Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Selection Bias: The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.SELEX Aptamer Technique: A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insurance Selection Bias: Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated: LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION by a specific ANTIGEN thus triggering clonal expansion of LYMPHOCYTES already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).PrimatesDrug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Mice, Inbred C57BLMutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Mutation Rate: The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Book SelectionConserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Genealogy and HeraldryTransformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cell SeparationSongbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.

*  On the Robustness of Tests of Genetic Associations Incorpora... : Epidemiology
We consider the robustness of tests of genetic associations that incorporate gene-environment ... Home , March 2011 - Volume 22 - Issue 2 , On the Robustness of Tests of Genetic Associations ... We formally prove that, under the null hypothesis of no genetic association, misspecified ordinary ... On the Robustness of Tests of Genetic Associations Incorporating Gene-environment Interaction When ......
http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/2011/03000/On_the_Robustness_of_Tests_of_Genetic_Associations.19.aspx
*  Genetic and environmental origins of hypospadias : Current Opinion in...
Genetic and environmental origins of hypospadias. Thorup, Jorgena,b; Nordenskjöld, Agnetac,d; ... Genetic and environmental origins of hypospadias Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and ... Home , June 2014 - Volume 21 - Issue 3 , Genetic and environmental origins of hypospadias ... Furthermore, interactions between genetic and environmental factors may help to explain ......
http://journals.lww.com/co-endocrinology/Abstract/2014/06000/Genetic_and_environmental_origins_of_hypospadias.12.aspx
*  Lauritzen , Sheehan : Graphical Models for Genetic Analyses
Genetics Selection Evolution 33 337-367.. * Fishelson, M. and Geiger, D. (2002). Exact genetic ... Genetic Epidemiology 8 81-103.. * Kruglyak, L., Daly, M. J., Reeve-Daly, M. P. and Lander, E. S. ( ... Graphical Models for Genetic Analyses. Steffen L. Lauritzen and Nuala A. Sheehan. More by Steffen L ... Thompson, E. A. (2000). Statistical Inference from Genetic Data on Pedigrees. IMS, Beachwood, OH.. ......
http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.ss/1081443232
*  Phylogenetics - evolgen
In that example, the discordance was due to balancing selection maintaining multiple alleles across ... But can incongruities between genetic data and species history arise via entirely neutral processes ......
http://scienceblogs.com/evolgen/category/phylogenetics/page/3/
*  The International Symposium on Genetics in Aquaculture XI
He is one of the world's leading experts in Whole Genome Selection and Marker- Assisted Selection ... Genetic research and its application have had a significant role in the development of aquaculture, ... Integrated genetic maps have been constructed, and progress has been made in QTL mapping. Whole ... to present the current state of the integration of breeding, genetics and genomics for genetic ......
http://ag.auburn.edu/fish/the-international-symposium-on-genetics-in-aquaculture-xi-at-auburn-university/
*  Evolvability of physiological and biochemical traits: evolutionary mechanisms...
... something shields genetic variability from selection. How, then, can genetic variability either be ... the intensity of natural selection and the genetic variance of the trait. Intensity of selection is ... Ongoing selection can purge a population of genetic variability if the intensity of purifying ... because natural selection is powerful, it can purge genetic variation, and (ii) evolutionary ......
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/210/9/1653
*  Mountain pygmy-possum recovery a world class result: outbreeding saves...
Natural selection soon acts on the new genetic opportunities and populations bounce back. The ... Hotham population, the genetic variation has doubled. In addition, or rather because of this ... Obviously, genetic rescue is not the only way forward, but when habitat restoration fails, ... Buller is a good news story with a moral: perhaps we can help more endangered species in genetic ......
http://theconversation.com/mountain-pygmy-possum-recovery-a-world-class-result-outbreeding-saves-population-22083
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Why do you believe in Neo-Darwinian Theory?
2) Mutation is the source of genetic variation.. 3) Traits that aid reproduction (often by ... Kin Selection). 5) The finch is a natural aphrodisiac.. 6) Over time, a species can diverge into ... what with the evidences of natural selection and all that ......
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about26075.html?hilit=Engineering
*  Whole-genome comparison of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC22...
Variation in mobile genetic elements (MGEs) occurred frequently and appeared largely independent of ... Survival in amoeba-a major selection pressure on the presence of bacterial copper and zinc ... Nevertheless, little is known about host-specific genetic variation within the same S. aureus ... The variation found amongst MGEs highlights that genetic adaptation in MRSA continues. However, ......
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/vde.12062/full
*  Antievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::Daniel...
He asserts that natural selection has never been observed or measured. He asserts the 'all genetic ... natural selection has never been observed and cannot be measured', 'there are no clearly ... transitional fossils', 'genetic information cannot increase by evolutionary processes', and ' ......
http://antievolution.org/cgi-bin/ikonboard/ikonboard.cgi?s=50aab517484d26a4
*  Does Natural Selection Drive the Evolution of Cancer? | Wistar
Does Natural Selection Drive the Evolution of Cancer. Wistar. Postdoctoral Programs Predoctoral Programs High School Programs. Annual Biology Essay Contest Biomedical Research for High School Students Awards for Trainee Excellence Chemistry-Biology Interface Training Program Biomedical Technician Training Program Cancer Biology Graduate Program Support Wistar. Press Releases Gallery Glossary WHYY Annual Report Fact Sheets Focus Newsletter Contact Us Events. The Institute. The Institute. Wistar Today. Wistar Today. Wistar Wire. Events. Wistar Today. Press Releases Does Natural Selection Drive the Evolution of Cancer. Wistar Today. Press Releases Glossary Annual Report Gallery Fact Sheets E-Newsletter Focus Newsletter Podcast Contact Us Events Wistar Wire. Does Natural Selection Drive the Evolution of Cancer. Does Natural Selection Drive the Evolution of Cancer. Maley, Ph.D. “When you apply chemotherapy to a population of tumor cells, you’re quite likely to have a resistant mutant somewhere in that population o...
http://wistar.org/news-and-media/press-releases/does-natural-selection-drive-the-evolution-cancer
*  High Line Field Station - Sep 20, 2013 : NYC Parks
... NYC Resources 311 Office of the Mayor. NYC Parks. on Twitter. Official Website of the New York City Department of Parks Recreation. Accessibility Info. Español. View FAQs. Get email updates. Shop Parks. Contact us. Donate Now. Parks. Facilities. Events. Programs. Kids. Services. Greening. Opportunities. About. Email. Print. Translate this page. Tweet. Things to Do. Events Calendar High Line Field Station High Line Field Station Add to Calendar Outlook. Yahoo. Calendar. Google Calendar. iCal Friday, September 20, 2013 11:00 a.m. 7:00 p.m. This event repeats every week on Sunday, Friday and Saturday between 5/4/2013 and 9/29/2013. Please note: This event has already taken place. Please use the Search options on the right to find upcoming events. Whether it s your first walk or your hundredth visit, High Line Greeters help you discover a new side of the High Line. The High Line Field Station is a mobile information cart, staffed by High Line Greeters, a group of knowledgeable volunteers who answer your ques...
http://nycgovparks.org/events/2013/09/20/every-friday-saturday-and-sunday-high-line-field-station
*  Natural selection at work: a case study
... We can make a strong case that natural selection is operating, even if the details of that selection are not immediately apparent. Some species live only in deep water, and some only live much higher up the shore. A snail common on California shores Tegula funebralis, at right can be found in both ranges. In Southern California, Tegula live high up on the shore, while in Northern California, they live in deeper water. Researcher Michael Fawcett thought so and formulated a hypothesis to test. He found that predators, such as octopuses, starfish, and crabs, were more abundant in southern California than in northern California. Perhaps intense predation in the south selected for snails that lived higher up the shore, out of reach of many predators. In the north, selection might not have been as strong, so the snails were not selected to live high on the shore. He took northern and southern snails, released them in deep water and watched what happened. If predators were around, all the snails high-tailed it ...
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/side_0_0/tegula_01
*  23. Theory of Index Selection
Theory of Index Selection. Theory of Index Selection. since 6 August 1998. Theory of Index Selection. General Theory Selection on a Linear Index Changes in G due to index selection The Smith-Hazel index Properties of the Smith-Hazel Index Other useful results Estimated, base, and Elston indices The Hayes-Hill transformation: detecting flaws in the estimated index `Bending'' and ``rounding'' corrections of the estimated index Extensions: Restricted, Desired-gains, and Nonlinear Indices Restricted indicies Desired-gains indicies Linear indices for nonlinear functions Summary Independent Culling, Tandem, and Multistage Index Selection Tandem selection Independent culling Selection of extremes Relative efficiencies of index selection, independent culling, and tandem selection. PDF versions of a recent draft of this chapter are available. Chapter 23 PDF file v. A Mathematica notebook that computes and plots the within- and between-generation changes in the phenotypic and genotypic values for a bivariate character ...
http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zbook/volume_2/chapters/vol2_23.html
*  The Panda's Thumb: On the evolution of Irreducible Complexity
Arthur Hunt on May 10, 2007 9:18 PM Science Avenger on May 10, 2007 7:43 PM Richard Simons on May 10, 2007 7:28 PM GuyeFaux on May 10, 2007 7:00 PM GuyeFaux on May 10, 2007 6:43 PM CJO on May 10, 2007 4:03 PM Joe G on May 10, 2007 3:27 PM Joe G on May 10, 2007 3:20 PM CJO on May 10, 2007 1:50 PM GuyeFaux on May 10, 2007 1:43 PM. Arthur Hunt posted Entry 3087 on May 1, 2007 09:55 PM. I suspect that the argument will be made that this isn t natural selection at all, but was actually produced through intelligent intervention. The point is that even if the selection pressure was artificial this particular protein was not selected for. If artificial selection can cause new information, new proteins and new functions to arise, then natural selection could obviously do the same thing given enough time. Nature Review Genetics 4:865-875 2003 Genome Research 15:1421-1430 2005 PNAS 103:9935-9939 2006 PNAS 104:882-886 2007 Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 2 :457-464 2007 Gene 238:135-141 1999 Genetica 118:171-182 2003 ...
http://pandasthumb.org/archives/2007/05/on_the_evolutio_1.html
*  evolution - How does Artificial Selection work? - Biology Stack Exchange
evolution - How does Artificial Selection work. - Biology Stack Exchange. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. How does Artificial Selection work. As far as I know for evolution to work mutations are necessary. Mutations are the raw material on which natural selection works. But mutations are always completely random and human beings have no control over it.Then my question is how artificial selection works. Would it have been possible to domesticate dogs from wolves, if there would have been no mutations in wolves to begin with. evolution genetics ethnobiology share. artificial selection != evolution. Both natural selection and artificial selection require genetic variation in the underlying population to work. If you had no genetic variation then artificial selection would not be effective. answered Jun 10 '12 at 17:41. Would it have been possible...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/2567/how-does-artificial-selection-work/2570
*  .. Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories ..
BIO-Complexity Journal. They further argue that we know more about the causes of ontogenesis, due to advances in molecular biology, molecular genetics and developmental biology, than we do about the causes of phylogenesis--the ultimate origination of new biological forms during the remote past. Yet Muller and Newman insist that population genetics, and thus evolutionary biology, has not identified a specifically causal explanation for the origin of true morphological novelty during the history of life. Instead, it will analyze whether the neo-Darwinian process of mutation and selection, or other processes of evolutionary change, can generate the form and information necessary to produce the animals that arise in the Cambrian. We must also ask about the origin of the �specified complexity,� as opposed to mere complexity, that characterizes the new genes, proteins, cell types and body plans that arose in the Cambrian explosion. In order to explain the origin of the Cambrian animals, one must account not onl...
http://discovery.org/a/2177
*  Fastest-evolving genes in humans and chimps revealed | New Scientist
Fastest-evolving genes in humans and chimps revealed. Email address. Fastest-evolving genes in humans and chimps revealed. The most comprehensive study to date exploring the genetic divergence of humans and chimpanzees has revealed that the genes most favoured by natural selection are those associated with immunity, tumour suppression, and programmed cell death. These genes show signs of positive natural selection in both branches of the evolutionary tree and are changing more swiftly than would be expected through random mutation alone. Research in 2003 revealed that genes involved with smell, hearing, digestion, long bone growth, and hairiness are undergoing positive natural selection in chimps and humans. The new study has found that the strongest evidence for selection is related to disease defence and apoptosis – or programmed cell death – which is linked to sperm production. Plague and HIV. Nielsen, a professor of bioinformatics, believes immune and defence genes are involved in an evolutionary arms rac...
https://newscientist.com/article/dn7335-fastest-evolving-genes-in-humans-and-chimps-revealed/
*  Index selection
... is a method of artificial selection in which several useful traits are selected simultaneously first each trait that is going to be selected is assigned a weight the importance of the trait i e if you were selecting for both height and the coat darkness in dogs if height were the more important of the two one would assign that a higher weighting for instance height s weighting could be ten and coat darkness could be one this weighting value is then multiplied by the observed value in each individual animal and then the score for each of the characteristics is summed for each individual this result is the index score and can be used to compare the worth of each organism being selected therefore only those with the highest index score are selected for breeding via artificial selection this method has advantages over other methods of artificial selection such as tandem selection in that you can select for traits simultaneously rather than sequentially thereby no useful traits are being excluded from selecti...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_selection
*  PLOS Computational Biology: Recombination Rate and Selection Strength in HIV Intra-patient Evolution
... . Advertisement. plos.org. create account. sign in. PLOS Computational Biology. Browse. Current Issue. Journal Archive. Collections. Publish. Submissions. Getting Started. Presubmission Inquiries. Submission Guidelines. Figures. Tables. Supporting Information. LaTeX. Other Article Types. Revising Your Manuscript. Submit Now. Policies. Best Practices in Research Reporting. Human Subjects Research. Animal Research. Competing Interests. Disclosure of Funding Sources. Content License. Data Availability. Materials and Software Sharing. Ethical Publishing Practice. Manuscript Review and Publication. Editorial and Peer Review Process. Reviewer Guidelines. Accepted Manuscripts. Corrections and Retractions. Comments. Article-Level Metrics. About. Journal Information. Editors-in-Chief. Editorial Board. Publishing Information. Publication Fees. Press and Media. Contact. Search Search. advanced search. Loading metrics Save. Total Mendeley and CiteULike bookmarks. Citation. Paper's citation count computed by Scopus. ...
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000660
*  Selection (biology)
These pressures include natural selection, and, in eukaryotic cells that reproduce sexually, sexual selection. Certain phenotypic trait s characteristics of an organism —or, on a genetic level, allele s of genes —segregate within a population, where individuals with adaptive advantages or traits tend to succeeded more than their peers when they reproduce, and so contribute more offspring to the succeeding generation. Other subcategories of natural selection include ecological selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selection and directional selection. Selective breeding can be seen in the breeding of dog s, and the domestication of farm animals and crop s, now commonly known as selective breeding. On each graph, the x-axis variable is the type of phenotypic trait and the y-axis variable is the amount of organisms. Group A is the original population and Group B is the population after selection. Graph 1 shows directional selection, in which a single extreme phenotype is favored. Graph 2 depicts stabilizin...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selection_(biology)
*  .. Peer-Reviewed Article Critical of Darwinism by NAS Member, Evolution by Absence of Selection
recent molecular data supports the theory of mutation-driven evolution rather than neo-Darwinism. Cost of Natural Selection At this juncture, Kimura 1968a and King and Jukes 1969 formally proposed the neutral theory of molecular evolution. Kimura first computed the average number of nucleotide substitutions per mammalian genome 4 x 109 nt per year from data on amino acid substitutions in hemoglobins and a few other proteins and obtained about one substitution every 2 years. If we accept Haldane’s estimate, such a high rate of nucleotide substitution one substitution every 2 years cannot occur by natural selection alone, but if we assume that most substitutions are neutral or nearly neutral and are fixed by random genetic drift, any number of substitutions is possible as long as the substitution rate is lower than the mutation rate. For this reason, Kimura concluded that most nucleotide substitutions must be neutral or nearly neutral. They examined extensive amounts of molecular data on protein evolution and p...
http://uncommondescent.com/evolution/peer-reviewed-article-critical-of-darwinism-by-nas-member-evolution-by-absence-of-selection/
*  A Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection
... is the title of a series of scientific paper s by the british population geneticist j b s haldane published between and haldane outlines the first mathematical models for many cases of evolution due to selection an important concept in the modern evolutionary synthesis overview the papers were published in ten parts over ten years in three different journals part year subtitle if applicable reference external links i transactions of the cambridge philosophical society springer science business media springer website ii the influence of partial self fertilisation inbreeding assortative mating and selective fertilisation on the composition of mendelian populations and on natural selection proceedings of the cambridge philosophical society john wiley sons wiley interscience website iii proceedings of the cambridge philosophical society iv proceedings of the cambridge philosophical society v selection and mutation proceedings of the cambridge philosophical society vi isolation proceedings of the cambridge ph...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Mathematical_Theory_of_Natural_and_Artificial_Selection
*  GEAR » Need help narrowing down my selection on 2-3lb packs -- BackpackingLight.com Forums
GEAR Need help narrowing down my selection on 2-3lb packs -- BackpackingLight.com Forums. GEAR Need help narrowing down my selection on 2-3lb packs. Need help narrowing down my selection on 2-3lb packs on 01/14/2009 17:00:08 MST. Granite Gear Meridian Vapor seems to be light with heavier bag features Latitude Vapor has a very very good review on here Trail Vapor seems to be very popular Osprey Talon 44 not durable but light Atmos 50 pretty heavy, hard to pack, but very comfortable. Re: Need help narrowing down my selection on 2-3lb packs on 01/14/2009 17:09:47 MST. Edited by ashleyb on 01/14/2009 17:11:38 MST. Re: Need help narrowing down my selection on 2-3lb packs on 01/14/2009 17:21:15 MST. Packs on 01/14/2009 18:00:23 MST. Re: Need help narrowing down my selection on 2-3lb packs on 01/14/2009 18:49:43 MST. Packs on 01/14/2009 18:56:47 MST. As I see it: Granite Gear Vapor Trail -- Good solid pack. Granite Gear Latitude -- Same frame as Vapor Trail but has a different loading system your choice as to whethe...
http://backpackinglight.com/cgi-bin/backpackinglight/forums/thread_display.html?forum_thread_id=17960
*  6 Animals Shaped By Artificial Selection into Beautiful Monsters
... Animals. 6 Animals Shaped By Artificial Selection into Beautiful Monsters. artificial selection. 7/11/14 3:00pm. Artificial selection, also known as selective breeding, is a nice way of saying that humans have guided the evolution of other animals until they become mutants. This incredible diversity was driven by artificial selection — these wild pigeons are the descendants of carefully-bred birds that escaped from captivity to roam our cities. But what is artificial selection doing to today's domesticated animals, which are still closely managed by human breeders. A few decades of intense artificial selection a bird with an essentially non-existent beak, bulging white eyes, and a tiny skull. Not only has the human hand shaped the appearance of this bird, but breeders have also selected for a tumbling behavior. This behavior causes the birds to flip over backwards while flying or attempting to fly, and seems to be tied to serotonin abnormalities in the birds, leading to what is essentially seizure scient...
http://io9.com/i-am-the-baaaaaaaah-1603709216
*  City Talk discusses the High Line and Delancey Underground | ArchDaily
City Talk discusses the High Line and Delancey Underground. ArchDaily. Brasil. México. ArchDaily. Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide. the world's most visited architecture website. About Contact Submit Advertise. Projects. Cultural Architecture. Educational Sports. Healthcare Architecture. Hospitality Interiors. Commercial Offices. Public Architecture. Refurbishment. Religious Architecture. Residential Architecture. Performing Arts Center. Concert House. Opera House. Dance Hall. Exhibition Center. Temporal Installations. Visitor Center. Youth Center. Science Center. Visual Arts Center. Interpretation Center. Cultural Center. Hyunam / IROJE Architects Planners. Cultural Architecture. Jianamani Visitor Center / TeamMinus. Cultural Architecture. Cultural Architecture. Day Care. Higher Education. Other Facilities. Student Hall. Dining Hall. Recreation Training. Fitness Club. Sports Field. Ski Center. Skatepark. Research Center. Schools. Elementary Middle School. High School. Stadiums. Football Stadium. Socce...
http://archdaily.com/197074/city-talk-discusses-the-high-line-and-delancey-underground/
*  .. Trackways show, animals 50 million years ago used Levy random walk to search for food
Home » Animal minds, News, stasis » Trackways show, animals 50 million years ago used Levy random walk to search for food. Trackways show, animals 50 million years ago used Levy random walk to search for food. Animal minds, News, stasis. Fossilized sea urchin tracks at Zumaia/Richard Twitchett, Trustees NHM. Further to: Salamander rule 1: Stroke ain’t broke, so don’t fix it – for 270 million years and don’t the salamanders just look like the type. Animals have used the same technique to search for food that’s in short supply for at least 50 million years, a University of Southampton-led study suggests. Researchers analysed fossilised sea urchin trails from northern Spain and found the tracks reflect a search pattern still used by a huge range of creatures today. The findings could explain why so many modern animals use the technique, and suggest the pattern may have an even more ancient origin. Actually, the findings don’t necessarily explain why modern animals use the technique. It could be natural selection...
http://uncommondescent.com/animal-minds/trackways-show-animals-50-million-years-ago-used-levy-random-walk-to-search-for-food/
*  Céline Dury · Causes
céline dury causes home search for join sign in home céline dury support campaigns supporting céline has supported campaigns pauline conboy wants to irish woman with down s syndrome denied right to travel please email enda kenny taoiseach at sign the petition supporters ludwig meier wants to show compassion and empathy for animals build a advanced culture of compassion and empathy for humans nonhumans earth and sign the petition supporters see all campaigns céline s activity céline dury and others signed the petition to save the mekong river s irrawaddy dolphin over year ago...
https://causes.com/profiles/186771200
*  Neuronal Group Selection theory
... bob mottram bob at whitestn demon co uk fri aug est previous message a nutrasweet story with lots of next message urgent nutrasweet methanol etc etc messages sorted by i am interested in gerald edelman s theory of neuronal group selection and would like to know if there has been any detailed information published regarding recent work especially the darwin or later simulation experiments i ve tried asking about his work on various comp ai newsgroups with little response other than references to material that i have already read neural darwinism the remenbered present bright air brilliant fire which are now some years old any help would be greatly appreciated thanks bob p s is the neurosciences institute on the www bob mottram the closer one looks at these performances of bob at whitestn demon co uk matter in living organisms the more impressive the show becomes max delbruck previous message a nutrasweet story with lots of next message urgent nutrasweet methanol etc etc messages sorted by more information...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1995-August/019706.html
*  Institute for Mathematics and its Applications (IMA) - Epidemiology and Natural Selection in Path
Institute for Mathematics and its Applications IMA - Epidemiology and Natural Selection in Pathogens with Intermediate Rate of Antigenic Change by Viggo Andreasen. Main navigation. Main content Go to the U of M home page OneStop myU. Search U of M Web sites. College of Science and Engineering. HOME. PROGRAMS/ACTIVITIES Annual Thematic Program PROGRAMS/ACTIVITIES Annual Thematic Program. Postdoctoral Fellowships. Hot Topics and Special. Abel Conferences. Public Lectures. New Directions. PI Programs. Industrial Programs. Seminars. Be an Organizer. Annual. Hot Topics. PI Summer. PI Conference. Applying to Participate. Talk abstract Epidemiology and Natural Selection in Pathogens with Intermediate Rate of Antigenic Change. June 7-18, 2004. Viggo Andreasen Department of Mathematics Roskilde University viggo@fatou.ruc.dk. Some pathogens change their antigenic properties at an intermediate rate in the sense that antigenes remain constant during a single infectious episode while antigenic change is fast enough that a...
http://ima.umn.edu/biology/wkshp_abstracts/andreasen1.html
*  MUTATION/SELECTION BALANCE
mutation selection balance mutation selection balance supposing there is selection against a deleterious allele eventually it will be lost from the population however new deleterious alleles arise by mutation this leads to a balance between what goes in mutation and what goes out selection s supposing we have a recessive deleterious allele a genotypes aa aa aa fitnesses s frequency before selection p pq q genotype freqs after selection p pq q s as before and the mutation rate is given as the loss rate of a when q is small see selection and the single gene the gain rate of a because so if mutation which produces a and selection which removes a are balanced we have an equilibrium gene frequency q between mutation and selection so that example tay sachs an autosomal recessive genetic disease in humans has a frequency q assuming random mating of about x assuming random mating therefore the frequency of the tay sachs allele q is about x tay sachs sufferers usually die within two years if this disease is at mutatio...
http://ucl.ac.uk/~ucbhdjm/courses/b242/OneGene/MutSel.html
*  Behe Responds to the Boston Review (Response to Publication): Behe, Michael
Behe Responds to the Boston Review Response to Publication : Behe, Michael. Allen Orr's discussion of Darwin's Black Box : Boston Review, Dec/Jan 97. Professor Orr has a mistaken notion of irreducible complexity. 46-47 to say that you must look at molecular systems to see if Darwinism can explain their development. Simply put, some systems are more complex than others, irreducibly so. 2 Coyne complains that if one biochemical pathway is explained by natural selection, intelligent design advocates can just move on to another, and so ID is not falsifiable. He does not, however, know how natural selection could have produced the clotting cascade. Many proteins of the clotting cascade are similar to each other, and similar to other non-cascade proteins, so they also appear to have arisen by some process of gene duplication. With the proteins of blood clotting, however, the task of adding proteins to the cascade appears to be horrendously problematic. He has confined his work to the question of what proteins appea...
http://arn.org/docs/behe/mb_brrespbr.htm
*  Negative selection
... may refer to in biology negative selection natural selection the selective removal of rare alleles that are deleterious negative selection artificial selection when negative rather than positive traits of a species are selected for in politics negative selection politics a process that occurs in rigid hierarchies most notably dictatorships in immunology negative selection immunology in which b cells and t cells that recognize mhc molecules bound to peptides of self origin or just mhc molecules with high affinity are deleted from the repertoire of immune cells...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_selection
*  Tandem selection
... is a method of artificial selection in which useful traits are selected for sequentially for instance one could select for both increased milk yield and increased milk fat content in cow s via tandem selection by first selecting those with the best of one trait say those that produce highest milk yield and then when that trait is at a satisfactory level by starting to select for those cows that produce milk with the greatest milk fat content instead however for cows to produce milk with greater fat content yield may have to go down due to perhaps limits of the cows metabolism so while you are selecting for cows which have increased milk fat content the yield of milk they are producing may also go down thus reversing the selection process previously performed to increase it therefore tandem selection has a major disadvantage to other major types of artificial selection for multiple traits such as culling and index selection as there is a tendency for the last trait to be lost as the next is being selected...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandem_selection
*  Apologetics Press - God and the Laws of Science: Genetics vs. Evolution [Part 1]
Apologetics Press - God and the Laws of Science: Genetics vs. Existence of God. God and the Laws of Science: Genetics vs. God and the Laws of Science: Genetics vs. The first is that all life comes from life. So, there are creatures that are neither human nor non-human. One of those Hugo de Vries, a Dutch evolutionary botanist is credited with having discovered the existence of genetic mutations Hugo de Vries, 2013. Natural Selection and Neo-Darwinism As is implied by the title of Darwin s famous book i.e., The Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection ..., 1859, the fundamental premise of Darwinian evolution was originally natural selection. The problem is that Darwin believed natural selection could be the means by which his evolutionary theory could happen the mechanism that would accommodate the idea that all forms of life came about from previously existing, less complex life, starting with a single cell eons ago. Evolutionary paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould of Harvard University once explained, Th...
http://apologeticspress.com/apPubPage.aspx?pub=1&issue=1145&article=2220
*  Control - Natural selection
control natural selection band control usa album title natural selection catalogue con release date october format cd packaging digisleeve tracks running time file under power electronics description brand new album of this legendary power noise artist concrete abrasive songs consuming devastating sounds evolving mutating noise keep your aspirines at hand control is here to crush you to little pieces track list removal breaking the will natural selection destroying the senses the beauty of disease hunting ground contaminate disposal exterminate website http crionicmind org misanthrope pages index body html samples natural selection mb hunting ground mb...
http://eibonrecords.com/releases/Control_natural.htm
*  Negative selection (artificial selection)
negative selection artificial selection negative selection artificial selection redirect selective breeding...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_selection_(artificial_selection)
*  Direct Response Agency – Design and Copywriting Services
... Design Development Video Copywriting. DRA Results Looking for a competitive advantage in your vertical. Gain the edge with DRA. Read More. DRA Client Testimonials In order to become the best, you have to know how the best operate. DRA works hand-in-hand with dozens.. Read More. DRA News Direct Response Agency is thrilled to announce a partnership with world-class developer Kinkar Saha and Brian Hill. Read More. DRA Results Looking for a competitive advantage in your vertical? Gain the edge with DRA! DRA offers advertisers access to the world's most sought after designers, copywriters, developers, and video producers. Built for Direct Response Marketers, by Direct Response Marketers, DRA knows what it takes to gain full market yield on a campaign. In a nutshell, we make campaigns that convert higher on the front-end and guide our clients on how to maximize the data on the backend. As a results-driven agency, we seek to create award-winning creatives on every campaign we touch. Our core focus is on creatin...
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*  Sublime Forum • View topic - Mulit line selection acting up with soft line wrap
Sublime Forum View topic - Mulit line selection acting up with soft line wrap. Home Download Buy Blog Forum Support. Sublime Forum. Skip to content. Advanced search. FAQ. Register. Login. Mulit line selection acting up with soft line wrap. Post a reply. 1 post Page 1 of 1. Mulit line selection acting up with soft line wrap by arvid on Fri Feb 08, 2013 8:55 pm I'm having a really annoying issue with mull line selection which is awesome by the way together with soft wrapped lines. If I try to multi line select code like this at the start of the line Code: Select all class MyNiceClass { private myVar; public function giveMeText { return Lorem ipsum ullamco magna cupidatat cupidatat ullamco labore ut ut proident consequat proident ex fugiat culpa laboris ea quis exercitation culpa non ad Duis id in anim id non magna Excepteur qui in laboris dolore et reprehenderit quis anim in eu qui ex aliquip aliqua et irure voluptate ut consequat magna exercitation Excepteur do sit nulla velit enim cillum officia sed pariatur ...
http://sublimetext.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=11045
*  Items where Author is "Jess, Patricia Céline" - heiDOK
items where author is jess patricia céline heidok directly to content publishing search browse recent items open access jur issues login to heidok items where author is jess patricia céline go back a level export as bibtex dublin core ep xml endnote html citation json rdf n triples rdf n rdf xml reference manager atom rss rss group by item type no grouping number of items jess patricia céline einfluß pflanzlicher ernährung und vitamin c carotin und folsäure reicher nahrungsmittelgruppen auf das risiko des primären mammakarzinoms this list was generated on sun oct cest about faq contact imprint...
http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/view/creators/Jess=3APatricia_C=E9line=3A=3A.default.html
*  BimmerBoost - Audi offers 50 unit limited R8 Exclusive Selection Editions for the USA - Pointless sp
... ecial edition. Audi offers 50 unit limited R8 Exclusive Selection Editions for the USA - Pointless special edition. Audi offers 50 unit limited R8 Exclusive Selection Editions for the USA - Pointless special edition. Audi offers 50 unit limited R8 Exclusive Selection Editions for the USA - Pointless special edition. For the first time, Audi debuts a Daytona Gray matte exterior for the 2012 Exclusive Selection Edition R8 V8, complete with carbon fiber exterior splitter and diffuser, 19" titanium five-arm double spoke wheels, black grille surround, black exhaust finishers, R8 GT tail lamps, and red brake calipers. The 2012 Exclusive Selection Edition R8 V8 is equipped with a 4.2-liter FSI® V8 which generates 430 hp at 7,900 rpm, with 316 lb-ft of torque at 4,500 - 6,000 rpm. The 2012 Exclusive Selection Edition R8 V10 comes with a shimmering Ibis white exterior and Brilliant Black features – including the sideblade, exterior mirrors, and rear license plate surround – as well as R8 GT tail lamps and 19" bi-c...
http://bimmerboost.com/content.php?2652-Audi-offers-50-unit-limited-R8-Exclusive-Selection-Editions-for-the-USA-Pointless-special-edition
*  Sublime Forum • View topic - Column selection without drawing out marquee
Sublime Forum View topic - Column selection without drawing out marquee. Column selection without drawing out marquee. Column selection without drawing out marquee by EvilDragon on Thu Oct 10, 2013 2:28 pm Is there ANY way to do arbitrary column selection without the need to constantly hold the right mouse button when selecting columns. Posts: 13 Joined: Thu Oct 10, 2013 2:20 pm. Re: Column selection without drawing out marquee by iamntz on Thu Oct 10, 2013 2:42 pm Click on the scroll wheel. Re: Column selection without drawing out marquee by EvilDragon on Thu Oct 10, 2013 3:35 pm That's not it - that draws a marquee, so I have to hold the middle mouse button. The point that I was trying to show in the GIF is to draw a block selection WITHOUT holding any mouse buttons - just holding a modifier and two mouse clicks on starting and ending points. Posts: 13 Joined: Thu Oct 10, 2013 2:20 pm. Re: Column selection without drawing out marquee by qgates on Sun Oct 13, 2013 11:49 pm Perhaps this plugin will give you w...
http://sublimetext.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=55960
*  Monsters bred for vanity of man | Times Higher Education
Times Higher Education. World University Rankings By subject News About Student. Register. Password *. Join us for FREE. The e-mail address is not made public and will only be used if you wish to receive a new password or wish to receive certain news or notifications by e-mail. Password *. I agree to the terms and conditions * By clicking on the 'join us' button you agree to abide by the THE terms and conditions. World University Rankings news. Domestication allows humans to produce animals in colours and shapes that would never survive in the wild. And this is the nub of domestication - it allows humans to produce animals in colours and shapes that wouldn't make it in the wild. Clubs were established to allow animal breeders to show the products of their efforts. The notion of improving animals via selective breeding was so widely known that Charles Darwin used it as an accessible analogy for his notion of natural selection, fully aware that, by comparing animal breeders' selection and rejection of breeding ...
https://timeshighereducation.com/features/monsters-bred-for-vanity-of-man/178611.article
*  SNAIL'S TALES: Natural selection in the pot?
SNAIL'S TALES: Natural selection in the pot. skip to main. skip to sidebar. 23 January 2011. Natural selection in the pot. We have been growing these annual vinca plants for several years by bringing their pots inside at the onset of winter. But early yesterday morning, while the outside temperature was still below freezing, the pots were taken out to allow for a house renovation project to commence. When they were brought back in several hours later, it appeared that several of the plants in the largest pot had succumbed to the elements. But there were survivors. So, now the question is why some plants died and some survived. The distribution of the survivors suggests that location within the pot was irrelevant. Presumably, the plants were not genetically identical; some may have descended from one plant that was the original occupant of the pot and others from other original plants that occupied different, but nearby, pots incidentally, they do seed well. It is, therefore, possible that we witnessed a selec...
http://snailstales.blogspot.com/2011/01/natural-selection-in-pot.html
*  Since Darwinian times, has there been any striking/notable effects of evolution on humans? - Biology
- Biology Stack Exchange. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. evolution share. improve this question. asked Oct 3 '12 at 16:41. add a comment. up vote 4 down vote. improve this answer. answered Oct 3 '12 at 17:06. But are epigenetic changes evolution. Alan Boyd Oct 3 '12 at 20:18. MCM Oct 4 '12 at 5:11. add a comment. up vote 4 down vote. If we assume that for humans a generation is approximately 20 years, that means that there have been between seven and eight generations since 1859. So, in answer to your question, not very different at all. When we talk about a species evolving or a species being different today than it was X years ago, we are referring to the species as a whole. If, after many, many more generations, this mutation has spread to the majority, or a significant percentage, of ...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/3771/since-darwinian-times-has-there-been-any-striking-notable-effects-of-evolution/3773
*  Selection (relational algebra)
Selection relational algebra. Selection relational algebra. In relational algebra, a 'selection' sometimes called a 'restriction' to avoid confusion with SQL 's use of SELECT is a unary operation written as \sigma {a \theta b} R or \sigma {a \theta v} R where:. a and b are attribute names \theta is a binary operation in the set \{\; \} v is a value constant R is a relation. The selection \sigma {a \theta b} R selects all those tuple s in R for which \theta holds between the a and the b attribute. The selection \sigma {a \theta v} R selects all those tuples in R for which \theta holds between the a attribute and the value v. For an example, consider the following tables where the first table gives the relation Person, the second table gives the result of \sigma {Age \ge 34} Person and the third table gives the result of \sigma {Age = Weight} Person. Person. \sigma {Age \ge 34} Person. \sigma {Age = Weight} Person. style="border: 1px solid black" width="33%". Weight. Harry. Sally. George. Helena. Peter. style...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selection_(relational_algebra)
*  Artificial selection
... redirect selective breeding...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_selection
*  Artificial selections
... redirect selective breeding...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_selections
*  evolution
9 points 1 - Definition of speciation 1 - Differences in populations 1 - Barriers occur various kinds 1 - Barriers prevent inbreeding 1 - Mutations responsible for differences 1 - Differences variations result in populations 1 - Genetic drift occurs in small populations 1 - Founder effect populations markedly different from parents 1 - Differential selection pressures environmental 1 - Adaptive radiation, divergence 1 - Hardy-Weinberg Assumptions how population size, random mating affects speciatio 1 - Polyploidy related to speciation 1 - Allopolyploidy two different species 1 - Sympatry 1 - Allopatry MAINTENANCE OF GENETIC ISOLATION max. PROBLEM formula 1 pt p2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 relationship to genotypes WW Ww ww or W = p 1 pt w = q definition of all terms of equation calculation to frequency 25,000/100,000 = frequency ww = q2 1 pt = 0.25 or 1/4 or 25% allele frequencies 2 pts q = .25 = .5 = frequency of w 1 pt if no explanation formula 1 pt since p + q = 1 p = 1 - q = .5 frequency of W genotype frequencies p2...
http://csun.edu/science/biology/AP_biology/evolution.html
*  Dog Sweaters: Coats for Dogs | PetSmart
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*  Interactive Dog Toys: Rope, Balls & Plush Toys for Dogs | PetSmart
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http://petsmart.com/dog/toys/grreat-choice-flying-disc-dog-toy-zid36-10575/cat-36-catid-100118
*  Supplies & Training, Dog | PetSmart
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*  Dog Bowls, Feeders, & Dishes | PetSmart
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*  Dog Harnesses for Easier Training | PetSmart
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http://petsmart.com/sale/training-behavior/petsafe-easy-walk-dog-harness-zid36-9378/cat-36-catid-900267
*  Dog Bowls, Feeders, & Dishes | PetSmart
Dog Bowls, Feeders, & Dishes. PetSmart. PetPerks. Store Locator. Welcome to PetSmart. Dog. Featured Shops. Featured Shops. Food Center. Dog. Featured Shops. Featured Shops. Food Center. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you c...
http://petsmart.com/cat-36-catid-100010
*  Dog Sweaters: Coats for Dogs | PetSmart
PetSmart. Store Locator. Welcome to PetSmart. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to navigate through each selection. Press enter to continue; you can then use the up and down arrows to n...
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*  Dog Beds: Orthopedic & Heated Dog Beds | PetSmart
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*  Dog Beds: Orthopedic & Heated Dog Beds | PetSmart
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*  Dog Doors: Gates & Doors for Dogs | PetSmart
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*  Dog Placemats for Feeding | PetSmart
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*  .. Cost of maintenance and construction of design, neutral theory supports ID and/or creation
Home » 'Junk DNA', Genetics » Cost of maintenance and construction of design, neutral theory supports ID and/or creation. Cost of maintenance and construction of design, neutral theory supports ID and/or creation. 'Junk DNA', Genetics. When we spend money we have a limited budget to buy things. What Darwin and most Darwinists do not realize is that selection for individual traits likewise comes at cost. To select to maintain one part of the genome means that there is no budget to maintain another part of the genome. To select to construct new features of the genome means one must abandon the maintenance budget of another part. If an asexually reproducing species could only have one offspring, selection must necessarily be neutral because there is no reproductive excess, there is zero “money” to carry out selection. Now if an asexually reproducing species could have two offspring, it now has a little more “money” in the form of reproductive excess to select to maintain one trait that goes bad. But our selectio...
http://uncommondescent.com/genetics/cost-of-maintenance-and-construction-of-design-neutral-theory-supports-id-andor-creation/
*  Dog Training Supplies, Equipment & Training Products | PetSmart
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http://petsmart.com/cat-36-catid-100022
*  Dog Pens: Playpens for Puppies & Adult Dogs | PetSmart
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http://petsmart.com/supplies-training/exercise-pens/top-paw-expandable-dog-crate-zid36-19868/cat-36-catid-100107?var_id=36-19868
*  Wu-Tang Corp. - Official Site of the Wu-Tang Clan - View Single Post - "Ask My First Timbs" Q&A th
- Official Site of the Wu-Tang Clan - View Single Post - Ask My First Timbs Q A thread. Thread : Ask My First Timbs Q A thread View Single Post. There has been indeed been research on the issue of race and race morphology as a whole between races and cultures of various regions. The question of why blacks have bigger “bottoms” than whites and Asians has all to do with evolutionary concepts involving geographic adaptation, natural selection and sexual selection. Body size and type as u stated is indeed all dictated by environment but also via cultural ideals ie “sexual selection”. That rule being that the hotter the climate, the more increased the size and definition of body parts.. So purely from a biological standpoint, the first negroids were supremely adapted to their environment with darker skin, wider noses flatter noses that aid in cooling air before it reaches lungs and consequently oxygen molecules before they are carried away by blood, in addition and what ur question was all about the larger rump is...
http://wutang-corp.com/forum/showpost.php?p=352365&postcount=34
*  Selection
... your selection terms when the icon occurs next to a go term you can use it to add the term to this your selection basket the resulting collection of terms can then be used to create a go slim or to download annotations that contain these terms you can view your current selection of go terms below selection view selected terms go negative regulation of nucleotide catabolic process empty go add to the selection in the textbox above and press...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/Selection?id=GO:0030812
*  Selection
... your selection terms when the icon occurs next to a go term you can use it to add the term to this your selection basket the resulting collection of terms can then be used to create a go slim or to download annotations that contain these terms you can view your current selection of go terms below selection view selected terms go cellular response to chloroquine empty go add to the selection in the textbox above and press...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/Selection?id=GO:1902350
*  Selection
... your selection terms when the icon occurs next to a go term you can use it to add the term to this your selection basket the resulting collection of terms can then be used to create a go slim or to download annotations that contain these terms you can view your current selection of go terms below selection view selected terms go low density lipoprotein particle receptor biosynthetic process empty go add to the selection in the textbox above and press...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/Selection?id=GO:0045713
*  Selection
... your selection terms when the icon occurs next to a go term you can use it to add the term to this your selection basket the resulting collection of terms can then be used to create a go slim or to download annotations that contain these terms you can view your current selection of go terms below selection view selected terms go protein n pi phosphohistidine sorbitol phosphotransferase system transporter activity empty go add to the selection in the textbox above and press...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/Selection?id=GO:0022856
*  Selection
... your selection terms when the icon occurs next to a go term you can use it to add the term to this your selection basket the resulting collection of terms can then be used to create a go slim or to download annotations that contain these terms you can view your current selection of go terms below selection view selected terms go positive regulation of cytokine secretion empty go add to the selection in the textbox above and press...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/Selection?id=GO:0050715
*  Selection
... your selection terms when the icon occurs next to a go term you can use it to add the term to this your selection basket the resulting collection of terms can then be used to create a go slim or to download annotations that contain these terms you can view your current selection of go terms below selection view selected terms go benzene containing compound metabolic process empty go add to the selection in the textbox above and press...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/Selection?id=GO:0042537
*  Selection
... your selection terms when the icon occurs next to a go term you can use it to add the term to this your selection basket the resulting collection of terms can then be used to create a go slim or to download annotations that contain these terms you can view your current selection of go terms below selection view selected terms go methane catabolic process empty go add to the selection in the textbox above and press...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/Selection?id=GO:0046188
*  https://www.ttuhsc.edu/Health.edu/(S(m0pwk0452wjdkz55sf1fay55))/about/other.aspx
... => https://www.ttuhsc.edu/Health.edu/(S(m0pwk0452wjdkz55sf1fay55))/about/1810;url=/Health.edu/(S(m0pwk0452wjdkz55sf1fay55))/SignOut.aspx?auto=true...
https://ttuhsc.edu/Health.edu/(S(m0pwk0452wjdkz55sf1fay55))/about/other.aspx
*  http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/about the ministry/selection procedure for the position of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2013&month=4
... => http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/about the ministry/selection procedure for the position of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2013&month=4...
http://mzv.cz/jnp/en/about_the_ministry/selection_procedure_for_the_position_of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2013&month=4
*  http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/about the ministry/selection procedure for the position of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2014&month=7
... => http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/about the ministry/selection procedure for the position of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2014&month=7...
http://mzv.cz/jnp/en/about_the_ministry/selection_procedure_for_the_position_of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2014&month=7
*  Bull Selection
... print close bull selection tue syndicate publication info source url http beefmagazine com resourceguide breeding and genetics bull selection sponsored introduction continue on to or wait seconds...
http://beefmagazine.com/print/resourceguide/breeding-and-genetics/bull-selection-0113
*  Unnatural selection
... redirect selective breeding...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unnatural_selection
*  Unnatural selections
... redirect selective breeding...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unnatural_selections
*  CutAndPaste
... xorg cutandpaste edit page history repo info bart massey wants to fix cut paste come and help current state of cut and paste icccm section peer to peer communication by means of selections x selections cut buffers and emacs kill rings by jwz x selection mechanism by keithp sources freedesktop clipboards wiki links events xdc last edited sun jul pm pdt...
http://x.org/wiki/CutAndPaste/?action=diff
*  Crop selection
... redirect plant breeding...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_selection
*  http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-19-juniors.aspx?section=-209-&=&selection=526+4073
... => http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/10;%20URL=http:/www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-19-juniors.aspx?section=-209-&=&selection=526+4073...
http://kingparsuperstore.com/c-19-juniors.aspx?section=-209-&=&selection=526 4073
*  http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-7-fairways.aspx?section=-551-&selection=123+120+150
... => http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/10;%20URL=http:/www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-7-fairways.aspx?section=-551-&selection=123+120+150...
http://kingparsuperstore.com/c-7-fairways.aspx?section=-551-&selection=123 120 150
*  http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-122-&selection=6030+615+491
... => http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/10;%20URL=http:/www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-122-&selection=6030+615+491...
http://kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-122-&selection=6030 615 491
*  http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-122-&selection=614+14397+702
... => http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/10;%20URL=http:/www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-122-&selection=614+14397+702...
http://kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-122-&selection=614 14397 702
*  http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-9196-&selection=507+629+9890
... => http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/10;%20URL=http:/www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-9196-&selection=507+629+9890...
http://kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-9196-&selection=507 629 9890
*  http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-9271-&selection=15655
... => http://www.kingparsuperstore.com/10;%20URL=http:/www.kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-9271-&selection=15655...
http://kingparsuperstore.com/c-8-APPAREL.aspx?section=-9271-&selection=15655
*  http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/about the ministry/selection procedure for the position of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2014&month=5
... => http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/en/about the ministry...
http://mzv.cz/jnp/en/about_the_ministry/selection_procedure_for_the_position_of$2548.html?action=setMonth&year=2014&month=5
*  NCW--A Selection from the Work of Amy Plettner
......
http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/Ncw/plettsel.htm
*  elementary number theory - Proof involving Legendre Symbol - Mathematics Stack Exchange
... Mathematics. Mathematics Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Mathematics Questions. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. Proof involving Legendre Symbol. I’m having a really difficult time with the following proof involving the Legendre symbol: Show that $\left \dfrac{3}{p}\right = 1$ iff $p \equiv \pm 1 \pmod{12}$. elementary-number-theory share. asked Mar 27 '13 at 10:56. See math.stackexchange.com/questions/342406/. So in this case if $p\equiv 1\pmod{3}$, then $ 3/p =1$, and if $p\equiv 2\pmod{3}$, then $ 3/p =-1$. If $p\equiv 3\pmod{4}$, then $ 3/p =- p/3 $. We conclude as above that if $p\equiv 1\pmod{3}$ then $ 3/p =-1$, and if $p\equiv 2\pmod{3}$ then $ 3/p =1$. For example, we got that $ 3/p =1$ when $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$ and $p\equiv 1\pmod{3}$, and also when $p\equiv 3\pmod{4}$ and $p\equiv 2\pmod{3}$. ...
http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/342684/proof-involving-legendre-symbol
*  elementary number theory - Legendre Symbol - Mathematics Stack Exchange
... Mathematics Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Mathematics Questions. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. Legendre Symbol. I have a question about Legendre symbol. Show that the Legendre symbol verifies: $$\sum {m=0} {p-1} \left \frac{am+b}{p}\right =0.$$ I know that $\displaystyle\sum {m=0} {p-1} \left \frac{m}{p}\right =0$, but how do I connect this with the previous formula. elementary-number-theory legendre-symbol share. Show that as $m$ ranges from $0$ to $p-1$, $am$ ranges over all residue classes modulo $p$, and hence $am+b$ ranges over all residue classes modulo $p$. To allow the question to be marked as answered, then: Show that as $m$ ranges from $0$ to $p−1$, $am$ ranges over all residue classes modulo $p$, and hence $am+b$ ranges over all residue classes modulo $p$. Sign up or log in Sign up using...
http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/26212/legendre-symbol
*  elementary number theory - confusion on legendre symbol - Mathematics Stack Exchange
... chat blog. Mathematics. Mathematics Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. help. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Mathematics Questions. Ask Question. Sign up. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. confusion on legendre symbol. up vote 3 down vote favorite 1. i know that $\left \frac{1}{2}\right =1$ since $1 2\equiv 1 \pmod2$ now since $3\equiv 1\pmod2$ we should have $\left \frac{3}{2}\right =\left \frac{1}{2}\right =1$ but on Maple i get that $\left \frac{3}{2}\right =-1$ why. elementary-number-theory share. joriki 117k. asked Mar 2 '12 at 9:01. joriki Mar 2 '12 at 9:17. up vote 3 down vote accepted. The Legendre symbol, the Jacobi symbol and the Kronecker symbol are successive generalizations that all share the same notation. The first two are usually only defined for odd lower arguments primes in the first case, whereas the Kronecker symbol is...
http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/115624/confusion-on-legendre-symbol
*  8. Matrix Algebra and Multiple Regression
... 8 Matrix Algebra and Multiple Regression. You are visitor number. since 17 October 1995. Updated notes. Estimating the residual variance for OLS. Posted 8 March 1999. Our discussion on page 200 of the variance-covariance matrix for the ordinary least squares OLS estimators Equation 8.33b neglicted to mention how to estimate sigma 2 e, the residual variance. Equation 8.33b gives the variance-covariance matrix for the vector b of OLS estimators as Var b = X T X -1 sigma 2 e We can estimate sigma 2 e from the residual sums of squares, RSS = y - Xb T y - Xb If the model estimates p parameters, then the estimate of sigma 2 e is simply RSS/ N-p where N is the number of data points. Thus, Var b = X T X -1 y - Xb T y - Xb / N-p. Programs. Volume One Chapters ---. 1 An Overview of Quantitative Genetics 2. Properties of Distributions 3. Covariance, Regression, and Correlation 4. Properties of Single Loci 5. Components of Genetic Variation 6. Components of Environmental Variation 7. Resemblance Between Relatives 8....
http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zbook/volume_1/chapters/vol1_08.html
*  Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública - Genetic epidemiology: an expanding scientific discipline
ABSTRACT Genetic epidemiology is a relatively new discipline that studies the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of human diseases. Although expressions such as epidemiologic genetics 2 and clinical population-based genetics 3 had already been coined, Morton and Chung 4 were forerunners in associating the term genetic epidemiology with the discipline that strives to control and prevent illness by identifying the role of genetic factors, in interaction with environmental factors, in the etiology of human disease 5. The goals of genetic epidemiology contrast with those of traditional epidemiology and population genetics. Finally, genetic epidemiology studies the way environmental risk factors interact with the genetic makeup of a given population. Family recurrence studies A fundamental aspect of genetic epidemiology is the study of aggregation or recurrence of certain diseases in given families. Although the comparison of family members of patients and of controls may be cons...
http://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891998000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Darwin's God: De Novo Genes: The Evolutionary Explanation
... Darwin's God. De Novo Genes: The Evolutionary Explanation. The T-urf13 gene produces another transmembrane protein URF13. It appears that T-urf13 is a de novo gene, having been constructed mostly from two segments in or around a ribosomal RNA gene. Does this not suggest that the vast genome is a source of de novo genes. Even a random DNA sequence the length of the entire corn genome does not contain a single gene that likely would code for a functioning gene. One study, for instance, found that more than a million million random sequences were needed to find a single functioning protein. We may not be able to compute precisely the probability of evolution s explanation for de novo genes such as T-urf13, but we do know the chances are not very good. Cornelius Hunter. November 23, 2009 at 5:45 AM 1- T-urf 13 produces a polypeptide only 183 AA's long 2- It arose as a result of artificial selection of corn 3- It also makes the corn more susceptible to fungal toxins Reply Delete. Reply Delete. Reply Delet...
http://darwins-god.blogspot.com/2009/11/de-novo-genes-evolutionary-explanation.html
*  Molecular evolution
... The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes. Major topics in molecular evolution concern the rates and impacts of single nucleotide changes, neutral evolution vs. Forces in molecular evolution Mutation. Forces in molecular evolution. The content and structure of a genome is the product of the molecular and population genetic forces which act upon that genome. Novel genetic variants will arise through mutation and will spread and be maintained in populations due to genetic drift or natural selection. Among these mutations, some will be neutral or beneficial and will remain in the genome unless lost via Genetic drift, and others will be detrimental and will be eliminated from the genome by natural selection. Genome evolution. Genome size is influenced by the amount of repetitive DNA as well as number of genes in an organism. Neutral explanations for genome size suggest that when population sizes are small, many mutati...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_evolution
*  Computation | Free Full-Text | On Mechanistic Modeling of Gene Content Evolution: Birth-Death Model
On Mechanistic Modeling of Gene Content Evolution: Birth-Death Models and Mechanisms of Gene Birth and Gene Retention. Next Article in Journal Computational Models of the NF- K B Signalling Pathway Next Article in Special Issue Incongruencies in Vaccinia Virus Phylogenetic Trees. MDPI. Computation 2014, 2 3, 112-130; doi: 10.3390/computation2030112 Article On Mechanistic Modeling of Gene Content Evolution: Birth-Death Models and Mechanisms of Gene Birth and Gene Retention Ashley I. No Abstract Characterizing the mechanisms of duplicate gene retention using phylogenetic methods requires models that are consistent with different biological processes. A discussion of the relationship between biological processes, existing models for duplicate gene retention and data is presented. Existing models are then extended in deriving two new birth/death models for phylogenetic application in a gene tree/species tree reconciliation framework to enable probabilistic inference of the mechanisms from model parameterization. ...
http://mdpi.com/2079-3197/2/3/112
*  Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution
... The 'nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution' is a modification of the neutral theory of molecular evolution that accounts for slightly advantageous or deleterious mutation s at the molecular level. The nearly neutral theory was proposed by Tomoko Ohta in 1973. There is a population-size-dependent threshold, called the "drift barrier" by Michael Lynch that determines a critical value of the selection coefficient above which deleterious mutations are efficiently purged. In larger populations, a higher proportion of mutations exceed this threshold for which genetic drift cannot overpower selection, leading to fewer fixation events and so slower molecular evolution. In the early 1970s, evolutionary biologists found that rates of protein evolution the " molecular clock " are fairly independent of generation time, while rates of noncoding DNA divergence are inversely proportional to generation time. Noting that population size is generally inversely proportional to generation time, Tomoko Ohta proposed t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nearly_neutral_theory_of_molecular_evolution
*  Ka/Ks ratio
... In genetics, the 'K a /K s ratio' or 'ω', 'd' N /'d' S, is the ratio of the number of nonsynonymous substitution s per non-synonymous site K a to the number of synonymous substitution s per synonymous site K s, which can be used as an indicator of selective pressure acting on a protein-coding gene. Maximum-likelihood methods. Methods can be classified into three groups: approximate methods, maximum-likelihood methods, and counting methods. counting the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in the two sequences usually by multiplying the sequence length by the proportion of each class of substitution; counting the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions; and correcting for multiple substitutions. Maximum-likelihood methods. In order to quantify the number of substitutions, one may reconstruct the ancestral sequence and record the inferred changes at sites straight counting likely to provide an underestimate ; fitting the substitution rates at sites into predetermined categories Bayesia...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ka/Ks_ratio
*  Several questions on evolution, and mutation (rate)
Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate. Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate Doug Yanega dyanega at denr1.igis.uiuc.edu. Previous message: Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate. Next message: Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate. In article 96Sep2.121604edt.860 at neuron.ai.toronto.edu, radford at cs.toronto.edu Radford Neal wrote: In article dyanega-0109962027360001 at catalpa.inhs.uiuc.edu, Doug Yanega dyanega at denr1.igis.uiuc.edu wrote: I am NOT redefining evolution, I am instructing the non-biologists here what the accepted biological definition has been for much of this century. Why not go all the way, and declare that evolution is really about changes to an organism's DNA - even if the changes are in a non-coding region, or if the change is from one codon to another that is synonymous. They often reconstruct phylogenies of taxa based on non-coding regions of the genome, so clearly non-coding regions *reflect* the evolutionary process, at the very least....
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/microbio/1996-September/006609.html
*  Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolu
... tion Can Only Go Forward -- ScienceDaily. Your source for the latest research news. Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolution Can Only Go Forward. A University of Oregon research team has found that evolution can never go backwards, because the paths to the genes once present in our ancestors are forever blocked. We solved those problems by studying the problem at the molecular level, where we can resurrect ancestral proteins as they existed long ago and use molecular manipulations to dissect the evolutionary process in both forward and reverse directions.". Once Thornton's team knew how the GR's modern function evolved, they wondered if it could be returned to its ancestral function. "Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolution Can Only Go Forward." ScienceDaily. Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolution Can Only Go Forw...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090923143335.htm
*  Documents on Molecular Evolution
Other Research Projects: Apollo Bioinformatics Materials Research Physics of Scale.        Molecular Evolution Activities. Documents on Molecular Evolution. Documents. Online Document J. Buettner-Janusch and R. Hill, Evolution of Hemoglobin in Primates, in Evolving Genes and Proteins, eds. V Bryson and H. Vogel New York: Academic Press, 1965. pp. 167-181 [PDF 860K]. In this article, Buettner-Janusch and Hill set out to reconstruct Primate phylogenies by comparing the hemoglobin molecules of living species. In the course of their work, the authors strongly advocate an integrative approach to evolutionary biology in which neither organismal nor molecular data alone dominate. They especially caution that the use of molecular data alone, without an understanding of the organisms in which these molecules reside, can lead to nonsensical conclusions. For instance, they write that although the structure of the hemoglobins of man and gorilla are highly similar, this is simply not a datum that i...
http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/evolution/public/papers/buettnerhill1965/buettnerhill1965.html

Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Genetic variation: right|thumbColes PhillipsPanmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Biological ornament: A biological ornament is a secondary sexual characteristic of an animal that appears to serve a decorative function rather than an ostensible, utilitarian function. Ornaments are used in displays to attract mates in a process known as sexual selection.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Microevolution: Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population.Microevolution: What is microevolution?DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Gene polymorphismCodon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.Biopanning: Biopanning is an affinity selection technique which selects for peptides that bind to a given target.Ehrlich GK, Berthold W, and Bailon P.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.CS-BLASTList of sequenced eukaryotic genomesMaladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Chromosome regionsEvolution in Variable EnvironmentTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Kinetic-segregation model of T cell activationThermal cyclerThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Library (biology): In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. There are different types of DNA libraries, including cDNA libraries (formed from reverse-transcribed RNA), genomic libraries (formed from genomic DNA) and randomized mutant libraries (formed by de novo gene synthesis where alternative nucleotides or codons are incorporated).Acromelanism: Acromelanism is a genetically determined, temperature-dependent pigmentation pattern, with full expression only occurring on legs, ears, tail and face. Seen in Siamese and Himalayan cats, rats, and rabbits.Helix–coil transition model: Helix–coil transition models are formalized techniques in statistical mechanics developed to describe conformations of linear polymers in solution. The models are usually but not exclusively applied to polypeptides as a measure of the relative fraction of the molecule in an alpha helix conformation versus turn or random coil.Gene duplication: Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Deep litter: Deep litter is an animal housing system, based on the repeated spreading of straw or sawdust material in indoor booths. An initial layer of litter is spread for the animals to use for bedding material and to defecate in, and as the litter is soiled, new layers of litter are continuously added by the farmer.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.EcosystemMac OS X Server 1.0Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: A Canadian Story of Resilience and Recovery is a non-fiction book, written by Canadian writer Andrew Westoll, first published in May 2011 by Harper Collins. In the book, the author chronicles the time he spent volunteering at the Fauna Sanctuary, an animal refuge in Quebec for chimpanzees that had been used for biomedical research.Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.Reaction coordinateDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.

(1/8766) The Lewontin and Krakauer test on quantitative characters.

It is shown that LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER's test could also be applied to quantitative characters that do not show important dominance and epistatic genetic variances. The design of experiments for this purpose and the error of the estimation of F are discussed.  (+info)

(2/8766) Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response.

Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance.  (+info)

(3/8766) The alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in populations of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Selection in different environments.

The allozyme polymorphism at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus in Drosophila melanogaster was studied in order to obtain experimental evidence about the maintenance of this polymorphism. Populations started with different initial allele frequencies from homozygous F and S lines showed a convergence of frequencies on regular food at 25 degrees, leading to values equal to those in the base populations. These results were interpreted as due to some kind of balancing selection. In populations kept at 29.8 degrees, a lower equilibrium F frequency was attained. Addition of ethanol and some other alcohols to the food gave a rapid increase in F frequency, and high humidity decreased the F frequency slightly. Combination or alternation of ethanol and high humidity had variable effects in the populations tested. For a further analysis of the allele-frequency changes, estimates were obtained for egg-to-adult survival under different conditions and for adult survival on ethanol-supplemented food. On ethanol food (both at regular and high humidity), egg-to-adult survival of SS homozygotes was considerably lower than that of the FF and FS genotypes. Under regular conditions of food, temperature and humidity, a tendency to heterozygote superiority was observed, while at high humidity a relative high survival of SS was noticed in some tests. Adult survival of SS was lower than that of FF, but FS was generally intermediate, though the degree of dominance differed between populations. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of the occurrence of selection at the Adh locus.  (+info)

(4/8766) High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones.

Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed.  (+info)

(5/8766) Improving the efficiency of artificial selection: more selection pressure with less inbreeding.

The use of population genetic variability in present-day selection schemes can be improved to reduce inbreeding rate and inbreeding depression without impairing genetic progress. We performed an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster to test mate selection, an optimizing method that uses linear programming to maximize the selection differential applied while at the same time respecting a restriction on the increase in inbreeding expected in the next generation. Previous studies about mate selection used computer simulation on simple additive genetic models, and no experiment with a real character in a real population had been carried out. After six selection generations, the optimized lines showed an increase in cumulated phenotypic selection differential of 10.76%, and at the same time, a reduction of 19.91 and 60.47% in inbreeding coefficient mean and variance, respectively. The increased selection pressure would bring greater selection response, and in fact, the observed change in the selected trait was on average 31.03% greater in the optimized lines. These improvements in the selection scheme were not made at the expense of the long-term expectations of genetic variability in the population, as these expectations were very similar for both mate selection and conventionally selected lines in our experiment.  (+info)

(6/8766) Prediction of genetic contributions and generation intervals in populations with overlapping generations under selection.

A method to predict long-term genetic contributions of ancestors to future generations is studied in detail for a population with overlapping generations under mass or sib index selection. An existing method provides insight into the mechanisms determining the flow of genes through selected populations, and takes account of selection by modeling the long-term genetic contribution as a linear regression on breeding value. Total genetic contributions of age classes are modeled using a modified gene flow approach and long-term predictions are obtained assuming equilibrium genetic parameters. Generation interval was defined as the time in which genetic contributions sum to unity, which is equal to the turnover time of genes. Accurate predictions of long-term genetic contributions of individual animals, as well as total contributions of age classes were obtained. Due to selection, offspring of young parents had an above-average breeding value. Long-term genetic contributions of youngest age classes were therefore higher than expected from the age class distribution of parents, and generation interval was shorter than the average age of parents at birth of their offspring. Due to an increased selective advantage of offspring of young parents, generation interval decreased with increasing heritability and selection intensity. The method was compared to conventional gene flow and showed more accurate predictions of long-term genetic contributions.  (+info)

(7/8766) Natural selection of the Pol gene of bovine immunodeficiency virus.

Genetic variability is a salient feature of lentiviruses, contributing to the pathogenesis of these viruses by enabling them to persist in the host and to resist anti-retroviral treatment. Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), a lentivirus of unknown pathology, infects cattle in the United States and worldwide. Genetic diversity of BIV that is associated with naturally infected cattle is not well studied. We examined the genetic diversity and natural selection of a segment of the BIV pol gene amplified from the leukocyte DNA of naturally infected cattle. A portion of the reverse transcriptase domain (183 bp) of the pol region was targeted for amplification by PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly and aligned. When compared to the sequences of BIV R29-127, a molecular clone of the original BIV R29 isolate, all isolates were greater than 91% identical in nucleotide sequences and 77% identical in amino acid sequences. Pol genotypes were polymorphic at 14% of the nucleotide sites. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (relative to the number of respective sites, Ka/Ks) was 0.16, indicating that this region of the BIV genome, like that of HIV-1, is subject to purifying selection. Based on the McDonald-Kreitman analysis, this region also was under positive Darwinian selection as HIV-1 and BIV diverged from a common progenitor. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotypes were geographically distinct, possibly indicating a common source of infection for animals within a herd.  (+info)

(8/8766) Another set of responses and correlated responses to selection on age at reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

Ageing is the decline in survival probability and fertility later in adult life. It can evolve through mutation accumulation and pleiotropy. Artificial selection by age at reproduction is a useful method for detecting the effects of pleiotropy, and for producing lines that differ in their rate of ageing for further analysis. However, the approach has encountered difficulties from gene-environment interaction and inadvertent selection. We have produced a new set of selection lines in Drosophila melanogaster, breeding from either 'young' or 'old' adults, and avoiding some of the difficulties present in previous studies. Breeding from older adults resulted in an evolutionary increase in survival but, contrary to all previous studies using this method, in no increase in late-life fertility. The increase in survival was accompanied by an evolutionary decline in fertility early in adult life, confirming the importance of pleiotropy in the evolution of ageing. Contrary to previous studies, there were no correlated responses to selection in the pre-adult period; development time, larval competitive ability and adult size achieved did not differ between the lines from the two selection regimes.  (+info)