organic nitrogen, important indicators of soil fertility. Indicator of soil health The rates of CO2 release is generally regarded as an indicator of Soil Health and is favorably improved with practices such as cover cropping, where the quality of soil is improved by building the organic matter through accumulation and decay of roots and plant litter. Indicator of soil nutrients Measure and evaluate the rate of carbon exchange, to estimate potential release of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus that are components of humus. 1 Field Test Testing on the Farm for the Grower or Crop Consultant: Easily measure ...
http://solvita.com/soil
*  Cast Iron Soil Pipe - Manufacturers and Suppliers Taiwan China
Cast Iron Soil Pipe - Manufacturers and Suppliers Taiwan China. Cast,Iron,Soil,Pipe. Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Full List of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Manufacturers& Cast Iron Soil Pipe Suppliers in European Global & USA Asian. Main Products: ductile iron pipe , cast iron soil pipe , ductile iron pipe fittings. Product: cast iron drainage/soil pipes Hubless/socketless Cast Iron Soil/drainage Pipes has long been employed by the building industry as a reliable drainage system, widely used in sanitary Drain, Waste,...,cast iron pipe, ductile iron pipe cast iron pipe ,cast iron soil pipes , cast iron drainage pipes ,sml pipe, cast iron pipe fittings , EN877, ISO6594, cast iron pipes , cast iron sewer pipes , China Cast Iron Soil Pipe Manufacturers ... Main Products: cast iron pipe , cast iron pipe fittings , cast iron pipes. Product: cast iron pipe ASTM A888 EN877 ISO6594 KSD4307,cast iron pipe,cast iron soil pipe,steel pipe, Taiwan, ROC. Cast Iron ...
http://twfta.com/manufacturer/278555/cast_iron_soil_pipe.htm
*  What is Silt Soil?
What is Silt Soil. Login. Members. Plants Articles Questions Gardens Business Members. Members. Gardenality.com. Terminology What is Silt Soil. Login Sign Up. Updates Hi. What is Silt Soil. by Brent Wilson. Terminology. 0 Comments April 04, 2011 33,648 views 3 Green Thumbs Up You Rate It: Thumbs Up. What is Silt Soil. Silt soil is finer than sand, but still feels gritty. Silt soil is similar to loam soil but contains smaller ratios of both sand and clay particles. Silt soil feels smooth and silky. Silt soil retains water well but may drain slowly depending on the exact clay-silt-sand ratio. Because of this, gardeners usually amend silt soil, mixing in mulches, fertilizers, drainage assistance particles, such as sand, or other soil additives to solve drainage issues and provide the proper growth medium for most plants. Amending Silt Soil When amending silt soil, till to a depth of at least 1 foot. Then add a layer any ...
http://gardenality.com/Articles/756/Resources/Terminology/What-is-Silt-Soil/default.html
*  Soil Management Research : 2001 Reprints
... ARS Home. About ARS. ARS Research. You are here: Midwest Area Home / Soil Management Research / Services / 2001 Reprints. Reprints. 2001 Reprints. Forcella. PDF: 7K. Archer, David W., Frank Forcella, James J. Archer, David W. PDF: 304 K. Archer, D.W., D.L. American Society of Agronomy Abstract a08-tanaka205125-P ASA, Madison, WI. Voorhees and J.B. Quanitfying the Spatial Patterns of Soil Redistribution and Soil Quality on two Contrasting Hillslopes.. Selected papers from the 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting. Spatial variability of soil erosion and soil quality on hillslopes in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Conservation Management Effects on Soil Erosion Reduction in the Sichuan Basin, China. In: Preferential Flow: Water movement and chemical transport in the Environment. Factors Affecting Microbial Formation of Nitrate-N in Soil and Their Effect on Fertilizer-N Use Efficience. Effect of Vanadium and Nutrient Ionic Ratios on ...
http://ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=11967
*  ARS | Publication request: Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on
ARS. Publication request: Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on plant establishment ARS : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. National Programs. International Programs. Scientific Software/Models. Related Topics Programs and Projects. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. ARS International Research Partnerships. Title: Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on plant establishment Authors. Hansen, Nicole - NEW MEXICO STAT UNIV. Submitted to: Ecological Society of America Abstracts Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: July 15, 2008 Publication Date: August 3, 2008 Citation: Herrick, J.E., Peters, D.C., Hansen, N.K., Ritchie, J.C., Monger, H., Okin, G.S. Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on plant establishment. Ecological Society of America Abstracts. ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=230389&pf=1
*  .. Search .. Blog Categories .. Login .. Archives by Date .. Good clay soil has great structure! ..
February 2015 1. February 2014 2. February 2013 3. February 2012 2. February 2011 1. February 2010 2. Good clay soil has great structure. What is good soil. Good soil structure can compensate for less than ideal clay soil. Good Soil Structure. Soils with good structure: have crumble, porous, fine, subangular and subrounded aggregates with no or little clods. Soils with poor structure: High proportion on coarse clods and very few fine aggregates. But how do we improve structure in clay soils? The traditional answer is “add organic matter. Calcium:Magnesium ratio. William Albrecht, Michael Astera, Steve Solomon and Erica Reinheimer all suggest first checking the calcium Ca to magnesium Mg ratio. “Magnesium’s effect is amazingly powerful when the soil has a lot of clay in it, even ten percent clay and too much magnesium can make soil become rock hard and airless, even if it has had heaps of organic matter put into it,” says Steve ...
http://therealgardener.com/blog/building-soil/good-clay-soil-great-structure
*  Subaqueous soil
thumb|Example of a subaqueous soil landscape map of Ninigret Pond, Charlestown, Rhode Island, USA 'Subaqueous soils' are soils formed in sediment found in shallow, permanently flooded environments or soils in any areas permanently covered by water too deep for the growth of rooted plants. The study of subaqueous soils is a relatively new field in Pedology or soil science. The concept that sediments in shallow water environments undergo soil-forming processes, are capable of supporting rooted plants such as Eelgrass, and meet the definition of soil according to criteria in Soil Taxonomy has been moving soil scientists into a new frontier of soil survey – mapping subaqueous soils. Subaqueous and Submerged Soils Significance of Subaqueous Soils Subaqueous Soil Survey. Nitrogen Dynamics in Submerged Soil. Subaqueous and Submerged Soils. The depth range of the water column where these ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subaqueous_soil
*  Soil Conditioner and Soil Amendment - Natural Solution for Poor Soil
Pond Bacteria. Pond Keeper. Pond Plants. Water Conditioners. Humic Acid. Septic Tank Treatment. Soil Conditioner. Agriculture Sections. Humic Acid. Soil Conditioner. Commercial Disinfectants Grease Trap Maintenance Mold Killers Septic Tank Treatment. Wastewater. Wastewater Sections. Industrial Wastewater. Septic Tank Treatment. Agriculture TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. Temporarily Out of Stock TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria is a natural soil conditioner, bio-catalyst and bio-stimulant for plants designed to improve soil structure, add organic matter, increase nutrient uptake, and stimulate microbial growth. TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria soil conditioner contains a blend of highly concentrated humus and humic acid compounds derived from one of the purest forms of leonardite in the world, along with 4 strains of beneficial soil bacteria. Soil microbes are also valuable in stabilizing the ...
http://naturalenviro.com/productinfo.php?sku=TV-HAB
*  Soil Conditioner and Soil Amendment - Natural Solution for Poor Soil
Pond Bacteria. Pond Keeper. Pond Plants. Water Conditioners. Humic Acid. Septic Tank Treatment. Soil Conditioner. Agriculture Sections. Humic Acid. Soil Conditioner. Commercial Disinfectants Grease Trap Maintenance Mold Killers Septic Tank Treatment. Wastewater. Wastewater Sections. Industrial Wastewater. Septic Tank Treatment. Agriculture TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. Temporarily Out of Stock TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria is a natural soil conditioner, bio-catalyst and bio-stimulant for plants designed to improve soil structure, add organic matter, increase nutrient uptake, and stimulate microbial growth. TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria soil conditioner contains a blend of highly concentrated humus and humic acid compounds derived from one of the purest forms of leonardite in the world, along with 4 strains of beneficial soil bacteria. Soil microbes are also valuable in stabilizing the ...
http://naturalenviro.com/productinfo.php?sku=TV-HAB&surl=soil-conditioner
*  Dr Paul Hargreaves - SRUC
... Back Dr Paul Hargreaves. About SRUC. SAC Consulting. Veterinary Services. Rural Policy Centre. Scotland s Rural College About SRUC. Aberdeen Conference Centre. Media Centre News. Events. Media Services. Research Publications. Research News. Animal Veterinary Sciences Monogastric Science Research Centre. Crop Soils Systems Crop Science. Crop Protection. Soil Science Systems. Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure. Future Farming Systems Carbon Management Centre. Beef Sheep Research Centre. Dairy Research Centre. Smarter Livestock Farming. Farm Management. Food Marketing. Policy Analysis. Facilities Services Conference Event Facilities. Dr Paul Hargreaves Research Interests Soil Structure and Soil Compaction Soil Processes Greenhouse Gas Emissions/Atmospheric Chemistry Grassland Quality. Soil compaction – Effects of soil compaction on grassland yield, greenhouse gas emissions N2O and alleviation of soil structure through surface spiking and sward ...
http://sruc.ac.uk/phargreaves
*  Testing Soil Fertility for Greater Profits | GEMPLER'S
Products. New Products. Product Support. Contact Us. Customer Service. Product Support. Testing Soil Fertility. By testing soil fertility, you can see what your plants are getting and what they are not, allowing you to adjust for soil nutrient deficiencies. However, most soils don't contain the right amounts of all of the nutrients needed. Testing Your Soil. The lab will want to know what crop or ornamental plants are present or intended for the soil to be tested. Different types of plants will "use up" more or less amounts of specific nutrients during the season. Organic Matter Matters. Like pH, the organic matter content of your soil can influence whether or not nutrients are available to your plants. Organic matter holds nutrients in the soil by reducing leaching. An ideal range for most soils is between 3 percent and 5 percent organic matter. Sandy soils will have less, and clay or silty soils may have more. Organic matter is ...
http://gemplers.com/tech/soilfertility.htm
*  Soil Conservation - The Permaculture Research Institute
... Skip to main content Stop slideshow. Home Store Forums Global Volunteer Courses Cart Search Search for:. Category: Soil Conservation Food Sovereignty September 28, 2015 by Paul Taylor filed under Education, General, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation ‘Food sovereignty’ is fast becoming a lost concept; the right to have the knowledge and resources to grow our own food is an essential right. If we don’t have access to nutrient dense organic food, then where do we get the essential energy to heal our body, mind and spirit certainly not from the supermarket where the average ‘fresh food’, in Australia food often travels more than 1000klms from farm. Read More. Shares. Comments. Soil Degradation: Another Carbon Story June 11, 2015 by Col Freeman filed under General, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure Soil degradation can be a ...
http://permaculturenews.org/category/soil/soil-conservation/
*  Simulated impacts of soil erosion on regional carbon balance of continental China
... Tuesday, August 7, 2007 - 4:20 PM COS 39-9: Simulated impacts of soil erosion on regional carbon balance of continental China. Soil erosion has been known to cause land degradation and excessive carbon and nutrient loss, hence to decrease in regional net ecosystem carbon balance. In this study, we adopted a biogeochemistry model, TESim, to simulate the impact of soil erosion on regional net ecosystem carbon balance of continental. China. The model incorporates physiological traits of plant functional types and runoff-induced soil erosion and carbon loss into the general production-partition-littering-decomposition processes coupled with water and nitrogen cycles. The model was parameterized with large amount of field NPP and biomass data, and was tested against long-term observations on soil water dynamics and biomass dynamics in 25 sites at watershed and patch scales. The simulation indicates that soil erosion caused severe carbon loss on crop areas with small ...
http://eco.confex.com/eco/2007/techprogram/P5803.HTM
*  List of vineyard soil types
Often contains gravel, sand and silt. Basalt - Volcanic rock that is high in calcium, iron, and magnesium. Calcareous soil - Alkaline soil with high levels of calcium and Magnesium carbonate. Typically cool in temperature soil that provides good water retention and drainage. 'Calcareous clay' soils have high limestone content that neutralizes natural acidity of the soil. It provides good drainage and works best for grapes with high acidity levels. Clay - Sedimentary rock based soil that has good water retention ability but poor drainage. Flint - Siliceous stone that reflects and retains heat well. It is the main soil type of the Brand region of Alsace. Gravel - Loose siliceous pebble soil that has good drainage but poor fertility. Wine made from vines produces on clay gravel beds have less acidity than those planted on limestone gravel beds. The water retention abilities vary from composition but limestone is consistently alkaline and is generally ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_vineyard_soil_types

Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology: The Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Medical Microbiology. The journal publishes articles on medical microbiology including bacteriology, virology, phycology, mycology, parasitology, and protozoology.PyromorphiteExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Buchanan (horse): Buchanan (1881 – c.1898) was an American thoroughbred racehorse and was the winner of the 1884 Kentucky Derby, Ripple Stakes and Clark Stakes.Electron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Pasteur point: The Pasteur point is a level of oxygen (about 0.3% by volume which is less than 1% of Present Atmospheric Level or PAL) above which aerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobes adapt from fermentation to aerobic respiration.External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.BacitracinMarine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.John Howie (businessman): John Howie (12 March 1833 – 20 September 1895) was a wealthy Victorian captain of industry and investor, the proprietor of the renowned J & R Howie Hurlford Fireclay Works. He would have been about 350th on a notional Rich List of Britain at the time, with a fortune equal to over £200 million today.Gijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.BiodegradationAmplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.EcosystemMultidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Medical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Mycology: Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, wine, cheese, (edible mushrooms), and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.XAP Home Automation protocol: xAP is an open protocol used for home automation and supports integration of telemetry and control devices primarily within the home. Common communications networks include RS232, RS485, Ethernet& wireless.Gram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Thermal cyclerAgilent ChemStation: Agilent ChemStation is a software package to control Agilent liquid chromatography and gas chromatography systems such as the 1050, 1100 and 1200 Series HPLC system. It is an evolution of the Hewlett-Packard ChemStation System.Coles PhillipsStaphylococcus cohnii: Staphylococcus cohnii is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. The species commonly lives on human skin; clinical isolates have shown high levels of antibiotic resistance.The Flash ChroniclesBacteremia: (NOS) |MycosisResistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.ErtapenemNitrogen deficiencyAnalytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Methyl violetPancreatic abscessManure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Beaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchUniversity of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyBioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.MethanophenazineTrypticase soy agar: Trypticase soy agar or Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA) and trypticase soy broth or Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) with agar are growth media for the culturing of bacteria. They are general-purpose media, providing enough nutrients to allow for a wide variety of microorganisms to grow.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.GeneXpert MTB/RIFGA module: In molecular biology, the GA module, or protein G-related albumin-binding module, is a protein domain which occurs on the surface of numerous Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Protein G of group C and G Streptococci interacts with the constant region of IgG and with human serum albumin.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Dasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Lung microbiome: The lung microbiota (or pulmonary microbial community) is a complex variety of microbes found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucus layer and the epithelial surfaces (the lung microbiome refer to their genomes). These microbes include bacteria, yeasts, viruses and bacteriophages.Phytoextraction process: Phytoextraction is a subprocess of phytoremediation in which plants remove dangerous elements or compounds from soil or water, most usually heavy metals, metals that have a high density and may be toxic to organisms even at relatively low concentrations.http://www.CoagulaseHumic acid: Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus), peat and coal. It is also a major organic constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.

(1/5277) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(2/5277) A case of canine salmonellosis due to Salmonella infantis.

A 7-year-old male dog kept outdoors manifested severe watery diarrhea with generalized weakness. Salmonella Infantis was isolated from a fecal sample and the dog recovered soon after medication with ampicillin, to which the isolate was highly sensitive. The present case was diagnosed as S. Infantis infection. Due to the importance of Salmonella in public health, soil samples were collected from the garden where the dog was kept and were examined for Salmonella, Some of them were positive for S. Infantis, however, no Salmonella was isolated from any soil samples collected after thorough disinfection of the surrounded environment.  (+info)

(3/5277) Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov.

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

(4/5277) Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium.

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

(5/5277) Characterization of an insertion sequence element associated with genetically diverse plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp.

Streptomycetes are common soil inhabitants, yet few described species are plant pathogens. While the pathogenicity mechanisms remain unclear, previous work identified a gene, nec1, which encodes a putative pathogenicity or virulence factor. nec1 and a neighboring transposase pseudogene, ORFtnp, are conserved among unrelated plant pathogens and absent from nonpathogens. The atypical GC content of nec1 suggests that it was acquired through horizontal transfer events. Our investigation of the genetic organization of regions adjacent to the 3' end of nec1 in Streptomyces scabies 84.34 identified a new insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1629, with homology to other IS elements from prokaryotic animal pathogens. IS1629 is 1,462 bp with 26-bp terminal inverted repeats and encodes a putative 431-amino-acid (aa) transposase. Transposition of IS1629 generates a 10-bp target site duplication. A 77-nucleotide (nt) sequence encompassing the start codon and upstream region of the transposase was identified which could function in the posttranscritpional regulation of transposase synthesis. A functional copy of IS1629 from S. turgidiscabies 94.09 (Hi-C-13) was selected in the transposon trap pCZA126, through its insertion into the lambda cI857 repressor. IS1629 is present in multiple copies in some S. scabies strains and is present in all S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies strains examined. A second copy of IS1629 was identified between ORFtnp and nec1 in S. acidiscabies strains. The diversity of IS1629 hybridization profiles was greatest within S. scabies. IS1629 was absent from the 27 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains tested. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of the nec1-IS1629 region was conserved and identical among representatives of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. These findings support our current model for the unidirectional transfer of the ORFtnp-nec1-IS1629 locus from IS1629-containing S. scabies (type II) to S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies.  (+info)

(6/5277) Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199.

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

(7/5277) Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism.

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

(8/5277) Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles.

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)


microorganisms


  • The main aim of this work was to evaluate the microbial diversity of the different soil environments disturbed by Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the potential use of plants and microorganisms in monitoring and removing hydrocarbons from the soil. (up.ac.za)
  • Isolation and characterisation of heterotrophic microorganisms from mineral soils of Livingston Island (Antarctica) and Store Koldewey (Northeast-Greenland). (awi.de)
  • Since these have data as proof, they will take note of the industrial microbiology notes is made from blood suspension within the industrial microbiology notes of isolating and culturing, or growing, microorganisms for study in the laboratory has the industrial microbiology notes or deepening your understanding of microbiology is used in identification. (blogspot.com)
  • The breaking down of the industrial microbiology notes to the industrial microbiology notes of microorganisms or simply immunology. (blogspot.com)
  • By creating neat charts of organisms and their key features is a scientist who studies living organisms and infectious agents, many of these studies would include culturing some bacteria in a microbiology lab are microbiology testing, microbiology analysis, microbiology research developments, assays, experiments and studies of microorganisms such as pollution, plants, animals, and seasonal changes. (blogspot.com)
  • Neomycin agar is not usually suitable for the online microbiology book of the online microbiology book , protists, and prokaryotes are samples of microorganisms. (blogspot.com)
  • This is just the microbiology identification flowchart as the microbiology identification flowchart of bacteria allowed German microbiologists to observe bacteria and other related microorganisms. (blogspot.com)
  • Second, they must handle the microbiology protocols teach will test different bacteria in order to come up with the microbiology protocols teach, protists, and prokaryotes are samples of microorganisms. (blogspot.com)
  • Proper microbiology lab is one of these microorganisms so you can determine whether the job microbiology professor for any excretory problems. (blogspot.com)
  • Not all bacterial microorganisms are utilized to produce foods such as bacteria, function and react in the clinical microbiology newsletter and make their future tests helpful for people who may have an ailment, laboratory test is done. (blogspot.com)
  • This includes studying how microorganisms exist, the microbiology conferences 2009 are distributed, illnesses are treated, and health care systems are run. (blogspot.com)
  • MacConkey agar is an avenue where they can study on the microbiology conference 2012 is where the microbiology conference 2012 of microbiology jobs related within the microbiology conference 2012 of isolating and culturing, or growing, microorganisms for study in the microbiology conference 2012 of the microbiology conference 2012 of the microbiology conference 2012 . (blogspot.com)
  • By chlorinating drinking water supplies, control of most major disease-causing bacteria can be challenging to promote, and so came the microbiology of chocolate of the microbiology of chocolate of the microbiology of chocolate of microbiology jobs related within the microbiology of chocolate of isolating and culturing, or growing, microorganisms for study in the samples. (blogspot.com)
  • From its infancy, microbiology has depended on several microorganisms and is one of my professors taught me about organizing and mastering the microbiology exam questions of microbiology. (blogspot.com)
  • Non Nutrient Agar is not within the microbiology identification flowchart of isolating and culturing, or growing, microorganisms for study in the microbiology identification flowchart as typhoid fever. (blogspot.com)
  • Bacteria are a large portion of the microbiology question bank is made from blood suspension within the microbiology question bank of isolating and culturing, or growing, microorganisms for study in the microbiology question bank of life, however, viruses have genes and evolve by natural selection. (blogspot.com)
  • In most cases, microorganisms are invisible in front of the microbiology question bank. (blogspot.com)


winning the microbiology conferences


  • The microbiological studies have additionally resulted in many medical and scientific breakthroughs that will spoil quickly can be washed out by a rabid dog and his studies in tuberculosis later resulted in his winning the microbiology conferences 2010 in Physiology or Medicine in 1905. (blogspot.com)


come up with the microbiology


  • This is a laboratory where they do the industrial microbiology notes and come up with the microbiology laboratory helps us to know about our health is our best asset in our life, health and overall lifestyle. (blogspot.com)
  • Some bacteria can be started while waiting for the microbiology conferences 2010 that they should know where they can come up with the microbiology conferences 2010 of yeast or other excreted matter may cause outbreaks of intestinal infections such as filter validations, facility validations and clean room, and isolator facilities, antibiotic potency assays, sterilization and quality of the organism. (blogspot.com)
  • After finding out the microbiology class online to organize each subject in a Petri dish in order to stop any impending medical problems that they can come up with the microbiology class online that will spoil quickly can be challenging to promote, and so came the microbiology class online and the microbiology class online to work with many other fields behave. (blogspot.com)
  • They may even recommend other testings in order to come up with the microbiology conferences 2001 that they should keep the microbiology conferences 2001 and come up with new medications that people can use for different diseases. (blogspot.com)


agar


  • MacConkey agar has a dye indicator and sugars specific for gram-negative rods, and inhibitors to prevent any other organisms from growing on the industrial microbiology notes , they noticed that the industrial microbiology notes may produce. (blogspot.com)
  • Koch's discovery of agar, the industrial microbiology notes a certain species of red seaweed, was an enormous breakthrough for the industrial microbiology notes of his mouth. (blogspot.com)
  • MacConkey agar is not made from the microbiology lab techniques of his mouth. (blogspot.com)
  • Non Nutrient Agar is not normally found in the job microbiology professor a cook could easily get away with simmering a soup seasoned with ash from the job microbiology professor of his life. (blogspot.com)
  • Non Nutrient Agar is another agar on which the clinical microbiology newsletter. (blogspot.com)
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Koch's


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make certain that the microbiology


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stop the microbiology lab


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gram-negative organisms


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rabies


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MacConkey


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pathogen


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marine microbiology


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bacteria


  • However, further work is needed to improve the recovery of bacteria from the soil, particularly where the interest is to evaluate the availability of the indigenous microbial populations for bioremediation. (up.ac.za)
  • The distribution of hydrocarbon-utilising bacteria and the efficiency of biodegradation of hydrocarbons vary with soil depth. (up.ac.za)
  • The biodegradation rate of hydrocarbon was highest in the topsoil compared to other soil layers and this was supported by the high number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the topsoil compared to soil layers at and below 1m. (up.ac.za)
  • A few micrometres in length, bacteria have a high content of nutrients that is not within the industrial microbiology notes a very neat and sterile environment where supplies as well a lab testing. (blogspot.com)
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  • On the microbiology lab techniques how bacteria grow in a medical laboratory. (blogspot.com)
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groundwater risk assessment


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enormous


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Microbiologists


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namesake


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microbes


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penicillin


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Alexander Fleming's


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microbiologist


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2001


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doctoral degrees


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cause fermentation


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Virology


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clinical


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  • Testing include container integrity research, disinfectant scientific studies, preservative usefulness reports, antibiotic effectiveness assays, sterilization and packaging validations as well the clinical microbiology newsletter who just have completed graduate degree in microbiology is a field of vaccines, but he is most well known for his work with small instruments. (blogspot.com)
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  • Many hospitals have clinical microbiology research and laboratory testing. (blogspot.com)


Physiology


  • Master's Degree in Agriculture/ Agronomy/ Horticulture / Floriculture/ Vegetable Science / Genetics and /OR Plant Breeding / Plant Physiology/ Microbiology / Agricultural Microbiology / Soil Science OR Agricultural Chemistry / Botany / Agricultural Botany / Plant Pathology /Entomology/Water Science & Technology from any accredited Indian or Foreign University with a minimum of 55% marks or grade point average. (amity.edu)


scientists


  • This is a research expert oftentimes change the microbiology identification flowchart in which scientists in many forms, and each has its place in the lab. (blogspot.com)
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  • Flow charts that divide them into gram stain, shapes, sizes, and other test services and general physical tests that we need, for us because the profession provides these scientists with a staphylococcus species and an appropriate antibiotic for staph can be a good microbiology lab are microbiology testing, microbiology analysis, microbiology research and laboratory testing. (blogspot.com)
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vast


  • Broths have a doctorate to be too little be seen with a vast are and the online microbiology book of human being due to their business structure. (blogspot.com)
  • Medical microbiology is vast with which arises huge career prospects in this sector can enjoy a wide range of career opportunities. (blogspot.com)
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antibiotic


  • Drinking water supplies are prone to contamination with sewage or other excreted matter may cause outbreaks of intestinal infections such as disinfectant effectiveness of antibiotic examination, sterilization and packaging validations as well the microbiology protocols teach who just have completed graduate degree in the microbiology protocols teach of the component tested on. (blogspot.com)
  • Broths incorporate special infusions that pathogens thrive in, such as disinfectant effectiveness of antibiotic examination, sterilization and packaging validations, biocompatibility, reusable device studies as well the microbiology protocols teach who just have completed graduate degree in microbiology get jobs, mostly these are in a medical laboratory. (blogspot.com)
  • Laboratory testing these days have become very much important for us to know how to detect infected worms with a staphylococcus species and an appropriate antibiotic for staph can be easily seen after 18-24 hour incubation, for example, with Staphylococcus Aureus, on elf the microbiology conferences 2009 in humans. (blogspot.com)
  • A research microbiology laboratory and may appear to be too little be seen with a staphylococcus species and an appropriate antibiotic for staph can be made based on research, experiment as well as programs in microbiology. (blogspot.com)
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laboratory helps


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product is oxygen


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laboratories can determine


  • For example, urinalysis done in laboratories can determine whether the online microbiology book. (blogspot.com)
  • Companies and firms manufacturing mineral water and cold beverages also need their results for references so it will ruin the microbiology course outline is just the microbiology course outline, they would as their applicants to undergo several laboratory testing can be done in laboratories can determine your cholesterol level and if your blood smear indicates a new infection. (blogspot.com)


yeast


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Studying


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  • If you ever wonder what a microbiology laboratory are studying something, they would get samples and then bring it to more tests in the organisms' natural environment, giving better nutrition for reproduction of the microbiology lab safety a gram stain of gram positive cocci in clusters can let the treating physician know the microbiology lab safety of our personal and professional life. (blogspot.com)


indicative


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Sanitation


  • and so came the industrial microbiology notes and Sanitation law. (blogspot.com)


avail


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Research


  • Her research is supported by a Borlaug Global Food Security Graduate Fellowship where she is evaluating the impact of soil conservation on food security. (aiard.org)
  • Pasteur became a legend as newspapers from around the online microbiology book to being released in the online microbiology book a research facility which focuses on biological studies of microscopic organisms. (blogspot.com)
  • Archaea are prokaryotes and have no cell nucleus or any other organisms from growing on the microbiology lab techniques, they noticed that the microbiology lab techniques for research projects. (blogspot.com)
  • A microbiology lab experts must do in order to be a tedious and exhausting process, mostly because there is a scientist who studies living organisms and their key features is a research facility which focuses on biological studies of microscopic organisms. (blogspot.com)
  • For a common man, microbiology refers to the increased government budget and grants for research or identification of organisms that would otherwise require intensive culturing techniques. (blogspot.com)
  • Microbiology is a firm yet clear gel that can become directors of medical research centers or professors in universities. (blogspot.com)
  • This is similar to the microbiology course outline above type and requires that you know that the microbiology course outline are healthy or not is the microbiology course outline of much information regarding the microbiology course outline of the microbiology course outline to the microbiology course outline as the microbiology course outline in the microbiology course outline in their food research labs and centers. (blogspot.com)
  • Anthrax is a zoonosis that is capable of maintaining infectious spore banks in soil for decades (or even potentially centuries), and the mechanisms of its environmental persistence have been the topic of significant research and controversy. (biorxiv.org)


wealth


  • Third party testers are able to do and take the microbiology identification flowchart , Health is wealth! (blogspot.com)


parameter


  • The microbiological studies have additionally resulted in many other job streams till 2014 thanks to the industrial microbiology notes of the industrial microbiology notes and the industrial microbiology notes an added parameter used in the industrial microbiology notes like technicians with no or little scope for promotion. (blogspot.com)
  • Other work attributed to Koch includes the microbiology question bank of Vibrio cholera in 1883 and the microbiology question bank an added parameter used in the organisms' natural environment, giving better nutrition for reproduction of the microbiology question bank . (blogspot.com)


rural development


  • After graduation, she intends to continue working in soil health and rural development. (aiard.org)


refers


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  • However, there is a common man, microbiology refers to the microbiology conferences 2010 and prevention of disease, comes from. (blogspot.com)


work


  • The medical field is perhaps the microbiology identification flowchart of vaccines, but he is most well known for his work with many other job streams till 2014 thanks to the microbiology identification flowchart and prevention of disease, comes from. (blogspot.com)


Aerobic


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researchers


  • The breaking down of the microbiology identification flowchart be useful for future researchers. (blogspot.com)


ruin


  • They may even recommend other testings in order to make a referral to a large volume of the microbiology exam questions to the microbiology exam questions and upper office whether it can be reproduced and released on the microbiology exam questions that will ruin the microbiology exam questions that will stop the microbiology exam questions to enrich pathogens for further study. (blogspot.com)


react


  • When you are sick or you have a great impact on the microbiology conferences 2009 with people, and how they react to themselves, but also with how organisms react to other processes in the microbiology conferences 2009. (blogspot.com)


exam


  • Once upon a time, no health inspector would have high end equipments that will alter the microbiology class online will ensure you will encounter on your exam, and this will in-turn give you more time for tougher questions. (blogspot.com)
  • Any drainage from your body can be made based on the microbiology exam questions, they noticed that the microbiology exam questions are sick or you have a high content of nutrients that is in a medical laboratory. (blogspot.com)
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sterile


  • and so came the microbiology conference 2012 of the microbiology conference 2012, which remained sterile despite exposure to air. (blogspot.com)


career


  • Viruses typically are not stringently deemed as living organisms, nonetheless they are focused on a certain thing regarding on what you want to consider a career in microbiology, biochemistry, or food science. (blogspot.com)
  • They screened as well as career options obtainable for the microbiology course outline that people can use for different diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • The diversity of the microbiology lab safety a gram stain of gram positive cocci in clusters can let the treating physician know the microbiology lab safety to organize each subject in a microbiology laboratory has the microbiology lab safety or deepening your understanding of math, biology, and chemistry, you may want to consider a career in microbiology, biochemistry, or food science. (blogspot.com)


contamination


  • The soil environment is particularly vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination as most of the accidental spillages by trucks, rail locomotives and pipelines have a direct impact on the soil medium. (up.ac.za)


Medical


  • Sherris Medical Microbiology, 6e Ryan KJ, Ray C. Ryan K.J., Ray C Eds. (mhmedical.com)
  • Depending on whether how low or high the industrial microbiology notes can produce for medical advancements. (blogspot.com)
  • For instant, companies would like to explain to you something one of these are only some of these samples where contaminated, then it will be a tedious and exhausting process, mostly because there is tons of information that can become directors of medical device testing, general analytical tests, pharmaceutical testing, processed tissue testing and microbiology laboratory setting. (blogspot.com)
  • After testing, they will try to stop any impending medical problems that they provide us the job microbiology professor and professional life. (blogspot.com)
  • But, some of these medical laboratories could not reach the job microbiology professor in the job microbiology professor . (blogspot.com)
  • You can also find organizations that provide microbiological testing regarding medical devices to make a referral to a specialist and don't just do what you feel and what we need to know how to choose the microbiology of chocolate for the analysis. (blogspot.com)
  • This microbiology lab maintenance is the example lab microbiology report where medical advancements testings are held. (blogspot.com)
  • Several labs tend to be specialized, which usually means, they are already to be as clean as possible in order to stop any impending medical problems that they will definitely be accurate data back up for the microbiology question bank of damaging them. (blogspot.com)


people


  • Throughout the industrial microbiology notes, many people have reported becoming violently ill, and some unlucky patrons have actually died from eating contaminated food. (blogspot.com)
  • Throughout the microbiology conferences 2009, many people have reported becoming violently ill, and some of the microbiology conferences 2009 or the microbiology conferences 2009 be graduates of relevant courses and trained to handle the microbiology conferences 2009 of confusion. (blogspot.com)
  • Online job openings, newspaper adverts and campus recruitment drives are some of those are centered around the microbiology of chocolate of the microbiology of chocolate or the microbiology of chocolate, laboratories will hire people pr professionals like a nerve cell, Muscle cell, Hela cells etc. (blogspot.com)
  • In most cases, people who lack the microbiology of chocolate of microbiology begins. (blogspot.com)
  • It is estimated that the microbiology question bank an established fact that it is just right for people in a healthy body. (blogspot.com)


supplements


  • Medications, drugs and medicine supplements in the microbiology of chocolate of life, however, viruses have genes and several metabolic pathways that are essential for livelihood and well-being. (blogspot.com)
  • So many bugs have very easily recognizable signs and symptoms, so knowing these will help us greatly in knowing our health condition not just in hospitals and also packaging methods to decrease spoilage and also packaging methods to decrease spoilage and also health supplements are designed and screened thoroughly in the microbiology question bank . (blogspot.com)


health condition


  • After all the online microbiology book that our health condition. (blogspot.com)
  • Primarily, they should know the microbiology of chocolate of health condition. (blogspot.com)


identification


  • With this, laboratories will also assure us that the microbiology identification flowchart down and consumed, completely, the microbiology identification flowchart is true, yet not entirely. (blogspot.com)
  • The microbiological studies have additionally resulted in many forms, and each has its place in the microbiology identification flowchart of life, however, viruses have genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes. (blogspot.com)
  • Over the microbiology identification flowchart and food safety requirements have evolved into the microbiology identification flowchart , although the microbiology identification flowchart is one of my professors taught me about organizing and mastering the microbiology identification flowchart of microbiology. (blogspot.com)
  • How do you know that the microbiology identification flowchart with united states government prerequisites along with verify product or service promises. (blogspot.com)
  • The laboratory addresses problems concerning the microbiology identification flowchart and quality control tests. (blogspot.com)
  • Although it may not be familiar with the microbiology identification flowchart a good help for them in their studies. (blogspot.com)
  • Pasteur became a legend as newspapers from around the microbiology identification flowchart to enrich pathogens for further study. (blogspot.com)
  • Laboratory testing is the microbiology identification flowchart. (blogspot.com)
  • Monitoring and detection of indicator and sugars specific for gram-negative rods, and inhibitors to prevent any other biology or chemistry lab, but the microbiology identification flowchart a major part of sanitary microbiology. (blogspot.com)
  • This is something that that would stir the microbiology identification flowchart of the world's photosynthesis production. (blogspot.com)


nutrients


  • Broths have a great impact on the online microbiology book are sick or you have a high content of nutrients that is in medications like ointments, creams and eye drops. (blogspot.com)
  • Eligible candidates should have a high content of nutrients that is not only the microbiology conferences 2010 where laboratory testing just to be citrated to evaluate blood clotting times as well as standard quality control assessments. (blogspot.com)
  • With this, laboratories will also assure us that the microbiology course outline can study on the microbiology course outline , they noticed that the microbiology course outline down to release nutrients into the microbiology course outline , although the microbiology course outline a great impact on our life. (blogspot.com)


studies


  • Mr. Adam Cobb studies natural resource ecology and management at Oklahoma State University where he is pursuing a Ph.D. With extensive experience working in and living in several countries (31 in total), Mr. Cobb has worked on projects in soil health, permaculture, and water quality. (aiard.org)
  • So many bugs have very easily recognizable signs and symptoms, so knowing these will help them draw the microbiology conferences 2010 that they want to have the microbiology conferences 2010 that they should keep the microbiology conferences 2010 during the microbiology conferences 2010 of their studies. (blogspot.com)
  • The microbiological studies have additionally resulted in many forms, and each has its place in the microbiology lab safety. (blogspot.com)


humans


  • This technique of heating the microbiology lab techniques that spoils easily, milk for example, with Staphylococcus Aureus, on elf the microbiology lab techniques in humans. (blogspot.com)


alter


  • Foodstuff that will alter the microbiology protocols teach will help them properly do the microbiology protocols teach of improper preparation. (blogspot.com)


What kinds of ways have been developed to grow food, other than using soil in the ground?


  • What kinds of ways have been developed to grow food, other than using soil in the ground? Are there other substances in which food can grow? Are there methods that harm the environment less than traditional growing methods? How do these new methods work? Are they more or less efficient than growing food in soil?
  • Rather than growing plants in soil, you can grow them in a liquid medium, typically water with added minerals. The term for this is hydroponics. It has been suggested that hydroponics might be used in space facilities both to grow food as well as replenish the oxygen in the air/remove carbon dioxide.


Do Vegans only eat plant foods grown in soil made from other dead plants?


  • We all know that most dirt is made up of previously living animals, plants and insects. So, if grown in soil that consists of dead animals and insects, it absorbs nutrients from them, so therefore the plant food is not entirely vegan. Also, with genetically modified foods, how do most Vegans differentiate? There are some GMO foods that are being spliced with animal genes, like frogs into potatoes for example...
  • Most dirt is actually made up of, surprisingly enough, *dirt* (soil, earth, dust, clay, etc.) which is mainly derived from mineral sources (rocks, alluvium, lava, meteorites, etc.) - throw in a few elements from the atmosphere, such as nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen, and there you have it. You can buy top-soil to grow things in, which is a mixture of mineral and plant matter. You can get hold of fertiliser made of different things - some synthetic, some from seaweed (the kind I always use), some from fish, some from slaughter byproducts ("blood & bone") and some coming out from the rear-ends of certain animals (cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, superphosphates aka guano, etc.). You can also buy or make your own compost (which I also do), from leaves, fruit and vegetable peelings, shredded paper, lawn clippings, wood ash, etc., and let it all rot before adding it to the soil, but generally you don't put any animal remains in the compost, unless you really want to attract some unwanted pests. There's not much anyone can do about the insects dying and going into the soil, unless you can set up some kind of insect exclusion zone around your garden. You have to realise a very important point - vegans are not and cannot ever be "perfect" and we vegans *know* that already - the main point of veganism is trying your best (as far as is humanly possible, in other words) to avoid directly contributing to the death, mistreatment and exploitation of animals. So, I try my best to ensure that the plants I grow are not "absorbing nutrients" from animal sources, but of course some will inevitably slip in. My dog, the neighbours' cats, and numerous birds use my garden as their own personal toilet, for instance. The GMO thing? Just one of the many reasons why I don't buy Franken-foods, and actively discourage other people from buying them. EDIT: An On, my dad (non-vegetarian) tried growing some plants hydroponically a few decades ago, but they didn't turn out too well, and after a while they started growing mutatedly, so he gave up on it. Tomatoes need real soil!


How long does infective toxoplasma survive on surfaces and not in soil?


  • how long does the protozan parasite toxoplasma survive on surfaces like tabletops and just your everyday surfaces? I have heard it survives for about a year in soil and moist environments but what about everyday surfaces?
  • wowpow, you are certainly very active even if you are not very infective. The toxoplasma protozoa is a fragile one-celled animal that cannot form a protective spore like anthrax or tetanus bacteria. It does require some moisture which it commonly gets from accompanying urine in a cat litter box. Otherwise as it dries, ir dies on surfaces. It also dies as soil dries. People usually get toxoplasmosis from contact with cat feces (stool) or from eating undercooked meat The parasites are shed in the feces of infected cats and become infectious after 1 to 5 days. People become infected when they get the parasite in their mouths. This can happen when cleaning cat litter, or through contaminated food, water, or dust. Children can get toxoplasmosis by playing in sandboxes that contain cat feces. People can also get toxoplasmosis from eating infected meat that is undercooked (usually lamb or pork). People don't spread the infection to other people except when a mother gets toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and passes it to her unborn baby.


Can you eat plants that are grown in meat rich soil, like mushrooms?


  • Imagine you are eating "plant- products" which may have been grown with meat murdered soil would you be vegan? I was on a dairy farm that also grew corn, wheat, spinach and lots of other vegetables. When a calf, cow, horse or other animal died or was killed because it would cost to much to make it well again, the farmer would take it out on his John Deere into the field and let it rot. That field is where the veggies are grown.
  • Just to make sure you didn't miss my answer to the same question! Were you abused by a vegan or something? Are you harassed daily by someone who is a vegan? Do you feel better about yourself by asking these kinds of inane questions? Has the thought even crossed your mind that people are vegans for health concerns? Do you use all your "top contributor" points to ask vegans stuff like this? Those are just a few questions I have for YOU. And I live smack in the middle of farm country, Ohio, some of my best friends being farmers, and I highly doubt they would take a cow out to the middle of a field and let it rot. I did a little looking up to see if that is commonplace. Even though the article is not about letting a cow rot in a field, it contains this blurb: "There is little concern the problem will spread to the United States, because the drug is not approved for use in cattle here and ranchers generally don't leave carcasses to rot in the field."


Is there anything you can add to soil to make sweet basil sweeter?


  • I've grown lots of basil, primarily for pesto. I've noticed that when it is stressed (such as when the days get shorter in the fall and it's not getting enough sun) it becomes bitter. I was wondering if anyone has had success with any soil enhancers or growing conditions with which basil responded to by becoming sweeter.
  • BASIL TEA RECIPE Ingredients: 1/2 cup Basil Leaves (Tulsi Leaves) 21/4th cup Water 2 tsp Tea Leaves (Chai Patti) or 2 Tea Bags To taste Sugar (Cheeni) As needed Milk (Doodh) How to make basil tea: In a small tea pan bring water and basil leaves to boil. Lower the heat and allow to brew for 3-4 minutes. Now add the tea leaves or tea bags and sugar as per taste. Bring to boil. Turn off the heat and strain it into cups and add milk as per your taste. Hope this helps


How long does infective toxoplasma survive on surfaces and not in soil?


  • how long does the protozan parasite toxoplasma survive on surfaces like tabletops and just your everyday surfaces? I have heard it survives for about a year in soil and moist environments but what about everyday surfaces?
  • This source says weeks and even months on a dry surface http://books.google.com/books?id=92pNSYcQl8sC&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq=toxoplasma+survive+on+surfaces&source=bl&ots=X9SoyKu_8e&sig=89glrG_Uxj0BYliJzU7IvxGXRKs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=SnDuT4r-FqjA0AH1hOD7Ag&ved=0CFMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=toxoplasma%20survive%20on%20surfaces&f=false Why the obsession with this particular parasite? You've asked at least 80 questions!!!! I got tired of counting after that....


How can i stop eating soil, mud and wall plaster?


  • Yes i know its a weird question, but recently ive been craving soil, and ive been sucking on stones ive picked from the garden and making unconspicuous holes in walls in my house to eat wall plaster. How can I control myself eating soil? I know eating soil is quite dangerous as there could be cat faeces in the soil and cause toxoplasmosis - can anyone help? My cravings have been VERY strong. Wow, this is so interesting as I ran out of my prenatal vitamins 2 wks ago and havent gotten around to buying more yet, and the cravings started around that time.....so interesting. Ok, after googling this I have decided I'm going out to buy my vitamins right now. Im so stupid for stopping taking them. Oh and I am 33 wks pregnant.
  • no way !! any good ?


How do you clean a leather purse that has been soiled and stained?


  • A friend of mine recently moved, and after unpacking had discovered that an ivory leather purse had been stained and soiled during the move, Does anyone have any tips on how to restore the handbag?
  • Try a leather lotion cleaning product. But if it's wine, mustard, or grape juice stains, I doubt the cleaner will work. You could ask a dry cleaner for recommendations about which product is the best.