Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.

*  Swarkestone Nursery & Garden Centre Derbyshire
Annuals. Bulbs. Soil and fertilisers. Containers, Stoneware ... Swarkestone Nursery Garden Centre Derbyshire. Jump to content. Slogan. Join us on. Tel: 01332 700 800. Home. About Us. Restaurant. The Bakery. The Cold Counter. The Hot Servery. News. Offers. Events. Product range. Annuals. Bulbs. Soil and fertilisers. Containers, Stoneware and Terracotta Pots. Fruit. Garden furniture. Gifts. Hand tools. Garden pests. Protection. Seeds. Trees and shrubs. Climbers. Container plants. Herbs. Perennials. Ponds. Roses. Tips. Contact us. Enjoy an afternoon tea. Make the most of your Summer. Previous. Next. Home. Welcome. We are a proudly independent, family run Plant Nursery and Garden Centre with over five generations of growing history. We specialise in bedding plants and herbaceous perennials, produced on site by our skilled plants-people. Our plant area is home to a wide variety of plants, trees and shrubs and you ll find friendly, and knowledgeable advice on hand to point you in the right direction. Our History...
http://swarkestonenursery.co.uk/
*  Vitousek BioGeoChemistry Lab
Information Puanui Soils Data Excel. Supplement to Peter's ... dynamics in the soil profile, litter, native forest ... dynamics in the soil and facilitates further encroachment by ... Vitousek BioGeoChemistry Lab. Vitousek BioGeoChemistry Lab Located in the Yang Yamazaki Environment Energy Building Rm. LSAG Landscape Images LSAG Information Puanui Soils Data Excel. Supplement to Peter's Book Shipping to the Lab Website by Doug Turner. The Vitousek Group and colleagues carry out research related to nutrient cycling, most notably nitrogen and phosphorus, throughout the range of environments and ecosystems. Our group has looked at nutrient dynamics in the soil profile, litter, native forest ecosystems, forest and grassland systems affected by invasive species and agricultural systems. How an invasive nitrogen fixing tree changes the nutrient dynamics in the soil and facilitates further encroachment by other non-native plants. We have set up a chain of study sites spanning the major islands we call the Long ...
http://web.stanford.edu/group/Vitousek/
*  what are two jobs of soil?
are two jobs of soil. Sunday October 4, 2015 School ... are two jobs of soil. 1 nurients 2. keeps the plant in ... Science - 9. How does conservation plowing help limit the destruction of soil. . ... what are two jobs of soil. Sunday October 4, 2015 School Subjects Art. Business. Computers. English. Foreign Languages. Health. Home Economics. Math. Music. Physical Education. Science. Social Studies. Grade Levels Preschool. Kindergarten. Elementary School. 1st Grade. 2nd Grade. 3rd Grade. 4th Grade. 5th Grade. 6th Grade. 7th Grade. 8th Grade. High School. 9th Grade. 10th Grade. 11th Grade. 12th Grade. College. Adult Education. Post a New Question. Current Questions. Homework Help : third grade science Posted by briann on Tuesday, September 26, 2006 at 6:33pm. what are two jobs of soil. 1 nurients 2. keeps the plant in place. my daughter has to write a question about the table that can be answered with one of the choices below. Mark answer and tell why it is correct. SURFACE CAR W/WHEELS INCLINED PLANE ...
http://jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1159309996
*  Seasonal Fertilizing of a Jade Plant | Home Guides | SF Gate
remains in the soil and can build up to amounts that can ... News. Sports. Business. Food. Living. Travel. Cars. Jobs. Real Estate. Outdoors. A good rule of thumb for any plant, including jade plants, is to avoid giving fertilizer when the plant is not growing. Jade plants usually grow in spring and summer months, so give them fertilizer then. Controlled-release fertilizers should also be mixed with potting soil in advance of repotting the jade plant. Jade plants prefer a potting soil with about half organic content, which helps fertilizer uptake. Fruits. Get help planting:. Fruits. What are you interested in planting. Fruits. Are you looking to plant. Customer Support visit|Home-Contact SFGate-Customer Support|navigation-www|2. Submissions Tips visit|Home-Contact SFGate-Submissions Tips|navigation-www|3. Register on SFGate visit|Home-About SFGate-Register on SFGate|navigation-www|3. SFGate Newsletters visit|Home-About SFGate-SFGate Newsletters|navigation-www|4. SF Chronicle Staff visit|Home-About SF Chronic...
http://homeguides.sfgate.com/seasonal-fertilizing-jade-plant-44130.html
*  Browsing by Subject "Diazotrophs"
populations and soil nitrogen levels in the Okavango Delta ... of flooding on soil nitrogen N , and asymbiotic ... browsing by subject diazotrophs help faqs ubrisa home browsing by subject login javascript is disabled for your browser some features of this site may not work without it browsing by subject diazotrophs a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z or enter first few letters sort by title issue date submit date order ascending descending results now showing items of flooding and its influence on diazotroph populations and soil nitrogen levels in the okavango delta omari k mubyana t matsheka m i bonyongo m c veenendaal e south african journal of botany http www elsevier com wps find journaldescription cws home description description effects of flooding on soil nitrogen n and asymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterial diazotroph populations of the okavango delta were investigated diazotrophs from the rhizosphere of dominant annual and perennial grasses now showing items of search ubrisa adv...
http://ubrisa.ub.bw/browse?value=Diazotrophs&type=subject
*  Saturated hydrocarbon - Biology-Online Dictionary
Next Saturated soil. Last. Please contribute to this ... saturated hydrocarbon biology online dictionary join for free login welcome to biology online login remember me answers to all your biology questions home blog forum dictionary articles tutorials books directory share search quick links a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z other view view source history saturated hydrocarbon saturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon that contains the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms so that the molecule contains neither rings nor multiple bonds loss of carbons retrieved from http www biology online org bodict index php title saturated hydrocarbon oldid first previous saturated fatty acids next saturated soil last please contribute to this project if you have more information about this term feel free to edit this page this page was last modified on may at this page has been accessed times what links here related changes permanent link biology online org all rights reserved register login about us c...
http://biology-online.org/dictionary/Saturated_hydrocarbon
*  Indoor Plant Care | Chicago Botanic Garden
and change the soil to a fresh, lightweight, soilless mix ... and changing soil at this time. Do not change size of ... Indoor Plant Care. Chicago Botanic Garden. Skip to main content. Search form Search. Enjoy Your Visit. Events Calendar Visiting the Garden Directions What s In Bloom Gardens For Families Flower Shows Exhibitions Garden Trams Photography Garden View Café The Garden Shop At the Garden. Horticulture Plant Collections General Info Birding Garden Blog Group Visits Private Events Press Room Employment Your Garden. Gardening Help Plant Information Service Plant Finder Plant Evaluations Illinois Best Plants Education. Plant Science and Conservation Staff Plant Science Center Graduate Training Conservation Internships Partners and Programs Support Us. Monthly Gardening Checklists. Indoor Plant Care September. Some tender unusual container plants can be brought inside as whole plants — hebe, black mondo grass, mandevilla vine, and certain small geranium plants are a few. Many gardeners prefer to r...
http://chicagobotanic.org/plantinfo/september_indoor_plant_care
*  Granger Drain Subbasin Selected for a National Water-Quality Study
and landscape soil type, topography, geology , and AMPs ... , topography, and soils ... Granger Drain Subbasin Selected for a National Water-Quality Study. Granger Drain Subbasin Selected for a National Water-Quality Study. The DR2 drainage area of the Granger Drain subbasin is one of five study ar... Geological Survey USGS is studying five areas across the Nation to better understand how natural factors and agricultural management practices AMPs affect the transport of water and chemicals. Natural factors include climate and landscape soil type, topography, geology, and AMPs include practices related to tillage, irrigation, and chemical application. The DR2 drainage area of the Granger Drain subbasin is one of five study areas selected by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment NAWQA Program for a special study of agricultural chemicals and water quality. Understand the links between the sources of water and agricultural chemicals nutrients and pesticides and their behavior and transport through the envi...
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs08203/
*  Re-Usable Plant Ties | Gardeners.com
Pots & Kits Soil Mixes for Seeds. Flower Gardening ... Fertilizers & Soil Flower Garden Accessories Flower Garden ... Accessories Potting Soil & Fertilizers Self-Watering Planters ... Seed Starting & Lights Greenhouses & Accessories Grow Light Accessories Grow Lights & Stands Seed Starting Accessories Seed Starting Pots & Kits Soil Mixes for Seeds. Flower Gardening Flower Fertilizers & Soil Flower Garden Accessories Flower Garden Decor Flower Planters Flower Supports Flower Trellises New: Flower Gardening Plant Markers. Pots & Planters Flower Pots & Planters Grow Bags Hanging Planters Herb Planters Lechuza Planter Collection New: Pots & Planters Patio Planters Planter Accessories Potting Soil & Fertilizers Self-Watering Planters Vegetable Planters Window Boxes. Raised Beds Elevated Raised Beds Raised Bed Accessories Raised Bed Corners Raised Garden Beds Specialty Raised Beds. Outdoor Pest Controls Bird Repellents Deer Repellents Dog & Cat Repellents Fences & Barriers Garden Insect Controls Mosquito & Wasp...
http://gardeners.com/buy/re-usable-plant-ties/33-978.html?pmax=20&cgid=FlowerGardening&pmin=0&start=24
*  Decorative Rain Barrels with Planter | Gardener's Supply
Pots & Kits Soil Mixes for Seeds. Flower Gardening ... Fertilizers & Soil Flower Garden Accessories Flower Garden ... Accessories Potting Soil & Fertilizers Self-Watering Planters ... Seed Starting & Lights Greenhouses & Accessories Grow Light Accessories Grow Lights & Stands Seed Starting Accessories Seed Starting Pots & Kits Soil Mixes for Seeds. Flower Gardening Flower Fertilizers & Soil Flower Garden Accessories Flower Garden Decor Flower Planters Flower Supports Flower Trellises New: Flower Gardening Plant Markers. Pots & Planters Flower Pots & Planters Grow Bags Hanging Planters Herb Planters Lechuza Planter Collection New: Pots & Planters Patio Planters Planter Accessories Potting Soil & Fertilizers Self-Watering Planters Vegetable Planters Window Boxes. Raised Beds Elevated Raised Beds Raised Bed Accessories Raised Bed Corners Raised Garden Beds Specialty Raised Beds. Outdoor Pest Controls Bird Repellents Deer Repellents Dog & Cat Repellents Fences & Barriers Garden Insect Controls Mosquito & Wasp...
http://gardeners.com/buy/madison-rain-barrel/39-346.html?cgid=Watering&prefn1=StarRatingBase&prefn2=Color&start=7&prefv1=4 & up|1 & up&prefv2=Black
*  What Is Sandy Loam Soil? | Garden Guides
What Is Sandy Loam Soil. Organic Gardening. Organic Gardening Troubleshooting. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Soil Basics. What Is Sandy Loam Soil. What Is Sandy Loam Soil. close Report This Article What Is Sandy Loam Soil. Overview Sandy loam soil is a type of soil used in plant beds and pots that require ample drainage for the plants to thrive. Soil types are based on the ratio of materials in the soil. Identification Sandy loam soil is a mixture that is generally well-balanced, but has sand as a dominant component. Perfect loamy soil is ideal for most growing, and contains an even mixture of sand, silt and clay in roughly even proportions. Sand, silt and clay are defined by different particle types in soil identification. Features Each soil type has distinct properties that change when water is added to the soil. Benefits Sandy loam is ideal for plants that need more soil drainage than usual. A chronic incurable "overwaterer" will appreciate the drainage benefits sandy loam soil provides, since good ...
http://gardenguides.com/113913-sandy-loam-soil.html
*  Viewing a thread - soil structure and health
AgTalk Home. Search Forums. View previous thread :: View next thread. Forums List -> Crop Talk Message format. SW MN and Gold Canyon AZ CRJ one can say the same thing about farms that do not have tile. Its a proven fact that a well tiled farm has less surface runoff then a non tiled farm. What about the tons and tons of corn stalks I have from the manure application?. The ground would never dry out in the spring for planting on time. soil structure and health - scmn 06 : 11/17/2012 07:53. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 09:00. RE: soil structure and health - Cardinal Farms : 11/17/2012 11:02. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 11:27. RE: soil structure and health - Cardinal Farms : 11/17/2012 20:34. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 20:46. RE: soil structure and health - Cardinal Farms : 11/17/2012 21:11. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 21:20. RE: soil structure and health - JWM Farms : 11/17/2012 09:58. Re: soil structure ...
http://talk.newagtalk.com/forums/thread-view.asp?tid=344412&posts=28&mid=2702303
*  Organic Eprints - Enhancing and testing soil quality
... Enhancing and testing soil quality. {Project} Enhancing and testing soil quality. Project Leader s : Tolonen, Kaisa, ProAgria Association of Rural Advisory Centres. Online at: http://tripunix.mtt.fi/cgi-bin/thw/?${BASE}=arktui ${HTML}=docu eng ${SNHTML}=nosyn eng ${TRIPSHOW}=for=www eng NR=244-14 Summary At present, soil fertility testing is based on soil chemical analysis. Organic amendments, either as manure and compost or residue from preceding crops and green manure, are essential for maintaining and enhancing soil quality and nutrient management in organic farming. Thus, organic farming is dependent on biologically mediated processes and functions of the whole soil system. Soil quality can be defined as soil's ability to function, it is dependent on the purpose of soil use, and it is based on chemical, physical, and biological soil properties. To achieve this, the following goals are set: i to indicate the most important soil functions and properties, ii to determine and to test the most promising i...
http://orgprints.org/5683/
*  Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe | QUT ePrints
Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe. QUT ePrints. QUT Home Contact. Home Browse About Login. Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe. Chan, Derek, Rajeev, Pathnmanathna, Gallage, Chaminda,. Kodikara, Jayantha 2010 Regional field measurement of soil moisture content with neutron probe. In Li, John. Lin, Meei-Ling Eds. Proceedings of The Seventeenth Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference, Taiwan Geotechnical Society/Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 92-95. Draft Version PDF 521kB. View at publisher. Abstract The neutron logging method has been widely used for field measurement of soil moisture content. This non-destructive method permitted the measurement of in-situ soil moisture content at various depths without the need for burying any sensor. Twenty-three sites located around regional Melbourne have been selected for long term monitoring of soil moisture content using neutron probe. Soil samples collected during the in...
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/38965/
*  Index of soil-related articles
L Lahar - Laimosphere - Land improvement - Lateral earth pressure - Leaching agriculture - Leaching pedology - Leaching model soil - Leptosols - Lessivage - Liming soil - Linear aeration - Lixisols - Loam - Loess - Lunar soil. S SahysMod - Saline seep - Salinity in Australia - Salt marsh - Salting the earth - SaltMod - San Joaquin soil - Sand - Sand boil - Sandbag - Scobey soil - Seitz soil - Serpentine soil - Shear strength soil - Shear strength test - Shrub swamp - Silt - Slope stability - Slump - Sodium adsorption ratio - Soil - Soil alkalinity - Soil acidification - Soil amendment - Soil and water assessment tool - Soil Association - Soil biodiversity - Soil biology - Soil carbon - Soil cement - Soil chemistry - Soil classification - Soil compaction - Soil conditioner - Soil conservation - Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act - Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 - Soil contamination - Soil crust - Soil depletion - Soil ecology - Soil erosion - Soil fertility - Soil food web - Soi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_of_soil-related_articles
*  Soil Horizons and Profiles ( Read ) | Earth Science | CK-12 Foundation
Soil Horizons and Profiles Read. Earth Science. Soil Horizons and Profiles. The three major soil horizons include topsoil, subsoil and the C-horizon. Practice Soil Horizons and Profiles Practice. Earth Science. Resources. Soil Horizons and Profiles. Soils are so different. A thick, thick layer of clay is found in this area. Soil Horizons and Profiles A residual soil forms over many years, as mechanical and chemical weathering slowly change solid rock into soil. The soil develops soil horizons, as each layer becomes progressively altered. All together, these are called a soil profile. Soil is an important resource. The simplest soils have three horizons. Topsoil Called the A-horizon, the topsoil is usually the darkest layer of the soil because it has the highest proportion of organic material. In the topsoil, minerals may dissolve in the fresh water that moves through it to be carried to lower layers of the soil. Subsoil The B-horizon or subsoil is where soluble minerals and clays accumulate. A soil profile is...
http://ck12.org/earth-science/Soil-Horizons-and-Profiles/lesson/Soil-Horizons-and-Profiles/r26/
*  Soil structure & why it's important
Soil structure why it's important. FAQs. My Account. Trade Customers. Customer Services. Rolawn TV. Product Calculator. Login/Register. Rolawn Search our site. 0845 604 6060 8am to 10pm - 7 days a week. Call charges vary between providers. We do not add a service fee. Turf. Medallion® Turf. Turfmaster® System. Topsoil. Blended Loam Topsoil Bulk Bag. Turf & Lawn Seeding Topsoil Bulk Bag. Beds & Borders Topsoil Bulk Bag. Vegetable & Fruit Topsoil Bulk Bag. Bark. Landscaping Bark Bulk Bag. Play Grade Bark Bulk Bag. Soil Improver. Soil Improver Bulk Bag. Lawn Care Products. Medallion® Premium Lawn Seed 1.5kg. Medallion® Premium Lawn Seed 20kg. Minster Pro® Ornamental Lawn Seed. GroRight® Lawn Establishment Fertiliser. GroRight® Lawn Fertiliser, Weed & Moss Killer. Lawn Topdressing Bulk Bag. Information Centre. Buy Online. Find a Stockist. Login/Register. Rolawn Menu. . Turf. Topsoil. Bark. Soil Improver. Lawn Care Products. Information Centre. Find a Stockist. Buy Online. Login/Register. 01904 757372 8am to 1...
http://rolawn.co.uk/soil-structure
*  Soil Amendments, Organic Soil Amendments - Ohio Earth Food
... Lawns Turf. Gardens. Farms. Natural Fertilizers Potting Soil Soil Amendments Mycorrhizal Fungi Foliar Sprays Insect Disease Control Insect Identifier Herbicides Animal Repellents Soil Testing Animal Feed Supplements Volume Discounts About Ohio Earth Food Contact Us Home. Hartville Store Hours: Monday-Friday: 8am-5pm Saturdays in April and May 8 A.M. to noon. Soil Amendments Soil fertility. Is your soil alive with an abundance of nutrients and microbial activity. The success of any garden, farm, or lawn begins with the quality of its soil. Our role is to help best feed your soil so the soil can feed your plants. Soil is not an organism by itself, but it has rich and manifold life in it. Organic fertilizers and soil amendments encourage this life in micro organisms and plant roots by promoting good soil structure through a wide variety of easily assimilated primary nutrients, trace minerals and organic matter. This enlivened soil structure will benefit tilth and allow for better aeration, water absorption ...
http://ohioearthfood.com/soil-amendments.html
*  Course Schedule Soil 2125
... Schedule for Soil 2125 Fall Semester 2012 - Schedule Soil 2125 Class Schedule. P Outline Exams Web Lab Unit Lab Inv. Soil of the Week Suggested Read. 9/05 WThF Intro A Intro to Soil Science Intro B-What is Soil. Team Exam Intro in Recitation Intro to the Web Units. No Lab Inv. 9/10 MTWTh 1a Soil from Rocks - 1b Soil as a Resc. Webexam 1 Team Exam 1 Web 1 - The Materials for Making Soil LI 1= Rocks Weathering- -- Lester. 9/17* MTWTh 2a Soil Texture - 2b Soil Texture Webexam 2 Team Exam 2 Web 2. Soil Texture LI 2= Soil Texture -- Fargo. 9/24 MTWTh 3a Soil Horizons -- 3b Writing profile descriptions Webexam 3 Team Exam 3 Web 3. Soil Horizons LI 3= Soil Structure, Color Horizons-- Zimmerman. 10/01 MTWThF 4a Soil Forming Factors - PM Glaciation as a PM video Climate 4b Soil F.F. Soil Forming Factors LI 4=Soil Forming Factors -- Nashwauk. 10/08 MTWTh* 5a Soil Taxonomy - 5b Soils of Minnesota Team Exam 5. Webexam 5 Web 5. 10/15 MTWTh 6a Soil Weight Tillage 6b Constructed Wetlands Team Exam 6. Webexam 6. 10/22 M...
http://swac.umn.edu/classes/soil2125/doc/crscd1a.htm
*  Using green seaweed (Ulva spp.) as a soil amendment: Effects on soil quality and yield of sweet corn
as a soil amendment: Effects on soil quality and yield of sweet corn Zea mays L. as a soil amendment: Effects on soil quality and yield of sweet corn Zea mays L. Complete - Pre-seaweed application October 2011, pre-corn seeding May 2012, and post-harvest September/October 2012 sampling – Aggregate stability, bulk density, available water capacity, and infiltration - Monthly October-November 2011 and April-October 2012 sampling – Soil respiration and earthworm abundance in-field analysis ; insect collection; bulk sample collection for soil pH, electrical conductivity EC, nitrate NO3-, ammonium NH4+, phosphate HnPO4n-3, potassium K, active C, potentially mineralizable N PMN, trace nutrients, sulfate SO42-, soil organic matter SOM, nematode abundance and community composition, and heavy metals - Complete soil quality analyses field and laboratory : bulk density, available water capacity, infiltration, soil respiration, pH, EC, and extraction for primary nutrients, trace nutrients and PMN Ongoing - Continued extr...
http://mysare.sare.org/mySARE/ProjectReport.aspx?do=viewRept&pn=GNE11-026&y=2012&t=0
*  Measuring Soil Texture in the Field | Fact Sheets | soilquality.org.au
Measuring Soil Texture in the Field. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. Fact Sheets Measuring Soil Texture in the Field. Soil Texture Measuring in the Field. Soil texture affects the physical and chemical properties of a soil. Field or hand texturing is a measure of the behaviour of a small handful of soil when moistened and kneaded into a ball slightly larger than the size of a golf ball NSW Agriculture, 1988 or bolus and pressed out to form a ribbon between the thumb and forefinger figure 1. Gravel particles 2 mm is removed from the soil prior to texturing because it does not contribute to chemical and some physical properties of soils. The common term for measuring soil texture in the laboratory is particle size analysis PSA. For a m...
http://soilquality.org.au/factsheets/soil-texture
*  Organic Soil Management For Organic Gardeners
... Organic Fertilizer Guide. Blog. About. Organic Soil Management For Organic Gardeners. Organic soil management is a science and an art. Conventional soil science teaches that soil is a relatively inert medium, an anchor for plants made of sand, silt and clay and a handful of nutrients for plant growth. If soil has enough nutrients, gardener’s will be okay. Of course, organic soil management is so much more than that. Yet traditionally, not much has been mentioned about organic matter and next to nothing on the soil food web. In many soil textbooks, you would likely find multiple chapters on fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium NPK and next to nothing on organic matter and botany. Fertilization is seen as the number one soil management strategy in many textbooks. But this is organic gardening, and I'd like to present the story of healthy soil as a vibrant, living community. Of course, even organic soil is composed of sand, silt, clay and minerals, so I'll talk about that, too. And I&...
http://smilinggardener.com/organic-soil-management/
*  .. Posts Categorized: Soil Composition .. Soil Degradation: Another Carbon Story .. N
filed under General, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure. filed under Earthworks Earth Resources, Education, Food Food Support Systems, General, Plants, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition. This is Part Three B of a series of Articles, that critically discuss’s the Nottinghill Forest Garden Project from Analysis – to Implementation – to Future Idea’s. filed under Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation. filed under Design, General, Land, Soil, Soil Composition, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure. filed under Earthworks Earth Resources, Education, Food Food Support Systems, General, Plants, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition. This is Part two of a series of Articles, that critically discuss’s the Nottinghill Forest Garden Project from Analysis – to Implementation – to Future Idea’s. filed under Earthworks Earth Resources, Education, Food Food Support Systems, General, Plants, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition. This is Pa...
http://permacultureusa.org/category/soil/soil-composition/
*  ARS | Publication request: Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in
Publication request: Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in the Constant Capacitance Model ARS : Research. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in the Constant Capacitance Model Authors. Submitted to: Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2007 Publication Date: November 8, 2007 Citation: Goldberg, S.R., Lesch, S.M., Suarez, D.L. Predicting Selenite Adsorption by Soils Using Soil Chemical Parameters in the Constant Capacitance Model. Technical Abstract: The constant capacitance model, a chemical surface complexation model, was applied to selenite, Se IV, adsorption on 36 soils selected for variation in soil chemical properties. The constant capacitance model was able to fit Se IV adsorption by optimizing one monodentate Se IV surface complexation constant and the surface protonation constant. A general regre...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=220715
*  Soil Structure Decline - Tas | Fact Sheets | soilquality.org.au
Fact Sheets. Home Fact Sheets. Calculators. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. Fact Sheets Soil Structure Decline - Tas. Soil Structure Decline Tasmania. If you can see a soil structure problem, it is costing you money in lost yield. Degraded soil structure results in increased soil strength, reduces infiltration and water available to plants. Soil structure describes how mineral particles and organic matter are arranged to form aggregates, as well as how pore spaces are arranged within and between aggregates. Soil structure is the clods and aggregates that you can see rather than soil texture which you can feel. Compaction can lead to reduced aeration when wet, particularly on heavier textured soils such as Ferrosols, resulting in rest...
http://soilquality.org.au/factsheets/soil-structure
*  .. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner .. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum So
Soil Gardening. Soil Conditioner. Soil Conditioner Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. admin@soilgardening.com on September 17, 2013 · 0 comments. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. Liquid “Gypsum” Soil Conditioner is a soil amendment that remedies sodium and or salt problems, clay and compact soils, soggy soils, and water drainage problems. It also addresses soil erosion and problems associated with poor or reclaimed irrigation water. Fix Soil Problems with Liquid Gypsum Soil Conditioner. A Soil Conditioner is a item which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, in particular its ability to offer nutrition for plants. In common usage the term soil conditioner is generally believed of as a subset of the category Soil Amendments which far more frequently is understood to contain a wide range of fertilizers and non-organic components. Soil conditioners can be utilized to improve poor soils, or to r...
http://soilgardening.com/fix-soil-problems-with-liquid-gypsum-soil-conditioner/
*  Soil permeability: Definition with Soil permeability Pictures and Photos
... Lexic.us. Medical Definition of Soil permeability 1. The ease with which gases, liquids or plant roots penetrate or pass through a layer of soil. 09 Oct 1997. Soil Permeability Pictures. Click the following link to bring up a new window with an automated collection of images related to the term: Soil Permeability Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Soil Permeability soil biochemistry soil chemistry soil conservation soil erosion soil genesis soil horizon soil hue soil management soil matrix soil mechanics soil mechanics and engineering soil microbiology soil mineralogy soil permeability current term soil phase soil physics soil pipe soil pollutants soil pollution soil pore soil profile soil science soil scientist soil series soil stack soil sterilant soil sterilants soil structure. Other Resources Relating to: Soil permeability. Words people are searching for today: protides, disembarkment, benzstigminum bromidum, anatricrotic, pastry bag, old icelandic, deconsecrating, cyclarthrosis, embarkation, outhol...
http://lexic.us/definition-of/soil_permeability
*  Soil Food Web - What's All The Fuss About?
Soil Food Web - What's All The Fuss About. Organic Fertilizer Guide. Blog. About. Soil Food Web - What's All The Fuss About. The soil food web refers to an army of tireless workers in the soil - 20,000 to 30,000 different species of soil organisms in a teaspoon of healthy soil. We call it a web to focus on not only the soil life, but more importantly on how they relate to each other, how they interact. There are 6 kingdoms of life: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, animals and plants. My focus tends to be as much on what they do as on what they look like. You may wonder why it’s so important to learn about all of this soil biology when you're learning about organic gardening. It turns out they’re as important to the garden as the soil, fertilizer, water and everything else. Soil Food Web Drawing. I hope this soil food web drawing helps explain in more detail what the food web is all about. Why Is The Soil Food Web So Important. Basically, these soil organisms the soil and maintain it. They build themsel...
http://smilinggardener.com/soil-food-web/
*  Soil Management
Base Cations. Base Cations The base cations described in this section include potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg. Forms and Functions of Base Cations Forms of the Base Cations K: K + Ca: Ca 2+ Mg: Mg 2+ Functions of the Base Cations Potassium Involved in many enzymatic reactions Functions in the synthesis of the energy compounds Required for translocation of carbohydrates within the plant Involved regulating gas exchange and water relations during transpiration. Amount of K-bearing minerals in the soil: Soils that are inherently high in potassium minerals generally have greater potassium availability than soils which are inherently low in potassium. Type of clay minerals in the soil: Since highly weathered clay soils typically have a low cation exchange capacity, exchangeable potassium may be limited in these soils. When acidic soils are limed, exchangeable K increases due to increases in the cation exchange capacity. Exchangeable Ca Calcium is the dominant cation on the cation exchange capacity in most...
http://ctahr.hawaii.edu/mauisoil/c_nutrients03.aspx
*  ARS | Publication request: SOIL CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO AGRICHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS AND OCCURRENC
ARS. Publication request: SOIL CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO AGRICHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS AND OCCURRENCE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE MIDWEST U.S. ARS : Research. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. ARS Home. About ARS. National Programs. International Programs. Scientific Software/Models. Site Map. You are here: MIDWEST AREA Home / AGRICULTURAL LAND AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH / Research / Publication #102060. Related Topics Programs and Projects. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. ARS International Research Partnerships. Title: SOIL CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO AGRICHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS AND OCCURRENCE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE MIDWEST U.S. Technical Abstract: A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to groundwater. This paper examines the relation of soil characteristics to concentrations and occurrenc...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=102060
*  soilquality.org.au | Soil Quality and Soil Health Information for Australia
Calculators. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. South Australian Soil Quality Program. The GRDC s Soil Biology Initiative and the associated website www.soilquality.org.au provide the Australian grains industry with a unique resource on soil quality including soil biology, chemistry and physics. The Soil Biology Initiative is a wide wide ranging program that involves research into new techniques and is benchmarking soil quality throughout grain growing Australia, while being a resource for information on a range of soil related issues. The GRDC s Soil Biology Initiative and the associated website www.soilquality.org.au provide the Australian grains industry with a unique resource on soil quality including soil biology, chemistry and phy...
http://soilquality.org.au/factsheets/category/general
*  Ways to Loosen Clay Soil | Motherhood - ModernMom
Ways to Loosen Clay Soil. Ways to Loosen Clay Soil by Dawn Denmar. If your garden has clay soil, growing plants successfully may be difficult, and it will be a challenge to loosen the soil and prepare it for planting. Some positive aspects to clay soil are that soil moisture levels will be high and it generally holds more nutrients than sandy soils. Before Planting The best time to loosen clay soil is prior to planting; you can check the soil pH levels at the same time. Organic matter is the best addition for loosening clay soils. Working a 2- to 3-inch mixture of compost and aged manure into the top 6 to 8 inches of your soil will start the process of lightening the clay and improving the soil's drainage. Use grass clippings, leaves or compost to further loosen your clay soil. Regular cultivation and planting of clay soils will also assist in aerating the soil and loosening it. Further Additions Expanded shale is an additional means of loosening clay soils. Steve George of the Texas Cooperative Extension adv...
http://motherhood.modernmom.com/ways-loosen-clay-soil-5789.html
*  What Is Soil Amendment? | Garden Guides
What Is Soil Amendment. Garden Guides. Toggle navigation. Toggle search. . go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Follow Us. Home. Plants. Plant Taxonomy. 100 Most Popular Plants. About Plants. Annual Plants Flowers. Perennial Plants Flowers. Biennial Plants Flowers. Flowers. Flower Bulbs. Roses. Trees Shrubs. Vegetables. Herbs. Fruits Nuts. Fruits Vegetables. Grasses. Grass - Ornamental. Grass - Lawn. Vines Climbers. Cacti Succulents. Ferns Mosses. Fungi Lichens. Other Plants. Garden Design. Landscape Design. Dry Gardens. Edible Gardens. Flower Gardens. Garden Styles. Wet Gardens. Wildlife Gardens. Gardens by Color. Gardens by Light. Gardens by Season. Gardens by Type of Space. Gardening Spaces. Indoor Gardens. Container Gardens. Greenhouses. Urban Gardens. Small Space Gardens. Yards Lawns. Pests Diseases. Animal Control. Disease Control. Insect Control. Weeds. Weed Control. Gardening Phases. Garden Preparation. Beginning a Garden. Maintenance Improvement. Harvesting. Cutting Preserving...
http://gardenguides.com/119805-soil-amendment.html
*  Organic Eprints - Impact of soil management practices on soil fertility and disease suppressiveness
... home about browse search latest help. Login. Create Account. Impact of soil management practices on soil fertility and disease suppressiveness. Tamm, Lucius ; Bruns, Christian ; Leifert, Carlo ; Fuchs, Jacques G. ; Thürig, Barbara ; Specht, Nicole and Fliessbach, Andreas 2006 Impact of soil management practices on soil fertility and disease suppressiveness. Paper at: Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denmark, May 30-31, 2006. PDF. 33Kb. Summary Soil management practices are targeted to provide adequate crop nutrition and to ensure durable soil fertility and to avoid negative environmental impacts. Soil management also aims to reduce pest and disease pressure on crops. Organic farming is believed to increase soil suppressiveness towards soil-borne diseases as well aerial diseases. In this paper we will discuss the potential of soil manage-ment as a tool to improve disease suppressiveness in practice. EPrint Type: Conference paper, poster, etc. Type of presentation: Paper. Keywords: QLIF, FiBL 35001. Subject...
http://orgprints.org/8286/
*  Gardening in Sandy Soil
... Facts About Soil Improving Garden Soil Changing Soil pH Improving Clay Soil The Soil Food Web My sister is a Master Gardener in northern Michigan. Increasing soil organic matter is the key to gardening in sandy soil. Garden Compost is the Best Form of Organic Matter to Add. The resulting "char" is ground into loose shavings that can be mixed into soil to soak up and hold moisture, and provide habitat for bacteria, fungi, and the soil food web. I wouldn't think of starting a garden without bio-char. Why Use Coir Instead of Peat Moss. Instead of gardening in sandy soil, you’ll be gardening in loam. To improve water retention in flower and vegetable beds, apply a 1-2” 2.5-5 cm layer of coir to the surface with compost and other organic soil amendments, and cultivate in before planting. Municipal Compost, Animal Manures, and Other Kinds of Organic Matter What if you don’t have access to “good” garden compost, but have ready access to municipal compost, animal manures, or other bulk soil amendments. Will thes...
http://grow-it-organically.com/gardening-in-sandy-soil.html
*  Use of Sulfur to Lower Soil pH
... It is difficult to make exact recommendations for amounts of chemicals needed to lower soil pH. Light soils require lesser and heavy soils need greater quantities of acidifying agents. A soil high in organic matter has a different requirement than one low in organics. If the organic matter in the soil has been reduced to humus, the buffering effect of the humus usually increases the amount of pH alteration material needed. To lower soil pH of light sandy loams one full point i.e., from pH 6.0 to 5.0 as a guideline the use of sulfur, 10 pounds of dusting sulfur per 1,000 square feet, should be about right. In medium loam soil, add 15 pounds, and to heavy clay loam, 20 pounds. Ordinarily dusting sulfur is perfectly satisfactory; no need to pay a premium for special grades. If not enough material was applied, simply add more. If too much, there is no harm in using lime to undo the effects of the use of sulfur to lower soil ph. My gardening preference is for plants classed as circumneutral at a pH range of 6...
http://improve-your-garden-soil.com/use-of-sulfur-to-lower-soil-ph.html
*  Soil Conditions | Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership
Soil Conditions. Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership. Carbon Sequestration, Climate Change, and CO 2. CO 2 Sources and Emissions Geologic CO 2 Storage Potential Terrestrial Sinks. Terrestrial Carbon Sink Variables -- Land Cover -- Soil Conditions -- Land Resources -- Climate. News and Publications. Soil Conditions Soil characteristics that affect the accumulation of carbon include the soil order type , soil texture, drainage, and acidity. 1 The soil order reflects the native environment under which the soil was formed, and this can be helpful in determining the soil's innate capacity to sequester organic carbon under ideal conditions. 2 In continuously wet soils with limited oxygen capacity, such as those found in wetlands, and areas of poor drainage, an ideal setting is provided for slowing decomposition, thereby increasing the carbon stock. 3 Further, research indicates that soil wetness as indicated by drainage classes is an ideal indicator of organic carbon accumulation. 4 Soil acidity is presumed to play an...
http://undeerc.org/PCOR/Region/Terrestrial/SoilConditions.aspx
*  .. Posts Categorized: Soil Conservation .. Report on 5-Day Permaculture Workshop for
filed under Aid Projects, Community Projects, Compost, Courses/Workshops, Food Plants - Annual, Food Plants - Perennial, Nurseries Propogation, Seeds, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Trees. Tiger Hill Permaculture: Phase 1, Water Harvesting Earthworks. filed under Commercial Farm Projects, Demonstration Sites, Education Centres, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Water Conservation, Water Harvesting. filed under Animal Forage, Land, Livestock, Plant Systems, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Trees. filed under Compost, Food Plants - Annual, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure, Urban Projects. filed under Commercial Farm Projects, Global Warming/Climate Change, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure. filed under Building, Compost, Soil Conservation, Soil Erosion Contamination, Soil Rehabilitation, Waste Systems Recycling, Water Contaminaton Loss. Regenerative Organic Agriculture and Climate Change: A Down-to-Earth Solution to Globa...
http://permaculture.org.au/category/soil/soil-conservation/page/2/
*  Soil biodiversity
Soil and biodiversity Soil management and biodiversity Soil process impacts. Catchment scale impacts. Soil management and biodiversity. Impacts of Acid Soils in Victoria, A report for Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Goulburn Broken Catchment Management Authority and North East Catchment Management Authority Many of the soils in the Australian state of Victoria are naturally acidic; however, about 30,000 square kilometres or 23% of Victoria's agricultural soils suffer reduced productivity due to increased acidity. Extremely low pH soils may suffer from structural decline as a result of reduced microrganisms and organic matter; this brings a susceptibility to erosion under high rainfall events, drought, and agricultural disturbance. Soil structure decline. 6 Well-developed, healthy soils are complex systems in which physical soil structure is as important as chemical content. Soil structure is essential to soil health and fertility; soil structure decline has a direct impact on soil and surface...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_biodiversity
*  Tight Clay Soils, Calcium Sulfate | How it works
Tight Clay Soils, Calcium Sulfate. How it works. Close X. What is GYPSOIL. What is GYPSOIL Video. Soil amendment. How it works. Economic impact study. Bulletin download. Research library. Close X. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Research library. Midwest Territory Managers. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Research library. Mid-South Territory Managers. GYPSOIL for peanuts. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Research library. Close X. Close X. Soil Symposium. Close X. GET YOUR GYPSOIL ON. Sodic Soils and GYPSOIL. Research Library. Economic study. Bulletin Download. Close X. Mineral cations with positively charged surfaces are attracted to these negative charges on the soil particles. The number of exchangeable cations that a soil is capable of holding...
http://gypsoil.com/what-is-gypsoil/how-it-works
*  Soil Acidification: How to Lower Soil pH, AGF-507-07
... Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet. School of Environment and Natural Resources. 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Soil Acidification: How to Lower Soil pH. AGF-507-07 Robert Mullen, Edwin Lentz, and Maurice Watson Many plant species require acid soil conditions to thrive. Throughout Ohio and many other parts of the Midwest surface soils are neutral to slightly alkaline. Elemental sulfur can be applied as a soil amendment to decrease the pH or acidify such soils. Due to the cost, the application of sulfur to acidify soils is more practical for horticultural crops than agronomic crops. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide interested individuals agronomic and horticultural with rates necessary to adjust soil pH. Sulfur reaction in the soil is slow, and quick changes in soil pH should not be expected. It may take a few months or longer to change soil pH to the desired level because the process of sulfur oxidation conversion of elemental sulfur to sulfate is the result of microbial ac...
http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0507.html
*  soilquality.org.au | Soil Quality and Soil Health Information for Australia
soilquality.org.au. Soil Quality and Soil Health Information for Australia. Toggle Navigation. Home Fact Sheets. Calculators. Biological Green Manure Calculator Wheat Yield Potential Calculator Retaining Stubble Calculator Organic Matter Biomass Calculator Biochar Calculator Chemical Lime Comparison Calculator Lime Benefit Calculator Physical Controlled Traffic Calculator Gravel and Bulk Density Deep Cultivation for Non-Wetting Soils. Videos. About Us Links Contact. Soil Tests Soil Nitrogen Supply - 0 -10cm. Overview. As the active microbial biomass decomposes soil organic matter and fresh plant residues nitrogen can be released in inorganic mineral forms that are plant available. Potentially mineralisable nitrogen or Soil Nitrogen Supply is a simple laboratory assay that reflects this release of soil nitrogen and thus provides a ranking system for the capacity of a soil to turnover soil organic matter. The higher the number the more likely that a soil will release more nitrogen. The limitation to this measur...
http://soilquality.org.au/soil_tests/soil-nitrogen-supply-0-10
*  ISO - ISO Standards - ISO/TC 190 - Soil quality
Standards catalogue. Standards catalogue. Standards catalogue. 115 ISO/FDIS 15009 Soil quality -- Gas chromatographic determination of the content of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons -- Purge-and-trap method with thermal desorption 50.00 13.080.10 ISO/TC 190/SC 3. 169 ISO/DIS 18187 Soil quality -- Quality of solid samples -- Solid contact test using the dehydrogenase activity of Arthrobacter globiformis 40.99 13.080.30 ISO/TC 190/SC 4. 184 ISO/DIS 18400-204 Soil quality -- Sampling -- Part 204: Guidance on sampling of soil gas 40.00 13.080.05 ISO/TC 190/SC 2. 194 ISO/NP 19648 Soil quality -- Parameters for geochemical modelling of the leaching and speciation of constituents in soils and materials -- Guidance for the application of ISO 12782 10.99. 204 ISO/NP 21268-1 Soil quality -- Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological testing of soil and soil materials -- Part 1: Batch test using a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter 10.99 13....
http://iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_tc_browse.htm?commid=54328&development=on&includesc=true
*  ARS | Publication request: EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY. ARS
Publication request: EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: EVALUATING COKRIGING FOR IMPROVING SOIL NUTRIENT SAMPLING EFFICIENCY. EVALUATING cokriging for imporving soil nutrient sampling efficiency. Crop need is determined by analyzing soil samples from different parts of the field. More soil samples result in a more accurate map of fertilizer needs, but collecting and analyzing soil samples is expensive. This study found that using information on the soil texture the amount of sand, silt, and clay in the soil in different parts of the field along with information on fertilizer need reduced the number of soil samples needed to get the same accuracy for some soil nutrients. Soil texture does not change very much over the years. This means that a large number of soil texture samples could be collected just one time and the information would be valid for many years. Samples for fertilizer need would have to be collected and ana...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=152655
*  Effects of urine on soil microbial biomass, methanogenesis, nitrification and denitrification in gra
... ssland soils - Springer. Search Options. Advanced Search. Search Help. Search Menu. Sign up / Log in English. Deutsch. Academic edition. Corporate edition. Skip to: Main content Side column. Home. Contact Us. Look Inside. Get Access. Find out how to access preview-only content. Article. Plant and Soil October 1996, Volume 186, Issue 2, pp 265-273 First online:. Effects of urine on soil microbial biomass, methanogenesis, nitrification and denitrification in grassland soils. R D Lovell. Affiliated with Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research., S. C Jarvis. Affiliated with Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research. . Rent the article at a discount Rent now. * Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT. Get Access. Abstract Urine was added under controlled conditions to intact turfs taken from long-term permanent pasture on clay loam and sandy loam soils in South West England. Methane exchanges were small +/−0.03 μg CH 4 m -2 min -1 and overall absorption equalled or exceeded emissio...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02415522
*  Soil pH
' Blue ' = alkaline soil. A pH below 7 is acid ic and above 7 is alkaline. Effect of soil pH on plant growth Acid affected soils. Nutrient availability in relation to soil pH. Sources of Acidity. Plant root activity: Plants take up nutrients in the form of ions NO 3 −, NH 4 +, Ca 2+, H 2 PO 4 −, etc. Some plants will also exude organic acids into the soil to acidify the zone around their roots to help solubilize metal nutrients that are insoluble at neutral pH, such as iron Fe. This is due to an accumulation of soluble salts which are classified as either saline soil, sodic soil, saline-sodic soil or alkaline soil. All saline and sodic soils have high salt concentrations, with saline soils being dominated by calcium and magnesium salts and sodic soils being dominated by sodium. thumb|right|Nutrient availability in relation to soil pH. 3 Acid affected soils. 2002 Plants grown in acid soils can experience a variety of symptoms including aluminium Al, hydrogen H, and/or manganese Mn toxicity, as well as nutrient...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_pH
*  How to Deal With Clay Soil | Garden Guides
How to Deal With Clay Soil. Garden Guides. go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Plants. About Plants. Other Plants. Organic Gardening. Organic Gardening Tips. Organic Gardening Troubleshooting. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Types of Soil. How to Deal With Clay Soil. How to Deal With Clay Soil Comments. Modify clay soil using tools and additives to break up compaction, and enrich clay soil with organic material to improve its ability to nurture a variety of garden plants. Step 1 Break up the soil using a hoe or hand shovel to prepare the clay for the gypsum lime. Gypsum, or calcium sulfate, is a garden additive that will not raise the soil's pH level, while potentially improving soil quality--particularly soils that are alkaline. Step 3 Mix the gypsum into the soil and water it well. Allow the gypsum to absorb into the soil, which may take several hours. You begin to see the soil break apart and the moisture absorb into the soil when the gypsum is absorbed. There are any number o...
http://gardenguides.com/104774-deal-clay-soil.html
*  ARS Project: Improving the Cqestr Model Accuracy for Tropical Soils (424473) Soil and Water Conserv
ARS Project: Improving the Cqestr Model Accuracy for Tropical Soils 424473 Soil and Water Conservation Research : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. ARS Research. ARS Careers. You are here: Pacific West Area Home / Soil and Water Conservation Research / Research / Research Project #424473. Research Project: Improving the Cqestr Model Accuracy for Tropical Soils. Location: Soil and Water Conservation Research. Objective: The objective of this cooperative research project is to modify the CQESTR model for tropical conditions i.e., the presence of amorphous clay, oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum, high acidity, and low cation exchange capacity. Specifically this project is conducted to: 1 evaluate possibilities of necessary adaption of CQESTR model for tropical climate areas; 2 correlate the degree of humification of soil organic matter SOM to the stability of recalcitrant soil organic carbon SOC ; 3 examine the impact of amorphous clay, acidity and cation exchange capacity on SOC stabilization in tropical ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?accn_no=424473
*  ARS Soil Resource Management National Program (202) ARS : REAP Information
ARS Soil Resource Management National Program 202. ARS : REAP Information. ARS Home. About ARS. National Programs. Research Projects. International Programs. Site Map. You are here: ARS Home / Research / National Programs / National Program 202 : Soil Resource Management / REAP Information. Related Topics ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. ARS International Research Partnerships. Annual Reports. Assessment Reports. REAP Information. Project Information List of Projects in this Program. List of Project Annual Reports in this program. National Program 202: Soil Resource Management REAP Information. 1 - REAP Main Page 2 - REAP Links and Photo Gallery 3 - REAP Publications and Presentations. REAP Main Page. Renewable Energy Assessment Project REAP. However, limits must be placed on the amount of crop residue removed for bio-energy production to protect lands from erosion and to sustain soil organic carbon SOC. Our objectives are to deter...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?np_code=202&docid=15193
*  Soil conditioner
A 'soil conditioner' is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, especially its ability to provide nutrition for plants. In general usage the term soil conditioner is often thought of as a subset of the category 'soil amendments', which more often is understood to include a wide range of fertilizer s and non-organic materials. 1 Soil conditioners can be used to improve poor soils, or to rebuild soils which have been damaged by improper management. They can make poor soils more usable, and can be used to maintain soils in peak condition. 2 Composition Purpose Soil structure. Soil nutrients. Cation exchange. Water retention. References. Composition. A wide variety of materials have been described as soil conditioners due to their ability to improve soil quality. Some examples include biochar, bone meal, peat, coffee grounds, compost, coir, manure, straw, vermiculite, sulfur, lime, blood meal, compost tea, hydroabsorbant polymers, sphagnum moss,. 4 Many soil conditioners come in...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_conditioner
*  Soil crust
... 'Soil crusts' are soil surface layers that are distinct from the rest of the bulk soil, often hardened with a platy surface. Depending on the manner of formation, soil crusts can be biological or physical. Biological soil crusts are formed by communities of microorganisms that live on the soil surface whereas physical crusts are formed by physical impact such as that of raindrops. Biological soil crusts Physical soil crusts References External links. Biological soil crusts. Biological soil crust. Biological soil crusts are communities of living organisms on the soil surface in arid- and semi-arid ecosystems. They are found throughout the world with varying species composition and cover depending on topography, soil characteristics, climate, plant community, microhabitats, and disturbance regimes. Biological soil crusts perform important ecological roles including carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, soil stabilization, alter soil albedo and water relations, and affect germination and nutrient levels in va...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_crust
*  Organic Soil Amendments
... By Steve Cramer, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Good soil is a pre-requisite for good Gardening. Don't, however, expect soil improvement to occur overnight. It can take 10 years or longer to build productive Garden soil. If a soil contains too much sand or too much clay, the solution to both is the same -- add organic material. Organic materials, also known as organic amendments, break apart tight clays and hold water and nutrients in loose sands. Organic materials include compost, peat moss and manures. To amend soil, add a two-inch layer of organic material over the soil surface. Use four cubic yards of organic material per 1,000 square feet of Garden area. When growing vegetables and annual flowers, you have the opportunity to add amendments every year. With perennial plants, such as trees and shrubs, you have only one chance to amend the soil and that is at planting time. The best organic amendments are coarse materials. Fibrous sphagnum peats are good, but more expensive than compo...
http://colostate.edu/Dept/CoopExt/4dmg/Soil/organic.htm
*  1938 USDA soil taxonomy
... Overview. The 1938 soil taxonomy divided soils between three orders dependent on dominant soil forming factors. Intrazonal soils. 'Intrazonal' soils have more or less well-defined soil profile characteristics that reflect the dominant influence of some resident factor of relief or parent material over the classic zonal effects of climate and vegetation. There are 3 major sub-types, 2 of which have 2 further sub-types each. :Calcimorphic or calcareous soils develop from a limestone. It has two sub-types: :: Rendzina soils are thin soils with limited available water capacity. ::Terra Rossa soils are deep red soils associated with higher rainfall than Rendzina. :Hydromorphic soils form in wetland conditions. There are two sub-types: :: Gley soil s - These occur when the pore spaces between the grains become saturated with water and contain no air. This lack of oxygen leads to anaerobic conditions which reduce the iron in the parent rock. This gives the soil a characteristic grey/blue colour with flecks of r...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1938_USDA_soil_taxonomy
*  Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor | Streat Instruments
Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor. Streat Instruments. Tel : +64 3 384 8900 Fax : +64 3 384 8901 Toggle navigation. Manage Your Irrigation Soil Growth. Use Aquaflex to optimise your soil moisture and soil temperature. Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor. Aquaflex Sensors Aquaflex Smart Aquaflex for Arable Aquaflex for Golf Greens Aquaflex for Orchard Aquaflex for Pasture Aquaflex for Turf Aquaflex for Vines FAQ Installation methods Sensor versions. Soil Water Soil Temperature In the shoulders of the growing season soil temperature is the main limiting factor to growth. The Aquaflex soil moisture sensor enables you to balance the soil moisture and soil temperature to minimise the time until the soil temperature increases to the point where pasture growth rate increases. At the same time the soil must not be so dry as to limit growth a delicate balancing act only possible with the correct data. Optimise Plant Production Plant production can be improved by allowing soil temperatures to increase before watering but also li...
http://streatsahead.com/Products/Aquaflex
*  Soil salinity control
... salinity control removing salt from water desalination image mustard jpg soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land the aim of soil salinity control is to prevent soil degradation by salination and reclaim already salty saline soils soil reclamation is also called soil improvement rehabilitation remediation recuperation or amelioration the primary man made cause of salinization is irrigation river water or groundwater used in irrigation contains salts which remain behind in the soil after the water has evaporated the primary method of controlling soil salinity is to permit of the irrigation water to leach the soil be drained and discharged through an appropriate drainage system the salt concentration of the drainage water is normally to times higher than that of the irrigation water thus salt export matches salt import and it will not accumulate the soil salinity problem primary cause secondary cause salt affected area spatial vari...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_salinity_control
*  Xstrata Gravel Road Construction - Soil Solutions
... Soil Solutions. Value Engineered Solutions ® for Soil Stabilization, Erosion Control Sustainable Dust Control. About Soil Solutions. Dust Control. Erosion Control. Gravel Airstrip Runway. Gravel Roads. Soil Solutions. Xstrata Gravel Road Construction. Home » Portfolio » MINE ACCESS ROADS » Xstrata Gravel Road Construction. Soil Solutions was contacted by Xstrata Coal Witbank, South Africa to construct and stabilize the gravel access road to the mine. Scarifying the existing subgrade soil to the required depth as indicated on the plans and required specification. Milling the wearing course to the indicated depth and adding EBS Soil Stabilizer to bring the material up to the Optimum Moisture Content OMC. The wearing course was then sealed with EBS Soil Stabilizer and left to cure before opening the road for traffic. As a result, the surface only requires minimal maintenance including a routine sweeping to clear any debris left from haul trucks, a routine clearing of the drainage system and an annual or as ...
http://soilsolutions.com/xstrata-gravel-road-construction/
*  Soil Survey Technical Notes | NRCS
Soil Survey Technical Notes. Natural Resources Conservation Service Soils. Soil Use. Hydric Soils. Urban Soils. Maps. World Soil Resources. Technical References. International Year of Soils. Soil Survey. Soil Survey - Home. Publications. Soil Classification. Soil Health. Soil Health - Home. Soil Health Management. Resources Publications. Soil Survey Releases. You are Here: Home / Technical References / Soil Survey Technical Notes. Soil Survey Technical Notes Technical Note 10 Posted: March 2011 revised July 2014 Buried Soils and Their Effect on Taxonomic Classification Buried Soils and Their Effect on Taxonomic Classification DOCX; 1.64 MB. Technical Note 9 Posted: July 2005 Populating Taxonomic Moisture Class and Subclass in NASIS Populating Taxonomic Moisture Class and Subclass in NASIS DOC; 263 KB. Technical Note 8 Posted: July 2005 Use of Reaction pH in Soil Taxonomy Use of Reaction pH in Soil Taxonomy DOC; 274 KB. Technical Note 7 Posted: January 2005 Soil Moisture/Soil Temperature SM/ST Pilot Project Fi...
http://nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/ref/?cid=nrcs142p2_053566
*  ARS | Publication request: Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence i
Publication request: Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling Area, China ARS : Research. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling Area, China Authors. Zheng, Fenli - ISWC-CAS YANGLING PR CHIN. Zhang, Feng - ISWC-CAS YANGLING PR CHIN. Submitted to: Catena Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: July 7, 2008 Publication Date: November 15, 2008 Citation: An, S., Zheng, F., Zhang, F., Van Pelt, R.S., Hamer, U., Makeshin, F. Soil quality degradation processes along a deforestation chronosequence in the Ziwuling Area, China. We looked at a chronosequence of soils that had been cleared of secondary growth forest and cultivated to measure the loss in soil quality as a function of time, make inferences about the processes responsible for the degradation, and to look for convenient measures of soil quality in this region of Asia. We studied the...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=221135
*  Lesson 4. Soil Chemical Properties
... Major Elements Eight chemical elements comprise the majority of the mineral matter in soils. Of these eight elements, oxygen, a negatively-charged ion anion in crystal structures, is the most prevalent on both a weight and volume basis. The next most common elements, all positively-charged ions cations, in decreasing order are silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium. Ions of these elements combine in various ratios to form different minerals. More than eighty other elements also occur in soils and the earth's crust, but in much smaller quantities. Soils are chemically different from the rocks and minerals from which they are formed in that soils contain less of the water soluble weathering products, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, and more of the relatively insoluble elements such as iron and aluminum. Old, highly weathered soils normally have high concentrations of aluminum and iron oxides. The organic fraction of a soil, although usually representing much less than...
http://organiclifestyles.tamu.edu/soilbasics/soilchemical.html
*  How to Loosen Clay Soil | Garden Guides
How to Loosen Clay Soil. Garden Guides. go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Dry Gardens. Wet Gardens. Gardens by Season. Organic Gardening. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Loosening Soil. How to Loosen Clay Soil. How to Loosen Clay Soil Comments. There's little space between particles in clay soil, and this results in poor drainage. If you want to loosen the clay soil before planting your garden, you can turn the soil, add amendments and treat the soil for long-term health. Make the ground wet enough that you break up the crusty surface, but not so wet the water puddles on the soil surface. Step 2 Use a shovel to break up the top of the soil the next morning. Step 3 Use a rototiller to aerate the soil after breaking it up with the shovel. A rototiller will break up the soil to a depth of approximately 2 to 3 inches. Step 4 Add a 1-inch layer of granulized gypsum over the soil surface and spray lightly with water. Step 5 Add a 2- to 3-inch layer of compost on top of the soil and g...
http://gardenguides.com/82008-loosen-clay-soil.html
*  How to Garden in Limestone Soils | Garden Guides
How to Garden in Limestone Soils. Garden Guides. go to my profile All Articles Videos Plants Recipes Members. Plants. About Plants. Annual Plants Flowers. Perennial Plants Flowers. Biennial Plants Flowers. Other Plants. Flower Gardens. Gardens by Color. Container Gardens. Gardening Phases. Organic Gardening. Organic Gardening Tips. Gardening Calendar. Gardening. Soil. Soil pH. How to Garden in Limestone Soils. How to Garden in Limestone Soils Comments. Overview All soil has a rating on the pH scale from 1 to 10. If soil is balanced, its pH rating is 7.0. Soils with a lower rating are said to be acid, while soils with a higher rating are more alkaline. Each plant has a pH rating as well. Plants that are planted in soil that is optimal for their pH range can take up nutrients from the soil more effectively. Limestone soils are more alkaline in nature, and tend to be rated with a pH higher than 7.0. Gardeners must typically adjust the pH so that it is less alkaline in limestone soils. Step 1 Test your soil with ...
http://gardenguides.com/108964-garden-limestone-soils.html
*  ARS | Publication request: Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy Central
ARS. Publication request: Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy Central Plains Resources Management Research : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. ARS Careers. You are here: Plains Area Home / Central Plains Resources Management Research / Research / Publication #299015. Related Topics Programs and Projects. Location: Central Plains Resources Management Research. Title: Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy Authors. Submitted to: Advances in Agronomy Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: January 27, 2014 Publication Date: May 6, 2014 Citation: Parikh, S., Goyne, K.W., Margenot, A.J., Mukome, F., Calderon, F.J. Soil chemical insights provided through vibrational spectroscopy. Interpretive Summary: This is a review of the state of the science dealing with the application of vibrational spectroscopy to the study of soils. The different modes of vibrational spectroscopy can be used to study many important parameters in soils, includin...
https://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=299015
*  Liming (soil)
Liming soil. Liming soil. 'Liming' is the application of calcium - and magnesium -rich materials to soil in various forms, including marl, chalk, limestone, or hydrated lime. This neutralises soil acidity and increases activity of soil bacteria. However, oversupply may result in harm to plant life. Lime is a basic chemical, the effect of it makes the soil more basic thus making acidic soils neutral. thumb|Liming of a field in Devon The degree to which a given amount of lime per unit of soil volume will increase soil pH depends on the cation exchange capacity CEC. Soils with low CEC will show a more marked pH increase than soils with high CEC. But the low-CEC soils will witness more rapid leaching of the added bases, and so will see a quicker return to original acidity unless additional liming is done. Over-liming is most likely to occur on soil which has low CEC, such as sand which is deficient in buffering agents such as organic matter and clay. Most acid soils are saturated with aluminium rather than hydr...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liming_(soil)
*  ARS | Publication request: Crop Management Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in Northern Texas ARS
Interpretive Summary: The influence of management practices on crop residue C and N inputs to the soil, SOC sequestration, and NO3-N leaching potential under irrigated, continuous crop production in northern Texas was evaluated for 8 years. Two N management levels N1 and N2 were established in 1999 in irrigated fields located near Dalhart Dallam fine sandy loam soil and Texline, TX Conlen and Dumas clay loam soils using reduced-till RT, continuous corn production systems. At Dalhart, winter wheat was inserted into the rotation in 2003, with a corn-wheat rotation followed in 2004 – 2006, with dryland corn rather than wheat on the N2 site in 2006. Total soil N TSN and SOC levels increased linearly from 1999 through 2003 in the 0-6 inch soil depth with linear SOC sequestration rates of about 1122 lb C/A per year at Dalhart and 1464 lb C/A per year at Texline, then leveled off or declined from 2004 through 2006 with cropping system changes at Dalhart and extensive corn residue removal by livestock at Texline. The...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=205944
*  Alternative Soil Amendments | Publication Summary | ATTRA | National Sustainable Agriculture Informa
Alternative Soil Amendments. Publication Summary. ATTRA. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. To gain access and reap all the benefits of our website you must subscribe. Subscription Benefits Our subscription packages are designed to help you add value to your existing Sustainable Agriculture resources. Your subscription not only helps us keep the project on its feet, it also helps the movement toward a more sustainable and healthy agricultural system become a reality. Weekly E-mail Newsletter. We also offer a free weekly newsletter. Events. Funding. Publications. Search This Site What Is Sustainable Agriculture. Master Publication List Search Our Databases Energy Alternatives Beginning Farmer Field Crops Horticultural Crops Livestock Pasture Local Food Systems Marketing, Business Risk Management Organic Farming Pest Management Soils Compost Water Management Other Resources Home Page Newsletters. Privacy Policy. Newsletter Archives XML Feeds RSS 2.0: Events, Breaking News, Funding Opportuntie...
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=284
*  Agricultural soil science
... 'Agricultural soil science' is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber. Agricultural soil scientists develop methods that will improve the use of soil and increase the production of food and fiber crops. Aeration in this context refers to the mechanisms by which air is delivered to the soil. Drainage: In soils of bad drainage the water delivered through rain or irrigation may pool and stagnate. In soils of excess drainage, on the other hand, plants don't get to absorb adequate water and nutrients are washed from the porous medium to end up in groundwater reserves. Water potential : Water potential describes the tendency of the water to flow from one area of the soil to another. Agricultural soil scientists also examine the development of roots and their relation to the soil. Some agricultural soil scientists try to understand the structure and function of soils in relation to soil fertility. Small pores serve as water res...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_soil_science
*  Soil color
... 'Soil color' does not affect the behavior and use of soil; however, it can indicate the composition of the soil and give clues to the conditions that the soil is subjected to. Brady, Nyle C. Weil 'Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils', page 95. Prentice Hall, 2006. Soil can exhibit a wide range of colour; gray, black, white, reds, browns, yellows and under the right conditions green. Varying horizontal bands of colour in the soil often identify a specific soil horizon. The development and distribution of color in soil results from chemical and biological weathering, especially redox reactions. Aerobic conditions produce uniform or gradual color changes, while reducing environments result in disrupted color flow with complex, mottled patterns and points of color concentration. Causes of soil color Classification References Further reading. Causes of soil color. Yellow or red soil indicates the presence of iron oxides. Dark brown or black color in soil indicates that the soil has a high organic m...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_color
*  Wiley: Fundamentals of Soil Science, 8th Edition - Henry D. Foth
United States Change My Account Cart Home Subjects About Wiley Contact Us Help Search Form Search Input Print this page Share Home / All Textbooks & Course Offerings / Agriculture / Agriculture / Soil Textbook Fundamentals of Soil Science, 8th Edition Henry D. Foth ISBN: 978-0-471-52279-9 384 pages August 1990, ©1990 Description This major revision of a bestselling text shows that soil is three-dimensional and dynamic. This concept is developed in the first two chapters and is built on throughout the book. Chapters 3 through 7 explore soil physical properties and water, with expanded coverage of tillage and traffic and an increased emphasis on water and wind erosion processes. Chapters 8 through 11 discuss the biological aspects of soils as well as their mineralogical and chemical properties. In Chapters 12 through 15, the general area of soil fertility and fertilizer use is covered. Other chapters examine soil genesis, taxonomy, geography, land use and soil survey, and land use interpretations. Finally ...
http://wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471522791.html?filter=TEXTBOOK
*  The Regional Institute - Managing the microbial community for soil carbon management
Managing The Microbial Community For Soil Carbon Management. Managing the microbial community for soil carbon management. The activity and composition of the soil microbial community regulates the conversion of plant carbon into soil organic matter. Experiments with mycorrhizal fungi have demonstrated that increased colonization and extraradical hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi increased water-stable soil macroaggregates, as well as the amount of C retained in the soil. In native systems with already high soil carbon, increases soil carbon can maybe achieved by alterations of the soil microbial community. soil carbon sequestration, microbial communities, mycorrihizal fungi, water stable aggregates. Increasing soil C storage in agricultural systems, which have the potential to sequester 0.4 to 1.2 Gt C y -1, may effectively assist in offsetting atmospheric CO 2 increases, Lal, 2004. For example, conservation tillage practices have been estimated to have the potential to sequester 100 to 1000 kg C ha -1 yr -1 for 20...
http://regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004/s10/oral/1489_ricec.htm
*  Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum | GYPSOIL
Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum. GYPSOIL. About Us. What we do. Soil improvement expertise. Where we market. Company history. Employment opportunities. Close X. What is GYPSOIL. What is GYPSOIL Video. Fertility tool. Soil amendment. How it works. Environmental impact. Economic impact study. Bulletin download. FAQs. Research library. Ask Our Agronomist. Close X. Reasons To Use. Midwest. Make Your Soil More Productive. Add sulfur. Increase profitability. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil biology. Testimonials. Sorghum Yield Winner. Iowa Customer Information. Research library. Midwest Territory Managers. Mid-South. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil biology. Arkansas Study. Research library. Ask Our Agronomist. Mid-South Territory Managers...
http://gypsoil.com/improving-your-soil/midwest/midwest-soil-improvement-symposium
*  Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum | GYPSOIL
Page Not Found - Calcium Sulfate Soil Amendment - Agricultural and Synthetic Gypsum. GYPSOIL. About Us. What we do. Soil improvement expertise. Where we market. Company history. Employment opportunities. Close X. What is GYPSOIL. What is GYPSOIL Video. Fertility tool. Soil amendment. How it works. Environmental impact. Economic impact study. Bulletin download. FAQs. Research library. Ask Our Agronomist. Close X. Reasons To Use. Midwest. Make Your Soil More Productive. Add sulfur. Increase profitability. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil biology. Testimonials. Sorghum Yield Winner. Iowa Customer Information. Research library. Midwest Territory Managers. Mid-South. Make your soils more productive. Add sulfur. Decrease erosion. Expand root zone. Increase water infiltration. Improve soil structure. Save nutrients. Foster healthy soil biology. Arkansas Study. Research library. Ask Our Agronomist. Mid-South Territory Managers...
http://gypsoil.com/improving-your-soil/midwest/what-does-gypsoil-do/expands-roots-zone
*  The Intertwining Importance Of Soil And Water Environmental Sciences Essay
UK essays. UK Essays. Essay Writing. Essay Writing Service. About UK Essays. As the first module within the Soil and Water Management SWM course, this module introduces basic physical, chemical and biological properties that affect agricultural soils. Understand relationships between soil chemical properties to exchange capacity, pH and salt-affected soils, and. Figure 1. Soil is comprised of minerals, soil organic matter SOM, water, and air Figure 1. Figure 2. Below the A horizon will be either an E horizon, usually not present in grassland/agricultural soils, or a B horizon, the horizon of accumulation. Colloids are an important soil fraction due to properties that make them the location of most physical and chemical activity in the soil. Granular structure is characteristic of many A horizons, particularly those with high SOM content and biological activity. Fine-textured soils are more tightly arranged and have more small micro pores Figure 6. Unlike texture, porosity and structure are not constant and ca...
http://ukessays.com/essays/environmental-sciences/the-intertwining-importance-of-soil-and-water-environmental-sciences-essay.php
*  Boron dynamics in alkaline calcareous soils and its availability under wheat-cotton cropping system
... - Pakistan Research Repository. Boron dynamics in alkaline calcareous soils and its availability under wheat-cotton cropping system. Niaz, Abid 2010 Boron dynamics in alkaline calcareous soils and its availability under wheat-cotton cropping system. Almost all the soils were calcareous in nature 92 % area, alkaline in reaction 83 % area had pH 8 and 100 % area had OM 1 %. Whereas, B concentration was more in tubewell waters as compared to that in canal waters. Field experiments were conducted at three different textured soils loam, sandy clay loam and silt loam. Foliar use of B 0.50 kg B ha-1 increased the seed cotton yield by 25.60 % over control on loamy soil followed by that on silt loam soil 23.80 %, however during the next year 2007, seed cotton yield mildly decreased compared to first year at the same B application level of 0.50 kg B ha-1 but it remained significantly higher than control by 8 and 21.50 % at loam and silt loam soil 23.80 %, respectively. Likewise, wheat crop significantly responded ...
http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/6923/
*  Spectral Estimation of Soil Properties in Siberian Tundra Soils and Relations with Plant Species Com
... position. Due to its large spatial extent and large stocks of soil organic carbon, changes to organic matter decomposition rates and associated carbon fluxes in Arctic permafrost soils will significantly impact the global carbon cycle. This analysis shows that variation of soil properties is large within vegetation classes, but vegetation composition can be used for qualitative estimation of soil properties. The objectives of this study are 1 to evaluate if reflectance spectroscopy operated in the field or in slightly controlled conditions can be successfully applied to assess soil properties that influence carbon turnover and vegetation development in a Siberian arctic tundra environment 2 to investigate the variation and distribution of major soil properties in this area, and 3 to investigate the relation between vegetation composition and soil properties of the organic layers and evaluate if plant species composition can be used as a proxy to estimate soil properties. are analyzed for pH, Total P, K, N...
http://hindawi.com/journals/aess/2012/241535/
*  .. Soil temperature is Important When Planting Tomatoes .. Post navigation .. Rate this: .. Share
Soil temperature is Important When Planting Tomatoes. by giant veggie gardener. Now is the time to start planting our tomatoes and other warm season veggies outside in our gardens. So often we concentrate on only the air temperature to decide when to plant these crops but the soil temperature is actually just as important. Tomatoes should be planted when the soil temperature reaches a minimum of 60°F in the daytime. If you plant too early in cold soil, tomato and pepper seedlings sulk and will not be happy. The plants could show phosphorus deficiency which shows up as stunted plants with purple leaves on the underside. The tomatoes will just sit there until the soil temperature is optimum. To measure the soil temperature, use a soil thermometer. I prefer using a compost thermometer because they are much longer, usually around 24″ and can be used to check both the temperature of my compost pile and the soil in my vegetable bed before I plant tomatoes. Remember to push it in deeper into your bed as the tomato ...
http://giantveggiegardener.com/2013/05/11/soil-temperature-is-important-when-planting-tomatoes/
*  Did the drought hurt the soil, as well as crop yields? | Sugar Producer Magazine
Did the drought hurt the soil, as well as crop yields. Did the drought hurt the soil, as well as crop yields. The Iowa State researchers reported that drought conditions, which were pervasive throughout their state, caused fracturing and cracking in the upper 6 to 15 inches of the soil, with the potential for deeper cracking depending on soil minerals and clay content. Al-Kaisi reports that soil management practices can improve the way water is stored in the soil, and when available for plants, it will reduce the impact of the drought. Such management practices will enhance the soil aggregation, water storage, water infiltration, and reduce potential erosion, all with management techniques:. Tillage of dry soil damages soil structure, and when moisture is available the moisture will not be held in the soil and will result in erosion. Surface residue retards erosion in heavy rain, and good residue will allow more water to enter and remain in the soil profile. Cover crops will protect soil from erosion, improve...
http://sugarproducer.com/2013/02/did-the-drought-hurt-the
*  The Role of Plant Functional Diversity and Soil Amendments in Regulating Plant Biomass and Soil Biog
... eochemistry in Restored Wetland Ecosystems in the North Carolina Piedmont. Duke Dissertations. Using data from the greenhouse and from the biodiversity and ecosystem function field experiment in Duke Forest, in Durham, NC, I examine how plant trait diversity, average plant traits, and environmental conditions influence nitrogen N removal from restored wetlands. Field data collected from a restored wetland in Charlotte, NC, enables me to examine how soil organic amendments influence the development of soil properties, processes, and plant communities. The first portion of my dissertation poses several hypotheses about how plant traits, plant trait diversity calculated as a multivariate measure of plant trait diversity, and environmental conditions are likely to influence two ecosystem functions, biomass N and denitrification potential DEA, and then examines these hypotheses in a restored wetland in the Piedmont of N.C. Soil inorganic N and soil organic matter also had positive effects on DEA. These results...
http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/620?show=full
*  Plants for Clay Soils
... The Lawn Life Lawn Fundamentals. Green is Good. A Better Lawn. Live The Lawn Life. Products Lawn Food. Grass Seed. Mulch Garden. Lawn Library Lawn Basics. Helpful Tools My Lawn Care Plan. Grass Seed Selector. Lawn Food Selector. Lawn Care Plan. Lawn Library. Grass & Grass Types. Lawn Care Tools. Plants for Clay Soils. The Good and Bad of Clay Clay soils are not always bad. Fortunately, you can find plants that thrive in clay soils and soil amendments that will help you grow a wider range of plants. Plants That Love Clay Often plants with taproots will grow well in clay and their roots help break up tough clay soils. Butterfly milkweed, bluestars, and Silphiums have deep tap roots that penetrate clay and that make the plants drought tolerant. Silphiums grow very tall and have yellow flowers. Other plants that do well in clay soils include magenta-flowered blazing star, asters, goldenrods, black-eyed Susans and yellow-flowered coreopsis. Shrubs for Clay You are not limited to perennials in clay soils eithe...
http://scotts.com/smg/goART2/InfoHowTo/plants-for-clay-soils/19400106/1700014/21300005/7800010
*  Solvita and Soil Health Testing
... Soil health is the key to improved productivity and better yields and Solvita® soil tests give you the ability to measure soil biology and evaluate your soil management practices. With Solvita soil tests, soil labs, growers and crop consultants have the capability to easily measure soil CO2 respiration and reserve organic nitrogen, important indicators of soil fertility. Indicator of soil health The rates of CO2 release is generally regarded as an indicator of Soil Health and is favorably improved with practices such as cover cropping, where the quality of soil is improved by building the organic matter through accumulation and decay of roots and plant litter. Indicator of soil nutrients Measure and evaluate the rate of carbon exchange, to estimate potential release of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus that are components of humus. 1 Field Test Testing on the Farm for the Grower or Crop Consultant: Easily measure basal CO2 respiration in the field with the Solvita Field Test . Now in just 24 hour...
http://solvita.com/soil
*  Cast Iron Soil Pipe - Manufacturers and Suppliers Taiwan China
Cast Iron Soil Pipe - Manufacturers and Suppliers Taiwan China. Cast,Iron,Soil,Pipe. Cast Iron Soil Pipe. Full List of Cast Iron Soil Pipe Manufacturers& Cast Iron Soil Pipe Suppliers in European Global & USA Asian. Main Products: ductile iron pipe , cast iron soil pipe , ductile iron pipe fittings. Product: cast iron drainage/soil pipes Hubless/socketless Cast Iron Soil/drainage Pipes has long been employed by the building industry as a reliable drainage system, widely used in sanitary Drain, Waste,...,cast iron pipe, ductile iron pipe cast iron pipe ,cast iron soil pipes , cast iron drainage pipes ,sml pipe, cast iron pipe fittings , EN877, ISO6594, cast iron pipes , cast iron sewer pipes , China Cast Iron Soil Pipe Manufacturers ... Main Products: cast iron pipe , cast iron pipe fittings , cast iron pipes. Product: cast iron pipe ASTM A888 EN877 ISO6594 KSD4307,cast iron pipe,cast iron soil pipe,steel pipe, Taiwan, ROC. Cast Iron Soil Pipe Manufacturers ... Main Products: cast iron pipe , steel pipe , cast...
http://twfta.com/manufacturer/278555/cast_iron_soil_pipe.htm
*  What is Silt Soil?
What is Silt Soil. Login. Members. Plants Articles Questions Gardens Business Members. Members. Gardenality.com. Terminology What is Silt Soil. Login Sign Up. Updates Hi. What is Silt Soil. by Brent Wilson. Terminology. 0 Comments April 04, 2011 33,648 views 3 Green Thumbs Up You Rate It: Thumbs Up. What is Silt Soil. Silt soil is finer than sand, but still feels gritty. Silt soil is similar to loam soil but contains smaller ratios of both sand and clay particles. Silt soil feels smooth and silky. Silt soil retains water well but may drain slowly depending on the exact clay-silt-sand ratio. Because of this, gardeners usually amend silt soil, mixing in mulches, fertilizers, drainage assistance particles, such as sand, or other soil additives to solve drainage issues and provide the proper growth medium for most plants. Amending Silt Soil When amending silt soil, till to a depth of at least 1 foot. Then add a layer any soil amendments over the tilled soil. While silt-based soils work fine for most gardeners, sm...
http://gardenality.com/Articles/756/Resources/Terminology/What-is-Silt-Soil/default.html
*  Soil Management Research : 2001 Reprints
... ARS Home. About ARS. ARS Research. You are here: Midwest Area Home / Soil Management Research / Services / 2001 Reprints. Reprints. 2001 Reprints. Forcella. PDF: 7K. Archer, David W., Frank Forcella, James J. Archer, David W. PDF: 304 K. Archer, D.W., D.L. American Society of Agronomy Abstract a08-tanaka205125-P ASA, Madison, WI. Voorhees and J.B. Quanitfying the Spatial Patterns of Soil Redistribution and Soil Quality on two Contrasting Hillslopes.. Selected papers from the 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting. Spatial variability of soil erosion and soil quality on hillslopes in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Conservation Management Effects on Soil Erosion Reduction in the Sichuan Basin, China. In: Preferential Flow: Water movement and chemical transport in the Environment. Factors Affecting Microbial Formation of Nitrate-N in Soil and Their Effect on Fertilizer-N Use Efficience. Effect of Vanadium and Nutrient Ionic Ratios on Growth and Development of Cuphea. Factors affecting microbi...
http://ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=11967
*  ARS | Publication request: Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on
ARS. Publication request: Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on plant establishment ARS : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. National Programs. International Programs. Scientific Software/Models. Related Topics Programs and Projects. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. ARS International Research Partnerships. Title: Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on plant establishment Authors. Hansen, Nicole - NEW MEXICO STAT UNIV. Submitted to: Ecological Society of America Abstracts Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: July 15, 2008 Publication Date: August 3, 2008 Citation: Herrick, J.E., Peters, D.C., Hansen, N.K., Ritchie, J.C., Monger, H., Okin, G.S. Application of soil physical models to predict soil deposition effects on plant establishment. Ecological Society of America Abstracts. Technical Abstract: Soil erosion and deposit...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=230389&pf=1
*  .. Search .. Blog Categories .. Login .. Archives by Date .. Good clay soil has great structure! ..
February 2015 1. February 2014 2. February 2013 3. February 2012 2. February 2011 1. February 2010 2. Good clay soil has great structure. What is good soil. Good soil structure can compensate for less than ideal clay soil. Good Soil Structure. Soils with good structure: have crumble, porous, fine, subangular and subrounded aggregates with no or little clods. Soils with poor structure: High proportion on coarse clods and very few fine aggregates. But how do we improve structure in clay soils? The traditional answer is “add organic matter. Calcium:Magnesium ratio. William Albrecht, Michael Astera, Steve Solomon and Erica Reinheimer all suggest first checking the calcium Ca to magnesium Mg ratio. “Magnesium’s effect is amazingly powerful when the soil has a lot of clay in it, even ten percent clay and too much magnesium can make soil become rock hard and airless, even if it has had heaps of organic matter put into it,” says Steve Solomon. The ratio of Ca to Mg has as much or more effect on the soil’s ...
http://therealgardener.com/blog/building-soil/good-clay-soil-great-structure
*  Subaqueous soil
thumb|Example of a subaqueous soil landscape map of Ninigret Pond, Charlestown, Rhode Island, USA 'Subaqueous soils' are soils formed in sediment found in shallow, permanently flooded environments or soils in any areas permanently covered by water too deep for the growth of rooted plants. The study of subaqueous soils is a relatively new field in Pedology or soil science. The concept that sediments in shallow water environments undergo soil-forming processes, are capable of supporting rooted plants such as Eelgrass, and meet the definition of soil according to criteria in Soil Taxonomy has been moving soil scientists into a new frontier of soil survey – mapping subaqueous soils. Subaqueous and Submerged Soils Significance of Subaqueous Soils Subaqueous Soil Survey. Nitrogen Dynamics in Submerged Soil. Subaqueous and Submerged Soils. The depth range of the water column where these soils may be found is not known, an arbitrary depth of 2.5 meters below the surface has been set for soil survey inventory but some...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subaqueous_soil
*  Soil Conditioner and Soil Amendment - Natural Solution for Poor Soil
Pond Bacteria. Pond Keeper. Pond Plants. Water Conditioners. Humic Acid. Septic Tank Treatment. Soil Conditioner. Agriculture Sections. Humic Acid. Soil Conditioner. Commercial Disinfectants Grease Trap Maintenance Mold Killers Septic Tank Treatment. Wastewater. Wastewater Sections. Industrial Wastewater. Septic Tank Treatment. Agriculture TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. Temporarily Out of Stock TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria is a natural soil conditioner, bio-catalyst and bio-stimulant for plants designed to improve soil structure, add organic matter, increase nutrient uptake, and stimulate microbial growth. TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria soil conditioner contains a blend of highly concentrated humus and humic acid compounds derived from one of the purest forms of leonardite in the world, along with 4 strains of beneficial soil bacteria. Soil microbes are also valuable in stabilizing the soil structure. Soils with poor structure often prevent the necessary amounts of w...
http://naturalenviro.com/productinfo.php?sku=TV-HAB
*  Soil Conditioner and Soil Amendment - Natural Solution for Poor Soil
Pond Bacteria. Pond Keeper. Pond Plants. Water Conditioners. Humic Acid. Septic Tank Treatment. Soil Conditioner. Agriculture Sections. Humic Acid. Soil Conditioner. Commercial Disinfectants Grease Trap Maintenance Mold Killers Septic Tank Treatment. Wastewater. Wastewater Sections. Industrial Wastewater. Septic Tank Treatment. Agriculture TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. TerraVive - Soil Conditioner. Temporarily Out of Stock TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria is a natural soil conditioner, bio-catalyst and bio-stimulant for plants designed to improve soil structure, add organic matter, increase nutrient uptake, and stimulate microbial growth. TerraVive Humic Acid + Soil Bacteria soil conditioner contains a blend of highly concentrated humus and humic acid compounds derived from one of the purest forms of leonardite in the world, along with 4 strains of beneficial soil bacteria. Soil microbes are also valuable in stabilizing the soil structure. Soils with poor structure often prevent the necessary amounts of w...
http://naturalenviro.com/productinfo.php?sku=TV-HAB&surl=soil-conditioner
*  Dr Paul Hargreaves - SRUC
... Back Dr Paul Hargreaves. About SRUC. SAC Consulting. Veterinary Services. Rural Policy Centre. Scotland s Rural College About SRUC. Aberdeen Conference Centre. Media Centre News. Events. Media Services. Research Publications. Research News. Animal Veterinary Sciences Monogastric Science Research Centre. Crop Soils Systems Crop Science. Crop Protection. Soil Science Systems. Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure. Future Farming Systems Carbon Management Centre. Beef Sheep Research Centre. Dairy Research Centre. Smarter Livestock Farming. Farm Management. Food Marketing. Policy Analysis. Facilities Services Conference Event Facilities. Dr Paul Hargreaves Research Interests Soil Structure and Soil Compaction Soil Processes Greenhouse Gas Emissions/Atmospheric Chemistry Grassland Quality. Soil compaction – Effects of soil compaction on grassland yield, greenhouse gas emissions N2O and alleviation of soil structure through surface spiking and sward lifting. Development and production of tools for the visual ass...
http://sruc.ac.uk/phargreaves
*  Testing Soil Fertility for Greater Profits | GEMPLER'S
Products. New Products. Product Support. Contact Us. Customer Service. Product Support. Testing Soil Fertility. By testing soil fertility, you can see what your plants are getting and what they are not, allowing you to adjust for soil nutrient deficiencies. However, most soils don't contain the right amounts of all of the nutrients needed. Testing Your Soil. The lab will want to know what crop or ornamental plants are present or intended for the soil to be tested. Different types of plants will "use up" more or less amounts of specific nutrients during the season. Organic Matter Matters. Like pH, the organic matter content of your soil can influence whether or not nutrients are available to your plants. Organic matter holds nutrients in the soil by reducing leaching. An ideal range for most soils is between 3 percent and 5 percent organic matter. Sandy soils will have less, and clay or silty soils may have more. Organic matter is continually being used up, including its breakdown into nitrogen, sulfur and oth...
http://gemplers.com/tech/soilfertility.htm
*  Soil Conservation - The Permaculture Research Institute
... Skip to main content Stop slideshow. Home Store Forums Global Volunteer Courses Cart Search Search for:. Category: Soil Conservation Food Sovereignty September 28, 2015 by Paul Taylor filed under Education, General, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation ‘Food sovereignty’ is fast becoming a lost concept; the right to have the knowledge and resources to grow our own food is an essential right. If we don’t have access to nutrient dense organic food, then where do we get the essential energy to heal our body, mind and spirit certainly not from the supermarket where the average ‘fresh food’, in Australia food often travels more than 1000klms from farm. Read More. Shares. Comments. Soil Degradation: Another Carbon Story June 11, 2015 by Col Freeman filed under General, Soil, Soil Biology, Soil Composition, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Structure Soil degradation can be a depressing topic. It is generally accepted that the decline in soil quality across Australi...
http://permaculturenews.org/category/soil/soil-conservation/
*  Simulated impacts of soil erosion on regional carbon balance of continental China
... Tuesday, August 7, 2007 - 4:20 PM COS 39-9: Simulated impacts of soil erosion on regional carbon balance of continental China. Soil erosion has been known to cause land degradation and excessive carbon and nutrient loss, hence to decrease in regional net ecosystem carbon balance. In this study, we adopted a biogeochemistry model, TESim, to simulate the impact of soil erosion on regional net ecosystem carbon balance of continental. China. The model incorporates physiological traits of plant functional types and runoff-induced soil erosion and carbon loss into the general production-partition-littering-decomposition processes coupled with water and nitrogen cycles. The model was parameterized with large amount of field NPP and biomass data, and was tested against long-term observations on soil water dynamics and biomass dynamics in 25 sites at watershed and patch scales. The simulation indicates that soil erosion caused severe carbon loss on crop areas with small belowground biomass and low aboveground veg...
http://eco.confex.com/eco/2007/techprogram/P5803.HTM
*  List of vineyard soil types
Often contains gravel, sand and silt. Basalt - Volcanic rock that is high in calcium, iron, and magnesium. Calcareous soil - Alkaline soil with high levels of calcium and Magnesium carbonate. Typically cool in temperature soil that provides good water retention and drainage. 'Calcareous clay' soils have high limestone content that neutralizes natural acidity of the soil. It provides good drainage and works best for grapes with high acidity levels. Clay - Sedimentary rock based soil that has good water retention ability but poor drainage. Flint - Siliceous stone that reflects and retains heat well. It is the main soil type of the Brand region of Alsace. Gravel - Loose siliceous pebble soil that has good drainage but poor fertility. Wine made from vines produces on clay gravel beds have less acidity than those planted on limestone gravel beds. The water retention abilities vary from composition but limestone is consistently alkaline and is generally planted with grapes of high acidity levels. This is the main s...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_vineyard_soil_types
*  Study finds greenhouse gas reduction strategy may be safe for soil animals | Science Codex
Study finds greenhouse gas reduction strategy may be safe for soil animals. Science Codex. Home Earth Heavens Body Brain Culture Tech. Study finds greenhouse gas reduction strategy may be safe for soil animals Posted By News On June 1, 2011 - 4:30pm. A new study has found that an emerging tool for combating climate change may cause less harm to some soil animals than initial studies suggested. Earthworms perform many essential and beneficial functions in the soil ecosystem, including soil structure improvement and nutrient mineralization. A Baylor University geology researcher, along with scientists from Rice University, tested a new soil additive called biochar for its effects on the common earthworm. The researchers found that wetting the biochar before applying it to the soil mitigates the harmful effects of biochar to earthworms and the earthworms' avoidance of soil with biochar. "The results show us that depending on rainfall patterns and irrigation, wetting biochar either before or immediately after soi...
http://sciencecodex.com/study_finds_greenhouse_gas_reduction_strategy_may_be_safe_for_soil_animals
*  Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry 98 edition, V. P. Evangelou (9780471165156) - Textbooks.com
Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry 98 edition, V. P Evangelou 9780471165156 - Textbooks.com. Help. Help. My Account. Contact Us. Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry. Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry - 98 edition ISBN13: 978-0471165156 by V. Author bio. Very Good. Good. Summary This book presents soil and water chemistry from the environmental point of view, reviewing all the fundamental principles of chemistry required for understanding the soil/water chemistry/quality and soil/water treatments of chemically polluted soils and waters. Author Bio Evangelou, V. P EVANGELOU, Ph.D., is Professor of Soil and Water Chemistry at the University of Kentucky. Jackson Award from the Soil Science Society and the Senior Fulbright Award, he is the author of Pyrite Oxidation and Its Control. Soil Minerals and Surface Chemical Properties. Soil Minerals and Their Surface Properties. Pyrite Oxidation Chemistry. Colloids and Transport Processes In Soils. Soil Colloids and Water-Suspended Solids. Water and Solute Tr...
http://textbooks.com/Environmental-Soil-and-Water-Chemistry-98-Edition/9780471165156/V-P-Evangelou-and-Bill-Evangelou.php
*  Wikipedia:WikiProject Soil/Stubs
wikipedia wikiproject soil stubs wikipedia wikiproject soil stubs for a list of tagged articles see for a list of soil articles yet to be started see wikipedia wikiproject soil needed agri stubs biology stubs ecology stub environment stub geo term stub geol stubs industry stub organic chem stub org stub sci stubs topography stubs notes agri stubs acrisol article subject fully within soil science agricultural soil science branch of soil science has its own category under soil science alcrete article subject fully within soil science curve number also a physics stub and a geology stub clearly within soil science applications extend beyond physics geology and agriculture erosion control also an engineering stub clearly within soil science applications extend beyond engineering and agriculture fertile soil article subject fully within soil science applications beyond agriculture liming article subject fully within soil science applications beyond agriculture soil conditioner article subject fully within soil scie...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Soil/Stubs
*  No way to till out of soil problem | Management content from Delta Farm Press
No way to till out of soil problem. Management content from Delta Farm Press. Register Log In. Advertisement. It is important to understand there is no single tillage tool, crop or management practice that will solve a soil quality problem. Building soil quality means managing the entire farming system tillage and planting practices, cropping systems and rotations, harvest and traffic patterns. You cannot till, nor can you no-till your way out of a soil quality problem. Additional organic inputs such as crop residue, manure and cover crops are needed to increase organic matter and water holding capacity, improve aggregate stability and water infiltration and build soil quality in many other ways. Cropping systems that reduce tillage intensity, incorporate cover crops when practical and make efficient use of manure or other organic inputs in the crop rotation can build soil quality and productivity and protect the environment in many ways. What is soil quality. Soil quality brings together the physical, chemic...
http://deltafarmpress.com/management/no-way-till-out-soil-problem
*  ARS | Publication request: IMPACTS OF COTTON AND PEANUT ROTATIONS ON A SANDY SOIL: ORGANIC MATTER,
Publication request: IMPACTS OF COTTON AND PEANUT ROTATIONS ON A SANDY SOIL: ORGANIC MATTER, AGGREGATE STABILITY, MICROBIAL BIOMASS, MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION, AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: IMPACTS OF COTTON AND PEANUT ROTATIONS ON A SANDY SOIL: ORGANIC MATTER, AGGREGATE STABILITY, MICROBIAL BIOMASS, MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION, AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES. Impacts of cotton and peanut rotations on a sandy soil: organic matter, aggregate stability, microbial biomass, microbial community composition, and enzyme activities. Soil surface samples 0-12.5 cm were taken in March and June 2002 from PtPt at 75% evapotranspiration ET irrigation, and from CtCt and PtCt at 50, 75 and 100% ET irrigation. The soil properties investigated were not affected by irrigation. The soil total N and aggregate stability were not affected by crop rotations. In all the samplings, the soil organic C, the activities of beta-glucosidase, beta-glucosaminidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline p...
https://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=148450
*  Soil gas
... 'Soil gases' are the gases found in the air space between soil components. The primary natural soil gases include nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen. Pierzynski, Gary M., and J. T Sims. 'Soils and Environmental Quality'. Boca Raton: Lewis, 1994. Print. The oxygen is critical because it allows for respiration of both plant root s and soil organisms. Other natural soil gases are atmospheric methane and radon. Some environmental contaminants below ground produce gas which diffuses through the soil such as from landfill wastes, mining activities, and contamination by petroleum hydrocarbon s which produce volatile organic compound s. Nathanail, Judith, and Paul Bardos. 'Contaminated Land Management: Ready Reference'. Nottingham: Land Quality :, 2002. 44. Print. Soil gases can diffuse into buildings, the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes cancer and methane which can be flammable at only 4.4% concentration. Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drain...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_gas
*  Spreading Top Soil - Landscaping & Lawn Care - DIY Chatroom Home Improvement Forum
Spreading Top Soil - Landscaping Lawn Care - DIY Chatroom Home Improvement Forum. Landscaping. Best Entries. Best Blogs. Search Blogs. DIY Chatroom Home Improvement Forum. Landscaping Lawn Care. spreading top soil. Articles Rewards Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Thread Tools Display Modes. Join Date: Sep 2005 Posts: 71 Rewards Points: 75. View THEBIGPUNN's Album. spreading top soil. there are high spots, low spots and hard gravely dirt. i was planning on getting a big load of top soil and spreading it all over to even out the lawn. what kind of lawn implement will work best to spread the top soil. Join Date: Jun 2007 Posts: 334 Rewards Points: 250. View SecretSquirrel's Album. spreading top soil. Depending on how big the yard is, you could rent a compact utility tractor that has a front end loader and a box scrape. The box scrape is commonly used to taper off high spots, move small amounts of dirt around, and the scarifiers tines can rip up the yard if need be. The front end loader can quickly scoop u...
http://diychatroom.com/f16/spreading-top-soil-10260/
*  Fall soil compaction... | Corn Production | Agriculture
Fall soil compaction... Corn Production. Machinery Insider. News. Crops news Livestock news Policy news Business news Technology news Markets. Crops. Corn Soybeans Wheat Cotton Other Crops Organic Farming Fertilizers Pesticides Grain storage Tillage Renewable Energy Crop Tech Corn High Yield Team Cover Crops Agronomy Insider. Farm Management. Markets Crops Machinery Livestock Farm Management Family and Farm Safety Weather Products Successful Farming. Successful Farming editors Farm Business Farm Production Farm Family Machinery Show. Home / Crops / Corn / Corn Production / Fall soil compaction can create spring planting problems. Fall soil compaction can create spring planting problems. Agriculture.com Staff 10/04/2015 @ 7:49am. As eastern Corn Belt farmers harvest their corn and soybeans during what is turning out in states like Ohio to be the wettest fall in at least three years, an Ohio State University specialist reminds them to keep in mind the one thing that could negatively impact next year's crops: so...
http://agriculture.com/crops/corn/production/Fall-soil-compaction-can-create-spring-planting-problems_137-ar1669
*  .. Vermicompost And How To Use It
Vermicompost And How To Use It. By. admin. 0 Comment. Follow. How to Use Vermicompost. The whole purpose of your wormery is to get vermicompost, that rich fertilizer considered by many to the be the “black gold” of gardening. A small amount about 60 ml of vermicompost in one planting hole should make a considerable difference in plant health. You can also mix it in with the existing topsoil of houseplants and in gardens once or twice a year to boost growth. It can be used for yards, rosebushes, and other landscaping growth, as well, though it does best when placed close to the roots. Many people also choose to make “vermicompost tea” for use as a spray or liquid application. This is a watered down version of vermicompost, and it can be easily applied over large areas with a sprayer. Companies sell compost tea makers, which can be used with vermicompost, or you can make your own. In most cases, making tea means you simply “steep” the vermicompost in water for up to two weeks to yield a rich, liquid...
http://gardenwormeryguide.com/vermicompost-and-how-to-use-it/
*  Soil ecology
... 'Soil ecology' is the study of the interactions among soil organisms, and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil environment. Overview Features of the ecosystem Soil food web Research References Bibliography External links. Storing skeletons have been evolved in both land plants and animals and also special means of locomotion have been evolved in the latter. Soil, not air, is the source of highly variable nutrients; it is a highly developed ecological subsystem. Soil food web. soil food web. An incredible diversity of organisms make up the soil food web. As these organisms eat, grow, and move through the soil, they make it possible to have clean water, clean air, healthy plants, and moderated water flow. They sequester nitrogen and other nutrients that might otherwise enter groundwater, and they fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making it available to plants. Example research projects are to examine the biogeochemistry and microbial ecology of septic drain field soils used to treat domestic wast...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_ecology
*  Soil Bulk Density
... , r b, is defined as the ratio of dry soil mass to bulk soil volume including pore spaces. Just as soil is a combination of soil minerals, organic matter, and air- or water-filled pores, so soil bulk density is a weighted average of the densities of its components:. It is also an essential piece of information for converting laboratory chemical data, which is commonly expressed on a per unit mass basis e.g., mg Ca per kg soil, to volume or area x depth units kg Ca per ha in the 0-30 cm layer. When calculating bulk density, it is necessary to know whether the mass of soil the numerator of the fraction should include the total soil or just the 2 mm or “fine earth” fraction; the same is true for soil volume in the denominator. Total mass / total volume would be most useful for construction or engineering applications, where the total mass of material is important. Since all chemical analyses are done on the fine fraction, fine mass / total volume would allow you to convert directly to an area basis for water...
http://cfr.washington.edu/Classes.esrm.410/bulk density.htm
*  How to keep your soil healthy : Simply and Successful Vegetable Farming: University of Minnesota Ext
... ension. University of Minnesota Extension www.extension.umn.edu 612-624-1222. Go to the U of M Extension home page. Commercial Horticulture Commercial Fruit and Vegetable Production. Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships. Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships. Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships. Commercial growers Commercial Fruit and Vegetable Production. Simple and Successful Vegetable Farming How to keep your soil healthy How to keep your soil healthy Copyright 2013 Regents of the University of Minnesota. To keep your soil healthy, remember to: Use well-drained soil Avoid soil erosion Stay off wet soil Add compost to improve your soil Have your soil tested Apply recommended fertilizer and lime rate. Stay off wet soil Driving on wet soil will pack soil down and push out the air and water will not pass through the soil. Adding compost to your...
http://extension.umn.edu/Garden/fruit-vegetable/simple-successful/healthy-soil-english/
*  .. How grazing sheep affect soil quality
How grazing sheep affect soil quality. An Agricultural Research Service ARS scientist is giving guidance to growers in Montana and the Dakotas on how grazing sheep when fields are left fallow will affect soil quality. While fertilizers increased yields, they also have increased nitrogen runoff and leaching, made soils more acidic, and contributed to greenhouse gas emissions, according to ARS soil scientist Upendra Sainju in Sidney, Mont. Growers looking for alternatives have turned once again to grazing sheep during seasons when fields are left fallow. The trend in Montana and North Dakota prompted Sainju and his ARS colleagues to study the grazing’s effects on crop quality, soil chemistry, and amounts of nutrients in the soil. Sainju and his colleagues set up three cropping systems continuous spring wheat, spring wheat-fallow, and winter wheat-fallow in southwestern Montana. Over four years, sheep were grazed at rates of up to 153 sheep per hectare 2.47 acres, glyphosate was applied at standard rates, and ...
http://takingstock.asas.org/?p=7328
*  Pre-plant soil testing for small grains
... Pre-plant soil sampling is critical for profitable crop production. Soil analysis can help decide the pre-plant fertilizer application, whereas plant tissue analysis is appropriate for post-plant N application decisions. In most areas ofArizona, growers especially should pay attention to nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Pre-plant soil sampling is critical for profitable crop production. Soil analysis can help decide the pre-plant fertilizer application, whereas plant tissue analysis is appropriate for post-plant N application decisions. In a uniform field, a composite sample consisting of at least 20 representative soil cores should be collected from the top six inches of the soil. The more soil cores taken mean the more representative the sample will be for the field. When the field is not uniform or if the field is larger than 40 acres, divide the field into sections and take soil samples from each section for possible individual management decisions. After soil samples are collected, spread the soil on...
http://westernfarmpress.com/print/management/pre-plant-soil-testing-small-grains
*  Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips - Springer
... Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips. Affiliated with Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Missouri. To test the hypothesis that agroforestry buffers reduce runoff by increased infiltration, water use, and water storage; profile water content and soil water infiltration were measured for a Putnam soil fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Albaqualf. Keywords Automated water content sensors Corn-soybean rotation Green-Ampt equation Oak-grass-birdsfoot trefoil buffers Parlange equation Saturated hydraulic conductivity. Share Share this content on Facebook Share this content on Twitter Share this content on LinkedIn. CrossRef. Blanco-Canqui H, Gantzer CJ, Anderson SH, Alberts EE, Ghidey F 2002 Saturated hydraulic conductivity and its impact on simulated runoff for claypan soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1596–1602. CrossRef. J Environ Qual 25:584–593. CrossRef. CrossRef. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1477–1487. CrossRef. CrossRef. CrossRef. Soil Sci 84:257–264 Rac...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10457-008-9128-3
*  Soil- Components Of Soil Or Phases Of Soil
... Principles of Agronomy. Weed Management. Current Category. Principles of Agronomy Soil- Components Of Soil Or Phases Of Soil Minerals soils consist of 4 major components: Mineral materials, OM, water and air in various proportions. Approximately 50% of the total volume of the surface horizon of many soils is made up of inorganic Materials mineral matter and OM 5% and the remaining volume is per space between the soil particles. Water and air occupy these pore spaces in various proportions. The soil may be described as the three phase system: Soil solid, Liquid and gaseous phase. Soils having more than 20% of org. Where inorganic constituents dominate, they are called mineral soils. It accounts for nearly 50% of the total volume and 95% without of the solid phase is made up of inorganic or mineral matter. The humus and humus like fractions of the solid phase constitute the soil organic matter. Soil is the habitat for enormous number of living organisms like roots of higher plants Soil Macro flora, bacteri...
http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=1&topicid=367
*  Development and application of a soil organic matter-based soil quality index in mineralized terrane
... of the Western US - Forest Service Research Development. Forest Service National Links Forest Service Home Employment Fire and Aviation International Forestry Just for Kids Maps and Brochures Passes and Permits Photo and Video Gallery Publications Recreational Activities Research and Development State and Private Forestry. All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel and are in the public domain. US Forest Service P.O. Title: Development and application of a soil organic matter-based soil quality index in mineralized terrane of the Western US. Primarily developed in agroecosytems, then forested ecosystems, an index using the relation between soil organic matter and other key soil properties in more semi-arid systems of the Western US impacted by different geologic mineralization was developed. Eight different microbial parameters carbon substrate utilization, microbial biomass-C, mineralized-C, mineralized-N and enzyme activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphata...
http://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/42160
*  Soil type
... thumb soil types in terms of soil texture soil type usually refers to the different sizes of mineral particles in a particular sample soil is made up in part of finely ground rock particles grouped according to size as sand and silt in addition to clay organic material such as decomposed plant matter each component and their size play an important role for example the largest particles sand determine aeration and drainage characteristics while the tiniest sub microscopic clay particles are chemically active binding with water and plant nutrient s the ratio of these sizes determines soil type clay loam clay loam silt loam and so on in addition to the mineral composition of soil humus organic material also plays an important role in soil characteristics and fertility for plant life soil may be mixed with larger aggregate such as pebbles or gravel not all types of soil are permeable such as pure clay there are many recognized soil classification s both international and national see also pedodiversity soil ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_type

Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.PyromorphitePeat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.BiodegradationOrganic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.EcosystemExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Nitrogen deficiencyManure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.Dasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Phytoextraction process: Phytoextraction is a subprocess of phytoremediation in which plants remove dangerous elements or compounds from soil or water, most usually heavy metals, metals that have a high density and may be toxic to organisms even at relatively low concentrations.http://www.Humic acid: Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus), peat and coal. It is also a major organic constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water.Coles PhillipsPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Warner OlandLumbricus rubellus: Lumbricus rubellus is a species of earthworm that is related to Lumbricus terrestris. It is usually reddish brown or reddish violet, iridescent dorsally, and pale yellow ventrally.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Clavibacter michiganensis: Clavibacter michiganensis is an aerobic non-sporulating Gram-positive plant pathogenic actinomycete that currently constitutes the only species within the genus Clavibacter. The other former Clavibacter species have been reclassified to genera Leifsonia, Rathayibacter and Curtobacterium.Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Smith Act): The Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Irrigation Smith Act) authorized the federal government to serve as the guarantor of debt obligations entered into by local governments to finance the acquisition, extension, or operation of irrigation, drainage, and flood control projects or to develop power generation facilities or water resources.Human impact on the nitrogen cycleCarbon fixation: Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. The most prominent example is photosynthesis, although chemosynthesis is another form of carbon fixation that can take place in the absence of sunlight.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Aerobic denitrification: Aerobic denitrification or co-respiration the simultaneous use of both oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO3−) as oxidizing agents, performed by various genera of microorganisms. This process differs from anaerobic denitrification not only in its insensitivity to the presence of oxygen, but also in that it has a higher potential to create the harmful byproduct nitrous oxide.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Sidewalk chalk: Sidewalk chalk are typically large colored (and sometimes white or cream) sticks of chalk (calcium sulfate rather than rock chalk, calcium carbonate) mostly used for drawing on pavement or cement sidewalk. It is sometimes used by children to draw a four square court or a hopscotch board.Chromotropic acidCalifornia coastal salt marsh: California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego. This salt marsh type is found in bays, harbors, inlets, and other protected areas subject to tidal flooding.Nitrogen trichlorideNational Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.Pseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.Carbon dioxide removal: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods refers to a number of technologies which reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Among such technologies are bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, direct air capture, ocean fertilization and enhanced weathering.Herbicide: Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.Phosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4−).Adlercreutzia: Adlercreutzia is a genus in the phylum Actinobacteria (Bacteria).Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Heptadecanoic acidTransfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Zetaproteobacteria: The class Zetaproteobacteria is the sixth and most recently described class of the Proteobacteria. Zetaproteobacteria can also refer to the group of organisms assigned to this class.PrinomastatLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Calcium aluminosilicate: Calcium aluminosilicate, an aluminosilicate compound with calcium cations, most typically has formula CaAl2Si2O8.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

(1/2707) Evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. II. Stability in soil.

The effect of paddy soils on mycobacillin and versicolin was investigated. Soil inactivated mycobacillin as determined by spectral analysis and microbiological assay. Soil can inactive mycobacillin only at or above the threshold concentration (125 approximately 130 mug per 10 mg of soil), the excess being unreacted. No new peak appears in the ultraviolet spectrum (240 approximately 300 nm) while mycobacillin is inactivated. Soil is without any effect on versicolin.  (+info)

(2/2707) Metabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate by a soil bacterium.

Studies on threo-beta-methylmalate metabolism in a soil bacterium of the genus Bacillus which can utilize threo-beta-methylmalate as a sole carbon source were carried out. When DL-threo-beta-methylmalate was incubated with a cell-free extract of the bacterium, citramalate was found to be formed. Similarly, formation of threo-beta-methylmalate from DL-citramalate was confirmed. These dicarbosylic acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Examination of inducibility, substrate specificity, and cofactor requirement of the enzymes involved in the reactions showed the existence of two interconversion reactions between the threo-beta-methylmalate and citramalate. One was an interconversion reaction between L-threo-beta-methylmalate and L-citramalate via mesaconate and the other was an interconversion reaction between D-threo-beta-methylmalate and D-citramalate via citraconate. These reactions were both reversible and were catalyzed by distinct and inducible enzymes. It is suggested that the two reactions participate in the catabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate.  (+info)

(3/2707) Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia.

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitism is common among children in developing countries, but the risk factors for infection are not well characterized. METHODS: A stool examination was performed on 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from three rural villages in Guinea, Africa. Information collected by questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between geophagia and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired by ingestion versus skin penetration. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of children were infected by at least one type of soil-transmitted nematode. Geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43%, of children ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the two orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) than it did the infection pattern for the two soil-transmitted nematodes that infect by skin penetration (hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that geophagia is an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections in African children. Education regarding geophagia prevention should be an integral component of any soil-transmitted parasite control programme.  (+info)

(4/2707) Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

(5/2707) Use of a sentinel system for field measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste.

A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laboratory experiments indicated that temperatures between 35 and 50 degrees C and decreases in soil water potential (-0.003 to -3.20 MPa) increased oocyst inactivation rates. The effects of two common animal waste management practices on oocyst survival were investigated on three dairy farms in Delaware County, N.Y., within the New York City watershed: (i) piling wastes from dairy youngstock (including neonatal calves) and (ii) spreading wastes as a soil amendment on an agricultural field. Sentinel containers filled with air-dried and sieved (2-mm mesh) youngstock waste or field soil were wetted and inoculated with 2 million oocysts in an aqueous suspension and then placed in waste piles on two different farms and in soil within a cropped field on one farm. Controls consisted of purified oocysts in either phosphate-buffered saline or distilled water contained in sealed microcentrifuge tubes. Two microdata loggers recorded the ambient temperature at each field site. Sentinel experiments were conducted during the fall and winter (1996 to 1997) and winter (1998). Sentinel containers and controls were removed at 2- to 4-week intervals, and oocysts were extracted and tested by the dye permeability assay. The proportions of potentially infective oocysts exposed to the soil and waste pile material decreased more rapidly than their counterpart controls exposed to buffer or water, indicating that factors other than temperature affected oocyst inactivation in the waste piles and soil. The effect of soil freeze-thaw cycles was evident in the large proportion of empty sentinel oocysts. The potentially infective sentinel oocysts were reduced to <1% while the proportions in controls did not decrease below 50% potentially infective during the first field experiment. Microscopic observations of empty oocyst fragments indicated that abrasive effects of soil particles were a factor in oocyst inactivation. A similar pattern was observed in a second field experiment at the same site.  (+info)

(6/2707) The growth of demand will limit output growth for food over the next quarter century.

The rate of growth of world food demand will be much slower for 1990-2010 than it was for the prior three decades. The major factor determining the increase in food demand is population growth. Income growth has a much smaller effect. From 1960 to 1990, population growth accounted for approximately three fourths of the growth in demand or use of grain. For 1990-2010, it is anticipated that population growth will account for nearly all of the increase in world demand for grain. The rate of population growth from 1990 to 2020 is projected to be at an annual rate of 1.3% compared with 1.9% for 1960 to 1990-a decline of more than 30%. World per capita use of grain will increase very little-perhaps by 4%. The increase in grain use is projected to be 40% less than in 1960-1990. It is anticipated that real grain prices will decline during the period, although not nearly as much as the 40% decline in the previous three decades. Concern has been expressed concerning the deterioration of the quality and productivity of the world's farmland. A study for China and Indonesia indicates that there has been no significant change in the productive capacity of the land over the past 50 years. Contrary to numerous claims, the depth of the topsoil has not changed, indicating that erosion has had little or no impact.  (+info)

(7/2707) Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.  (+info)

(8/2707) Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming.

Alternative agriculture, which expands the uses of plants well beyond food and fiber, is beginning to change plant biology. Two plant-based biotechnologies were recently developed that take advantage of the ability of plant roots to absorb or secrete various substances. They are (i) phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (ii) rhizosecretion, a subset of molecular farming, designed to produce and secrete valuable natural products and recombinant proteins from roots. Here we discuss recent advances in these technologies and assess their potential in soil remediation, drug discovery, and molecular farming.  (+info)


What kinds of ways have been developed to grow food, other than using soil in the ground?


What kinds of ways have been developed to grow food, other than using soil in the ground? Are there other substances in which food can grow? Are there methods that harm the environment less than traditional growing methods? How do these new methods work? Are they more or less efficient than growing food in soil?
----------

Rather than growing plants in soil, you can grow them in a liquid medium, typically water with added minerals. The term for this is hydroponics. It has been suggested that hydroponics might be used in space facilities both to grow food as well as replenish the oxygen in the air/remove carbon dioxide.


Do Vegans only eat plant foods grown in soil made from other dead plants?


We all know that most dirt is made up of previously living animals, plants and insects. So, if grown in soil that consists of dead animals and insects, it absorbs nutrients from them, so therefore the plant food is not entirely vegan.

Also, with genetically modified foods, how do most Vegans differentiate? There are some GMO foods that are being spliced with animal genes, like frogs into potatoes for example...
----------

Most dirt is actually made up of, surprisingly enough, *dirt* (soil, earth, dust, clay, etc.) which is mainly derived from mineral sources (rocks, alluvium, lava, meteorites, etc.) - throw in a few elements from the atmosphere, such as nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen, and there you have it. You can buy top-soil to grow things in, which is a mixture of mineral and plant matter. You can get hold of fertiliser made of different things - some synthetic, some from seaweed (the kind I always use), some from fish, some from slaughter byproducts ("blood & bone") and some coming out from the rear-ends of certain animals (cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, superphosphates aka guano, etc.). You can also buy or make your own compost (which I also do), from leaves, fruit and vegetable peelings, shredded paper, lawn clippings, wood ash, etc., and let it all rot before adding it to the soil, but generally you don't put any animal remains in the compost, unless you really want to attract some unwanted pests. There's not much anyone can do about the insects dying and going into the soil, unless you can set up some kind of insect exclusion zone around your garden. You have to realise a very important point - vegans are not and cannot ever be "perfect" and we vegans *know* that already - the main point of veganism is trying your best (as far as is humanly possible, in other words) to avoid directly contributing to the death, mistreatment and exploitation of animals. So, I try my best to ensure that the plants I grow are not "absorbing nutrients" from animal sources, but of course some will inevitably slip in. My dog, the neighbours' cats, and numerous birds use my garden as their own personal toilet, for instance.

The GMO thing? Just one of the many reasons why I don't buy Franken-foods, and actively discourage other people from buying them.

EDIT: An On, my dad (non-vegetarian) tried growing some plants hydroponically a few decades ago, but they didn't turn out too well, and after a while they started growing mutatedly, so he gave up on it. Tomatoes need real soil!


Can you eat plants that are grown in meat rich soil, like mushrooms?


Imagine you are eating "plant- products" which may have been grown with meat murdered soil would you be vegan?

I was on a dairy farm that also grew corn, wheat, spinach and lots of other vegetables. When a calf, cow, horse or other animal died or was killed because it would cost to much to make it well again, the farmer would take it out on his John Deere into the field and let it rot. 

That field is where the veggies are grown.
----------

Just to make sure you didn't miss my answer to the same question!

Were you abused by a vegan or something? Are you harassed daily by someone who is a vegan? Do you feel better about yourself by asking these kinds of inane questions? Has the thought even crossed your mind that people are vegans for health concerns? Do you use all your "top contributor" points to ask vegans stuff like this?

Those are just a few questions I have for YOU.

And I live smack in the middle of farm country, Ohio, some of my best friends being farmers, and I highly doubt they would take a cow out to the middle of a field and let it rot.  I did a little looking up to see if that is commonplace.  Even though the article is not about letting a cow rot in a field, it contains this blurb:

"There is little concern the problem will spread to the United States, because the drug is not approved for use in cattle here and ranchers generally don't leave carcasses to rot in the field."


How can i stop eating soil, mud and wall plaster?


Yes i know its a weird question, but recently ive been craving soil, and ive been sucking on stones ive picked from the garden and making unconspicuous holes in walls in my house to eat wall plaster. How can I control myself eating soil? I know eating soil is quite dangerous as there could be cat faeces in the soil and cause toxoplasmosis - can anyone help? My cravings have been VERY strong.
Wow, this is so interesting as I ran out of my prenatal vitamins 2 wks ago and havent gotten around to buying more yet, and the cravings started around that time.....so interesting.
Ok, after googling this I have decided I'm going out to buy my vitamins right now. Im so stupid for stopping taking them.
Oh and I am 33 wks pregnant.
----------

no way !!

any good ?


why does boiled rhubarb smell like soil?


someone made this really nice boiled rhubarb and it looked delicious but when i smelt it it smelt like soil! does anyone know why? is it because of chemical reactions? or was is just the rhubarb we used? or is there a special technique to take away that smell?
----------

special technique  is to wash it lol. it shouldnt smell that way mmmmmm rhubarb...keeps ye regular as hell paaaarp


What leggings to wear with a Soil Brown colored dress?


So, there's this party coming up, and I have been planning my outfit. And this party has alot of games, and they pick who will join, since the required clothing for girls is a dress or skirt, I chose my Soil Brown colored dress to wear, though, it might not be good for games, so I need leggings, what colored leegings will be nice? I am also wearing a gold colored belt, and metallic bronze shoes.
----------

I think deep chocolate colour will be perfect.


Is garlic a vegetable that grows under the soil?


I know its green part grows over the soil,but what about its main part,the one containing garlic as we use it into feeding?
----------

Grows underground - sort of like an onion


Concerning arsenic as a contaminant in rice: As arsenic comes from the soil, is it even in "organic" rice?


Arsenic is abound in rice, because it contaminates it from in the soil. My question is if it's still in certified organic rice, since it's a soil contaminant, or if rice grown organic is tested to ensure low or zero levels of arsenic. So?
----------

Your exposure to arsenic in rice is extremely limited, and should not be a concern to ordinary people. If you are in the USA or Canada, you have no need to worry about  arsenic in rice. If you are in China or India or in Southeast Asia, that is a  different matter.

Regards,
Dan