Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Pleuropneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.Ureaplasma: A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Brachyspira hyodysenteriae: A species of anaerobic, spiral bacteria that was formerly classified as Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Treponema hyodysenteriae (and for a short while, Serpula hyodysenteriae). This organism is the agent of swine dysentery.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Ureaplasma urealyticum: A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Ureaplasma Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Psittaciformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Swine Erysipelas: An acute and chronic contagious disease of young pigs caused by Erysipelothrix insidiosa.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.Providencia: Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Erysipelothrix: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that has a tendency to form long filaments. Its organisms are widely distributed in nature and are found in MAMMALS; BIRDS; and FISHES. Erysipelothrix may appear gram-negative because they decolorize easily.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Haemophilus parasuis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS found, in the normal upper respiratory tract of SWINE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Hantaan virus: The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Proteus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Tetrathionic Acid: A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Brachyspira: A genus of spiral bacteria of the family Brachyspiraceae.Actinobacillus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.Chlamydophila psittaci: A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Shigella boydii: One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.

*  ARS | Publication request: PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPE
... ARS. Publication request: PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS ARS : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. ARS Food Security Research. Title: PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS Authors. Predictive thermal inactivation model for salmonella serotypes with temperature, sodium lactate, nac1 and sodium pyrophosphate as controlling factors. We developed a mathematical model for predicting the destruction of this pathogen in beef. in ground beef with different concentrations of salt, sodium pyrophosphate SPP, and sodium lactate NaL obtained after heating at different temperatures 55, 60, 65, and 71.1°C indicated that heat resistance of Salmonella increases with increasing levels of SPP...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=141763
*  .. What is the Difference between Haplotype, Serotype, Genotype and Phenotype .. Related posts .. C
surface antigens. Serotyping process is driven by many factors,...
http://whatisdifferencebetween.com/disease/what-is-the-difference-between-haplotype-serotype-genotype-and-phenotype.html
*  pgk - Phosphoglycerate kinase - Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C / serotype 2a (strain ATCC 700532
... /p> p> a href='../manual/annotation score' target=' top'>More... /p> p> a href='../manual/protein existence' target=' top'>More... /p> p> a href='../manual/function section' target=' top'>More... /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences#ECO:0000255">More… /a> /p> Manual assertion according to rules i HAMAP-Rule:MF 00145. /p> p> a href='../manual/pathway' target=' top'>More... /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences#ECO:0000255">More… /a> /p> Manual assertion according to rules i HAMAP-Rule:MF 00145. /p> p> a href='../manual/binding' target=' top'>More... /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences#ECO:0000255">More… /a> /p> Manual assertion according to rules i HAMAP-Rule:MF 00145. /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences#ECO:0000255">More… /a> /p> Manual assertion according to rules i HAMAP-Rule:MF 00145. /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences#ECO:0000255">More… /a> /p> Manual assertion according to rules i HAMAP-Rule:MF 00145. /p> p> a href="...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/A1KWN6
*  .. Inadvertent botulism!!! .. Hydrogen peroxide therapy, anyone tried maybe? .. H
... All Posts. September 30, 2015. All Posts. of water 3 times a day, then 2 drops in 8oz. People with serious problems will benefit from staying on 25 drops three times a day for one to three weeks, then tapering down to 25 drops two times daily until the problem is resolved 1 to 6 months. 12 drops of 35% food grade hydrogen peroxide in a quart of milk is an alternative to pasteurization. Mix one part 3% food grade hydrogen peroxide with five parts of distilled water .5% solution of hydrogen peroxide or use a gallon of water by taking out 20 oz. Day 1………………1/2 teaspoon daily Day 2………………..1 teaspoon daily Day 3…………….1 1/2 teaspoons daily Day 4………………..2 teaspoons daily Day 5…………….2 1/2 teaspoons daily Days 6 through 12……. 2 teaspoons 3 times daily Days 13 through 19…… 2 teaspoons 2 times daily Days 20 through 27…….2 teaspoons every other day Days 28 through 35…….1 teaspoon every other day. Day 1………..3 drops, 3 times daily Day 2………..4 drops, 3 times daily Day 3………..5 drops, 3 times daily Day 4………..6 drops, 3 ti...
http://botoxsupportcommunity.com/
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae AP76 (serotype 7)
... Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae AP76 (serotype 7) [ Pathway menu | Organism menu | Pathway entry | Download KGML | Show description | User data mapping ] Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD: M00095 ] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD: M00096 ], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants t...
http://genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?apa00900
*  Invasive pneumococci before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Turkey: antimicrob
vancomycin VAN. Serotyping and amplification of macrolide ... Article Invasive pneumococci before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Turkey: antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype distribution, and molecular identification of macrolide resistance. The coverage rates of the 29 isolates obtained from children,5 years of age were 34% for PCV7, 44.8% for the 10-valent vaccine, and 58.6% for the 13-valent vaccine. pneumoniae infections were reported between 1996– 1998, and 1354 of these were identified as serotypes 4, 9V, 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F 61% of isolates .21In Spain, serotypes 6, 14, and 19 are the most common, accounting for 83% of the isolates found in 94 children with IPD between 1996–1998.22In a 2006– 2010 study in Casablanca before the introduction of PCV13, serotypes 1, 5, 6, 14, 18, 19, and 23 were the most common among 102 IPD isolates identified in children,5 years.23 A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which includes serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F, was included...
http://researchgate.net/publication/260251545_Invasive_pneumococci_before_the_introduction_of_pneumococcal_conjugate_vaccine_in_Turkey_antimicrobial_susceptibility_serotype_distribution_and_molecular_identification_of_macrolide_resistance
*  Genetic diversity of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 in the State of Paraná, Brazil, based on a frag
... Genetic diversity of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 in the State of Paran, Brazil, based on a fragment of the capsid/premembrane junction region. Dengue virus exhibits substantial genetic diversity, most notably in the existence of 4 distinct serotypes and several genotypes. Attempts to identify these genetic variants have been made by sequencing certain regions of the viral genome. Genes that code for non-structural proteins have also been sequenced and used in phylogeny studies 9. Ascertaining the molecular diversity of the dengue virus is important to assess the impact of these genetic variants in the human population, as well as the virulence, distribution, and origin of the various strains. In this study we genetically characterized the capsid-premembrane junction region fragment of the dengue virus in patients who tested positive for dengue in 2010. The sequences obtained from our samples were compared with 39 sequences from various parts of the world available from GenBank. When the samples...
http://scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822012000300003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Streptococcus pneumoniae G54 (serotype 19F)
http://genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?spx00900
*  Figure - Human Case of Streptococcus suis Serotype 16 Infection - Volume 14, Number 1—January 2008
... Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content Search Form Controls EID ONLY Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Search Form Controls EID ONLY Cancel Submit Search The CDC Emerging Infectious Disease journal ISSN: 1080-6059 Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . EID journal October 2015 Past Issues January 2008 Human Case of Streptococcus suis Serotype 16 Infection Figure About the Journal Background and Goals Editorial Policy Copyright and Disclaimers Editorial Board Editors Editing-Production Reviewers 2012 Reviewers 2011 Reviewers Suggested Citation About Cover Art Cover Art Audio Manuscript Submission Subscribe Ahead of Print / In Press Author Resource Center Types of Articles Typeface Manu...
http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/1/07-0534-f1
*  ARS | Publication request: SURVEY OF SALMONELLA SEROTYPES SHED IN FECES OF BEEF COWS AND THEIR ANTI
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=119329&pf=1
*  Data.Typeable.Lens
data typeable lens source contents index lens lenses folds and traversals portability rank types stability experimental maintainer edward kmett ekmett gmail com safe haskell none data typeable lens description synopsis cast typeable a typeable b simple traversal a b gcast typeable a typeable b simple traversal c a c b documentation cast typeable a typeable b simple traversal a b source a simple traversal for working with a cast of a typeable value gcast typeable a typeable b simple traversal c a c b source a simple traversal for working with a gcast of a typeable value produced by haddock version...
http://hackage.haskell.org/package/lens-2.9/docs/Data-Typeable-Lens.html
*  Data.Typeable.Lens
data typeable lens source contents index lens lenses folds and traversals portability rank types stability experimental maintainer edward kmett ekmett gmail com safe haskell trustworthy data typeable lens description synopsis cast typeable s typeable a traversal s a gcast typeable s typeable a traversal c s c a documentation cast typeable s typeable a traversal s a source a traversal for working with a cast of a typeable value gcast typeable s typeable a traversal c s c a source a traversal for working with a gcast of a typeable value produced by haddock version...
http://hackage.haskell.org/package/lens-3.9/docs/Data-Typeable-Lens.html
*  Lawriter - OAC - 901:1-5-01 Definition of brucellosis test.
1 Standard plate agglutination test; 2 Standard tube agglutination test; 3 Acidified plate antigen test; 4 Rivanol precipitation plate antigen test; 5 Serial dilution milk ring test; 6 Complement fixation test; 7 Standard buffered brucella antigen card test; 8 Mercaptoethanol agglutination test. 1 The standard plate agglutination method or the standard buffered brucella antigen card test; 2 The standard buffered brucella antigen card test only if he has received prior written authorization from the department; 3 The following amounts of blood serum and brucella plate antigen when conducting the standard plate agglutination test:. C Regardless of the standard plate or standard tube agglutination test results, the department may classify animals as positive based upon any one of the following test results:. E Animals, other than swine, tested by either the standard plate or the standard tube agglutination method shall be classified as follows except that the department may reclassify positive animals to suspect...
http://codes.ohio.gov/oac/901:1-5-01
*  Direct agglutination test
... a direct agglutination test dat is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies the abbreviation dat is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis references category blood tests...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_agglutination_test
*  A hemolysis-hemagglutination assay for characterizing constitutive innate humoral immunity in wild a
Keywords: Natural antibodies; Complement; Hemolysis; Hemagglutination; Aves; Comparative immunology 1. Matson. Matson et al. Assay design: repeatability, scorer effects, and rabbit blood storage effects Within- and among-assay variation was calculated for lysis and agglutination titers using both unheated and heated plasma pools. The mean within-assay variation SD was G0.2 titers for agglutination and G0.1 titers for lysis Table 1. The mean among-assay variation SD was G0.4 titers for agglutination and G0.3 titers for lysis Table 2. std, unheated Agglutination 4 10.0 0.2 0.3 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.0 2.0 2.5 8.1 0.0 Chicken Pos. std, unheated Lysis 4 3.9 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 2.0 3.9 13.2 0.0 Chicken Pos. std, heated Agglutination K0.0973 K0.1680.877 Agglutination 0.5213 1.058 0.368 Lysis K0.7193 K1.7930.171 Lysis The storage time of the blood cells did not significantly affect the outcomes of the assays with either heated or unheated plasma. 2 Lysis and agglutination titers in unheated A, heated B, a...
http://researchgate.net/publication/8155651_A_Hemolysis-hemagglutination_assay_for_characterizing_constitutive_innate_humoral_immunity_in_wild_and_domestic_birds
*  Perosamine
... chembox verifiedfields changed watchedfields changed verifiedrevid imagefile perosamine png imagesize px iupacname s s r r amino trihydroxyhexanal othernames amino dideoxy d mannose section chembox identifiers casno ref casno pubchem smiles c c o o o n o chemspiderid ref chemspidercite changed chemspider chemspiderid inchi c h no c h h h h t m s inchikey uehgpsggfklptd kvtdhhqdbx stdinchi ref stdinchicite changed chemspider stdinchi s c h no c h h h h t m s stdinchikey ref stdinchicite changed chemspider stdinchikey uehgpsggfklptd kvtdhhqdsa n section chembox properties formula c h no molarmass g mol appearance density meltingpt boilingpt solubility section chembox hazards mainhazards flashpt autoignitionpt perosamine or gdp perosamine is a mannose derived aminodeoxysugar produced by some bacteria biological role n acetyl perosamine is found in the o antigen of gram negative bacteria such as vibrio cholerae o e coli o h and caulobacter crescentus cb the sugar is also found in perimycin an antibiotic prod...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perosamine
*  StudyDroid: FlashCards on the web, and in your hand!
StudyDroid: FlashCards on the web, and in your hand. StudyDroid. Tweet Username: Password:. Register for a free account Home. Search. My Packs. Profile. Forum. by jko757. keywords:. Study. Print. Front. Back. Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia coli Shigella Salmonella enterica Yersinia Klebsiella pneumoniae Enterobacter Citrobacter Serratia marcescens Proteus. Enterobacteriaceae characteristics. gram - facultative anaerobic bacilli and coccobacilli many are normal flora colon expecially some are not- Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia OPPORTUNTISTIC PATHOGENS. Opportunistic pathogens. normally benign but are able to produce disease in a host whose defenses have been compromised AIDS, reptured appendix etc. Antigens on enterobacteriaceae. Lipopolysaccharide O antigens capsular polysaccharides K antigen flagella H antigen. Escherichia coli. part of normal flora causes UTIs and travelers diarrhea 5 types enterotoxigenic ETEC enterohemorrhagenic EHEC enterophatogenic EPEC enterinvasive EIEC enteroaggregative EAEC. al...
http://studydroid.com/index.php?page=viewPack&packId=168655
*  GenProp1023
genprop genome properties jcvi home genome properties home tigrfams genome properties list top level genome properties search cmr genome properties genome property definition page accession genprop name o ec antigen biosynthesis type metapath description the e coli o antigen consists of a repeating linear tetramer with the structure literature references perry mb maclean l griffith dw structure of the o chain polysaccharide of the phenol phase soluble lipopolysaccharide of escherichia coli h biochem cell biol jan pmid web references ecodab o components step name step num required evidence method evidence go terms source of gdp l fucose l fuc yes genprop genprop gdp l fucose biosynthesis from gdp keto deoxy d mannose source of gdp acetamido d rhamnose rha nac yes genprop genprop gdp acetamido d rhamnose d rha nac biosynthesis from d perosamine bdglc adgalnac transferase wbdn yes rule base glycosyl transferase wbdo wbdo yes rule base glycosyl transferase wbdp wbdp yes rule base o ec specific flippase wzx wzx ye...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/genome-properties/GenomePropDefinition.cgi?prop_acc=GenProp1023
*  GenProp1035
genprop genome properties jcvi home genome properties home tigrfams genome properties list top level genome properties search cmr genome properties genome property definition page accession genprop name o ec antigen biosynthesis type metapath description the e coli o antigen monomer consists of a branched pentasaccharide of relatively simple galactose and glucose derived units additionally there is some degree of o acetylation the position and extent of which has not yet been determined the biosynthesis cluster contains four corresponding glycosyltransferases wbnabde assignments of activity have been predicted at ecodab but are not as strong as some and may be in error these are based on the following homology data and logic of the four wbne has the strongest similarity to other known enzymes in the range identity the top four of which are all predicted to carry out the adgal bdglcnac reaction wbna has the next strongest similarities in the range identity and although the reactions predicted to be carried out...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/genome-properties/GenomePropDefinition.cgi?prop_acc=GenProp1035
*  .. .. Health Library .. Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 1 Capsular Polysaccharide antigen, Streptoco
Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 1 Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 3 Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 4 Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 5 Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 6A Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 6B Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 7F Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 9V Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 14 Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein Conjugate antigen, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Type 18C Capsular Polysaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Protein. Streptococcus Pneumoniae ...
http://healthcare.utah.edu/healthlibrary/related/doc.php?type=26&id=494
*  Streptococcus pneumoniae - wikidoc
... Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection Microchapters. Differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae infection from other Diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus. For clinical aspects of the disease, see Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus. Streptococcus. Despite the name, the organism causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia. S pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adults and young adults, along with Neisseria meningitidis, and is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in the USA. It also is a major bacterium for invasive diseases like pneumonia and meningitis in South Asian children 12 years of age, though the evidence is of low quality and scarce. S pneumoniae can be differentiated from Streptococcus viridans, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin test, as S. Natural...
http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Pneumococcus
*  Molecular mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Future Microbiol - Researc
Regine Hakenbeck. Regine Hakenbeck Technische Universität Kaiserslautern Message author. Dalia Denapaite Technische Universität Kaiserslautern Message author. Impact Factor: 4.28. ABSTRACT Alterations in the target enzymes for -lactam antibiotics, the penicillin-binding proteins PBPs, have been recognized as a major resistance mechanism in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Whereas point mutations are selected in the laboratory, clinical isolates display a mosaic structure of the affected PBP genes, the result of interspecies gene transfer and recombination events. Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae Penicillin-Binding Protein 2x: Importance of the C-Terminal Penicillin-Binding Protein and Serine/Threonine Kinase-Associated Domains for Beta-Lactam Binding. Regine Hakenbeck. ABSTRACT: Penicillin-binding protein 2x PBP2x mutations that occur during the selection with beta-lactams are located within the central penicillin-binding/transpeptidase TP domain, and are believed to mediate resistance by interfering with the f...
http://researchgate.net/publication/221680844_Molecular_mechanisms_of_-lactam_resistance_in_Streptococcus_pneumoniae
*  Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen, Urine
... Testing Information. Test Menu. Laboratory Test Directory. ARUP Consult ®. Testing Turnaround Time. Specimen Preparation and Transport. Client Services. Client Supply Order Form. Laboratory Expertise. Clinical Pathology. Regional Services. Medical Directors and Consultants. Clinical Research and Studies. Enhanced Reports. Privacy Practices. Testing Specialties. Anatomic Pathology. Test Menu. Resources. Experts. Test Menu. Resources. Experts. Test Menu. Resources. Experts. Test Menu. Reports. Resources. Contact. Test Menu. Experts. Suite of Services. ARUP ATOP. ARUP Insource Advantage. ARUP ATOP. ARUP Consult. ARUP Gateway. ARUP ATOP. ARUP Consult. ARUP Gateway. ARUP Connect. ARUP MD Bridge. ARUP MD Bridge. ARUP Mednet. Consultative Services. ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology. Education. Case Reports. ARUP Webinars. Client Education. ARUP Regional Events. ARUP Speakers. Educational Events. ARUP Scientific Resource. Some features of the Laboratory Test Directory may not be available; t...
http://ltd.aruplab.com/tests/pub/0060228
*  Quellung reaction
... The 'Quellung reaction' is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of ' Streptococcus pneumoniae ', ' Klebsiella pneumoniae ', ' Neisseria meningitidis ', ' Haemophilus influenzae ',. 1 Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. thumbnail|Photomicrograph of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria revealing capsular swelling using the Neufeld-Quellung test. Notice the two Streptococci at the top of the photo that appear to have no capsule. Quellung is the German word for "swelling" and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules after their polysaccharide antigen has combined with a specific antibody. The antibody usually comes from a bit of serum taken from an immunized laboratory animal. As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the cap...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quellung_reaction
*  Streptococcus pneumoniae News, Research
... Home. Thought Leaders Series. Insights from Industry Series. MediKnowledge Series. Research White Papers. News Feed. News A-Z. Health A-Z. Drugs A-Z. Clinical Diagnostics. Life Science Laboratory. Consumer Products. About. Meet the Team. Terms and Conditions. Medical News 'Tweets'. LIFE SCIENCES MEDICINE. October 6, 2015. Other search tools: Drugs. Health. News. Newsletters. Contact Us. Streptococcus pneumoniae News and Research. Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Pneumococcus, is a very common bacterial infection in both industrialized and developing countries. In particular, young children and the elderly represent high-risk populations of developing pneumococcal infections. According to the WHO, the bacterium kills up to one million children under the age of five years each year worldwide. It accounts for many Bacterial Meningitis cases in adults and it is the most common cause of Bacteraemia, Pneumonia, Meningitis and Otitis media in young children. Further Reading What is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumoc...
http://news-medical.net/?tag=/Streptococcus pneumoniae
*  Factive (Gemifloxacin Mesylate) Drug Information: Indications, Dosage and How Supplied - Prescribing
Factive Gemifloxacin Mesylate Drug Information: Indications, Dosage and How Supplied - Prescribing Information at RxList. Drugs A-Z. Pill Identifier. factive gemifloxacin mesylate side effects drug center. factive gemifloxacin mesylate drug - indications and dosage. Factive User Reviews >> Factive. Drug Description Patient Information. Community-acquired pneumonia of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae including multi-drug resistant strains *, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or Klebsiella pneumoniae. *MDRSP: multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, includes isolates previously known as PRSP penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin MIC 2 g/mL, 2nd generation cephalosporins e.g., cefuroxime, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The recommended dose of FACTIVE is 320 mg daily, according to the following table Tab...
http://rxlist.com/factive-drug/indications-dosage.htm
*  Pneumococcal Infection and HIV
Bacterial infections have emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1. HIV-1 seropositive individuals are particularly susceptible to infections with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. pneumoniae in HIV-1 infected patients. 13,15 Primary pneumococcal bacteremia is more common in HIV-1 infected children than in HIV-1 infected adults. 13,14 In a population-based study of children with HIV-1 infection, risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease included an AIDS diagnosis and high levels of total serum IgG and IgM compared with HIV-1 seropositive controls. Intravenous immune globulin for the prevention of bacterial infection in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Risk factors for isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with decreased susceptibility to penicillin G from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization, bacteremia, and immun...
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-00&doc=kb-05-01-02
*  Characterization of volatile metabolites taken up or released from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haem
... ophilus influenzae by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. BioMedSearch. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Create Free Account. Document Detail. Characterization of volatile metabolites taken up or released from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 23059976 Owner: NLM Status: Publisher. Volatile organic compounds VOCs released or taken up by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cultures were analyzed by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry GC-MS after adsorption of headspace samples on multibed sorption tubes. As many as 34 volatile metabolites were released from Streptococcus pneumoniae and 28 from Haemophilus influenzae, comprising alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones and sulphur containing compounds. For both species, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, methyl methacrylate, 2,3-butanedione and methanethiol were found in strongly, 1-butanol and butanal in moderately elevated conce...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Characterization-volatile-metabolites-taken-up/23059976.html
*  rnc - Ribonuclease 3 - Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
rnc - Ribonuclease 3 - Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4. p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences">More… /a> /p>. Skip Header. UniProtKB. x UniProtKB Protein knowledgebase UniParc Sequence archive Help Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. UniRef Sequence clusters Proteomes Protein sets from fully sequenced genomes Annotation systems Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy: UniRule Manually curated rules. SAAS System generated rules. Supporting data Select one of the options below to target your search: Literature citations. Taxonomy. Keywords. Subcellular locations. Cross-referenced databases. Human diseases. Advanced Search. x Searching in. Home. BLAST. Align. Retrieve/ID mapping. Contact. Help. You are u...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/Q97QG6
*  Streptococcus pneumoniae – A Review of Carriage, Infection, Serotype Replacement and Vaccination -
PATH | VRL Home Resources Topics About Follow: Twitter | RSS Vaccine Resource Library Home Resources Topics About Search Streptococcus pneumoniae – A Review of Carriage, Infection, Serotype Replacement and Vaccination This article, published in Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, provides an overview on pneumococcal carriage and risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease, the rise of non-vaccine serotypes in the era of immunization with 7-valent pneumocccal conjugate vaccines, and the current and newly available broader valent pneumococcal vaccines. ABSTRACT ONLY . (Learn how users in developing countries can gain access to free journal articles .) Author: Mehr S, Wood N Published: 2012 » Visit web page (English) (Located at www.sciencedirect.com) Citation: Mehr S, Wood N. Streptococcus pneumoniae – A Review of Carriage, Infection, Serotype Replacement and Vaccination. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews . 2012;13(4):258-264. Resource types: Peer-reviewed journal Diseases/vaccines: Pneumococcus Topics: Disease/vac...
http://path.org/vaccineresources/details.php?i=1730
*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PLoS P
A TIME'S MEMORY: Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae PLoS Pathogens, abstract, edited. Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae PLoS Pathogens, abstract, edited. Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae by Amber M. Secondary bacterial infections are a leading cause of illness and death during epidemic and pandemic influenza. To address the mechanisms and determine the influences of pathogen dose and strain on disease, we infected groups of mice with either the H1N1 subtype influenza A virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 PR8 or a version expressing the 1918 PB1-F2 protein PR8-PB1-F2 1918, followed seven days later with one of two S. We hypothesize that viral titers rebound in the presence of bacteria due to enhanced viral release from infected cells, and that bacterial titers increase due to alveolar macrophage impairment. Tags: ABSTRACTS, INFLUENZA A , pandemic influenza, RESEARCH, STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. -- A...
http://hygimia69.blogspot.com/2013/03/kinetics-of-coinfection-with-influenza.html
*  SPNEU - Specimen: Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen, Urine
... Search Mayo Medical Laboratories Search. Test Catalog Go Test Name A. Test Catalog Test Information New Tests Test Updates Reflex Tests Referred Tests NYS Informed Consent Test List Download Catalog References Critical Values and Semi-Urgent Results Performing Locations Policies. Setup Information Test Setup AOE Codes LOINC Codes Units of Measurement. New Tests. Setup Information. Critical Values and Semi-Urgent Results. Referred Tests. NYS Informed Consent Test List. Test Ordering MayoACCESS Overview References MayoLINK Overview References. Specimen Handling Collection and Preparation Instructions by Specimen Type Category A Infectious Substances Light Protection Tests Microbiology Culture Tests Resources Supply Catalog FAQ Dangerous Goods Training. Specimen Transport Customized Shipping Instructions Shipping Guides Courier Instructions Transportation Regulations CDC Permit. Outreach Resources Outreach Areas Outreach Education Support Services Operations Sales and Marketing Billing and Finance Examples....
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Specimen/83150
*  Evaluation of biophotonic imaging to estimate bacterial burden in mice infected with highly virulen
... t compared to less virulent streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes - UWE Research Repository. UWE Research Repository. Evaluation of biophotonic imaging to estimate bacterial burden in mice infected with highly virulent compared to less virulent streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes . 2010 Evaluation of biophotonic imaging to estimate bacterial burden in mice infected with highly virulent compared to less virulent streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. However, the relevance of bioluminescence imaging to monitor invasive compared to noninvasive bacterial infections of the lung has not been examined so far. In the current study, we systematically evaluated the importance of bioluminescence imaging to monitor pneumococcal disease progression by correlating biophotonic signals with lung bacterial loads in two mouse strains BALB/c, C57BL/6 infected with either self-glowing, bioluminescent serotype 19 Streptococcus pneumoniae causing focal pneumonia or serotype 2 S. pneumoniae causing invasive pneumococcal disease....
http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/13764/
*  Phosphorylation of the Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall biosynthesis enzyme MurC by a eukaryotic-l
Abstract. 2013, Phosphorylation of the Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall biosynthesis enzyme MurC by a eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinase. ARTICLE TOOLS Get PDF 190K Get PDF 190K. Abstract Article. References. Cited By Enhanced Article HTML. Get PDF 190K Get PDF 190K. Abstract. Abstract. Materials and methods. References. Abstract. Materials and methods. References. pneumoniae StkP, PhpP, MurC, and MurD GST-StkP was prepared as described previously Ulijasz et al ., 2009. For phage ELISA, 1 10 8 pfu of purified phage was added/well to those coated with GST-StkP protein or to control wells coated with ovalbumin. Lane 1, GST-StkP + MurC; Lane 2, MurC alone; Lane 3, GST-StpK alone; Lane 4, GST-StkP alone; Lane 5, GST-StpK + PhpP; Lane 6, GST-StpK + MurC; Lane 7, GST-StpK + MurC + PhpP. a Autophosphorylated Stkp Lane 1, was supplemented with either: 1 g MurC Lane 3, or 1 g MurD Lane 5, and incubated for 20 min. Control reactions were performed by addition of 1 Ci of -ATP to either: purified MurC, Lane 2, or MurD, Lan...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1574-6968.12067/full?globalMessage=0
*  PDB 3h72
pdb h home search by id keywords by fasta sequence by pdb structure browse download about support pdb h h pdb pdb links overview pdb information pdb h method x ray diffraction host organism escherichia coli gene source streptococcus pneumoniae primary citation crystal structures of respiratory pathogen neuraminidases hsiao y s parker d ratner a j prince a tong l biochem biophys res commun header hydrolase released resolution cath insert date aug pdb images h pdb h h a pdb chain h a h b pdb chain h b h a cath domain h a h a cath domain h a h b cath domain h b h b cath domain h b pdb chains chain id date inserted into cath cath status a aug chopped b aug chopped cath domains domain id date inserted into cath superfamily cath status h a jul assigned h a jul holding pen h b jul assigned h b jul holding pen uniprot entries accession gene id taxon description p nana strr streptococcus pneumoniae r neuraminidase a p nana strr streptococcus pneumoniae r neuraminidase a cath news support jobs get started documentation...
http://cathdb.info/pdb/3h72
*  PDB 3h73
pdb h home search by id keywords by fasta sequence by pdb structure browse download about support pdb h h pdb pdb links overview pdb information pdb h method x ray diffraction host organism escherichia coli gene source streptococcus pneumoniae primary citation crystal structures of respiratory pathogen neuraminidases hsiao y s parker d ratner a j prince a tong l biochem biophys res commun header hydrolase released resolution cath insert date aug pdb images h pdb h h a pdb chain h a h b pdb chain h b h a cath domain h a h a cath domain h a h b cath domain h b h b cath domain h b pdb chains chain id date inserted into cath cath status a aug chopped b aug chopped cath domains domain id date inserted into cath superfamily cath status h a jul assigned h a jul holding pen h b jul assigned h b jul holding pen uniprot entries accession gene id taxon description p nana strr streptococcus pneumoniae r neuraminidase a p nana strr streptococcus pneumoniae r neuraminidase a cath news support jobs get started documentation...
http://cathdb.info/pdb/3h73
*  Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in non invasive clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
... collected in Belgium during winters 2003 and 2004. PDF Download Available. For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Article Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in non invasive clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected in Belgium during winters 2003 and 2004. R Vanhoof. R Vanhoof. Remove suggestion. M Carpentier. M Carpentier. Remove suggestion. R Cartuyvels. R Cartuyvels. Remove suggestion. S Damée. S Damée. Remove suggestion. O Fagnart. O Fagnart. Remove suggestion. Johan Frans. Johan Frans Imeldaziekenhuis Bonheiden Message author. Remove suggestion. Pasteurinstituut, Brussel, Eenheid Antibiotica-Onderzoek, Engelandstraat 642, B-1180 Brussel. Acta clinica Belgica. Impact Factor: 0.59. 03/2006; 61 2 :49-57. DOI: 10.1179/acb.2006.010 Source: PubMed. ABSTRACT A total of 391 and 424 non-invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected by 15 laboratories during the 2003 and 2004...
http://researchgate.net/publication/6992783_Surveillance_of_antibiotic_resistance_in_non_invasive_clinical_isolates_of_Streptococcus_pneumoniae_collected_in_Belgium_during_winters_2003_and_2004
*  Pneumococcal Disease | About | CDC
Pneumococcal Disease. About. CDC. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. Start of Search Controls. Search Form Controls. Search The CDC Cancel. Submit Search The CDC. CDC A-Z Index. MENU. CDC A-Z. SEARCH. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. #. Start of Search Controls. Search Form Controls. Search The CDC Cancel. Submit Search The CDC. Pneumococcal Disease. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov. Pneumococcal Home. About Pneumococcal Types of Infection. Risk Factors & Transmission. Symptoms & Complications. Diagnosis & Treatment. Prevention. Photos. Fast Facts Pneumococcal Vaccination. For Clinicians Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transmission. Clinical Features. Risk Factors. Diagnosis & Ma...
http://cdc.gov/pneumococcal/about/index.html
*  Prevnar13
Close X Indications for Prevnar 13 Prevnar 13 is a vaccine approved for adults 50 years of age and older for the prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive disease caused by 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F In children 6 weeks through 17 years of age prior to the 18th birthday, Prevnar 13 is indicated for the prevention of invasive disease caused by S pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F In children 6 weeks through 5 years of age prior to the 6th birthday Prevnar 13 is indicated for the prevention of otitis media caused by S pneumoniae serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F Prevnar 13 is not 100% effective and will only help protect against the 13 strains included in the vaccine. Prevnar 13 ® is a vaccine approved for adults 50 years of age and older for the prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive disease caused by 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 1...
http://prevnar13.com/
*  Levaquin (Levofloxacin) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology
Streptococcus pneumoniae including multi-drug resistant isolates MDRSP Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin MIC 2 mcg/mL, 2nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime; macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. LEVAQUIN ® was effective for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae MDRSP. Table 15: Clinical and Bacterial Success Rates for LEVAQUIN ® -Treated MDRSP in Community Acquired Pneumonia Patients Population Valid for Efficacy. Table 16: Clinical Success and Bacteriologic Eradication Rates for Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Community Acquired Pneumonia. Clinical success rates cure plus improvement in the clinically evaluable population were 90.9% in the LEVAQUIN ® 750 mg group and 91.1% in the LEVAQUIN ® 500 mg group. In the clinically evaluable population 31–38 days after enrollment pneumonia was observed in 7 out of 151 pa...
http://druglib.com/druginfo/levaquin/description_pharmacology/
*  Spontaneous sequence duplications within capsule genes cap8E and tts control phase variation in Str
... eptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 8 and 37 - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal. University of Warwick Publications service WRAP Highlight your research. WRAP. Search WRAP. Browse by Warwick Author. Browse WRAP by Year. Browse WRAP by Subject. Browse WRAP by Department. Browse WRAP by Funder. Publications Service. Search Publications Service. Browse by Warwick Author. Browse Publications service by Year. Browse Publications service by Subject. Browse Publications service by Department. Browse Publications service by Funder. Spontaneous sequence duplications within capsule genes cap8E and tts control phase variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 8 and 37. Tools Tools Tools. Ideate RDF+XML BibTeX RIOXX2 XML RDF+N-Triples JSON Dublin Core Atom MODS for NEEO Simple Metadata Refer METS HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote MODS OpenURL ContextObject in Span MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager NEEO RDF+N3 Eprints Application Profile. 2003 Spontaneous sequence duplications within...
http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/10039/
*  Streptococcus pneumoniae
... 'Streptococcus pneumoniae', or 'pneumococcus', is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus ' Streptococcus '. The respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal cavity are the parts of host body that are usually infected. Despite the name, the organism causes many types of pneumococcal infection s other than pneumonia. pneumoniae' is one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adults and young adults, along with ' Neisseria meningitidis ', and is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in the USA. pneumoniae' Infection Vaccine Interaction with 'Haemophilus influenzae' Diagnosis See also References External links. Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. Competence, in 'S. pneumoniae' is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key component of the recombinational repair machinery for removing DNA damage s. Inf...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptococcus_pneumoniae
*  leuS - Leucine--tRNA ligase - Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
leuS - Leucine--tRNA ligase - Streptococcus pneumoniae strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6. p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. /p> p> a href="/manual/evidences">More… /a> /p>. Skip Header. UniProtKB. x UniProtKB Protein knowledgebase UniParc Sequence archive Help Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. UniRef Sequence clusters Proteomes Protein sets from fully sequenced genomes Annotation systems Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy: UniRule Manually curated rules. SAAS System generated rules. Supporting data Select one of the options below to target your search: Literature citations. Taxonomy. Keywords. Subcellular locations. Cross-referenced databases. Human diseases. Advanced Search. x Searching in. Home. BLAST. Align. Retrieve/ID mapping. Contact. Help. You are using a ...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8DRB6
*  KEGG SSDB Gene Cluster Search Result: pmy:Pmen 2294
... SSDB Gene Cluster Search Result. KEGG ID : pmy:Pmen 2294 1100 a.a. Definition: trehalose synthase EC:5.4.99.16 ; K05343 maltose alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/ alpha-amylase. Include: best hits Gap size:. 0 1 2 3 4 5. Sort by: SW-score KEGG-species. Search against: All organisms Selected organism group Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Bacteria Archaea Cyanobacteria. Threshold: 100 150 200 400. pmy Pmen 2284 Pmen 2285 K06132 Pmen 2286 K07027 Pmen 2287 Pmen 2288 K00688 Pmen 2289 Pmen 2290 Pmen 2291 K06889 Pmen 2292 Pmen 2293 K00700 Pmen 2294 K05343 Pmen 2295 K16147 Pmen 2296 K07507 Pmen 2297 Pmen 2298 Pmen 2299 Pmen 2300 Pmen 2301 K06048 Pmen 2302 Pmen 2303 Pmen 2304. pmk MDS 2448 MDS 2447 K06132 MDS 2446 K07027 MDS 2445 MDS 2444 K00688 MDS 2443 MDS 2442 MDS 2441 K06889 MDS 2440 MDS 2439 K00700 MDS 2438 K05343 MDS 2437 K16147 MDS 2436 K07507 MDS 2435 MDS 2434 MDS 2433 MDS 2432 MDS 2431 K06048 MDS 2430 MDS 2429 MDS 2428. pau PA14 36680 PA14 36690 K06132 PA14 36700 K07027 PA14 36480 PA14 36840 K00688   PA14 36550 PA1...
http://kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_gclust?org_gene=pmy:Pmen_2294
*  3h71 - Proteopedia, life in 3D
3h71 From Proteopedia. Jump to: navigation, search Crystal structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 neuraminidase A precursor NanA. Structural highlights. 3h71 is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA. Gene: nanA, spr1536 Streptococcus pneumoniae. Activity: Exo-alpha-sialidase, with EC number 3.2.1.18. Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum. Evolutionary Conservation. Publication Abstract from PubMed. Currently there is pressing need to develop novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of infections by the human respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae. To aid in the development of inhibitors against these neuraminidases, we have determined the crystal structures of the P. aeruginosa enzyme NanPs and S. pneumoniae enzyme NanA at 1.6 and 1.7A resolution, respectively. NanA contains a deep pocket that is similar to that in canonical neuraminidases, while the NanPs active site is much more ope...
http://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/3h71
*  Phys.org - pneumonia(... continued page 7)
Phys.org - pneumonia ... continued page 7. Home pneumonia. News tagged with pneumonia. sort by:. Date. 6 hours. 12 hours. 1 day. 3 days. all. Rank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. LiveRank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Popular. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Related topics:. vaccine · bacteria · children · sepsis · infectious diseases. Studies: Pneumonia is misdiagnosed on patient readmissions. Patients were misdiagnosed with pneumonia at an alarming rate when they were readmitted to the hospital shortly after a previous hospitalization for the same illness, according to two Henry Ford Hospital companion studies. Oct 22, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. 0 0. Swine flu variant linked to fatal cases might have disabled the clearing mechanism of lungs. PhysOrg.com -- A variant of last year's pandemic influenza linked to fatal cases carried a mutation that enabled it to infect a different subset of cells lining the airway, according to new research. The study, due to be ... Oct 22, 2010 in Diseases, C...
http://phys.org/tags/pneumonia/page7.html
*  Scientific Publications by FDA Staff
... Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Common Links. Food. Medical Devices. Animal Veterinary. Tobacco Products. Scientific Publications by FDA Staff. FDA Home. Scientific Publications Detail Entry. - Search Publications. Fields All Fields. Abstract Centers. All Centers Animal and Veterinary Biologics Drugs Food Medical Devices Office of the Commissioner Regulatory Affairs Tobacco Toxicological Research. Entry Details J Bacteriol 2014 Sep 15;196 18 :3271-8 Chemical Structure of the Capsular Polysaccharides CPS of Streptococcus pneumoniae Types 39, 47F and 34 by NMR Spectroscopy and their Relation to CPS10A. Structural characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides CPS is a prerequisite for unraveling antigenic as well as genetic relationships that exist between different serotypes. pneumoniae CPS34, 39 and 47F. High-resolution hetero-nuclear NMR spectroscopy confirmed the published structure of CPS34 and in conjunction with glycosyl compos...
http://accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/publications/search_result_record.cfm?id=49926
*  European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
... 16th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Nice, France, April 1-4 2006. Author Name Abstract Title Abstract Text. Abstract Index. Journal Homepage. ECSMID Homepage. Back Garenoxacin efficacy against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae : retrospective analysis of community-acquired pneumoniae isolates obtained from nine phase II and III clinical studies 1999 2003 Abstract number: p1577 Black T., Waskin H., Hare R. pneumoniae , one of the most common pathogens causing community-acquired pneumoniae CAP. The incidence of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae is on the increase, therefore information regarding the activity of new anti-infective drugs against populations of S. pneumoniae MDRSP includes isolates previously known as PRSP penicillin-resistant S. Methods: Pretreatment sputum and blood isolates collected worldwide during GRN phase 2/3 clinical CAP trials 1999 2003 were retrospectively analysed for the MDRSP phenotype. p...
http://blackwellpublishing.com/eccmid16/abstract.asp?id=50372
*  The Volatile Nature of Pneumococcal Serotype Epidemiology: P... : The Pediatric Infectious Diseas
... e Journal. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Recent Searches. Login. About the Journal. The Volatile Nature of Pneumococcal Serotype Epidemiology: P... A A You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you... If you have access to this article through your institution, you can view this article in. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: April 2010 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - pp 301-303 doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181c391fb Commentary. The Volatile Nature of Pneumococcal Serotype Epidemiology: Potential for Misinterpretation Black, Steve MD. Source The Volatile Nature of Pneumococcal Serotype Epidemiology: Potential for Misinterpretation The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. Email to a Colleag...
http://journals.lww.com/pidj/Citation/2010/04000/The_Volatile_Nature_of_Pneumococcal_Serotype.5.aspx
*  Rev Panam Salud Publica vol.5 issue3; Abstract: S1020-49891999000300
... 004. Spanish pdf. Spanish epdf. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública. LEAL, Aura Lucía ; ELIZABETH, Castañeda and GRUPO COLOMBIANO DE TRABAJO EN STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia. Rev Panam Salud Publica. A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the resistant isolates. Of the 324 isolates, 119 36.7% showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 12% that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates 2.8% showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 24.7% to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole TMS, 49 15....
http://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1020-49891999000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Health tips and guide: Pneumococcal can cause death
... Health tips and guide. Pneumococcal can cause death. Pneumococcal infection refers to an infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Unhealthy lifestyle such as smoking or exposure to a foreign substance from the environment causing various infections of the lung resulting in serious damage. Infection of human respiratory system can involve the respiratory tract, bronchitis infection and infection of the air sacs and pneumonia. Abdul Razak Muttalif, one disease involving pneumonia is pneumonia that is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium streptococcus pneumoniae. "The bacteria cause infection in other body parts of the body such as the lining of the brain and spinal cord meningitis, blood infections Bacteraemia, infection of the lungs pneumonia and ear infections otitis media. Abdul Razak said the pneumonia can cause serious diseases such as meningitis, ear infections, pneumonia and blood. "A person can also get this infection when touched something with pneumococcal bacteria that can pass through...
http://myhealthytips.blogspot.com/2012/12/pneumococcal-can-cause-death.html
*  S. pneumoniae Leads to Death in Many Under 5 --Doctors Lounge
pneumoniae Leads to Death in Many Under 5 --Doctors Lounge. Medical Reference. Diseases. Approximately 11 percent of all deaths in children aged 1 to 59 months are due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and greater efforts to prevent and treat disease associated with the bacterium could help attain the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, according to a study published in the Sept. 11 HealthDay News -- Approximately 11 percent of all deaths in children aged 1 to 59 months are due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and greater efforts to prevent and treat disease associated with the bacterium could help attain the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, according to a study published in the Sept. There were approximately 14.5 million episodes of serious pneumococcal disease in 2000, which caused approximately 826,000 deaths among children aged 1 to 59 ...
http://doctorslounge.com/index.php/news/pb/8085
*  Press release: Genocea Biosciences and PATH sign collaboration agreement to accelerate pneumoccocus
... vaccine development - PATH. Jobs. PATH. Our work. Our impact and resources. Donate now ». Genocea Biosciences and PATH sign collaboration agreement to accelerate pneumoccocus vaccine development. Genocea teams with pneumococcus expert Richard Malley of Children s Hospital Boston. Cambridge, MA and Seattle, WA, June 5, 2008 Genocea Biosciences, a leading vaccine discovery and development company, today announced a research and collaboration agreement with PATH to speed the development of a new vaccine to fight Streptococcus pneumoniae. PATH, Genocea, and Richard Malley, MD, associate professor of Pediatrics at Children s Hospital Boston, will collaborate on a protein-subunit pneumococcal vaccine for use in the developing world. Malley is one of the world leaders in immune mechanisms of protection against pneumococcus and is also principal investigator of a 2006 PATH-supported project to develop a whole-cell pneumococcal vaccine for children in the developing world. Genocea s novel antigen discovery platfo...
http://path.org/news/press-room/486/
*  RSS Feed Viewer for Feed: THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION -- CURRENT ISSUE
... RSSFeeds.org Homepage. Add to Favorites. Information What is an RSS Feed. The History of RSS Feeds RSS Versions and Formats Latest News RSS Feed Categories Arts 287 Business 167 Computers 218 Education 5 Entertainment 10 Games 24 Health 72 Home 51 Kids and Teens 7 Lifestyle 5 News 118 Recreation 125 Reference 47 Regional 1,284 Science 131 Shopping 6 Society 200 Sports 214 World 1,005. Feed: THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION -- CURRENT ISSUE The Journal of Clinical Investigation RSS feed -- Current issue. Bacterial exploitation of phosphorylcholine mimicry suppresses inflammation to promote airway infection By: Christopher B. Hergott, Aoife M. Roche, Nikhil A. Naidu, Clementina Mesaros, Ian A. Blair, Jeffrey N. Weiser Regulation of neutrophil activity is critical for immune evasion among extracellular pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which many bacteria disrupt phagocyte function remain unclear. Here, we have shown that the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae disables neutrophils by exploiti...
http://rssfeeds.org/rss.go/display-rss-feed/4760.html
*  ‘Concerning’ rise in pneumococcus risk factors
... Over the study period, the incidence of pneumococcal disease decreased significantly in outpatients, from 5.8 to 2.9 infections per 100,000 clinic visits, but increased marginally in inpatients, from 262.3 to 328.1 infections per 100,000 hospital admissions. pneumoniae infections. pneumoniae infections had a high burden of comorbidities, with chronic respiratory disease and diabetes being the most common. pneumoniae infections rose significantly over the study period, the authors found. Specifically, the prevalence of heart failure rose from 11.1% in 2002 to 18.6% in 2011, chronic respiratory disease from 33.1% to 50.9%, diabetes from 11.3% to 22.6%, liver disease from 4.6% to 7.4%, renal failure or dialysis from 5.6% to 13.8% and cancer from 13.0% to 18.9%. b69c2ec1-813d-4b50-8828-8e62acd08c61|0|.0 Posted in: Medical Research News Tags: Cancer, Diabetes, Dialysis, heart, Heart Failure, HIV, Hospital, Infectious Diseases, Liver Disease, Medical School, Pneumococcal Disease, Pneumonia, Renal Failure, Resp...
http://news-medical.net/news/20140901/e28098Concerninge28099-rise-in-pneumococcus-risk-factors.aspx
*  Griffith's experiment
Image:Griffith's experiment discovering the "transforming principle" in pneumococcus bacteria. 1 was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation. Griffith's findings were followed by research in the late 1930s and early 40s that isolated DNA as the material that communicated this genetic information. Pneumonia was a serious cause of death in the wake of the post-WWI Spanish influenza pandemic, and Griffith was studying the possibility of creating a vaccine. The III-S strain covered itself with a polysaccharide capsule that protected it from the host's immune system, resulting in the death of the host, while the II-R strain did not have that protective capsule and was defeated by the host's immune system. A German bacteriologist, Fred Neufeld, had discovered the three pneumococcal types Types I, II, and III and discovered the Quellung reaction to identify them in vitro. In this experiment, bacteria from the III-S strain...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffith's_experiment
*  JAMA Network | JAMA Internal Medicine | Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus Bacteremia
JAMA Network. JAMA Internal Medicine. Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus Bacteremia. 0. . Institutional Sign In >. Sign in via Athens. Sign in via Shibboleth. Sign In. Create an Account. We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes. Retry. We were able to sign you in, but your subscription s could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes. Retry. There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue. Contact the AMA Service Center: Telephone: 1 800 262-2350 or 1 312 670-7827 * Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com. Error Message ...... The JAMA Network. Journals. JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association. JAMA Dermatology. JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery. JAMA Internal Medicine. JAMA Neurology. JAMA Oncology. JAMA Ophthalmology. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery. JAMA Pediatrics. JAMA Psychiatry. JAMA Surgery. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry 1919-1959. Collections. Store. Physician Jobs. About Mobile. Search....
http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=605359
*  Campylobacter fetus
... home jobs news articles job advice search protocols fun reallabrat candidates post your resume candidates search biotech jobs employers post job openings email login password new users sign up home protocols bacterial species campylobacter fetus campylobacter fetus biohazard level growth temperature o c appropriate growth media trypticase soy agar with defibrinated sheep blood trypticase soy broth with defibrinated sheep blood gram stain campylobacter fetus is gram stain negative respiration campylobacter fetus is microaerophilic motility campylobacter fetus is motile taxonomic lineage bacteria proteobacteria delta epsilon subdivisions epsilonproteobacteria campylobacterales campylobacteraceae campylobacter industrial uses or economic implications none known miscellaneous campylobacter fetus was isolated from a sheep fetus brain human health and disease cam...
http://thelabrat.com/protocols/Bacterialspecies/Campylobacterfetus.shtml
*  Campylobacter fetus
... is a species of gram negative motile bacteria with a characteristic s shaped rod morphology similar to members of the genus vibrio like other members of the campylobacter genus c fetus is oxidase positive pathogenesis in addition to causing some cases of abortion in cattle and sheep c fetus is an opportunistic human pathogen and can cause bacteremia and thrombophlebitis though rare c fetus can lead to fatal septicemia in newborns and immunocompromised individuals c fetus along with campylobacter coli have been shown to cause septicemia bacteremia can lead to localized infections of the meninges in the brain the respiratory pleural spaces or lungs joint s the pericardial sac around the heart or the peritoneum references see also campylobacteriosis campylobacteriosis cattle category epsilonproteobacteria...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campylobacter_fetus
*  Lior Turgeman (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh) on ResearchGate
Lior Turgeman University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh on ResearchGate. For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Lior Turgeman. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh. PhD. 15.14. Get Author Updates. Overview. Contributions. Info. Stats. Lior Turgeman has. 11. Publications. 461. Reads. 59. Citations. Impact Points. View stats. Featured publications. View all. Conference Paper:. Analyzing the Hospital-Related Flow of Congestive Heart Failure CHF Patients and Readmission Risk Factors Identification. Lior Turgeman. Jerrold H. May. Ashley Ketterer. Roberta Sciulli. Dominic Vargas. 111. Reads. 0 Citations. Source Available from: Lior Turgeman. Article:. Effects of Photon Losses on Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy FLIM System Optimization. Lior Turgeman. Tsviya Nayhoz. Nir Roth. Gilad Yahav. Avraham Hirshberg. Dror Fixler. 45. Reads. 0 Citations. Source Available from: Lior Turgeman. Article:. The influence...
http://researchgate.net/profile/Lior_Turgeman
*  Eurosurveillance - Surveillance of human Campylobacter infections in France - Part 1 - Which data
... In this issue European Survey on Campylobacter surveillance and diagnosis 2001 Surveillance of human Campylobacter infections in France - Part 1 - Which data. Surveillance of human Campylobacter infections in France - Part 1 - Which data. In France, prior to the implementation of Campylobacter infection surveillance, a study on diagnosis practices for those infections was carried out in hospital laboratories HL and private laboratories PL by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire in collaboration with the CNRCH. The data collected concerned test criteria for Campylobacter, the number of stool cultures, the number of Campylobacter tests and the number of positive results in 1999, demographic data, the concept of clustered cases and travel, the diagnostic tools used, preservation delays of culture media and the characterisation of sensitivity tests to antibiotics. In 1999, a PL tested for Campylobacter 129 times on average 56.3% of stool cultures CI 95% in stool samples, of which 4.7% CI 95% were positive versus...
http://eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=431
*  Campylobacter infection Medical Information
... All Consumer Professional Pill ID Interactions News FDA Alerts Approvals Pipeline Clinical Trials Care Notes Encyclopedia Dictionary Natural Products. Drugs A-Z. Natural Products. News. Apps. Campylobacter infection. Campylobacter infection Campylobacter enteritis is an infection of the small intestine with Campylobacter jejuni bacteria. Causes of Campylobacter infection. These bacteria are also one of the many causes of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning. A person can also be infected by close contact with infected people or animals. Campylobacter infection Symptoms. Complete blood count with differential Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment of Campylobacter infection. The infection almost always goes away on its own, and usually does not need to be treated with antibiotics. You have a fever above 101 F, or your child has a fever above 100.4 F along with diarrhea. Your diarrhea does not get better in 5 days, or it gets worse If your child has sym...
http://drugs.com/enc/campylobacter-infection.html
*  Campylobacter Infections - HealthyChildren.org
... Ages Stages. Ages Stages. Healthy Living. Healthy Living. Healthy Living Nutrition. Safety Prevention. Safety Prevention. Family Life. Family Life. Family Life Health Management - Medical Home. Health Issues. Health Issues. Health Issues Conditions. Tips Tools. Tips Tools. Tips and Tools Ask The Pediatrician. Health Issues. Infections. Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Abdominal > Campylobacter Infections Health Issues. Print Share. Article Body Campylobacter are a type of bacteria that produce infections in the GI tract. You may hear your pediatrician use the names Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, which are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea. What You Can Do If your child has blood in his diarrhea or stools, you should call your pediatrician. Children with Campylobacter infections tend to get better on their own without any particular treatment. This will help your pediatrician give you an exact diagnosis of the cause of your child’s diarrhea. Treatme...
http://healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/abdominal/pages/Campylobacter-Infections.aspx
*  Human gut microbiota can influence susceptibility to Campylobacter infection
... Medical News 'Tweets'. Unique molecule can bind HIV-infected cells to killer T cells. Human gut microbiota can influence susceptibility to Campylobacter infection Published on August 19, 2014 at 10:46 AM. The specific composition of bacterial species in a person's gut may protect against or increase susceptibility to Campylobacter, the most common cause of human bacterial intestinal inflammation, according research published this week in mBio-, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. The study also found that Campylobacter infection can yield lasting changes to one's gut bacteria composition. However, very little is known about how human gut microbiota influences susceptibility to these organisms, and to Campylobacter in particular, said senior study author Hilpi Rautelin, MD, PhD, professor of clinical bacteriology at Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden. We wanted to see if the composition of the human gut microbiota plays a role in susce...
http://news-medical.net/news/20140819/Human-gut-microbiota-can-influence-susceptibility-to-Campylobacter-infection.aspx
*  Campylobacter Infections
... For Kids. Asthma Center. Infections. Kids Home. Asthma Center. Diabetes Center. Infections. Campylobacter Infections. When to Call the Doctor. Campylobacter bacteria, usually transmitted in contaminated food or water, can infect the gastrointestinal tract and cause diarrhea, fever, and cramps. Good hand-washing and food safety habits will help prevent Campylobacter infections or campylobacteriosis, which usually clear up on their own but sometimes are treated with antibiotics. Bacteria can spread from person to person when someone comes into contact with fecal matter from an infected person especially a child in diapers. In some cases particularly in very young kids and those with chronic illnesses or a weak immune system the bacteria can get into the bloodstream called bacteremia. The main symptoms of Campylobacter infection are fever, abdominal cramps, and mild to severe diarrhea. In cases of campylobacteriosis, the diarrhea is initially watery, but later may contain blood and mucus. Sometimes, the abd...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=PrimaryChildrensMedicalCenter&lic=5&cat_id=20028&article_set=22750&ps=104
*  Campylobacter Infections
... Health & Safety. Find a Doctor. Find a Doctor. Infections. Nutrition & Fitness. For Kids. Nutrition & Fitness Center. Infections. Kids Home. Nutrition & Fitness Center. Campylobacter bacteria, usually transmitted in contaminated food or water, can infect the gastrointestinal tract and cause diarrhea, fever, and cramps. Good hand-washing and food safety habits will help prevent Campylobacter infections or campylobacteriosis, which usually clear up on their own but sometimes are treated with antibiotics. Bacteria can spread from person to person when someone comes into contact with fecal matter from an infected person especially a child in diapers. The main symptoms of Campylobacter infection are fever, abdominal cramps, and mild to severe diarrhea. In cases of campylobacteriosis, the diarrhea is initially watery, but later may contain blood and mucus. Sometimes, the abdominal pain seems to be a more serious symptom than the diarrhea. As you care for a family member who has diarrhea, remember to wash your ...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=RadyChildrensHospital&lic=102&cat_id=20048&article_set=22750&tracking=P_RelatedArticle
*  Campylobacter food poisoning symptoms | Campylobacter Food Poisoning
Campylobacter food poisoning symptoms. Campylobacter Food Poisoning Botulism Botulism Blog. Campylobacter About Campylobacter Campylobacter Blog. coli About Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome E. coli Blog. Hepatitis A About Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Lawsuits Litigation Hepatitis A Blog. Listeria About Listeria Listeria Blog. Salmonella About Salmonella Salmonella Lawsuits Litigation Salmonella Blog. Shigella About Shigella Shigella Blog. Complications of Foodborne Illness Guillain-Barré Syndrome Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome Reactive Arthritis. General Foodborne Illness Information Foodborneillness.com Outbreak Database. See Also Marler Clark Bill Marler's Blog Food Safety News Food Poison Journal Real Raw Milk Facts Fair Safety. Visit Bill Marler s Blog. Real Life Impacts. Outbreaks. Consumer Resources. Contact an Attorney. Contact an Attorney. What are the symptoms of Campylobacter food poisoning. Real Life Impacts of Campylobacter Infection. Outbreaks of Campylobacter Infection. Consumer Resource...
http://about-campylobacter.com/campylobacter_symptoms_risks
*  Meaning of Campylobacteriosis
... Meanings. All sources. Popular Words. Webster's dictionary. News -------------. Enzyklo DE. Encyclo NL. Search. Campylobacteriosis Campylobacteriosis: Disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni, now the leading cause of bacterial food poisoning, most often spread by contact with raw or undercooked poultry. A single drop of juice from a contaminated chicken is enough to make someone sick with Campylobacteriosis. campylobacteriosis Infection caused by microaerophilic bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. Found on http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?campylobacteriosis. campylobacteriosis kam p -lo-bak-t r e-o´sis bacterial infection with Campylobacter species; most species are more common in other animals than in humans. Other type... Found on http://www.encyclo.co.uk/local/21001. campylobacteriosis from the article `campylobacter` group of spiral-shaped bacteria that can cause human diseases such as campylobacter enteritis campylobacteriosis , which begins abruptly with fever, ... campylobacteriosis Type...
http://encyclo.co.uk/meaning-of-Campylobacteriosis
*  Campylobacter infection
 Campylobacter infection. Memorial Healthcare System. About Memorial Healthcare System. Health Services. Find a Physician. Health Library. Cancer Institute. Home Health Services. Outpatient Services. Pediatric Services... Pediatric Cancer. Patient- Family-Centered Care. Research a Disease or Condition. Memorial Services • Memorial Cancer Institute - Colorectal/Gastroenterology Cancer. Campylobacter infection Definition Campylobacter enteritis is an infection of the small intestine with Campylobacter jejuni bacteria. Alternative Names Food poisoning - campylobacter enteritis; Infectious diarrhea - campylobacter enteritis; Bacterial diarrhea. Causes Campylobacter enteritis is a common cause of intestinal infection. These bacteria are also one of the many causes of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning. Cramping abdominal pain Fever Nausea and vomiting Watery diarrhea, sometimes bloody. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have diarrhea that continues for more than 1 wee...
http://mhs.net/library/hie multimedia/1/000224.html
*  Campylobacter Infection Symptoms & Treatment, NE - CHI Health, Omaha
... Emergency Care. Heart Care. Emergency Care. Risk Assessments Depression, Cancer, Heart Disease: Find out if you're a risk. Campylobacter infection Definition Campylobacter enteritis is an infection of the small intestine with Campylobacter jejuni bacteria. Alternative Names Food poisoning - campylobacter enteritis; Infectious diarrhea - campylobacter enteritis; Bacterial diarrhea; Campy. These bacteria are also one of the many causes of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have diarrhea that continues for more than 1 week or comes back. You have a fever above 101 ° F, or your child has a fever above 100.4 ° F along with diarrhea. Your diarrhea does not get better in 5 days, or it gets worse If your child has symptoms, call your child's health care provider if your child has:. A fever above 100.4°F and diarrhea Diarrhea that does not get better in 2 days, or it gets worse Been vomiting for more than 12 hours in a newborn under...
http://chihealth.com/body.cfm?id=3218&action=detail&AEArticleID=000224&AEProductID=Adam2004_117&AEProjectTypeIDURL=APT_1
*  PLOS ONE: Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Preceding Infection with Campylobacter, Influenza and Epstein
... -Barr Virus in the General Practice Research Database. Article-Level Metrics. Research Article. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Preceding Infection with Campylobacter, Influenza and Epstein-Barr Virus in the General Practice Research Database Clarence C. Article. We conducted a nested case-control study using data from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database between 1991 and 2001. 2007 Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Preceding Infection with Campylobacter, Influenza and Epstein-Barr Virus in the General Practice Research Database. Using data from a cohort of patients presenting to primary care, we have previously estimated that for every 10,000 cases of Campylobacter enteritis, two cases of GBS occur within the two months following infection, an incidence 77 times greater than that in the general population. Incidence of consultation for various infections and influenza vaccination among GBS cases open bars and matched controls dark bars by time from GBS consultation in cases. Distribution of preced...
http://plosone.org/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000344
*  Bovine Campylobacteriosis
... gastrointestinal campylobacteriosis is caused by campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli although it is a commensal in the gastrointestinal tract of many species it can cause diarrhea mainly in young animals it is most commonly seen in cattle but may also infect many other species including humans campylobacter is spread horizontally via the fecal oral route campylobacteriosis cattle reviewed and published by wikivet at http en wikivet net campylobacteriosis cattle accessed campylobacter fetus can also cause venereal disease and abortion in cattle http www oie int fileadmin home eng health standards tahm bgc pdf clinical signs and diagnosis calves normally suffer from a blood flecked thick mucoid diarrhoea they may be pyrexic tachycardic tachypneic and suffer weight loss adult cattle may show reproductive signs such as anoestrus irregular oestrus patterns agalactia abortion and infertility campylobacter infection can be confirmed by rising antibody titres culture on a selective medium or histological ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_Campylobacteriosis
*  PLOS ONE: Campylobacter Infection in Children in Malawi Is Common and Is Frequently Associated with
... Enteric Virus Co-Infections. . Advertisement. plos.org. create account. sign in. PLOS ONE. Publish. Submissions. Getting Started. Submission Guidelines. Figures. Tables. Supporting Information. LaTeX. Revising Your Manuscript. Submit Now. Policies. Best Practices in Research Reporting. Human Subjects Research. Animal Research. Competing Interests. Disclosure of Funding Sources. Content License. Data Availability. Materials and Software Sharing. Ethical Publishing Practice. Manuscript Review and Publication. Criteria for Publication. Editorial and Peer Review Process. Reviewer Guidelines. Accepted Manuscripts. Corrections and Retractions. Comments. Article-Level Metrics. Submit Your Manuscript Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Learn More. Submit Now. About. Why Publish with PLOS ONE. Journal Information. Editorial Board. Section Editors. Adviso...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059663
*  Campylobacteriosis 2000 - Minnesota Dept. of Health
... Minnesota Department of Health. HOME. TOPICS. Certificates & Records. Data & Statistics. Diseases & Conditions. Emergency Preparedness. Environments Your Health. Facilities & Professions. Health Care & Coverage. Injury, Violence & Safety. Life Stages & Populations. Policy, Economics & Legislation. Prevention & Healthy Living. ABOUT US. Google search input field. . Disease Control Newsletter DCN DCN Home. 2015 2014. 2013. 2012. 2011. 2010. 2009. 2008. 2007. 2006. 2005. 2004. 2003. 2002. 2001. 2000. 1999. 1998. Related Topics Infectious Diseases A-Z. Infectious Diseases by Category. IDEPC Newsletters. Campylobacteriosis, 2000 Introduction to Annual Summary of Communicable Diseases, 2000 List of Reportable Diseases, 2000 Number of Cases of Selected Reportable Diseases, 2000 Campylobacter continues to be the most commonly reported bacterial enteric pathogen in Minnesota Figure 2. There were 1,079 cases of culture-confirmed Campylobacter infection reported to MDH in 2000 22...
http://health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/newsletters/dcn/sum00/campylo.html
*  Campylobacteriosis Campylobacteriosis
Campylobacteriosis. Campylobacteriosis. Home. About. A-Z Topics. Glossary. Tools. Videos. MI CORAZÓN. English. Español. Log In / Join. Help. Store. For Caregivers. For Clinicians. For Employers. Sections. Heart Conditions. Atrial Fibrillation. Congenital Heart Defects. Coronary Artery Disease. Heart Attack. Heart Failure. High Blood Pressure. Browse all conditions a-z. Tests Learn more about and how to prepare for cardiovascular tests. CardioSmart Patient Fact Sheets. Find over 200 print-friendly fact sheets about heart disease and related health topics. Guidelines Read key points of the guidelines established by the medical community for managing your condition. Drugs & Treatments. Find a Drug. Treatments. Vitamins and Supplements. Understanding Medication Adherence. Health Care Costs Support. Drug Interactions. Taking Medications as Prescribed. Heart Basics. How the Heart Works. Preparing For Your Appointment. What is a Cardiologist. Ask an Expert. Heart Disease Statistics. Your Health Care Team. Find Your ...
https://cardiosmart.org/healthwise/te63/19sp/ec/te6319spec
*  Campylobacteriosis
... 'Campylobacteriosis' is an infection by the ' Campylobacter ' bacterium, Centers for disease Control and Prevention most commonly ' C. jejuni '. It is among the most common bacterial infections of human s, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain. The disease is usually caused by ' C. The common routes of transmission for the disease-causing bacteria are fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food generally unpasteurized raw milk and undercooked or poorly handled poultry, and waterborne i.e., through contaminated drinking water. Contact with contaminated poultry, livestock, or household pets, especially puppies, can also cause disease. In 57 percent of cases, the bacteria could be traced to chicken, and in 35 percent to cattle. Exposure to bacteria is often more common during travelling, and therefore campylobacteriosis is a common form of travelers' diarrhea. 'Campylob...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campylobacteriosis
*  Campylobacteriosis Data Untitled Page
Campylobacteriosis Data. Untitled Page. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. All content is viewable but it will not display as intended. Skip to global menu 5 Skip to local menu 2 Skip to content 3 Skip to footer 6. Advanced. Topics:. A B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. All. Mobile. Inicio en español. Text Size:. Font Larger Font Smaller. Home. About Us. Organization Chart. Visitor Information. Volunteer with DSHS. Site Map. Commissioner. Legislative Information. DSHS Council. Advisory Committees Lists. Library Resources. Customer Service. Contractor Resources. Contracts and Budgets. Data and Reports. More... News. Press Office. News Releases. News Updates. I am a... Health Professional. Public Citizen. Parent. DSHS Contractor. eGrants User. Student. DSHS Job Applicant. News Media Representative. Government Official. More... I want to... Prepare for an Emergency. Obtain/Renew a Professional License. Find Information About EMS. Get a Birth ...
https://dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/campylobacteriosis/data/
*  Joining the Fray from NOVA - The North American Fly Fishing Forum
... Forums. Forum Home Page. Latest Forum Posts. Fly Fishing FAQ. Fly Tying Forums. Fly Fishing in the USA. Fly Fishing in Alaska. Corporate Members. Members Lodge members only. Fishing Reports - USA. Fly Tying. Gallery. Fish Fly. Member Classifieds. Gallery. Join. Join NAFFF for FREE. Members Control Panel. Blogs. Recent Entries. Best Entries. Best Blogs. Search Blogs. The North American Fly Fishing Forum. Member Introductions. Joining the Fray from NOVA. Register Forums Blogs Gallery Video Library FAQ Members List Calendar Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Member Introductions Introduce yourself and get to know other forum members... LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes. permalink 01-30-2010, 01:20 AM. drumstix61. Member. Join Date: Dec 2009 Location: NOVA USA Posts: 13. Joining the Fray from NOVA Hi folks. First off,let me say that this is truly one of the best FF forums I've seen. Roy and Wes asked me where I fished,I told them the GW Forest streams,and they told me to get myself onto the streams of ...
http://theflyfishingforum.com/forums/member-introductions/12475-joining-fray-nova.html
*  PCR using blood for diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease: systematic review and meta-analysi
Study selection Prospective cohort studies, prospective nested case-control studies, and retrospective case-control studies, that assessed the accuracy of any polymerase chain reaction PCR -based molecular method performed with blood samples for the diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults or children, were eligible for inclusion. Seventeen studies were prospective cohort studies; three studies were considered nested case-control studies a prospective cohort of participants evaluated for invasive pneumococcal disease was assessed, patients with proven invasive pneumococcal disease from that cohort served as cases, while a separate cohort of healthy participants served as controls ; nine studies were classified as case-control studies used stored clinical samples from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease for comparison with samples from a cohort of healthy people or patients with infections caused by bacteria other than S. Pneumococcal bacteraemia : When participants with disease were define...
http://crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?LinkFrom=OAI&ID=12010001546
*  Browsing by Subject "invasive pneumococcal disease"
... . Browsing by Subject "invasive pneumococcal disease". Login. WIReDSpace Home. → Browsing by Subject. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Browsing by Subject "invasive pneumococcal disease". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. Or enter first few letters:. Sort by: title issue date submit date Order: ascending descending Results: 5 10 20 40 60 80 100. Now showing items 1-1 of 1. Title:. Risk factors for mortality in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa.  Author:. Nyasulu, Peter Suwirakwenda. Date: 2008-07-17. Now showing items 1-1 of 1. Search DSpace. Browse. All of WIReDSpace. Communities Collections. By Issue Date. Authors. Titles. Subjects. My Account. Login. Register. DSpace software copyright © 2002-2012 Duraspace. Theme by. . Contact Us. Send Feedback. ....
http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/browse?value=invasive pneumococcal disease&type=subject
*  ABCs | Active Bacterial Core Surveillance | Home | CDC
Active Bacterial Core Surveillance. CDC. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. CDC A-Z Index. CDC A-Z. Active Bacterial Core surveillance ABCs. Case Definition and Ascertainment ABCs case finding is both active and laboratory-based. Methodology - Data Collection and Forms ABCs case report, neonatal sepsis surveillance, neonatal infection expanded tracking, invasive MRSA case report... Laboratory Characterization Laboratory characterization information for each ABCs pathogen... ABCs Special Studies Special studies that require additional data collection are currently ongoing in ABCs... Surveillance Reports Find yearly information for each ABCs pathogen, including number of cases and deaths, demographics... Overview Background Active Bacterial Core surveillance ABCs is a core component of CDC s Emerging Infections Programs network EIP, a collaboration between CDC, state health departments, and universities... CDC Participants Core ABCs ...
http://cdc.gov/abcs/index.html
*  WHO | Pneumococcal disease
Pneumococcal disease. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Countries. Programmes. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. Play Store. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals Vaccines and diseases Global Vaccine Action Plan WHO policy recommendations SAGE Immunization schedules Position papers Advisory committees. Monitoring and surveillance Surveillance and burden Monitoring systems Data and statistics Resources. Pneumococcal disease Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumococcus constitute a major global public health problem. Serious diseases that are often caused by pneumococci include pneumonia, meningitis and febrile bacteraemia; otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis are more common but less serious manifestations of infection. It is estimated that in 2000, about 14.5 million episodes of serious pneumococcal disease occurred, resulting in about 826 000 deaths in children aged 1-59 months. In the developed world, serious disease occurs ...
http://who.int/immunization/topics/pneumococcal_disease/en/
*  MOCOCCAL DISEASE Streptococcus pneumoniae are bacteria that are frequently f ound in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children and adults. These bacteria, however, can also cause a range of infections from relatively mild ear infections to fatal pne
http://gavi.org/Library/Documents/AMC/Pneumococcal-Disease-Background/
*  Pneumococcal infection
... Infections Pathogenesis Virulence factors. Infections. pneumoniae' has several virulence factor s, including the polysaccharide capsule mentioned earlier, that help it evade a host's immune system. It has pneumococcal surface proteins that inhibit complement-mediated opsonization, and it secretes IgA1 protease that will destroy secretory IgA produced by the body and mediates its attachment to respiratory mucosa. pneumoniae' expresses different virulence factors on its cell surface and inside the organism. Polysaccharide capsule—prevents phagocytosis by host immune cells by inhibiting C3b opsonization of the bacterial cells Pneumolysin Ply —a 53-kDa pore-forming protein that can cause lysis of host cells and activate complement Autolysin LytA —activation of this protein lyses the bacteria releasing its internal contents i.e., pneumolysin Hydrogen peroxide —causes damage to host cells can cause apoptosis in neuronal cells during meningitis and has bactericidal effects against competing bacteria Haemophilus...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumococcal_infection
*  Invasive Pneumococcal Disease
... redirect streptococcus pneumoniae...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasive_Pneumococcal_Disease
*  Vaccine reduces pneumococcal disease but not bacterial population - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Jump to navigation. Jump to content. Search for. A A A A. Home. Research. Scientific resources. Work study. About us. What we do. History. How we work. People. Press. Public engagement. Campus. Contact 5 May 2013 Vaccine reduces pneumococcal disease but not bacterial population Pre-existing bacterial strains fill the gaps made by the pneumococcal vaccine, but cause less disease Structure of the pneumococcal population, revealing... zoom. For the first time, researchers have tracked changes in an entire bacterial population following the introduction of a vaccine. They discovered that incidence of disease substantially reduced but the bacterium population has, unexpectedly, remained largely unchanged. The collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the Harvard School of Public Health sequenced the whole genomes of Streptococcus pneumoniae taken from clinical samples in the seven years after the introduction of a pneumococcus vaccine in the US in 2000. The findings reveal that introducing...
https://sanger.ac.uk/about/press/2013/130505.html
*  TLR7 Contributes to the Rapid Progression but Not to the Overall Fatal Outcome of Secondary Pneumoco
Services. Services Subscriptions. Customer Service. Customer Service Contact Form. Resources. Resources Authors. In secondary pneumococcal infection during acute influenza, TLR7ko mice showed a fatal outcome similar to wild-type WT hosts, despite significantly delayed disease progression. Regarding the contribution of TLR7 to the innate responses following IAV infection, increased accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the lungs of TLR7ko animals has recently been shown. pneumoniae 7 days after IAV pre-infection, both WT and TLR7ko mice showed profoundly increased mortality compared to bacterial infection alone without a significant difference between the two mouse strains fig. In addition to the survival studies in co-infected animals, the lungs and blood of infected WT and TLR7ko mice were harvested at 4 and 24 h following the bacterial inoculation in order to quantify bacterial CFU. Fig. 3 While survival is not affected, progression of secondary bacterial disease following IAV infection is del...
http://karger.com/Article/FullText/345112
*  News-Medical.Net Pneumococcal Disease News Feed
Latest Pneumococcal Disease News and Research...
http://news-medical.net/tag/feed/Pneumococcal-Disease.aspx
*  Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. from retail meats by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotypin
... g - Ge - 2005 - Journal of Applied Microbiology - Wiley Online Library. Journal of Applied Microbiology. JOURNAL MENU Journal Home FIND ISSUES Current Issue. Virtual Issues FIND ARTICLES Early View. Virtual Issue on Campylobacter. Virtual Issue on Food Safety. You have free access to this content Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. from retail meats by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. Meng 1 Article first published online: 31 OCT 2005 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02750.x. Journal of Applied Microbiology Volume 100, Issue 1, pages 175 184, January 2006. Additional Information How to Cite Ge, B., Girard, W., Zhao, S., Friedman, S., Gaines, S.A. 2006, Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. from retail meats by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100: 175 184. Author Information 1 Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 2 Department of Food Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 3 Division of Animal ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02750.x/abstract
*  Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of C
... ampylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments - Sheffield Hallam University Research Archive. Login. SHURA home. Statistics. About SHURA. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments. Tools. Tools. Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote MODS OpenURL ContextObject in Span MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments. Link to published version:: 10.1128/AEM.67.4.1429-1436.2001. Although campylobacters have been isolated from a wide range of animal hosts, the association between campylobacters isolated from humans and animals in the farm environment is u...
http://shura.shu.ac.uk/399/
*  Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
... 'Pulsed field gel electrophoresis' is a technique used for the separation of large deoxyribonucleic acid DNA molecule s by applying to a gel matrix an electric field that periodically changes direction. Historical background Procedure Theory Applications External links References. Standard gel electrophoresis techniques for separation of DNA molecules provided huge advantages for molecular biology research. DNA molecules larger than 15-20 kb migrating through a gel will essentially move together in a size-independent manner. 1 This technique became known as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis PFGE. coli cluster analysis-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.jpg The procedure for this technique is relatively similar to performing a standard gel electrophoresis except that instead of constantly running the voltage in one direction, the voltage is periodically switched among three directions; one that runs through the central axis of the gel and two that run at an angle of 60 degrees either side. For extremely larg...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsed-field_gel_electrophoresis
*  Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis as an Epidemiologic Tool fo... : Sexually Transmitted Diseases
... . Advertisement. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Subscribe. Saved Searches. Recent Searches. You currently have no recent searches. Login. Register. Activate Subscription. eTOC. Help. All Issues Current Issue Issue Displayed. Advanced Search. Home Currently selected. Current Issue. Previous Issues. Published Ahead-of-Print. For Authors. Information for Authors. Language Editing Services. Journal Info. About the Journal. About ASTDA. Editorial Board. Advertising. Open Access. Subscription Services. Reprints. Rights and Permissions. Mobile. New Features. iPad App. Home. January 2002 - Volume 29 - Issue 1. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis as an Epidemiologic Tool fo... Previous Article. Next Article. Text sizi...
http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/Fulltext/2002/01000/Pulsed_Field_Gel_Electrophoresis_as_an.5.aspx
*  human chromosome 14/pulse field electrophoresis
human chromosome pulse field electrophoresis human chromosome pulse field electrophoresis david weaver dweaver at bgnet bgsu edu tue sep est previous message make your own vacuum pump for gel blotting web page next message biomx electronic journal messages sorted by i presently am looking into the use of pulse field gel electrophoresis methodology to assess breaks points in our generated human tumor cell lines and need help in locating databases for restriction enzyme maps noti etc of human chromosome any and all suggestions would be appreciated previous message make your own vacuum pump for gel blotting web page next message biomx electronic journal messages sorted by more information about the gen link mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/gen-link/1996-September/001101.html
*  Mega-telomere
Telomeric regions of DNA were first identified in the late 1970s See: Discovery of Telomeric DNA. In 1994, extremely long telomeric regions were identified in chickens. 6 Telomeric sequences ranging from 20 kilobases to several megabases have also been identified in several species of birds. Telomeres are identified by telomere arrays. Analysis of siblings from highly inbred chicken-lines have suggested that these ultra-long telomeric sequences are extremely heterogenous. 9 In birds, whose cells contain microchromosomes, it has been suggested that there was a correlation between the presence of mega-telomeres and the number of microchromosomes present in a species, such that bird genomes with large numbers of microchromosomes also possessed larger amounts of telomeric DNA sequence. However, subsequent studies showed that mega-telomeres are not necessarily present in all species with microchromosomes, nor are they found on all microchromosomes within a cell. Mega-telomeres have been best described in vertebrat...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mega-telomere
*  Pulsenet
... 'PulseNet' is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/ CDC PulseNet USA Website Through the network, cooperating groups can share pulsed field gel electrophoresis PFGE results which act as fingerprints to distinguish strains of organisms such as ' E. coli ' O157:H7 and non O157, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Yersinia pestis. In this way, efforts to combat infectious disease outbreak s are strengthened. Due to the success of 'Pulsenet' USA since its inception in 1996, similar networks have been established internationally in Canada 2000, the Asia Pacific 2002, Europe 2003, http://www.pulsenet-europe.org/ PulseNet Europe Website Latin America 2003, http://www.panalimentos.org/pulsenet/ PulseNet Latin America Website and the Middle East 2006. These networks collaborate under the umbrella of ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsenet
*  Scientific Publications by FDA Staff
... Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Common Links. Food. Medical Devices. Animal Veterinary. Tobacco Products. Scientific Publications by FDA Staff. FDA Home. Scientific Publications Detail Entry. - Search Publications. Abstract Centers. All Centers Animal and Veterinary Biologics Drugs Food Medical Devices Office of the Commissioner Regulatory Affairs Tobacco Toxicological Research. Entry Details PLoS One 2013;8 1 :e55254 On the Evolutionary History, Population Genetics and Diversity among Isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis PFGE Pattern JEGX01.0004. Facile laboratory tools are needed to augment identification in contamination events to trace the contamination back to the source traceback of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteriditis isolates within S. Enteriditis Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis PFGE pattern JEGX01.0004 and close relatives, and determined their genome sequences. Sources for these isolates spanned food, clinical and environmental farm sources coll...
http://accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/publications/search_result_record.cfm?id=44762
*  PFGE
... redirect pulsed field gel electrophoresis...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PFGE
*  Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering,
Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Your Basket/Online Quote Items: 114 45.207,79 Search Order View Basket/Get Quote. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Contact Contact us How to find us Jena Bioscience at Meetings and Conferences. Products Ordering. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Native Viral and Microbial Antigens. Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Native Viral and Microbial Antig...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-031fbda341a8cf348159597f24395d6c/1/catalog/1807/?m=1&k=4e
*  Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering,
Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Your Basket/Online Quote Items: 139 73.377,32 Search Order View Basket/Get Quote. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Contact Contact us How to find us Jena Bioscience at Meetings and Conferences. Products Ordering. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Native Viral and Microbial Antigens. Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Native Viral and Microbial Antig...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-22410cd7dead6f0d642bfa83c534caa9/1/catalog/1807/?m=1&k=63
*  Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering,
Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Your Basket/Online Quote Items: 275 125.001,83 Search Order View Basket/Get Quote. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Contact Contact us How to find us Jena Bioscience at Meetings and Conferences. Products Ordering. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Native Viral and Microbial Antigens. Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Native Viral and Microbial Anti...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-cd2137a1fdfd895c6c98ae8438b07f08/1/catalog/1807/?m=1&k=c4

Direct agglutination test: A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis.PerosamineQuellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.CampylobacteriosisPulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Thermal cyclerCampylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.Multiplex polymerase chain reaction: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) refers to the use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify several different DNA sequences simultaneously (as if performing many separate PCR reactions all together in one reaction). This process amplifies DNA in samples using multiple primers and a temperature-mediated DNA polymerase in a thermal cycler.Campylobacter jejuni: Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacterium commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic.Bacterial capsule: The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell.George Albert II, Margrave of BrandenburgStreptococcus agalactiae: Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus with a tendency to form chains (streptococcus), beta-hemolytic, catalase-negative, and facultative anaerobe. Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to the group B of the Rebecca Lancefield classification.Amplified fragment length polymorphismPasteurella multocida: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into five serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars (1-16).Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection: Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection may result in orbital cellulitis or facial erysipelas in neonates.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Bismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Campylobacter coli: Campylobacter coli is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-endospore forming, S-shaped bacterial species within genus Campylobacter.Lansing M.Neisseria meningitidis: Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gram negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs.Red cell agglutination: In haematology, red cell agglutination is the process whereby red cells clump together forming aggregates. This is seen in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, cold agglutinin disease and Infection with Mycoplasma Pneumonia.HaeIII: HaeIII is one of many restriction enzymes (endonucleases) discovered since 1970. It was the third endonuclease to be isolated from the Haemophilus aegyptius bacteria, and has a molecular weight of 37126.Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Klebsiella terrigena: Klebsiella terrigena is a Gram-negative bacterial species of the genus Klebsiella. It has primarily been isolated from soil and water samples, but rarely from humans.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Elli ParvoLatex fixation test: The latex agglutination method is used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests are based on and utilize the patient's antigen-antibody immune response.Monoclonal antibody therapyRotavirus: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the family Reoviridae.Coles PhillipsNeisseria gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Ureaplasma infection: Ureaplasma infection is an infection by two species in the genus Ureaplasma, Infections caused Ureaplasma urealyticum are more common than infections caused by Ureaplasma parvum. Ureaplama infection is a sexually transmitted infection.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: A laboratory technique used to evaluate the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis is similar to immunodiffusion, but with the addition of an applied electrical field across the diffusion medium, usually an agar or polyacrylamide gel.Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaRAPD: RAPD (pronounced "rapid") stands for 'Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA'. It is a type of PCR reaction, but the segments of DNA that are amplified are random.Parrot (disambiguation)EnteritisViral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Pneumococcal vaccine: A pneumococcal vaccine is a vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae.Providencia stuartii: Providencia stuartii (commonly P. stuartii), is a Gram negative bacterium that is commonly found in soil, water, and sewage.Enteroinvasive Escherichia coliEva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-acid-fast, non-motile bacterium. The organism was first established as a human pathogen late in the nineteenth century.Bacterial outer membraneBacitracinResistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Bacillary dysenteryList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Listeria monocytogenes: Listeria monocytogenes is the bacterium that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen.Gonorrhea: Clap}}ATC code J07: ==J07A Bacterial vaccines==DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease: In molecular biology, enzymes in the DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease family of bacterial and eukaryotic endonucleases share the following characteristics: they act on both DNA and RNA, cleave double-stranded and single-stranded nucleic acids and require a divalent ion such as magnesium for their activity. A histidine has been shown to be essential for the activity of the Serratia marcescens nuclease.Gijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.Trans-activating crRNA: In molecular biology, trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) is a small trans-encoded RNA. It was first discovered in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes.Genetic variation: right|thumbProteus vulgaris: Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole+ and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.Enterovirus cis-acting replication elementRadial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.

(1/7746) Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

(2/7746) Serotypes and virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats.

E. coli strains isolated from urine of dogs and cats with urinary tract infections (UTI) and from feces of healthy one's were serotyped, and the serotypes were correlated with uropathogenic virulence factors. The most prevalent O-serotypes, O4 and O6, were isolated from dogs and cats with UTI. In contrast, O11 and O102 strains were the most frequently found from feces of healthy dogs and cats. Most of type O4 and O6 strains possessed such virulence factors as pil, pap, sfa, hly, and cnf1, while most type O11 and O102 strains pil only or pil and aer. All strains of type O75 possessed afaI and aer. K1 antigen was negative in all strains obtained from UTI.  (+info)

(3/7746) Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes.

The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae.  (+info)

(4/7746) Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel.

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

(5/7746) Risk factors for the occurrence of sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infections in children in France: a national case-control study.

To determine risk factors associated with the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis infections among children in France, we conducted a matched case-control study. Cases were identified between 1 March and 30 September 1995. One hundred and five pairs of cases and controls matched for age and place of residence were interviewed. In the 1-5 years age group, illness was associated with the consumption of raw eggs or undercooked egg-containing foods (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). Storing eggs more than 2 weeks after purchase was associated with Salmonella enteritidis infection (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.2), particularly during the summer period (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.3-26.8). Cases were more likely to report a case of diarrhoea in the household 10-3 days before the onset of symptoms, particularly in the age group < or = 1 year (P = 0.01). This study confirms the link between eggs and the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis among children, highlights the potential role of prolonged egg storage and underlines the role of person-to-person transmission in infants.  (+info)

(6/7746) High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan.

The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health.  (+info)

(7/7746) Infection rate of Leptospira interrogans in the field rodent, Apodemus agrarius, in Korea.

Leptospirosis has significantly decreased in Korea since 1988, following the leptospiral vaccination programme initiated in 1988. Whether this wholly explains the decreased incidence is uncertain. As an initial step to answer this question, infection rates of Leptospira interrogans in field rodents, Apodemis agrarius, were examined and compared with previous data. Two hundred and twenty-two A. agrarius were captured during October-December 1996. Spirochaetes were isolated from 22 (9.9%) and leptospiral DNA was detected in an additional 6 rodents (12.6%). Subsequent microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) classified all these isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai. The above data did not significantly differ from previous surveys in 1984-7. There was no significant change of L. interrogans infection in field rodents following the introduction of the vaccination programme in Korea. Further studies are needed to determine the role of human vaccination in reducing incidence.  (+info)

(8/7746) Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)


how can I identify bacteria ( Edwardsiella tarda ) serotype ?


- I am doing project about Edwardsiella tarda, but I am facing some problems, one of it how to identify bacteria serotype !!!!!! and I want to send my sample for identification !
can anybody help me and send me address of any  lap specialist for bacteria serotyping !!!!!!!
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I haven't heard of serotyping for E. tarda. It can be identified by some simple biochemicals. It is biochemically very similar to E. coli except that it produces alot hydrogen sulfide.


Does salmonella have a common or medical name?


I have a report to do and Me and my partner cant find it anywhere!
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Sorry to everybody for the length but this should help you. it is from Up to Date Online, a medical review journal

INTRODUCTION — Salmonellae are motile gram-negative bacilli, which infect or colonize a wide range of mammalian hosts. They cause a number of characteristic clinical infections in humans, including:

Gastroenteritis 
Enteric fever (systemic illness with fever and abdominal symptoms) 
Bacteremia and endovascular infection 
Focal metastatic infections such as osteomyelitis or abscess 
An asymptomatic chronic carrier state. 

BACTERIOLOGY — Based upon high levels of DNA similarity, all clinically important Salmonellae are formally classified as a single species, Salmonella choleraesuis [1]. Familiar organisms such as Salmonella typhi, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Salmonella enteritidis, previously believed to represent separate species based upon antigenic structures, host range, and biochemical characteristics, are now individual serotypes of this single parent species. Most laboratories will continue to report names recognizable to clinicians such as: Salmonella serotype typhimurium or Salmonella choleraesuis serotype typhimurium, or simply Salmonella typhimurium. The American Society for Microbiology favors "Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium", based upon the proposal of using "enterica" as the new overarching species name instead of "choleraesuis"; this has not been accepted by international authorities, but is an increasingly common use.

Salmonella are relatively easy to identify in the clinical microbiology laboratory [2]. Salmonellae grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Salmonella are oxidase negative and virtually all are lactose negative (white on MacConkey agar plates); most Salmonellae produce hydrogen sulfide, which is easily detected on selective indicator plates such as Hektoen, or Salmonella-Shigella agar, which are used for plating stool specimens.

Most laboratories identify Salmonellae by a combination of antigenic and biochemical reactions. Suspicious colonies are agglutinated using antisera directed against specific O (lipopolysaccharide) and H (flagellar) antigens that allow identification of the serogroup. Only S. typhi, S. paratyphi C, and some strains of Salmonella dublin and Citrobacter freundii possess the Vi capsular polysaccharide antigen [3] which can be rapidly detected by slide agglutination studies.

Although serogrouping may provide a clue as to the specific organism (show table 1), this may not always be useful clinically. As an example, both S. enteritidis (which most frequently causes gastroenteritis) and S. typhi (which causes enteric fever) belong to group D; S. enteritidis may occasionally cause a systemic "typhoidal" illness with bacteremia. Formal serotyping is more specific than serogrouping and usually is only performed at state or reference laboratories.

Some have advocated the use of typing techniques such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis on strains of S. enterica serotype typhimurium to detect outbreaks that might otherwise be missed. The Minnesota Department of Health adopted such an approach and identified 16 outbreaks accounting for 154 of 958 isolates between 1994 and 1998 [4]. Twenty-seven percent of isolates were resistant to at least five antibiotics when sensitivity testing was performed; the multidrug resistant strains all had unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.

EPIDEMIOLOGY — Typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are quite different in their epidemiology. The former are usually acquired abroad whereas the latter are most often domestically acquired.

Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi — These organisms, which cause typhoid fever, have a high host specificity for humans. Infection virtually always implies contact with an acutely infected individual, a chronic carrier, or contaminated food and water. (See "Pathogenesis of typhoid fever").

Typhoid fever remains a global health problem, with an estimated 21.6 million illnesses and 216,500 deaths worldwide in 2000 [5]. The incidence was high (>100 cases per 100,000 population per year) in south-central Asia, Southeast Asia, and southern Africa, medium (10 to 100 cases per 100,000) in the rest of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand, and low in the other parts of the world (<10 cases per 100,000). Paratyphoid fever was estimated to have caused an additional 5.4 million illnesses in 2000 [5].

Improvements in food handling, waste management, and water treatment are clearly the most important means of controlling typhoid fever and other enteric pathogens.

In the United States, typhoid fever has become less prevalent and is now primarily a disease of travelers and immigrants:

In a review of laboratory-confirmed cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) between 1994 and 1999, there were 1393 cases of S. typhi infection [6]. Three-quarters of cases were associated with travel, and only 4 percent of these travelers had been vaccinated. Six countries accounted for 76 percent of travel-associated cases: India (30 percent), Pakistan, Mexico, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Haiti. Among 626 travelers to a single country, the length of stay was 7 days in 5 percent and <14 days in 16 percent. Thus, the risk is increased even with short-term travel to high-risk areas. 
The relatively high rate of cases due to travel in Mexico (12 percent) [6] probably reflects the large numbers of individuals traveling to Mexico. The attack rate for Mexican travel is actually quite low (estimated rate only one case per million United States residents traveling from 1985-1994). 
The risk of travel to the Indian subcontinent (estimated rate >100 cases per million travelers), or Southeast Asia and Africa (estimated 5 to 14 cases per million travelers) is significantly higher [7,8]. Travelers to these and other high-risk endemic areas should be vaccinated with either the live oral attenuated vaccine Ty21a or the Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. (See "Immunizations for travel"). 
In the United States, domestically acquired typhoid fever may be related to chronic carriers, but the source of sporadic cases frequently remains enigmatic [8]. Outbreaks have been described related to contaminated water supplies [9], specific foods consumed at social gatherings [10,11], unappreciated chronic carriers working in the food service industry [12], and close personal contact in a psychiatric institution [13].

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae — Unlike infection with typhoidal Salmonellae, nontyphoidal salmonellosis increased steadily in the United States from World War II through the 1980s (show figure 1). However, as noted in the next section, a substantial decline in nontyphoidal salmonellosis began in the mid-1990s. S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium are now the serotypes most frequently isolated in the United States [14,15]. During 2003, a total of 43,657 cases of salmonellosis were reported in the United States, of which 40 percent occurred among children aged <15 years [16]. These numbers represent a fraction of the true incidence, as many cases are not diagnosed.

Foodborne infection — Nontyphoidal Salmonellae are associated with animal reservoirs and therefore with agricultural products, especially eggs and poultry [17-19]. Among 6647 outbreaks of foodborne disease reported to the CDC between 1998 and 2002, S. enteritidis accounted for the largest number of outbreaks and outbreak-related cases [20]. The majority of S. enteritidis outbreaks were related to eggs.

Salmonellae can be passed transovarially from chickens to intact shell eggs [21]. Thus, single intact, normal appearing eggs can transmit infection. The frequency of S. enteritidis-contaminated eggs is difficult to estimate because the rate varies depending upon the level of colonization among hens in a flock and the timing of egg production with respect to acquisition of infection in the hen [18]. On average in the United States, the frequency of contamination is one in 20,000 eggs [22].

Pooling of large numbers of eggs can result in contamination of food products that may be distributed nationally and potentially transmit infection to thousands. As an example, a nationwide outbreak of 224,000 cases of S. enteritidis infection resulted from ice cream manufactured in one state and distributed widely [23]. The putative source of contamination was tankers, which transported ice cream base but previously had been used to carry liquid eggs.

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae have also been associated with fresh produce, meat (including ground beef), milk, and other foodstuffs (show table 2) [24-29]. A 2007 nation-wide outbreak in the United States due to S. Tennessee was linked to peanut butter [30]. Contamination can occur at many points along the food processing pathway which, in developed countries, has become increasingly industrialized, centralized, and global in scope.

FoodNet is a collaborative active surveillance program involving ten state public health departments, the CDC, FDA, and Department of Agriculture, which now surveys approximately 10 percent of the United States population for foodborne illnesses. FoodNet began in 1996; the following observations were noted in reports covering 1996 to 1999:

Conservative estimates indicated that there were about 1.4 million Salmonella infections, which resulted in about 15,000 hospitalizations and approximately 400 deaths per year [31]. S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium were the most common isolates. 
There were an estimated 39 cases of undocumented salmonellosis for each culture-confirmed case [31]. 
Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections proportionally caused the greatest percentage of hospitalizations and deaths due to foodborne pathogens [32]. 
Salmonellosis was most problematic in


What sort of protection gives you 100% safety from contracting STDs?


I hear people say that condoms are only like 70% effective in protecting people from STDs, so what other protection is necessary to ensure almost 100% safety while having sex?
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Technically, abstinence.

However, realistically condoms help alot when used properly. Anecdotally, people who always use condoms just don't get STDs. Theoretically however there's still a risk of catching things, especially HPV and herpes because they're caught through skin-to-skin contact.

To further reduce your risk, you can get tested for all STDs at a clinic by getting urine and blood tests, except for herpes and HPV.

Herpes you can order a special test for called "serotyping" that will tell you if you have type I and if you have type II in your body. Make sure you get the test that will tell what types of herpes, NOT the one that just tells if you have any herpes or not because most people have oral but not genital and will test positive. Type I is oral herpes (cold sores) which about 80% of people have, but type II usually means you have genital herpes and can transmit it even without symptoms. Taking this test costs a couple hundred dollars but you can find out if one of you has herpes. If you both have the same herpes results (ie if you both have it or both don't have it), you don't have to worry about spreading it to eachother.

HPV only women can get tested for, and tests available to the public can't differentiate between strains that are harmless (about 80% of sexually active people or more have some sort of HPV) and strains that cause warts or cancer, which may exist in you or your partner without symptoms.

However, there is now a vaccine out that prevents the strains of HPV that cause 70% of cancer and 90% of warts, only available to women right now but if the woman in the relationship got it, it would at least greatly reduce HER risk of having that transmitted to her. It will probably be available to men in the near future as well, it just hasn't been tested for men yet.

Also make sure you get vaccinated for hepatitis, though blood STD tests will tell you if you have it or not.

So in conclusion, with testing (if the tests are negative or the same for both of you!) and the HPV vaccine you can reduce your risk of catching STDs to being INCREDIBLY low, with only a small risk of the male catching HPV. Condoms would further decrease the risk.

You wouldn't be 100% safe exactly, but you could be probably 99.99% safe if all the above measures were taken.


Can you tell what your blood type is from the color?


From the colour of the blood? No.

The only way to determine your blood type is through serotyping. Antibodies are added to a blood sample, and blood type is determined by whether or not agglutination occurs.


Testing for salmonella after treatment?


This is the second time my mother has been diagnosed with salmonella. She's concerned the doctor has not tested her for any sort of remainder of the bacteria. My question is, is it common not to test for it after treatment? In my mind it would make sense to test for it to make sure it's gone, why would the doctor not do that?
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Sorry to hear that your mother had to experience this twice.  There are a few things to keep in mind:

1) There are approximately 2,600 different serovars of Salmonella - virtually all have the potential to cause human disease.  The laboratory that performed your mother's culture would have sent her specimen to your state public health laboratory for serotyping.  You should ask the Dr. if both infections were caused by the same serovar.  If they were caused by DIFFERENT serovars, your mother may have just had a stroke of bad luck and forititously infected herself twice, on two seperate occassions.  If they are identical - she may have become re-infected.  

2) After recovery, most people will shed Salmonella in their stool for a couple of weeks, potentially upto a few months.  This "carrier" state can be prolonged if the patient receives antimicrobials such as ampicillin or sulpha-trimethoprim.  The fluroquinolones (like cipro) have a much lower risk of creating  a carrier state.

3) Cultures can be performed to insure that the Salmonella has been eleminated - However, this is typically only done for patients who work in  "sensitive occupations"  (e.g. food handlers).  But if you are concerned, you can ask your mothers doctor to order a culture- this is simple - and if its positive you can discuss alternative treatment options.


organ transplant technologies?


i need some help cant find any organ transplant technologies 
plz help
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An organ transplant is the moving of an organ from one body to another, or from a donor site on the patient's own body, for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ. The emerging field of Regenerative medicine is allowing scientists to engineer organs to be re-grown from the patient's own cells (stem cells, or cells extracted from the failing organs.)
Organs that can be transplanted are the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, thymus, and skin. Tissues include bones, tendons, cornea, heart valves, and veins. Worldwide, the kidneys are the most commonly transplanted organs.
Transplantation medicine is one of the most challenging and complex areas of modern medicine. Some of the key areas for medical management are the problems of transplant rejection, during which the body has an immune response to the transplanted organ, possibly leading to transplant failure and the need to immediately remove the organ from the recipient. When possible, transplant rejection can be reduced through serotyping to determine the most appropriate donor-recipient match and through the use of immunosuppressant drugs.
In most countries there is a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation. Countries often have formal systems in place to manage the process of determining who is an organ donor and in what order organ recipients receive available organs.
Transplantation also raises a number of bioethical issues, including the definition of death, when and how consent should be given for an organ to be transplanted and payment for organs for transplantation.