Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Respiratory System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Tyrosine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Respiratory Tract DiseasesSpirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsVentilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Cytochrome a Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphorylase b: The inactive form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is converted to the active form PHOSPHORYLASE A via phosphorylation by PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE and ATP.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.High-Frequency Ventilation: Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Examination QuestionsEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Meningism: A condition characterized by neck stiffness, headache, and other symptoms suggestive of meningeal irritation, but without actual inflammation of the meninges (MENINGITIS). Spinal fluid pressure may be elevated but spinal fluid is normal. (DeJong, The Neurologic Examination, 4th ed, p673)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

*  Drugs for the Respiratory System.(Book Review) - Version details - Trove
Drugs for the Respiratory System.(Book Review) Also Titled. * Drugs for the Respiratory ... Drugs for the Respiratory System (Book) -- Book reviews Database. * Gale Academic OneFile ... 1986-09-01, English, Article, Review edition: Drugs for the Respiratory System.(Book ......
http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/47965433?q&versionId=60879637
*  Bronchoscopy in chronic respiratory failure using Boussignac system with CO2...
Bronchoscopy in chronic respiratory failure using Boussignac system with CO2 new device. ... Bronchoscopy in chronic respiratory failure using Boussignac system with CO2 new device ... Bronchoscopy in chronic respiratory failure using Boussignac system with CO2 new device ... Bronchoscopy in chronic respiratory failure using Boussignac system with CO2 new device ......
http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/44/Suppl_58/P704
*  Primary Colours: Respiratory system
Hello!!! This blog is for you. Use it as a tool for learning English. I hope you'll enjoy it ......
http://molfletesblog.blogspot.com/2012/10/respiratory-system.html
*  THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
... Antibiotics, such as garlic (Allium sativum), enhance the ......
http://natural-health-happiness.blogspot.ca/2009/09/respiratory-system.html
*  Respiratory Protection - Safety Management Systems - An Acadian Company
The Respiratory Protection regulation (29 CFR 1910.134) establishes uniform guidelines ... OSHA's primary objective for Respiratory Protection is the prevention of atmospheric ... Respiratory Protection. Overview OSHA's primary objective for Respiratory Protection is ... Upon completion of Respiratory Protection training, the student will be familiar with: * ......
http://safetyms.com/respiratory-protection
*  Systems of the Human Body Poster Set - Respiratory, Circulatory, Digestive and...
Each poster includes labeled illustrations of the system and its components, detailed ... and text describing the main functions of the system and its parts ... Four of the body's major systems are depicted in this striking poster set. ... Four of the human body's major systems are depicted in this striking poster set. ......
http://humananatomyposters.com/Systems of the Human Body.html
*  Chapter 6 Respiration. The three components of the respiratory system External...
The three functions of the respiratory system External respiration or pulmonary ... The Respiratory System II Physiology. The major function of the respiratory system is to ... THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Ch 16 Notes. IDENTIFY THE FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. ... 1 RESPIRATORY ANATOMY. 2 The primary role of the respiratory system is to: 1. deliver ......
http://slideplayer.com/slide/4156445/
*  Laboratory and Research Supplies and Equipment
Luminex Corporation to Feature ARIES System and NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel at AMP ... System and recently CE-marked NxTAG® Respiratory Pathogen Panel at the Association for ... Reaction Systems offer trouble-free reproducibility.. Julabo USA, Inc. - Allentown, PA. ... Electrical Equipment & Systems, Laboratory and Research Supplies and Equipment Spellman ......
http://news.thomasnet.com/news/laboratory-research-supplies-equipment/220
*  Chromium trioxide | CrO3 | ChemSpider
Blood, respiratory system, liver, kidneys, eyes, skin Cancer Site [lung cancer] NIOSH ... Irritation respiratory system; nasal septum perforation; liver, kidney damage; ... Eye: Irrigate immediately Skin: Soap flush immediately Breathing: Respiratory support ......
http://chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.14212.html
*  Opioid-resistant respiratory pathway from the preinspiratory neurones to...
In Handbook of Physiology, section 3, The Respiratory System, ed. Fishman, A. P., vol. ... and opiate-induced respiratory depression. American Review of Respiratory Disease 142, ... Opioid action on respiratory neuron activity of the isolated respiratory network in ... Howard, R. S. & Sears, T. A. (1991). The effects of opiates on the respiratory activity ......
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.2002.023408/full?globalMessage=0
*  What Is the Connection between the Respiratory System and Homeostasis?
What Is the Connection between the Respiratory System and Homeostasis. What Is the Connection between the Respiratory System and Homeostasis. The lungs and trachea help rid the body of carbon dioxide. The respiratory system controls breathing processes in the body. Parts of the respiratory system can help stabilize pH levels in the blood and regulate the body's temperature. In addition, the gas exchange processes and actual breathing mechanisms facilitated by the respiratory system may be considered a form of homeostasis. Some of the factors that homeostasis is responsible for within a human being include body temperature, blood sugar levels, and acidity levels. Negative feedback helps facilitate breathing, so it fuels the processes of homeostasis and the respiratory system. The whole gas exchange process between carbon dioxide and oxygen that sustains the respiratory system is an example of homeostasis. The lungs, trachea, and other components help the body get rid of wasteful carbon dioxide. At the same tim...
http://wisegeekhealth.com/what-is-the-connection-between-the-respiratory-system-and-homeostasis.htm
*  Collection of Lung Fluid and Tissue Samples for Research - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Healthy normal volunteers and people with a history of lung infections between 18 and 75 years of age who are followed at NIH may be eligible for this study. Detailed Description: This research protocol involves one or more of the following procedures in healthy volunteers and patients with known or suspected predisposition to respiratory infection who are enrolled in National Institutes of Health NIH protocols: 1 Adults only: bronchoscopy with sampling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and epithelial cells in healthy adult volunteers and patients; 2 Adults and Children: sputum induction for collection of sputum specimens; 3 Adults and Children: nasal mucosal biopsies and brushings for sampling of epithelial cells. PATIENT INCLUSION CRITERIA FOR NASAL MUCOSAL BIOPSY Greater than or equal to 2 years old Known or suspected infections or infection susceptibility Enrolled without regard to gender, race, or ethnicity Must be enrolled in a concurrent NIH protocol and under the care of a primary physician outside of t...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00471250?term=influenza and NIAID&recr=Open&rank=9
*  Respiratory System Health | CK-12 Foundation
Respiratory System Health. Help. Help. You are reading an older version of this FlexBook® textbook: CK-12 Life Science Concepts For Middle School Go to the latest version. 11.35 : Respiratory System Health. Created by: CK-12 CK-12 Life Science Concepts For Middle School. Practice Respiratory System Health Practice. 0% Practice Now. Practice. Keeping Your Respiratory System Healthy Many of the diseases related to smoking are called lifestyle diseases ; diseases that are caused by choices that people make in their daily lives. Avoid Smoking Cigarette smoking can cause serious disease, so not smoking or quitting now are the most effective ways to reduce your risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases, such as lung cancer. Wash Your Hands Washing your hands often, especially after sneezing, coughing, or blowing your nose, helps to protect you and others from diseases. Washing your hands for 20 seconds with soap and warm water can help prevent colds and flu. Avoid Contact with Others When Sick Do not go to sc...
http://ck12.org/book/CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School/r14/section/11.35/
*  Respiratory System Health | CK-12 Foundation
Respiratory System Health. Help. Help. Life Science. CK-12 Life Science Concepts For Middle School. Respiratory System Health You are reading an older version of this FlexBook® textbook: CK-12 Life Science Concepts For Middle School Go to the latest version. 11.35 : Respiratory System Health. Created by: CK-12 CK-12 Life Science Concepts For Middle School. Practice Respiratory System Health Practice. 0% Practice Now. Practice. Keeping Your Respiratory System Healthy Many of the diseases related to smoking are called lifestyle diseases ; diseases that are caused by choices that people make in their daily lives. Avoid Smoking Never smoking, or quitting now are the most effective ways to reduce your risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases, such as lung cancer. Wash Your Hands Washing your hands often, especially after sneezing, coughing or blowing your nose, helps to protect you and others from diseases. Washing your hands for 20 seconds with soap and warm water can help prevent colds and flu. Avoid Cont...
http://ck12.org/book/CK-12-Life-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School/r3/section/11.35/
*  Static lung compliance
... redirect spirometry static lung compliance cst...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_lung_compliance
*  Exponential analysis of the pressure-volume characteristics of ovine lungs.
... BioMedSearch. Home. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Create Free Account. Document Detail. Exponential analysis of the pressure-volume characteristics of ovine lungs. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 8059069 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. Static pressure-volume curves were generated from data obtained from 18 normal anaesthetized adult sheep. Lung volumes were determined by helium dilution. An exponential curve of the form V = Vmax - Ae-KP was fitted to the pressure-volume data from each sheep where P is the static recoil pressure, Vmax represents the volume asymptote, A is the difference between Vmax and the intercept on the volume axis and K defines the slope and hence the shape of the P-V curve. Quality of fit of the data was assessed visually, by means of a sign test and a runs test and by the coefficient of determination r2. Exponential equations were found to adequately describe the shape of the pressure-volume curve in sheep. The exponent K was not correlated with effe...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Exponential-analysis-pressure-volume-characteristics/8059069.html
*  Navis Deploys DB Networks to Improve Management of Global Infrastructure | Comp
Navis Deploys DB Networks to Improve Management of Global Infrastructure. Company Newsroom of Spalding Communications, LLC. Navis Deploys DB Networks to Improve Management of Global Infrastructure Press Release - Feb 13, 2014. DB Networks' continuous monitoring and behavioral analysis enables Navis to discover and consolidate databases for improved efficiencies and reduced costs of operations. February 13, 2014 Newswire - DB Networks, an innovator of behavioral analysis in database security, today announced that Navis has deployed its IDS-6300 intelligent security appliance to continuously monitor its infrastructure for development and support of industry-leading Terminal Operating Systems TOS solutions, delivering improved infrastructure management which includes discovery and consolidation of database servers. DB Networks' IDS-6300 intelligent security appliance is the industry's first next-generation Core Intrusion Detection System IDS. The IDS-6300 leverages patented behavioral analysis technology for com...
http://newswire.com/navis-deploys-db-networks-to-improve/261796
*  Cheyne–Stokes respiration
... Name = Cheyne–Stokes respiration. 2 Cheyne–Stokes respiration and periodic breathing are the two regions on a spectrum of severity of oscillatory tidal volume. In heart failure, the mechanism of the oscillation is unstable feedback in the respiratory control system. In normal respiratory control, negative feedback allows a steady level of alveolar gas concentrations to be maintained, and therefore stable tissue levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide CO 2. At the steady state, the rate of production of CO 2 equals the net rate at which it is exhaled from the body, which assuming no CO 2 in the ambient air is the product of the alveolar ventilation and the end-tidal CO 2 concentration. Alveolar ventilation = body CO 2 production/end-tidal CO 2 fraction. Through respiratory control reflexes, any small transient fall in ventilation A leads to a corresponding small rise A' in alveolar CO 2 concentration which is sensed by the respiratory control system so that there is a subsequent small compensatory rise in ven...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheyne–Stokes_respiration
*  Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome | e-Learning - American College of Chest Physicians
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. CHEST 2015. CHEST 2014. Board Review. CHEST Guidelines. CHEST Board Review Books CME Publications. Education / CHEST Store / e-Learning / Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. Identify the demographics of previously described patients with upper airway resistance syndrome UARS. Key words: cyclical alternating pattern; sleep-disordered breathing; upper airway resistance syndrome. Abbreviations: CAP = cyclical alternating pattern; CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure; LAUP = laser-assisted uvuloplasty; MSLT = multiple sleep latency testing; NREM = nonrapid eye movement; OHS = obstructive hypopnea syndrome; OSAS = obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Pes = esophageal pressure; REM = rapid eye movement; RERA = respiratory effort-related arousal; UARS = upper airway resistance syndrome. Two-point palatal discrimination in patients with upper airway resistance syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and normal control subjects. Cephalometric comparison of pharyngeal changes in s...
http://chestnet.org/Education/Products/e-Learning/Upper-Airway-Resistance-Syndrome
*  What is UARS (Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome)?
What is UARS Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. What is UARS. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Page 1. Like UARS Upper Airway Restriction Syndrome, there are many other misunderstood or under studied sleep disorder causes. Attending as many sleep and health related seminars and discussions as I do -- helps me keep you up to date so you can improve your health with better drug-free sleep solutions -- just as I have. That's how I learned about Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. This disorder, different from obstructive sleep apnea, is relatively unknown even within the medical community. Steven Park, MD*, I was introduced to Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome pioneer, Theodore R. Doctor Ted Belfor is a NYC dentist who has had remarkable success in helping his patients improve their sleep, health and upper airway resistance syndrome issues, naturally. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome UARS, a sleep disorder characterized by airway resistance to breathing during sleep, often goes undiagnosed or masquerades as another ...
http://sleep-disorders-gone.com/UARS.html
*  Upper airway resistance syndrome
... 'Upper airway resistance syndrome' or 'UARS' is a sleep disorder characterized by airway resistance to breath ing during sleep. Diagnosis Explanation Pathophysiology Clinical presentation Treatment Behavioral modification. Positive airway pressure therapy. Prognosis See also References External links. From obstructive sleep apnea syndrome to upper airway resistance syndrome: consistency of daytime sleepiness. Pathophysiology of UARS is similar to obstructive sleep apnea / hypopnea syndrome in that abnormal airway resistance in the upper airway during sleep leads to unwanted physiologic consequences. Increased upper airway resistance in this disorder does not lead to cessation of airflow apnea or decrease in airflow hypopnea, but instead leads to an arousal secondary to increased work of breathing to overcome the resistance. Repeated and multiple arousals of which the person is usually unaware result in an abnormal sleep architecture and daytime somnolence sleepiness. Arousals result in sympathetic activa...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_airway_resistance_syndrome
*  Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome | UW He
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. UW Health. Skip to Content UW Health SMPH. American Family Children's Hospital Home. Online Services. Bill Pay. CarePages. Classes and Support Groups. Donate. Greeting Cards. Flowers and Gifts. MyChart. Prescription Refill. Contact. Services. Clinics Hospitals. Search. Health Information. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Skip to the navigation Upper airway resistance syndrome UARS is a sleep disorder caused by a breathing problem. A person who has UARS usually snores a lot and may be awakened from sleep by resistance in the airway. Unlike a person with sleep apnea, a person with UARS does not have periods when breathing stops apnea. Author: Healthwise Staff Medical Review: Anne C. Rasmus, MD - Pulmonology, Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. To learn more about Healthwise, visit Healthwise.org 1995-2015 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, ...
http://uwhealth.org/spanishhealth/topic/definition/upper-airway-resistance-syndrome/stu3120.html
*  Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome - Discussion
upper airway resistance syndrome discussion get your upper airway resistance syndrome score take the survey see how you compare get new treatment ideas already a member sign in browse conditions upper airway resistance syndrome members stats survey discuss to leave a comment sign in curetogether data is submitted by members and does not constitute medical advice about contact terms privacy blog...
http://curetogether.com/upper airway resistance syndrome/discuss/
*  Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS)
upper airway resistance syndrome uars upper airway resistance syndrome uars redirect upper airway resistance syndrome...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Airway_Resistance_Syndrome_(UARS)
*  The ABC's of Snoring and Childhood Cognition - AADSM
Learning Modules Learning Modules. Educational Courses Educational Courses. Practice Management Resources Practice Management Resources. Promotional Resources Promotional Resources. Membership Apply Online, Directory. Member Benefits Member Benefits. Member Spotlight Member Spotlight. Membership Categories Membership Categories. Membership Directory Membership Directory. Journal of Dental Sleep Medicine. Accreditation Application, Standards. Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions. About the AADSM Mission, Bylaws. AADSM History AADSM History. The ABC's of Snoring and Childhood Cognition American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine Thursday, September 29, 2011 Snoring kids can be cute, but snoring may reflect a serious problem. New research in the journal Sleep and Breathing found that primary snoring is associated with neurocognitive impairments in children. The community-based study included 1,114 primary school children. Polysomnogram PSG scores distinguished children with primary snoring from th...
http://aadsm.org/articles.aspx?id=2607
*  Kelvin (4-wire) Resistance Measurement : DC Metering Circuits - Electronics Textbook
DC Metering Circuits Kelvin 4-wire Resistance Measurement. Kelvin 4-wire Resistance Measurement. Because we’re only measuring voltage dropped across the subject resistance and not the wires’ resistances, though, the calculated resistance is indicative of the subject component’s resistance R subject alone. Any voltage dropped across the main current-carrying wires will not be measured by the voltmeter, and so do not factor into the resistance calculation at all. Resistance this low is comparable to wire connection resistance, which means voltage measured across such a shunt must be done so in such a way as to avoid detecting voltage dropped across the current-carrying wire connections, lest huge measurement errors be induced. This way, the voltmeter only measures voltage dropped across the precision resistance itself, without any stray voltages dropped across current-carrying wires or wire-to-terminal connection resistances. There will still be compound error between the standard resistor and the voltmeter use...
http://allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-8/kelvin-resistance-measurement/
*  .. Grounding resistance measurement .. How to make measurement for grounding resistance? .. Positio
Grounding resistance measurement. 04/10/2010 by. Lemau. 2 Comments. Grounding or Earthing is the compulsory device for electrical installation.It’s the end point for electrical residue when leakage happen on electrical circuit or installation. Good grounding can make a different of current balancing in phase during electrical leakage and Residual Current Circuit Breaker will activate if current leakage value over the sensitivity. 10 mA,100 mA,30 mA,300 mA. To get a good grounding,we should make sure the resistance is minimum.For the best resistance value is “0 ohm” or less than 5 ohm.That why grounding resistance measurement is important because we need to ensure our grounding is good. How to make measurement for grounding resistance. The potential difference between rods X and Y is measured by a voltmeter, and the current flow between rods X and Z is measured by an ammeter. Note: X, Y and Z may be referred to as X, P and C in a 3-point tester or C1, P2 and C2 in a 4-point tester. By Ohm’s Law E = RI or R ...
http://electricneutron.com/earthing-system/grounding-resistance-measurement/
*  Thermal Resistance Measurements with Heat Flow Sensors Application to Spray Applied Insulation Syste
... ms. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Symposia Papers & STPs. You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass subscription. This document is part of your ASTM Compass subscription. Stay on Page Continue to Compass. STP885 Thermal Resistance Measurements with Heat Flow Sensors Application to Spray-Applied Insulation Systems Published: Jan 1985.   Format Pages Price  . PDF 11 $ 25   ADD TO CART. Complete Source PDF 3.5M 11 $55   ADD TO CART. Source: STP885-EB ASTM License Agreement. Abstract Heat flow sensors are often attached to the inside surfaces of building envelope systems to determine the thermal resistances of these systems in the field. In this paper an alternative method for using heat flow sensors for this application is described. The heat flow sensors are attached, along with thermocouples, to a temperature-controlled test plate. The plate is generally placed against the outside surface of the building, and thermocouples are attached ...
http://astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP32934S.htm
*  Voltage and Resistance Measurement Tolerance? | QRZ Forums
Voltage and Resistance Measurement Tolerance. QRZ Forums. Log in. QRZ Forums Home. Forums. Technical Forums. Boat Anchor Classic Equipment. Voltage and Resistance Measurement Tolerance. Discussion in ' Boat Anchor Classic Equipment ' started by KJ6SVX , Jul 19, 2013. Thread Status:. Not open for further replies. KJ6SVX Ham Member. QRZ Page. I ve been going through the final test procedures specified in the construction manual and am wondering what tolerances are OK with respect to the various resistance and voltage measurements. KJ6SVX ,. Jul 19, 2013. QRZ Page. A lot of questions in one posting...But the voltage and the resistance readings will vary and if they are within 10-15% that should be good enough. Perhaps a bad solder joint or two or a dirty switch. If that s true and the AGC is enabled then I would start looking at the AGC circuit in the 101. Jul 19, 2013. K7MEM Ham Member. QRZ Page. KJ6SVX,. While QRZ.com is a good place to get most answers, but there are other places that are targeted specificall...
http://forums.qrz.com/index.php?threads/voltage-and-resistance-measurement-tolerance.398833/
*  Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters
... History Mission AHIT Team Industry News Industry Links. Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters The AFCI breaker performs a different job entirely from GFIs, Ground Fault Interrupter GFCI breakers and outlets. About half of all residential electrical fires involve electrical wiring. Arc fault circuit interrupters AFCIs involve a technology that detects arcing-faults in electrical circuits that could cause fires. By recognizing characteristics unique to arcing and functioning to de-energize the circuit when an arc-fault is detected, AFCIs further reduce the risk of fire beyond the scope of conventional fuses and circuit breakers. Conventional circuit breakers only respond to overloads and short circuits; so they do not protect against arcing conditions that produce erratic, and often reduced current. The AFCI circuitry continuously monitors the current and discriminates between normal and unwanted arcing conditions. An AFCI should not trip during normal arcing conditions, which can occur when a switch is opened or...
https://ahit.com/news/arc-fault-circuit-interrupters.htm
*  Áine O'Dwyer | Free Listening on SoundCloud
áine o dwyer free listening on soundcloud soundcloud javascript is disabled you need to enable javascript to use soundcloud show me how to enable it áine o x dwyer áine o x dwyer uk ireland áine o x dwyer s tracks prepared harps st pancras church london nov by áine o x dwyer published on x dreamhouse cacophony x sample by áine o x dwyer published on music for church cleaners volume hymns of love against the grain by áine o x dwyer published on impressions of harp on harp by áine o x dwyer published on nocturne for pipe organ by áine o x dwyer published on a calling by áine o x dwyer published on harp improv by áine o x dwyer published on music for church cleaners in a fugue state of mind by áine o x dwyer published on music for church cleaners pedal danse by áine o x dwyer published on tremor by áine o x dwyer published on áine o x dwyer s likes áine o x dwyer s playlists áine o x dwyer s tracks áine o x dwyer s comments your current browser isn t compatible with soundcloud please download one of our supporte...
https://soundcloud.com/aine-o-dwyer
*  ELECTROCHEMISTRY | INTRODUCTION | SPECIFIC & EQUIVALENT CONDUCTANCE
SPECIFIC & EQUIVALENT CONDUCTANCE. Conductivity of electrolytes. In this case, the electrical energy is converted to chemical energy. Equivalent conductance and molar conductance. Therefore the specific conductance can be defined as:. specific conductance or conductivity. * It increases with increase in concentration of the electrolytic solution since the number of ions per unit area increases. * The conductivity increases with increase in temperature as the extent of ionization increases. : The conductance of that volume of solution containing one equivalent of an electrolyte is known as equivalent conductivity. Also we know that the conductance shown by 1 cm 3 solution containing this electrolyte is called specific conductance,. Molar conductivity m or : The conductance of that volume of solution containing one mole of an electrolyte is known as molar conductivity. The relation between equivalent conductance, and molar conductance, can be given by:. Temperature: The conductance of an electrolyte solution in...
http://adichemistry.com/physical/electrochemistry/introduction/electrochemistry.html
*  User Mac - Bicycles Stack Exchange
... Bicycles. Bicycles Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Reputation and Badges. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Bicycles Questions. Meta User. answers. questions. Sep 28. revised Do cyclocross/interrupter/touring brake levers reduce brake performance. added 78 characters in body. Sep 28. comment Do cyclocross/interrupter/touring brake levers reduce brake performance. @DanielRHicks I have actually tried that. Sep 28. revised Do cyclocross/interrupter/touring brake levers reduce brake performance. added 171 characters in body. Sep 28. revised Front wheel shudder or pulse when braking added 97 characters in body. Sep 28. comment Do cyclocross/interrupter/touring brake levers reduce brake performance. @DanielRHicks this is what I assumed too. Sep 28. comment Do cyclocross/interrupter/touring brake levers reduce brake performance. Added some detail about rim brakes and the brake caliper and pads. Sep 28. revised Do cyclocross/interrupter/touring brake levers redu...
http://bicycles.stackexchange.com/users/1588/mac?tab=activity&sort=all&page=22
*  RUN: Browsing DSpace
run browsing dspace skip navigation home browse communities collections browse items by issue date author title subject document type help language português english sign on to my account receive email updates edit profile run browsing by author gonçalves joão pedro pereira jump to a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z or enter first few letters sort by title issue date submit date in order ascending descending results page authors record all showing results to of issue date title author s valorização x de x pilhas x domésticas x esgotadas x separação x e x recuperação x de x metais x por x extracção x com x solventes nogueira x carlos martinho x maria gonçalves x joão x pedro x pereira showing results to of universidade nova de lisboa statistics feedback promotores do rcaap financiadores do rcaap...
http://run.unl.pt/browse?type=author&sort_by=1&order=ASC&rpp=20&etal=-1&value=Gonçalves, João Pedro Pereira&starts_with=B
*  Prenatal diagnosis of lobar bronchial atresia (PDF Download Available)
Maternal Fetal Medicine Unit, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1, France. GALLOT*† *Maternal Fetal Medicine Unit, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1, France; †Facult´ e de M´ edecine, GReD CNRS UMR6247, Clermont Universit´ e, Clermont-Ferrand, France; ‡Department of Pediatrics, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1, France; §Laboratory of Pathology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1, France KEYWORDS: lobar bronchial atresia; lung malformation; prenatal diagnosis ABSTRACT We report three cases of fetal lobar bronchial atresia referred to our Fetal Medicine Center during the mid- trimester of pregnancy over the last 15 years. Published by John Wiley Sons, Ltd.CASE REPORT Page 2 Lobar bronchial atresia 111 Figure 1 Ultrasonographic features of fetal bronchial atresia at 25 weeks of gestation Case 3 : enlarged and echogenic left lung associated with dilated fluid-filled airways, major mediastinal shift and contralate...
http://researchgate.net/publication/46580759_Prenatal_diagnosis_of_lobar_bronchial_atresia
*  Bolus technique for assessing distribution of inspired gas during tidal breathing.
... BioMedSearch. Advanced Search. Document Detail. Bolus technique for assessing distribution of inspired gas during tidal breathing. MedLine Citation:. The washout of an insoluble tracer from the lung may be represented by a model with two ventilatory compartments representing poorly and better-ventilated regions. Using boli of a second insoluble gas delivered at a given point during inspirations of a multibreath washout test, the proportions of labeled inspired ventilation reaching the poorly and well-ventilated regions may be determined by analyzing the kinetics of the exhaled tracer. We studied eight normal subjects breathing through large-bore solenoid valves controlled to maintain tidal volume at 600 or 900 ml. Boli consisting of 15 ml of 80% He-20% O2 were delivered over 75 ms; this labeled approximately 125 ml of inspired gas. Boli were delivered after 50 ml had been inspired to mark early inspiration and after 300 ml had been inspired to mark midinspiration. Using 900-ml tidal breaths, late inspira...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Bolus-technique-assessing-distribution-inspired/3372426.html
*  Nitrogen Washout Test | Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
Nitrogen Washout Test. Functional Residual Capacity FRC. For Professionals. Search for:. Patient Portal Login. Become a Patient. Make an Appointment. Ask a Question. Patient Portal Login. Create Patient Portal Account. Make an Appointment. Programs & Services. Search All Programs Services Tests We Offer. Calendar of Events. Pediatrics - National Jewish Health for Kids. For Professionals. Find a Doctor. Departments Divisions. Health Information. Ask a Question. Healthy Lifestyle. Giving Programs. Make a Donation. Departments Divisions. Connect With Us. Pulmonary Function Tests Nitrogen Washout. Maximum Inspiratory/Expiratory Pressures. Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer a Patient 1.877.CALL NJH 877.225.5654. Nitrogen Washout - Functional Residual Capacity FRC This test measures the Functional Residual Capacity FRC. In people with normal lungs the FRC is equal to the Thoracic Gas Volume TGV measured in the body plethysmograph. The plethysmograph method measures all air in the lung, including any trapped a...
http://nationaljewish.org/programs/tests/pulmonary-physiology/pulmonary-function/helium-dilution
*  Functional residual capacity
... thumb|400px|Lung Volumes 'Functional Residual Capacity' 'FRC' is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration. At FRC, the opposing elastic recoil forces of the lungs and chest wall are in equilibrium and there is no exertion by the diaphragm or other respiratory muscles. FRC is the sum of Expiratory Reserve Volume ERV and Residual Volume RV and measures approximately 2400 mL in an 80 kg, average-sized male. It can not be estimated through spirometry, since it includes the residual volume. In order to measure RV precisely, one would need to perform a test such as nitrogen washout, helium dilution or body plethysmography. A lowered or elevated FRC is often an indication of some form of respiratory disease. For instance, in emphysema, FRC is increased, because the lungs are more compliant and the equilibrium between the inward recoil of the lungs and outward recoil of the chest wall is disturbed. As such, patients with emphysema often have noticeably broader chests due to the rel...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_residual_capacity
*  Hypercapnia does not affect functional residual capacity enlargement induced by chronic hypoxia.
... Document Detail. Hypercapnia does not affect functional residual capacity enlargement induced by chronic hypoxia. MedLine Citation:. To determine whether changes in partial pressure of CO2 participate in mechanism enlarging the lung functional residual capacity FRC during chronic hypoxia, we measured FRC and ventilation in rats exposed either to poikilocapnic group H, F I O2 0.1, F I CO2 0.01 or hypercapnic group H+CO2, F I O2 0.1, F I CO2 0.04-0.05 hypoxia for the three weeks and in the controls group C breathing air. At the end of exposure a body plethysmograph was used to measure ventilatory parameters V' E , f R , V T and FRC during air breathing and acute hypoxia 10 % O2 in N2. The exposure to hypoxia for three weeks increased FRC measured during air breathing in both experimental groups H: 3.0+/-0.1 ml, H+CO2: 3.1+/-0.2 ml, C: 1.8+/-0.2 ml. During the following acute hypoxia, we observed a significant increase of FRC in the controls 3.2+/-0.2 ml and in both experimental groups H: 3.5+/-0.2 ml, H+CO...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Hypercapnia-does-not-affect-functional/12470207.html
*  Associate Professor Greg King - The University of Sydney
Appropriate use of oxygen in acute medicine. Advanced imaging in COPD: insights into pulmonary pathophysiology. Effect of methacholine on peripheral lung mechanics and ventilation heterogeneity in asthma. Relationship between airway pathophysiology and airway inflammation in older asthmatics. The feasibility of home monitoring of impedance with the forced oscillation technique in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects. Airway closure on imaging relates to airway hyperresponsiveness and peripheral airway disease in asthma. Does increased baseline ventilation heterogeneity following chest wall strapping predispose to airway hyperresponsiveness. Effect of airway smooth muscle tone on airway distensibility measured by the forced oscillation technique in adults with asthma. The role of the small airways in the clinical expression of asthma in adults. Effect of deep inspiration avoidance on ventilation heterogeneity and airway responsiveness in healthy adults. Improved respiratory system conductance followi...
http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/people/academics/profiles/gregory.king.php
*  Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dyspl
Functional residual capacity As PMA increased, a continuous rise p 0.001 in the end-expiratory lung volume measured either by body plethysmography FRC pleth or the SF 6 multiple breath washout technique FRC SF6 was evident in both groups Figure 7. No statistically significant difference in FRC pleth was apparent when former BPD and non-BPD infants were compared, whereas FRC SF6 was significantly lower p = 0.036 in the former BPD infants. In the present study, the most significant lung function differences between the two patient groups were in the tidal breathing parameters V T , V' E , lung compliance and end-expiratory lung volume. However, all differences in tidal breathing, lung compliance and FRC values disappeared after normalization of such parameters to actual body weight. also found that the respiratory compliance of VLBW infants with former BPD became normal at 2 years of age. Only a few studies have measured tidal breathing parameters in preterm BPD infants. The strengths are the depth at which LFT...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Development-lung-function-in-very/22443188.html
*  EEVblog #141 – AA Alkaline Battery Capacity Measurement | EEVblog - The Electronics Engineering Vi
EEVblog #141 AA Alkaline Battery Capacity Measurement. EEVblog - The Electronics Engineering Video Blog. EEVblog The Electronics Engineering Video Blog No Script, No Fear, All Opinion. Home Blog Forum Episodes 3D printing Advice Auctions Ebay calibration Debunking Design Build Dumpster Diving Hacking Experiments Industry Stories Interviews Lab Benches LED Lighting Live Shows Mailbag Microcontrollers Microscopes Inspection Test Equipment Multimeters Oscilloscopes LCR Meters Power Supplies. Tutorials. Projects µCurrent uCurrentOriginal µSupply µRuler µWatch. Chat Wiki Shop Merch Amazon µCurrent. Amp Hour Donate About Advertising. Live. EEVblog #141 AA Alkaline Battery Capacity Measurement. EEVblog January 27, 2011 EEVblog, EEVblog - Podcast 28 Comments 1,009 Views. How much Wh capacity does a typical Alkaline AA battery have. Dave intends to find out with his new Gossen Metrawatt Metrahit Energy multimeter. Be Sociable, Share. EEVblog #141 - AA Alkaline Battery Capacity Measurement. Download 1961. battery measu...
http://eevblog.com/2011/01/27/eevblog-141-aa-alkaline-battery-capacity-measurement/
*  Exercise sub-cluster 40
The regional effects of tidal volume VT , respiratory frequency, and expiratory-to-inspiratory time ratio TE/TI during high-frequency ventilation HFV were studied in anesthetized and paralyzed dogs. Ventilation, tidal volume VT , ventilatory rate f , minute ventilation VE , inspiratory time TI , expiratory time TE , period Ttot , TI/Ttot and mean inspiratory flow VT/TI were measured during the inhalation of room air, after 30 min ... In each subject, tidal volume VT , breathing frequency f and inspiratory time TI were obtained on two different days, in a randomized crossover ... Influence of exercise and CO2 on breathing pattern in patients with chronic ... The effects of alterations in ventilatory pattern on the simultaneously measured physiologic and anatomic dead-spaces VDphys and VDan, respectively and the dead-space to tidal volume ratio VD-VT were studied in 17 healthy normal subjects 13 men, four women, ages 21 to 36 years. We used a helium-rebreathe technique in nine healthy subjects to determine the ...
http://biomedsearch.com/cluster/75/Exercise/sub-40-p13.html
*  Eastman to Expand 2-EH and Butyraldehyde Capacity at Longview :: Chemical Week
... Click here... Click here... PEOPLE and BUSINESS. Basic Chemicals Plastics Engineering Plastics Specialty Chemicals Fine Chemicals/Biotech Alternative Fuels Industrial Gases. IHS Chemical. BLOG premium services BUSINESS DAILY IHS CHEMICAL events IHS CHEMICAL EVENTS IHS TRAINING AND EDUCATION INDUSTRY EVENTS CALENDAR WEBCASTS online directory BUYERS' GUIDE resources FEATURED REPORTS WHITE PAPERS advertising ADVERTISE CUSTOM PUBLISHING DIRECTORIES AND PROFILES customer care CUSTOMER CARE FAQ. Find related resources at IHS Chemical More Oxo alcohols Oxea pushes Bay City propanol start-up back one year, postpones 2-EH Updated Oxea launches short-chain fatty alcohol Oxea lifts force majeure on Bay City oxo intermediates Oxea reports temporary service disruption at Bay City, TX, intermediates facility Oxea plans 2-EH and propanol expansions at Bay City Related Stories Eastman to expand 2-EH capacity at Longview Oxea Increases Carboxylic Acids Prices Brazil takes steps to alleviate high cost of production Oxea p...
http://chemweek.com/markets/basic_chemicals/petrochemicals/oxoalcohols/Eastman-to-Expand-2-EH-and-Butyraldehyde-Capacity-at-Longview_29615.html
*  Pulmonary function testing
... Reference range = }} 'Pulmonary Function Testing' 'PFT' is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical examinations, chest x-ray examinations, arterial blood gas analysis, and tests of pulmonary function. Lung volumes. Maximal respiratory pressures. Diffusing capacity. Nitrogen Washout. Chronic shortness of breath Asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Restrictive lung disease Preoperative testing Impairment or disability. The measurements taken by the spirometry device are used to generate a pneumotachograph that can help to assess lung conditions such as: asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lung volumes. Lung volumes. A lung capacity consists of two or more lung volumes. The four lung capacities are total lung capacity TLC, inspiratory capacity IC, functional residual capacity FRC and vital capacity VC. Maximal respiratory pressures. Diffusing capacity. Diffusing capacity. Arterial blood gas es ABGs are a ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulmonary_function_testing
*  Exercise performance after standard rehabilitation in COPD patients with lung hyperinflation.
... BioMedSearch. Home. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Create Free Account. Document Detail. Exercise performance after standard rehabilitation in COPD patients with lung hyperinflation. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 22113504 Owner: NLM Status: Publisher. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation PR in COPD patients with lung hyperinflation has not yet been fully investigated. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of a standard PR course on exercise tolerance and symptoms according to the presence or absence of associated lung hyperinflation, as defined by lung function parameters in three Italian rehabilitation centres. In a cohort of 823 COPD patients age 71 ± 8 years, FEV 1 56 ± 18% pred. we have systematically recorded: changes ∆ in 6-minute walking test 6MWD as the primary outcome; dyspnoea D ; muscle fatigue F ; SO 2 nadir during effort; perceived breathlessness score MRC ; and specific health-related quality of life SGRQ. Outcomes were compared between patients with l...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Exercise-performance-after-standard-rehabilitation/22113504.html
*  Sabio Equipment in Haiti - environmental
Xprts Xprts. Sabio Instruments, a division of Sutron Corporation based in Georgetown, TEXAS USA The Model 1001 series zero air sources were designed to meet the requirements of clean and dry air for dilution calibrators or other environmental applications. Contact now / Request quote 0 Reviews. Sabio Instruments, a division of Sutron Corporation based in Georgetown, TEXAS USA The Model 2030 is a portable Ozone Photometer audit transfer standard that is ideal for calibrating ambient air monitoring ozone analyzers and ozone generators. Contact now / Request quote 0 Reviews. Sabio Instruments, a division of Sutron Corporation based in Georgetown, TEXAS USA The Model 2020 is a portable zero air source designed to meet a wide range of requirements for the environmental industry. Contact now / Request quote 0 Reviews. Contact now / Request quote 0 Reviews. Contact now / Request quote 0 Reviews. Contact now / Request quote 0 Reviews. Sabio Instruments, a division of Sutron Corporation based in Georgetown, TEXAS USA ...
http://environmental-expert.com/products/location-haiti/order-recommended/?keyword=sabio
*  ORBi: Hans Grégory - Postoperative respiratory problems in morbidly obese patients.
... O pen R epository and Bi bliography BICTEL/e. PoPuPS. Other OA projects at the ULg. Submitter guide. User guide. Legal guide. Tools box. FAQ. Glossary. Help. Library Network. Login. ORBi. Detailled reference. Reference : Postoperative respiratory problems in morbidly obese patients. Document type : Scientific journals : Article. Discipline s : Human health sciences : Anesthesia & intensive care. To cite this reference: http://hdl.handle.net/2268/32850. Title : Postoperative respiratory problems in morbidly obese patients. Language : English. Author, co-author : Hans, Grégory. Lauwick, Séverine. Kaba, Abdourahmane. Brichant, Jean-François. Joris, Jean. Publication date : 2009. Journal title : Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica. Publisher : Acta Medica Belgica. Peer reviewed : Yes verified by ORBi. Abstract : Morbid obesity results in a restrictive pulmonary syndrome including decreased functional residual capacity. General anaesthesia further decreases functional residual capacity, and consequently alters gas...
http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/32850
*  Nitrogen washout test
... redirect nitrogen washout...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_washout_test
*  Closing capacity
... the closing capacity cc is the volume in the lung s at which its smallest airways the respiratory bronchioles collapse the alveoli lack supporting cartilage and so depend on other factors to keep them open the closing capacity is greater than the residual volume rv the amount of gas that normally remains in the lungs during respiration and specifically after forced expiration this is because closing capacity is equal to closing volume plus residual volume this means that there is normally enough air within the lungs to keep these airways open throughout both inhalation and exhalation as the lungs age there is a gradual increase in the closing capacity i e the small airways begin to collapse at a higher volume before expiration is complete this also occurs with certain disease processes such as asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary edema any process that increases the cc by increasing the functional residual capacity frc can increase an individual s risk of hypoxemia as the small airw...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closing_capacity
*  Closing capacity and closing volume
... notes notes physiology respiratory ventilation and perfusion ventilation lung volumes closing capacity and closing volume closing capacity closing capacity the lung volume at which the small airways in usually the dependent part of the lung first start to close impairs gas exchange and increase venous admixture decrease pao nb closing capacity rv closing volume variation of closing capacity closing capacity increases with age frc does not change with age young subject closing capacity of vc in erect position closing capacity frc of vc at y o in supine position closing capacity frc at y o in neonates lung elastic recoil is reduced more airway closure closing capacity frc reduced pao measurement of closing volume closing volume is measured with single breath nitrogen test a single breath of o from residual volume slow expiration with a rapid nitrogen analyzer late in expiration when airway closure starts to occur expired starts to rise about the plateau closing volume the volume expired from the start of t...
http://ld99.com/reference/old/text/2878909-733.html
*  TAE - OpenWetWare
... TAE From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 19:39, 25 May 2005 view source Reshma P. Shetty Talk. Revision as of 15:35, 5 August 2011 view source Peter R. Oxley Talk. - ==1X TAE ==. + TAE is a commonly used buffer for making and running DNA agarose gels. + It offers a few advantages and disadvantages compared to TBE buffer:. + *TAE buffer provides optimal resolution of fragments 4 kb in length, while TBE provides better resolution for 0.1 to 3 kb fragments. + * TAE stocks can be 50X concentrated and therefore take up less space than 10X concentrated TBE stock. + * TBE offers a higher resolution and has a higher buffering capacity at greater temperatures induced by relatively higher voltages. + * TBE can negatively influence the yield of DNA after recovery from a gel when using glass-based protocols. - * 10X TAE. + ==Ingredients for one litre 50X stock==. - * Deionized water. - Dilute 400ml of 10X TAE into 3.6 L of deionized water and store in a 4 L jug. + ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=TAE&diff=527921&oldid=11566
*  Nitrogen closing volume test
... redirect nitrogen washout...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_closing_volume_test
*  Nitrogen CV-test
nitrogen cv test nitrogen cv test redirect nitrogen washout...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_CV-test
*  Anti -YARS (Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic, Tyrosyl-tRNA Ligase, TyrRS) - United States Biolog
Anti -YARS Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic, Tyrosyl-tRNA Ligase, TyrRS - United States Biological. Login. Email. Password. Forgot your password. New User. Remember me. Home. Distributors. Technical. About. Register. Antibodies. Biochemicals. Culture Media. Custom Services. Growth Factors. Bioassay Kits. Molecular Biology. Serum, Tissues. Protocols. Newsletter. Contact. . You are here: Home. Antibodies. Antibodies-Enzymes, Synthetase. Anti -YARS Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic, Tyrosyl-tRNA Ligase, TyrRS Anti -YARS Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic, Tyrosyl-tRNA Ligase, TyrRS. Pricing For pricing information, USA customers sign in. Outside USA. Please contact your distributor for pricing. Specifications Clone. Host. Grade Applications Polyclonal Rabbit Purified E B. Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA Tyr in a two-step reaction tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA Tyr. Applications Suitable for use in ELISA and Western Blot. O...
http://usbio.net/item/029398
*  OriGene - YARS2 (NM 001040436) Human Protein
OriGene - YARS2 NM 001040436 Human Protein. Proteins & Lysates Purified Human Proteins Over-expression Cell Lysate Mass Spec Standard Protein Purification Reagents. Related Products Over-expression cDNA Clone TrueMAB Primary Antibodies Anti-tag Antibodies. Browse All Proteins with activity data by gene families/pathways by gene symbol. Home Recombinant Human Proteins All YARS2 Proteins YARS2 NM 001040436 Purified Human Protein. Description Datasheet Price Availability*. TP304828 Recombinant protein of human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial YARS2, nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, 20 ug Larger pack size. TA50011-100 Clone OTI4C5, Anti-DDK monoclonal antibody $248 In Stock. Also for YARS2 NM 001040436 cDNA Clone shRNA/siRNA CRISPR KO Kit Protein Antibody. OriGene Data Species: Human Expression Host: HEK293 cells. Expression cDNA Clone or AA Sequence Recombinant protein was produced with TrueORF clone, RC204828. Click on the TrueORF clone link to view cDNA and protein sequences. Protein Pathwa...
http://origene.com/protein/TP304828/YARS2.aspx
*  Tyrosine-tRNA ligase
tyrosine trna ligase tyrosine trna ligase redirect tyrosine trna ligase...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine-tRNA_ligase
*  Better Outcomes for Ventilation With Lower Tidal Volumes --Doctors Lounge
... Medical Reference. Back to Journal Articles Better Outcomes for Ventilation With Lower Tidal Volumes. Use of lower tidal volumes linked to improved clinical outcome for patients without ARDS. Protective ventilation with lower tidal volumes is associated with better clinical outcomes in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome, according to a meta-analysis published in the Oct. 23 HealthDay News -- Protective ventilation with lower tidal volumes is associated with better clinical outcomes in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS, according to a meta-analysis published in the Oct. Ary Serpa Neto, M.D., from ABC Medical School in S o Paulo, Brazil, and colleagues conducted a literature review to identify studies in which lower versus higher tidal volumes were reported in patients receiving ventilation, but without ARDS, and which reported lung injury development, overall mortality, pulmonary infection, atelectasis, and biochemical alterations. Using a fixed-effects model, the...
http://doctorslounge.com/index.php/news/pb/33037
*  CHEST Journal | Article
Chest. High PEEP and Alveolar Recruitment. High PEEP and Alveolar Recruitment. ARMA 14 compared a ventilatory protocol using tidal volumes of ≤ 6 mL/kg predicted body weight and maintaining plateau pressures of ≤ 30 cm H 2 O with conventional mechanical ventilation using higher tidal volumes. Patients in the intervention group were ventilated with tidal volumes of 5 to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight, and PEEP was set on day 1 at 2 cm H 2 O above Pflex, defined as the lower inflection point on the pressure-volume curve of the respiratory system. The control group was ventilated with tidal volumes of 9 to 11 mL/kg predicted body weight and a PEEP of ≥ 5 cm H 2 O. 35 Patients were randomized to a ventilatory protocol utilizing high levels of PEEP 12 to 24 cm H 2 O or low levels of PEEP 5 to 24 cm H 2 O ; all patients were ventilated with low tidal volumes 6 mL/kg predicted body weight. PEEP was significantly higher among intervention patients compared with control patients throughout the study period mean PEEP on...
http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1084989
*  Dynamic changes in respiratory frequency/tidal volume may predict failures of ventilatory liberation
... in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation and normal preliberation respiratory frequency/tidal volume values. Dynamic changes in respiratory frequency/tidal volume may predict failures of ventilatory liberation in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation and normal preliberation respiratory frequency/tidal volume values. Rapid shallow breathing index RSBI, respiratory frequency divided by tidal volume has been used to prognosticate liberation from mechanical ventilation LMV. We hypothesize that dynamic changes in RSBI predict failed LMV better than isolated RSBI measurements. Failed LMV was defined as need for reinstitution of MV within 48 hours post-LMV. The instantaneous RSBI i-RSBI was defined as f/Vt. Dynamic f/Vt ratio d-RSBI was defined as the ratio between two consecutive i-RSBI f/Vt measurements /. RSBI Product RSB-P was defined as i-RSBI × d-RSBI. All patients had pre-LMV i-RSBI less than 100. Failed LMVs had higher i-RSBI values 68.9, n = 18 than successful LMVs 44.2, n = 23, P 0.01. ...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Dynamic-changes-in-respiratory-volume/22273318.html
*  Critical Care | Full text | Cardiac index and oxygen delivery during low and high tidal volume venti
critical care full text cardiac index and oxygen delivery during low and high tidal volume ventilation strategies in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome a crossover randomized clinical trial ccforum com article cc bottom top biomed central journals gateways search critical care biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my critical care top abstract introduction materials and methods results discussion conclusions key messages abbreviations competing interests authors contributions acknowledgements references critical care volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf kb associated material pubmed record article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar natalini g minelli c rosano a ferretti p militano cr de feo c bernardini a on pubmed natalini g minelli c rosano a ferretti p militano cr de feo c bernardini a related articles pages on google on google scholar...
http://ccforum.com/content/17/4/R146
*  Plateau pressure
... p plat is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive pressure mechanical ventilation morgan edward g maged mikhail and michael murry clinical anesthesiology fourth edition mcgraw hill philadelphia pg it is measured during an inspiratory pause on the mechanical ventilator moon richard and enrico camporesi respiratory monitoring miller s anesthesia sixth edition ronald miller ed elsevier new york pg references category mechanical ventilation...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plateau_pressure
*  END-TIDAL CO2/N2O MONITOR
... JAN CZEKAJEWSKI 75144.2413 at CompuServe.COM. Tue Jun 11 14:51:59 EST 1996. Previous message: Sleep-EEG wave web site Next message: * Unanswered Questions - Response * Messages sorted by:. Measurement of CO2 concentration in expired air from the lung per breath is a useful index for determining ventilatory efficiency, metabolic status and hypo and hyper ventilatory syndrome in response to the effects of testing drugs in animals. Moreover, the end-tidal CO2 is the most important parameter in evaluating the depth of anesthesia when the effects of drugs on physiological parameters are to be tested. Maintenance of constant end-tidal CO2 is necessary in some experiments involving surgery of anesthetized animals. The device which measure these parameters is called MICRO-CAPNOMETER. This device is very unique for end-tidal CO2 measurements in very small and large laboratory animals. It measures CO2 N2O content of inspired and expired air while drawing as little as 5 cc/min. from the tidal flow. Concurrent with ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1996-June/024319.html
*  Influence of Different Breathing Frequencies on the Severity... : The Journal of Strength & Condi
Influence of Different Breathing Frequencies on the Severity... : The Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. Influence of Different Breathing Frequencies on the Severity... A A You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you... If you have access to this article through your institution, you can view this article in. Influence of Different Breathing Frequencies on the Severity of Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue Induced by High-Intensity Front Crawl Swimming Jakovljevic, Djordje G 1 ; McConnell, Alison K 2. Influence of different breathing frequencies on the severity of inspiratory muscle fatigue induced by high-intensity front crawl swimming. J Strength Cond Res 23 4 : 1169-1174, 2009-The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of 2 different breathing frequencies on the magnitude of inspiratory muscle fatigue after high-intensity front crawl swimming. The influence of different breathing frequencies on postexercise blood lactate and heart rate HR was also examined. These data sugges...
http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2009/07000/Influence_of_Different_Breathing_Frequencies_on.17.aspx
*  Disease Information for Central respiratory stimulation excess
... English. Fran ais. Espa ol. Differential Diagnosis. Diseases. Drugs. Tips. Try building your search one term at a time, and be as specific as you can. Search term example: "chronic cough". Do not enter multiple findings such as "anemia, chronic cough, weight loss, vomiting" all at the same time. After selecting your term from the search results a list of possible diagnoses will be generated. If the list is too long, you will be able to narrow it down by entering additional terms. Disease Information. Disease Comparison. Disease Processes. Auto Immune. Eponymic. Infectious agent. Poison Agent. Trauma. Endocrine-Vegetative. Major Organs-Systems. Systemic. Respiratory Pulmonary System. Urinary System. Endocrine System. Immune System. Musculoskeletal System. Lymphatic System. Disease Information for Central respiratory stimulation excess. Ads. Compare "Central respiratory stimulation excess" to .... Suggest a Better Translation. Suggest a Reference or External Link. How Can We Make It Better. Print 5 possibl...
http://en.diagnosispro.com/disease_information-for/central-respiratory-stimulation-excess/les_information_sur/manifestations-cliniques-virus-de-coxacki/disease_information-for/central-respiratory-stimulation-excess/11953.html
*  Dimefox
... 'Dimefox' is an organophosphate pesticide. Dimefox was first produced in 1940 by the group of Gerhard Schrader in Germany. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology Second Edition, http://books.google.nl/books?id=ib8Qhju9EQEC&pg=PA913&lpg=PA913&dq=Gerhard+Schrader+pesticide&source=bl&ots=DfApm4Hpnn&sig=S--wI4A3VyDONG4uDle96OJ1 n8&hl=nl&ei=BPGQTdD4Jc7Hsgamp4iHCg&sa=X&oi=book result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Gerhard%20Schrader%20pesticide&f=false. Dimefox inhibits the function of AChE because its acts as an acetylcholine analogue, binding the active site serine, whilst losing its fluoride group. Behavioral: coma, lungs, thorax -Respiration: respiratory stimulation Gastrointestinal: changes in structure or function of salivary glands. Behavioral: muscle contraction or spasticity Gastrointestinal: changes in structure or function of salivary glands and other changes. Behavioral: coma Gastrointestinal: changes in structure or function of salivary glands, lungs, thorax Respiratory: respiratory stim...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimefox
*  Doctors Gates: Types of respiratory pattern of breathing
Doctors Gates: Types of respiratory pattern of breathing. Types of respiratory pattern of breathing. A 55-year-old man with emphysema will have which kind of respiratory pattern of breathing. a Biot respiration b. Apneustic breathing c. Rapid and shallow breathing e. Kussmaul breathing. This causes collapse of the small airways and prolongs the expiratory phase of respiration. During the prolonged expiration, patients will purse their lips to avoid collapse of the small airways. Biot respirations are seen in patients with increased intracranial pressure. Cheynes-Stokes respirationis a rhythmic, gradually changing pattern of apnea and hyperpnea that is cardiac or neurologic in origin. Apneustic breathing is characterized by a long period of inspiration or gasping with almost no expiratory phase. A 55-year-old man with emphysema will have which kind of respiratory pattern of breathing. This causes collapse of the small airways and prolongs the expiratory phase of respiration. During the prolonged expiration, pa...
http://doctorsgates.blogspot.com/2011/06/types-of-respiratory-pattern-of.html
*  The Breathing Room Foundation - For families affected by cancer.The Breathing Room Foundation - For
The Breathing Room Foundation - For families affected by cancer. The Breathing Room Foundation - For families affected by cancer. The Breathing Room Foundation. Menu Home Nominations Nominate a Recipient. Breathing Room 2012 Report. Breathing Room 2013 Report. Breathing Room 2014 Report. Valley Road Run 2015 Join us for a 5K run or 2-mile walk along Valley Road in Rydal on Sunday, October 4th. The Young Friends The Young Friends of the Breathing Room was established to get young professionals involved with the work of the Breathing Room Foundation through volunteer opportunities, fundraisers, and social events. Get involved with the Young Friends by following the Read More. Recipients Do you know someone battling cancer who could use a bit of breathing room. Nominate them to become a recipient of a Breathing Room Foundation award. The Breathing Room’s mission is to provide care and support to families affected by cancer. Volunteer It is only through the work of kind, compassionate volunteers that the Breathin...
https://breathingroomfoundation.org/
*  Respiratory depressant
... redirect hypoventilation...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_depressant
*  Periodic breathing
... multiple issues periodic breathing is a normal variation of breathing found in premature and full term infants it occurs when the infant has pauses in breathing for no more than seconds at a time followed by a series of rapid shallow breaths then the breathing returns to normal without any stimulation or intervention these pauses in breathing may be accompanied by minor oxygen desaturation and bradycardia it usually occurs when the infant is sleeping deeply but may occur with light sleep or even when awake studies have shown that of healthy full term infants experience episodes of periodic breathing in the first two weeks of life which typically resolves in the first six months of life kelly dh stellwagen lm kaitz e shannon dc apnea and periodic breathing in normal full term infants during the first twelve months pediatr pulmonol jul aug this is not the same as apnea which is a cessation of breathing for greater than seconds associated with limpness and cyanotic color change references category respirati...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_breathing
*  Air sac | Define Air sac at Dictionary.com
Air sac. Define Air sac at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Word of the Day Translate Games Blog. Thesaurus.com Apps. Log Out Log In. follow Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Thesaurus.com. Try Our Apps. Word of the Day. Translate. Games. Blog. definitions. Follow @dictionarycom. follow Dictionary.com. CITE. Translate. air sac. Word Origin. noun 1. a sac containing air. 3 any of certain cavities in a bird's body connected with the lungs. 4 a saclike dilation of the wall of a trachea in many insects. Origin of air sac Expand. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. Cite This Source. British Dictionary definitions for air sac Expand. air sac. noun 1. any of the membranous air-filled extensions of the lungs of birds, which increase the efficiency of gaseous exchange in the lungs. 2 any of the thin-walled extensions of the tracheae of insects having a similar function. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. 197...
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/air sac
*  Swim bladder
... Image:Swim bladder.jpg File:Air bladder in a bleak.jpg|thumb|333px. The 'swim bladder', 'gas bladder', 'fish maw' or 'air bladder' is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at its current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming. Structure and function Evolution Deep scattering layer Human uses Swim bladder disease Risk of injury Similar structures in other organisms Gallery References Further references. In early life stages, fish have to rise to the surface to fill up their swim bladders, however, in later stages the connection disappears and the gas gland has to introduce gas usually oxygen to the bladder to increase its volume and thus increase buoyancy. Thus a very high gas pressure of oxygen can be obtained, which can even account for the presence of gas in the swim bladders of deep sea fish like the eel, requiring a pressure of hundreds of bars. Together with oxygen other gases are salted out in the swim bladde...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swim_bladder
*  .. The Aerosteon saga, Part 3: True and false ad hominems .. October 31, 2008 .. Share t
The Aerosteon saga, Part 3: True and false ad hominems October 31, 2008. The Aerosteon saga, Part 1: Introduction and background The Aerosteon saga, Part 2: Overinflation and undercitation Wedel’s misleading, ad hominem critique The last is Paul Sereno’s response to my criticism of the Aerosteon paper. If you actually read my critique, you’ll see that the form of my argument was more like:. Sereno et al. He then digresses to critique earlier papers and ends by explaining what “we’ve been up to”, referring to papers by himself, Pat O’Connor and Leon Claessens—research we cited many times in the paper, both positively for evidence and in critique. What about all the evidence. Fourth, I have no problem with other people working on pneumaticity and air sacs. Just for the record, I didn’t consult with Pat O’Connor or Leon Claessens about my critiques. In my 2003 Paleobiology paper I discussed how continuous pneumatization of the vertebral column might not indicate abdominal air sacs, if diverticula of th...
http://svpow.com/2008/10/31/the-aerosteon-saga-part-3-true-and-false-ad-hominems/
*  Mycoplasma meleagridis
... also known as mycoplasma air sacculitis mycoplasma infectious stunting mycoplasmosis introduction clinical signs and diagnosis treatment and control references introduction mycoplasma meleagridis is a small bacteria responsible for air sacculitis and disorders of the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems in turkeys the disease is more severe in young birds and occurs globally wherever turkeys are reared intensively transmission is mainly vertical via the egg but ticks such as the ixodes species can also be vectors clinical signs and diagnosis the disease is often subclinical but may appear as mild stunting air sacculitis appears as tachypnoea nasal discharge and sneezing musculoskeletal problems can lead to lameness swelling and crooked necks there may be a drop in egg production the bacteria can be cultured from tissue samples or swabs and identified with pcr or immunofluorescence elisa and the slide agglutination test are used for serological diagnosis treatment and control antibiotics are effective...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycoplasma_meleagridis
*  Please help, swim bladder disorder?!?
Please help, swim bladder disorder?!. Betta Fish and Betta Fish Care. Betta Fish Care. Please help, swim bladder disorder?!. Register Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Thread Tools Search this Thread. Please help, swim bladder disorder?!. View Public Profile. Send a private message to creamcookie. Find More Posts by creamcookie. BettaxFishxCrazy Member. Join Date: Sep 2009 BettaxFishxCrazy's Posts. BettaxFishxCrazy. View Public Profile. Send a private message to BettaxFishxCrazy. Find More Posts by BettaxFishxCrazy. Swim bladder problems can be caused by several things, some Betta can be born with a short or deformed swim bladder, some get over it as they grow and some will show symptoms later as adults, bacterial infection is another reason usually cause by poor water quality or when constipated the duct between the stomach and swim bladder will get clogged and get infected, sometimes it just constipation that is putting pressure on the swim bladder causing problems. I treat in QT making daily 100% wate...
http://bettafish.com/showthread.php?t=42388&page=0
*  Swim Bladder Disorder | Betta Fish Care
Swim Bladder Disorder. Betta Fish Care. Nitrogen Cycle. Feeding Bettas. Frozen Live Betta Food. Sick Betta Disease Guide. Bloating and Constipation. Septicemia Infection. Swim Bladder Disorder. Breeding Bettas Breeding Raising Young Equipment Aquarium Equipment Info Nitrogen Cycle Cycle Your Tank Q A Reader Questions. Sick Betta. Swim Bladder Disorder. Swim Bladder Disorder Published: March 1st, 2011 Author: Christie F. Common Name: Swim Bladder Disorder, Swim Bladder Disease, SBD Scientific Name: N/A Description: Irregularity of gas bladder Symptoms: swimming upside down, unable to right self Cause: constipation , blockage, infection, tumor Medications: fasting, Maracyn Maracyn-Two combo Ingredients: Erythromycin, Minocycline, Tetracycline Notes: treatment varies by cause, antibiotics not usually necessary. In a fish s world, being unable to right ones-self may be a sign of a swim bladder problem commonly referred to as Swim Bladder Disorder , Swim Bladder Disease or SBD for short. Feeding too much food or f...
http://nippyfish.net/sick-betta/swim-bladder-disorder/
*  Gold Fish has swim bladder/constipation (Tried peas)
Gold Fish has swim bladder/constipation Tried peas. User Name. Freshwater Fish and Aquariums. Freshwater and Tropical Fish. Cyprinids and Atherinids Gold Fish has swim bladder/constipation Tried peas. Gold Fish has swim bladder/constipation Tried peas This is a discussion on Gold Fish has swim bladder/constipation Tried peas within the Cyprinids and Atherinids forums, part of the Freshwater and Tropical Fish category; -- One of my goldfish has been laying on the bottom of the tank for several days, breathing slowly. LinkBack Thread Tools. Search this Thread. Gold Fish has swim bladder/constipation Tried peas. 10-17-2009, 12:28 PM # 1. Reynold User. Gold Fish has swim bladder/constipation Tried peas. One of my goldfish has been laying on the bottom of the tank for several days, breathing slowly. Recently his condition has been constantly going up and down, and it seems like he has swim bladder/is constipated/both. He has been prone to swim bladder/constipation in past. He is a fancy goldfish. Ammonia is fine, ...
http://tropicalfishkeeping.com/cyprinids-atherinids/gold-fish-has-swim-bladder-constipation-30724/
*  ARS | Publication request: LECTIN HISTOCHEMISTRY OF THE TURKEY AIR SAC MEMBRANE ARS : Research
ARS. Publication request: LECTIN HISTOCHEMISTRY OF THE TURKEY AIR SAC MEMBRANE ARS : Research. Page Banner. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. ARS Home. About ARS. Contact Us. Search for This. Research. Research Home. National Programs. Research Projects. Scientific Manuscripts. International Programs. Trending Research Topics. Scientific Software/Models. Databases & Datasets. Scientific Collaborations. People Locations. Find a person. Find a location. Find an office at headquarters. Organizational chart. Administrator’s Council. Newsroom. News Home. Latest News. Magazine. Photos. Subscription Lists. Briefing Room. Podcasts. Events. Press Room. Video. Careers. ARS Vacancies at USAJOBS. Careers at ARS Info. Post Doctoral Positions. . Site Map. A-Z Index. Help. . You are here: MIDWEST AREA Home / RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK / Research / Publication #64370. Related Topics Programs and Projects. Subjects of Investigation. ARS National Programs. Search for a research proje...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=64370
*  Swim bladder disease
... image female ryukin goldfish with swim bladder disease thumb the gas bladder of a fish swim bladder disease also called swim bladder disorder or flipover is a common ailment in aquarium fish the swim bladder is an internal gas filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy and thus to stay at the current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming a fish with swim bladder disorder can float nose down tail up or can float to the top or sink to the bottom of the aquarium johnson erik l and richard e hess fancy goldfish a complete guide to care and collecting weatherhill shambhala publications inc isbn causes fancy goldfish are among the fish most commonly affected by this disorder the disease may be caused by intestinal parasite s or by constipation induced by high nitrate levels from over feeding remedies a remedy which can work within hours perhaps by countering constipation is to feed green pea to affected fish fish surgeons can also adjust the buoyancy of the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swim_bladder_disease
*  Rete mirabile
... The rete mirabile utilizes countercurrent blood flow within the net blood flowing in opposite directions to act as a countercurrent exchanger. In bird s with webbed feet, retia mirabilia in the legs and feet transfer heat from the outgoing hot blood in the arteries to the incoming cold blood in the veins. In some fish, a rete mirabile fills the swim bladder with oxygen, increasing the fish's buoyancy. A countercurrent exchange system is utilized between the venous and arterial capillaries. This causes an increase in venous blood oxygen partial pressure, allowing the oxygen to diffuse through the capillary membrane and into the arterial capillaries, where oxygen is still sequestered to hemoglobin. The cycle of diffusion continues until the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial capillaries exceeds that in the swim bladder. At this point, the dissolved oxygen in the arterial capillaries diffuses into the swim bladder via the gas gland. 7 The rete mirabile allows for an increase in muscle temperature in...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rete_mirabile
*  Anguillicoloides crassus
... 'Anguillicoloides crassus'. is a parasitic nematode worm that lives in the swimbladders of eels ' Anguilla ' spp. It is considered to be one of the threats to the sustainability of populations of European eel 'Anguilla anguilla'. The life cycle of 'Anguillicoloides crassus' begins when the adult nematode releases thousands of eggs in the eel's swimbladder. The host is eaten by an eel, and the nematode finds its way from the eel's digestive tract to its swimbladder. Adaptation to the European eel Effects on hosts Individual hosts. Adaptation to the European eel. First, it utilizes paratenic hosts in its transmission, such as a number of freshwater fish, amphibians, snails and aquatic insects. 4 The suitability of paratenic hosts in facilitating transmission differs according to species, with phylostome open swimbladder fish being less suitable than physoclist closed swimbladder fish. crassus' larvae into the fourth stage and have lower rates of encapsulation, thereby permitting longer rates of survival. B...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anguillicoloides_crassus
*  i think it's swim bladder disorder...needing good advice
... Betta Fish and Betta Fish Care. Betta Fish Diseases and Emergencies. i think it's swim bladder disorder...needing good advice. 05-04-2010, 07:10 PM # 1. takumi New Member. Join Date: Feb 2010 Location: Canada : takumi's Posts. i think it's swim bladder disorder...needing good advice. i saw some ich, bought the medication did a complete water change and put him back in his tank: now i have noticed that he cannot swim down. also, before the swimming problem when i first noticed the ich i saw him completely flare up for the first time since i bought him. View Public Profile. Send a private message to takumi. Find More Posts by takumi. 05-04-2010, 08:42 PM # 2. BettaSquirt Member. Join Date: Jun 2009 Location: New Hampshire, USA BettaSquirt's Posts. View Public Profile. Send a private message to BettaSquirt. Find More Posts by BettaSquirt. 05-04-2010, 10:16 PM # 3. takumi New Member. Join Date: Feb 2010 Location: Canada : takumi's Posts. View Public Profile. Send a private message to takumi. Find More Posts ...
http://bettafish.com/showthread.php?p=377666
*  Chronic swim bladder?
Chronic swim bladder. Goldfish aquarium. Pet Goldfish - Aquarium Forum Community Aquarium Health and Illness Chronic swim bladder. Not to mention something - if Amber actually WAS a boy why would he be chasing Opal who we know for sure is a male fishy around??. Just a little idea: I got bored of having no aquarium background for my tank but don t want to spend money on something storebought which I don t care for anyway. Goldiegirl: If the separation method won t work, maybe you should consider a divider like pappy-fish suggested. Amber keeps chasing around my girl fishes because he wants to spawn...he must have bred with Citrine and damaged her swim bladder...there are no eggs left because my goldies are such sharks they eat everything. I don t want my fishies to be stressed or unhappy - they all deserve a good quality life btw Citrine s swim bladder problem is all better!!!!!. Drove for about half an hour, but when I got there they put him in a tank with a ton of fishies all his age now I know he will go to...
http://petgoldfish.net/site/chronic-swim-bladder-t804.120.html
*  Possible Swim Bladder. Please help.
Possible Swim Bladder. Discuss Bettas and Betta Splendens. Betta Fish and Betta Fish Care. Betta Fish Care. Possible Swim Bladder. Check out the eBook Betta Fish Care Made Easy User Name. Register Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Thread Tools Search this Thread. SlavetoImpulse New Member. Join Date: Apr 2008 SlavetoImpulse's Posts. Possible Swim Bladder. View Public Profile. Send a private message to SlavetoImpulse. Find More Posts by SlavetoImpulse. dramaqueen Banned. Join Date: Jul 2008 Location: Central Texas dramaqueen's Posts. View Public Profile. Find More Posts by dramaqueen. SlavetoImpulse New Member. Join Date: Apr 2008 SlavetoImpulse's Posts. View Public Profile. Send a private message to SlavetoImpulse. Find More Posts by SlavetoImpulse. veganchick Member. Join Date: Jan 2009 veganchick's Posts. View Public Profile. Send a private message to veganchick. Find More Posts by veganchick. dramaqueen Banned. Join Date: Jul 2008 Location: Central Texas dramaqueen's Posts. View Public Profile. Find M...
http://bettafish.com/showthread.php?t=26009
*  Swim Bladder problems with Oranda - Help wanted
... Betta Fish and Betta Fish Care. Swim Bladder problems with Oranda - Help wanted. Thread Tools Search this Thread. beano129 Member. Join Date: Jul 2012 Location: Manly, Australia beano129's Posts. Swim Bladder problems with Oranda - Help wanted. beano129. View Public Profile. Send a private message to beano129. Find More Posts by beano129. MadameDesu Member. Join Date: Feb 2012 MadameDesu's Posts. Alright, with swim bladder issues, it's more about quantity of food than type of food. A good way to help her pass her food is to fast her for a few day, don't feed her anything. MadameDesu. View Public Profile. Send a private message to MadameDesu. Find More Posts by MadameDesu. mkayum Member. Join Date: Jul 2012 Location: IL mkayum's Posts. Alright, with swim bladder issues, it's more about quantity of food than type of food. A good way to help her pass her food is to fast her for a few day, don't feed her anything. One last thing, you don't need to use salt with every water change. It's not betta, it's an ora...
http://bettafish.com/showthread.php?t=109951&page=0
*  Lady Gouldian Finch .com - Air Sac Mites
... Site Navigation. Home Page. All Our Avian Products. Free Product Samples. What's On Sale. Shop Our Products. Medications. Articles & Info. Community Pages. Species Showcase. Kits & Special Offers. Gifts & Special Items. Publications. Fun & Games. Customer Service. View Shopping Cart. Check Out. Our Friendly customer service representatives are always happy to help you. 9am-5pm M-F, EST 800.579.7974 Don't Miss SPECIAL OFFERS. Get Email Savings. "..SCATT Works!!!. I had several young gouldians, that started to "cough." I applied the SCATT following your directions and the cough disappeared in a couple of days. I applied SCATT to all my other birds, including a pair of nursing parents. Everyone is fine!" William Henderson, Pennsylvania "..with all of your help and SCATT, he has pulled through the bout with the air sac mite wonderfully. I am so happy that he made it. I can't thank you enough for all your support" Christine Franzen, Colorado "..finally the scaly mite is gone. It took five weeks before I could...
http://ladygouldianfinch.com/features_airsacmites.php
*  Lung
File:Emphysema H and E.jpg|left|thumb|240px|Lung tissue affected by emphysema stained with H and E Diseases can also be chronic , such as bronchitis and asthma , both of which are inflammatory diseases; and emphysema , a common complication of smoking caused by inflammation and the progressive inability of alveoli to expand and contract with respiration. Tall people tend to have a larger total lung capacity than shorter people. Birds. Bird anatomy#Respiratory system. 300px|thumb|The respiatory system in a bird. thumb|300px|On inspiration, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. These then pass through the lungs to air sacs near the front of the bird, where air is expelled. The lungs of birds are relatively small, but are connected to 8–9 air sacs that extend through much of the body, and are in turn connected to air spaces within the bones. On inspiration, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the 8-9 air sacs. Air then travels continuously from the air sacs at the back of the bird, through ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung
*  What is the fluid secreted inside the air sacs to dissolve the gases? - Homework Help - eNotes.com
What is the fluid secreted inside the air sacs to dissolve the gases. - Homework Help - eNotes.com. . Homework Help. Essay Lab. Study Tools ▻. Literature Guides. Quizzes. eTexts. Textbook Solutions. Research Paper Topics. Teachers ▻. For Teachers. Literature Lesson Plans. Literature Quizzes. Downloads. Sign In. Join. rows eNotes search. Sign In. Join. . What is the fluid secreted inside the air sacs to dissolve the gases. Topic: Science. Asked on May 12, 2009 at 5:41 AM. by ttt12. like 0. dislike 0. 1 Answer. Add Yours. cambtone. College Teacher. Level 2 Adjunct Educator. Posted on June 2, 2009 at 3:59 AM Answer #1. I assume you mean in mammalian lungs, where the mucus is important in helping gaseous exchange. This exchange is controlled by a membrane protein, which regulates Chloride efflux leakage from lung epithelial cells. Its main effect is to make the mucus fluid, so your answer is probably water. This fails in people with Cystic Fibrosis, where not enough water leaks into the mucus. This ...
http://enotes.com/homework-help/what-fluid-secreted-inside-air-sacs-dissolve-gases-83445
*  ARDS at HealthMegaMall.com
How is ARDS Treated. In ARDS, the tiny blood vessels capillaries in the lungs or the air sacs alveoli are damaged because of an infection, injury, blood loss, or inhalation injury. Fluid leaks from the blood vessels into air sacs of the lungs. When this happens, the person with ARDS must be given extra oxygen and may need the help of a breathing machine. Although many people who survive ARDS make a full recovery, some survivors have lasting damage to their lungs. Oxygen passes from the air sacs into the blood in these small blood vessels. People who develop ARDS need extra oxygen and may need a breathing machine to breathe for them while their lungs try to heal. Doctors and other health care providers watch for these signs and symptoms in patients who have conditions that might lead to ARDS. Doctors diagnose ARDS when: A person suffering from severe infection or injury develops breathing problems A chest x-ray shows fluid in the air sacs of both lungs Blood tests show a low level of oxygen in the blood Other ...
http://healthmegamall.com/prodList-ARDS_s10_c399.htm
*  Looking Back to Quik Pulse Mindale (04/18/13) | IHHA
Looking Back to Quik Pulse Mindale 04/18/13. IHHA. Executive Director Email Tony Membership/Questions Email Noel Insurance Questions Email Debra Contests Email Us For A Contest. Search this site:. 15 Spinning Wheel Road, Suite 432 Hinsdale, IL 60521 Phone: 630-323-0808 Toll Free IL : 800-572-0213 Fax: 630-323-0761 Infoline: 888-601-7223. Navigation Home About IHHA Insurance IHHA Membership Racing Information Racing Contracts Purse Report Legislative Archived News Hall of Fame In Memoriam Mike Paradise Advertise with IHHA Contact Us. Click here for IHHA savings. Looking Back to Quik Pulse Mindale 04/18/13. By Mike Paradise. Quik Pulse Mindale. The former track record holder at Balmoral Park put together a memorable year as a sophomore for the Mike Arnold Stable, driver Tony Morgan and owner Lloyd Arnold in 2004. Quik Pulse Mondale amassed over $702,000 as a 3-year-old when a won a dozen races in 19 trips postward, including nine consecutive starts. The son of Jenna s Beach Boy followed his Hayes Memorial champ...
http://harnessillinois.com/node/1213
*  The Padre Showing Potential (01/13/13) | IHHA
The Padre Showing Potential 01/13/13. IHHA. Executive Director Email Tony Membership/Questions Email Noel Insurance Questions Email Debra Contests Email Us For A Contest. Search this site:. 15 Spinning Wheel Road, Suite 432 Hinsdale, IL 60521 Phone: 630-323-0808 Toll Free IL : 800-572-0213 Fax: 630-323-0761 Infoline: 888-601-7223. Navigation Home About IHHA Insurance IHHA Membership Racing Information Racing Contracts Purse Report Legislative Archived News Hall of Fame In Memoriam Mike Paradise Advertise with IHHA Contact Us. Login. Click here for IHHA savings. The Padre Showing Potential 01/13/13. Posted Sunday January 13, 2013. By Mike Paradise. The Classic Photo Trotting Series has proved to be very popular with horsemen. When 32 horses passed the Balmoral Park entry box for Sunday s second round action three large fields were needed for a second straight weekend. First leg winners B Yoyo 1:59, Look At That Chick 1:59.4 and The Padre 2:00.2 are back for round two with the latter two trotters matching up fo...
http://harnessillinois.com/node/1138
*  isinglass - definition and meaning
Word of the day. Random word. Definitions from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition n. A transparent, almost pure gelatin prepared from the air bladder of the sturgeon and certain other fishes and used as an adhesive and a clarifying agent. n Mica in thin, transparent sheets. A form of gelatine obtained from the air bladder of the sturgeon and certain other fish, used as an adhesive and as a clarifying agent for wine and beer. n A thin, transparent sheet of mica. A semitransparent, whitish, and very pure form of gelatin, chiefly prepared from the sounds or air bladders of various species of sturgeons as the Acipenser huso found in the rivers of Western Russia. n A popular name for mica, especially when in thin sheets. The purest commercial form of gelatin, a substance of firm texture and whitish color, prepared from the sounds or air-bladders of certain fresh-water fishes. n Mica: so called from its resemblance to some forms of the gelatin. American Heritage Dictionary of the...
https://wordnik.com/words/isinglass
*  BLOOD PRESSURE INFORMATION MEASUREMENT DEVICE CUFF AND BLOOD PRESSURE INFORMATION MEASUREMENT DE
In the stated blood pressure information measurement device cuff according to one or more embodiments of the present invention, the anchored portion is formed by anchoring one end of the second fluid bladder to the first fluid bladder via the vibration blocking member. The stated blood pressure information measurement device cuff according to one or more embodiments of the present invention further includes an outer cover that contains the first fluid bladder and the second fluid bladder. Here, with the cuff 20A according to the present embodiment, one end of the pulse wave measurement air bladder 23 in the wrapping direction on the upper arm in other words, the circumferential direction of the cuff 20A after being wrapped around the upper arm is anchored to the blood pressure value measurement air bladder 24 via an adhesive member 27; the portion aside from the stated end is not anchored to the blood pressure value measurement air bladder 24. Meanwhile, the pulse wave measurement air bladder 23 is disposed s...
http://faqs.org/patents/app/20130060153
*  respiratory system
... The main parts of this system are the airways, the lungs and linked blood vessels, and the muscles that enable breathing. Airways The airways are passages that carry oxygen-rich air to the lungs and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. Trachea , or windpipe Tubes called bronchial tubes or bronchi , and their branches, called bronchioles. The respiratory tract is divided into two main parts: the upper respiratory tract, consisting of the nose, nasal cavity and the pharynx; and the lower respiratory tract consisting of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. Except for the mouth and some parts of the nose, all of the airways have special hairs, called cilia , that are coated with sticky mucus. Lungs and blood vessels The lungs and linked blood vessels deliver oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide. The pulmonary artery and its branches deliver blood rich in carbon dioxide and lacking in oxygen to the capillaries that surround the air sacs. Inside the air sacs, carbon dioxide moves from the blood into...
http://daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/R/respiratory_system.html
*  Glassworm
... A 'glassworm' is a type of midge larva called 'Chaoborus'. They are also known as 'phantom midge larvae', because they are transparent. Glassworms are almost entirely transparent, except for pairs of black kidney-shaped structures in the front and the back of the body. These dots are the air sac s. They use these air sacs to migrate up and down in lakes. Glassworms breathe through the end of their abdomen and have two small eye s at the front of their bodies. Larvae live in open waters and even sediments, where there is no oxygen for them to breathe. In some lakes they can be found as deep as 70 m. In these deep anoxic waters they can avoid predation more easily than near the surface. They get around the fact that a normal air filled invertebrate trachea l system would fail at these depths by having it reduced to just two air sacs. They look somewhat like mosquito larvae, on which they prey and frequently destroy in large numbers. 'Chaoborus' are considered opportunistic eaters, as their main diet consis...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glassworm
*  The Lungs
... COPD Resources. What is COPD. COPD Facts. Causes of COPD. Diagnosing COPD. COPD vs. Asthma. The Lungs. Current Treatments. Patient Information. The Lungs. The lung is a magnificent organ that performs a multitude of vital functions every second of our lives. Breathing is the most essential of these functions. With each breath, the lungs take in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. The air oxygen we breathe enters the lungs via the main windpipe trachea, which branches into two main tubes supplying the right and left lung, respectively. These tubes progressively branch 22 additional times to form more than 100,000 smaller tubes bronchi, bronchioles and more than 300 million air sacs alveoli, which are only about 0.3 mm in diameter. Thus, the surface area of the lungs is huge -- larger than the surface of a person's skin. In fact, if all the airways and air sacs of a person's lungs were laid flat on the ground, they would cover more than 100 square yards, which is larger than the size of a tennis court. Becau...
https://c.aarc.org/klein/lungs.asp
*  Your Health Information Library: Adults & Kids Health Topics
Health Services. Community Home Health. Chronic lung disease CLD is a general term for long-term respiratory problems in premature babies. CLD results from lung injury to newborns who must use a mechanical ventilator and extra oxygen for breathing. Some of the causes of lung injury include the following: prematurity - the lungs, especially the air sacs, are not fully developed low amounts of surfactant a substance in the lungs that helps keep the tiny air sacs open oxygen use high concentrations of oxygen can damage the cells of the lungs mechanical ventilation - the pressure of air from breathing machines, suctioning of the airways, use of an endotracheal tube ET tube - a tube placed in the trachea and connected to a breathing machine. Chronic lung disease can develop in premature babies who have had mechanical ventilation breathing machine. Symptoms may include: respiratory distress rapid breathing, flaring of the nostrils, chest retractions continued need for mechanical ventilation or oxygen after a premat...
http://ecommunity.com/health/index.aspx?pageid=P02348
*  Physoclisti
... are fishes that lack a connection between the gas bladder and the alimentary canal the bladder serving only as a buoyancy organ addition and removal of the gases from the gas bladder in these fishes occurs through specialised structures called the gas gland and ovale respectively the pneumatic duct that connects the gut and gas bladder is present in the embryos of these fish but it is lost during development this anatomical state is believed to be derived from the ancestral physostomous state some fishes such as eel s are anatomically physostomous but their gas bladders function similar to those of physoclists see also physostome references external links category fish anatomy...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physoclisti
*  Artificial Respiration History | RM.com ®
Artificial Respiration History. Artificial Respiration History A selection of articles related to artificial respiration history. Original articles from our library related to the Artificial Respiration History. History & Anthropology >> Indic / Vedic The Truth Behind the History of the Necronomicon I don't think there are many people out there who haven't heard of the Necronomicon and the dreadful things connected with it. Deities & Heros >> Chthulu History of the Egyptian Religion, part I: Early Dynastic Period I - Predynastic - Early Dynastic Period. Religions >> Egyptian History & Anthropology >> Egyptian History of the Egyptian Religion, part II: The Old Kingdom II - The Old Kingdom ca 2686-2181 BC During the Old Kingdom the Egyptian society moved from tribal communities to a fully developed theocratic system, where the power of the king was absolute. Religions >> Egyptian History & Anthropology >> Egyptian History of the Egyptian Religion, part IV: Middle Kingdom First Intermediate - Middle Kingdom ca 2...
http://realmagick.com/artificial-respiration-history/
*  The impact of mechanical ventilation on the moxifloxacin tre... : Critical Care Medicine
... Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. Critical Care Medicine Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. May 2005 - Volume 33 - Issue 5. The impact of mechanical ventilation on the moxifloxacin tre... A A You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you... If you have access to this article through your institution, you can view this article in. The impact of mechanical ventilation on the moxifloxacin treatment of experimental pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Charles, Pierre Emmanuel MD; Etienne, Manuel MD; Croisier, Delphine PharmD, PhD; Piroth, Lionel MD, PhD; Lequeu, Catherine MD; Pugin, Jerome MD, PD; Portier, Henri MD; Chavanet, Pascal MD. Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is responsible for early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia as well. In intensive care units, community-acqui...
http://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/Abstract/2005/05000/The_impact_of_mechanical_ventilation_on_the.19.aspx

Cheyne–Stokes respirationPlateau pressure: Plateau pressure (PPLAT) is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation.Morgan, Edward G.DimefoxSwim bladder: The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at its current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming. Also, the dorsal position of the swim bladder means the center of mass is below the center of volume, allowing it to act as a stabilizing agent.Peak inspiratory pressure: Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) is the highest level of pressure applied to the lungs during inhalation. In mechanical ventilation the number reflects a positive pressure in centimeters of water pressure (cmH2O).BalloonMayer waves: Mayer waves are cyclic changes or waves in arterial blood pressure brought about by oscillations in baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex control systems. The waves are seen both in the ECG and in continuous blood pressure curves and have a frequency about 0.Nasal EPAPSpirometer: A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.Infant respiratory distress syndromeTrachealis muscle: The trachealis muscle is a smooth muscle that bridges the gap between the free ends of C-shaped cartilages at the posterior border of the trachea, adjacent to the esophagus.Medical ventilator: A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.Flat-chested kitten syndrome: Flat-chested kitten syndrome (FCKS), is a disorder in cats, wherein kittens develop a compression of the thorax (chest/ribcage) caused by vertebral malformation. In mild cases, the underside of the chest becomes flattened (hence the name of the condition); in extreme cases the entire thorax is flattened, looking as if the kitten has been stepped on.Optoelectronic plethysmography: Optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) is a method to evaluate ventilation through an external measurement of the chest wall surface motion.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Chronic lung diseasePlethysmographMethacholineMiddlesex County Hospital: Middlesex County Hospital was a hospital operated by Middlesex County which was operational from the 1930s until 2001 in Waltham and Lexington, Massachusetts. Originally opened as a tuberculosis hospital, the hospital eventually became the county hospital for Middlesex until its closure in 2001.BradypneaTranspulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.Hadrosaur diet: Hadrosaurids, also commonly referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs, were large terrestrial herbivores. The diet of hadrosaurid dinosaurs remains a subject of debate among paleontologists, especially regarding whether hadrosaurids were grazers who fed on vegetation close to the ground, or browsers who ate higher-growing leaves and twigs.Moens–Korteweg equation: In biomechanics, the Moens–Korteweg equation models the relationship between wave speed or pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the incremental elastic modulus of the arterial wall or its distensibility. The equation was derived independently by Adriaan Isebree Moens and Diederik Korteweg.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsBronchoconstriction: Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.AlligatorAerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Gastric erosion: Gastric erosion occurs when the mucous membrane lining the stomach becomes inflamed. Some drugs, as tablets, can irritate this mucous membrane, especially drugs taken for arthritis and muscular disorders, steroids, and aspirin.History of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==EprozinolPotassium cyanideObesity hypoventilation syndromeDead space (physiology): In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused. In other words, not all the air in each breath is available for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.Helium-3Diaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.Diaphragm pacing: == Introduction ==Air sensitivity: Air sensitivity is a term used, particularly in chemistry, to denote the reactivity of chemical compounds with some constituent of air. Most often, reactions occur with atmospheric oxygen (O2) or water vapor (H2O),Handling and Storage of Air-Sensitive Reagents, Technical Bulletin AL-134, Sigma-Aldrich although reactions with the other constituents of air such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) are also possible.Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Isocyanide: An isocyanide (also called isonitrile or carbylamine) is an organic compound with the functional group -N≡C. It is the isomer of the related cyanide (-C≡N), hence the prefix iso.Ventolin (EP): "Ventolin" is a piece of electronic music composed by Cornish musician Richard D James. It is noted for its harsh, abrasive sound.Alveolar gas equation: The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the pulmonary alveoli is required to calculate both the alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen and the amount of right-to-left cardiac shunt, which are both clinically useful quantities. However it is not practical to take a sample of gas from the alveoli in order to directly measure the partial pressure of oxygen.Air displacement pipetteGas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Timeline of chemical warfareP-AnisidineLying (position)Bronchodilator: A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties.Lower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.Hyperventilation syndromeCostovertebral angleAcute esophageal necrosis

(1/2373) Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug.

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

(2/2373) Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats.

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

(3/2373) Mediators of anaphylaxis but not activated neutrophils augment cholinergic responses of equine small airways.

Neutrophilic inflammation in small airways (SA) and bronchospasm mediated via muscarinic receptors are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in horses (COPD). Histamine, serotonin, and leukotrienes (LTs) are reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COPD, and currently, histamine has been shown to increase tension response to electrical field simulation (EFS) in equine SA. We tested the effects of these mediators and the effects of activated neutrophils on the cholinergic responses in SA. Histamine, serotonin, and LTD4 had a synergistic effect on EFS responses and only an additive effect on the tension response to exogenous ACh or methacholine. Atropine and TTX entirely eliminated the EFS-induced tension response in the presence of all three inflammatory mediators, indicating that augmentation of the EFS response applies only to the endogenous cholinergic response. Neutrophils isolated from control and COPD-affected horses were activated by zymosan, producing 18.1 +/- 2.3 and 25.0 +/- 2.3 nmol superoxide. 10(6) cells-1. 30 min-1, respectively. However, in contrast to the profound effect of mediators, incubation of SA for over 1 h in a suspension of up to 30 x 10(6) zymosan-treated neutrophils/ml did not significantly affect EFS responses of SA isolated from either control or COPD-affected horses. We conclude that in equine SA 1) the endogenous cholinergic responses are subject to strong facilitation by inflammatory mediators; 2) activated neutrophils do not affect cholinergic responses in SA; and 3) in acute bouts of equine COPD, histamine, LTD4, and serotonin (mediators primarily associated with type I allergic reaction) rather than mediators derived from neutrophils most likely contribute to increased cholinergic airway tone.  (+info)

(4/2373) Conserved function of mSpry-2, a murine homolog of Drosophila sprouty, which negatively modulates respiratory organogenesis.

In Drosophila embryos, the loss of sprouty gene function enhances branching of the respiratory system. Three human sprouty homologues (h-Spry1-3) have been cloned recently, but their function is as yet unknown [1]. Here, we show that a murine sprouty gene (mSpry-2), the product of which shares 97% homology with the respective human protein, is expressed in the embryonic murine lung. We used an antisense oligonucleotide strategy to reduce expression of mSpry-2 by 96%, as measured by competitive reverse transcriptase PCR, in E11. 5 murine embryonic lungs cultured for 4 days [2]. Morphologically, the decrease in mSpry-2 expression resulted in a 72% increase in embryonic murine lung branching morphogenesis as well as a significant increase in expression of the lung epithelial marker genes SP-C, SP-B and SP-A. These results support a striking conservation of function between the Drosophila and mammalian sprouty gene families to negatively modulate respiratory organogenesis.  (+info)

(5/2373) Epidermal growth factor system regulates mucin production in airways.

Goblet-cell hyperplasia is a critical pathological feature in hypersecretory diseases of airways. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown, and no effective therapy exists. Here we show that stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) by its ligands, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), causes MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells both in in vitro and in vivo. We found that a MUC5AC-inducing epithelial cell line, NCI-H292, expresses EGF-R constitutively; EGF-R gene expression was stimulated further by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). EGF-R ligands increased the expression of MUC5AC at both gene and protein levels, and this effect was potentiated by TNFalpha. Selective EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitors blocked MUC5AC expression induced by EGF-R ligands. Pathogen-free rats expressed little EGF-R protein in airway epithelial cells; intratracheal instillation of TNFalpha induced EGF-R in airway epithelial cells, and subsequent instillation of EGF-R ligands increased the number of goblet cells, Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff staining (reflecting mucous glycoconjugates), and MUC5AC gene expression, whereas TNFalpha, EGF, or TGFalpha alone was without effect. In sensitized rats, three intratracheal instillations of ovalbumin resulted in EGF-R expression and goblet-cell production in airway epithelium. Pretreatment with EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, BIBX1522, prevented goblet-cell production both in rats stimulated by TNFalpha-EGF-R ligands and in an asthma model. These findings suggest potential roles for inhibitors of the EGF-R cascade in hypersecretory diseases of airways.  (+info)

(6/2373) Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production.

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

(7/2373) Behaviour and aeration of the respiratory system in the domestic fowl embryo.

1. The monitoring of developmental stage and under-water dissection were used to examine the initial aeration of the respiratory system in domestic fowl embryos. 2. A virtually complete absence of free air within the chorioallantois was found before the beak had begun to make 'beak-clapping' movements, even when the membranes were already draped over its tip. 3. During the 'beak-clapping' stage, but before the membranes were pierced and before respiratory movements had begun, many embryos were found to contain free bubbles of air within the trachea and air sacs. 4. All embryos in which the respiratory system was aerated were found also to have froth in the crop or other parts of the digestive system. 5. Air was found in both the respiratory and digestive systems of all embryos examined after membrane penetration by the beak. 6. When air was injected into the chorioallantois before the stage of initial aeration it was recovered 5 min later from both the respiratory and digestive systems in under-water dissections. 7. It is suggested that lung ventilation takes place in the avian embryo in three distinct stages: the major air-ways become aerated, then respiratory movements begin and lastly the tertiary bronchi are slowly aerated. It is suggested also that movements involved in the imbibing of fluids play a part in aeration before the membranes are pierced.  (+info)

(8/2373) Suppression of airway inflammation by theophylline in adult bronchial asthma.

BACKGROUND: Chronic continuous airway inflammation caused by eosinophils has been noted to play critical roles in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma, in addition to reversible obstruction and hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract. Therefore, suppression of chronic airway inflammation has become more important in asthma treatment. Although theophylline has been a conventionally used bronchodilator, it has been recently reported to have concurrent anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVE: Accordingly, we studied the effects of a slow-release theophylline preparation, Theolong, on airway inflammation. METHODS: Administration of Theolong 400 mg/day to 24 patients with mild or moderate asthma and measuring eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a marker of airway inflammation, and eosinophils in sputum and peripheral blood at 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS: As a result, sputum ECP, serum ECP and sputum eosinophil count (%) were significantly lowered after 4 and 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Thus, in the theophylline-administered group, slow-release theophylline, Theolong, was effective in treating asthma, with anti-inflammatory effects on inflammatory cells besides its bronchodilator action.  (+info)


respiratory system?????


At school, my teacher paired us all up for a science project. We all have to reaserch a different body system. My groups system is the respiratory system. Now my question is, How does the respitory system work with other systems in the body???? And it has to be 3 examples.
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you need to research on the net, the respiratory system is a large organ with many functions.


Respiratory System?


Is your heart included in the respiratory system?
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Your heart certainly plays a key role, but it is not part of the respiratory system. the heart is part of the circulatory system.


Respiratory system?


Explain how the air comes into and out of the lungs and where it goes once entering the body! please help, thank you!!!
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In order to inhale, your medulla sends a message to your diaphragms to contract which makes them pull downward.  This causes a subatmospheric pressure in your lungs causing air to enter.  Once in your lungs, the oxygen goes all the way into microscopic air sacs called alveoli and cross a barrier called the alveoli capillary membrane entering your bloodstream.  At the same time, carbon dioxide leaves your blood stream and enters your lungs.  In order to exhale, your lungs collapse much like a rubber baloon causing the air to leave.  Your lungs normally have a residual amount of air that always remains so that your lungs dont collapse completly.


How does the respiratory system connect to other bodily systems?


I'm doing a science project, and talking about how Pulmonologoy and the respiratory system relates to other bodily system.  I've already found info on the Digestive and and Cardiology system, but I'm at a loss for how it relates to the Endocrine, Excretory and Nervous systems.  If you know any or all, please answer! Thanks so much!
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nervous system: there are nerves that enervate the diaphragm (and thoracic muscles), which are critical to muscular manipulation of the lung volume.  

Endocrine: see renin-angiotensin system.

Excretory: perhaps the surfactant excretions that decrease surface energies, so that the lung doesn't collapse onto itself.


What everyday system is similar to how your respiratory system works?


I need help thinking of ways the respiratory works. So if someone can think of a system that works like your respiratory system does, that would be great :) 
If you dont understand my question, think of this; muscles work the same way a rubber band does.
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yellow chickens


How do the circulatory system, respiratory system and digestive system function together and how do they meet?


how do the circulatory system, respiratory system and digestive system function together and how do they meet in the body?

I would really like to know the answer to this question. I have checked myself and have yet to discover a detailed answer.

thank you very much.
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Whoa....rather a complex question that requires an extensive answer to be complete and detailed.  Even with my pretty good knowledge of anatomy I can't do it typing from memory.

Let me refer you to my anatomy bible.  It is the classic 1918 Anatomy of the Human Body by Bartleby.  Even haven been written in 1918....it is still accurate.  The human body hasn't changed.

www.bartleby.com/107/

If the information you need isn't here...it doesn't exist.


What happens in your respiratory system when you inhale dust?


Say a big cloud of dust flies in your face while cleaning out a closet… you will probably cough and sneeze. 
In addition to these violent exhalations, what are the parts of the respiratory system that are working to keep dust out of your lungs? And what are they doing?
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That's what the upper respiratory system is all about.If you breathe the dust in through your nose, dust particles get trapped in the mucous membrane right away but what gets by is caught up in the nasal passages with the turbinates. In the nasal cavity air swirls around a bit and that increases the amount of dust that gets trapped when it hits the walls. Now you're down to the pharynx where you've got the epiglottis and a number of other structures there that are lined with moist membranes.All of these trap the dust also. What gets by the larynx and into the trachea has a real problem because the mucous membranes there are much more responsive to inhaled foreign bodies. Mucous is produced by the glands that line the airways. This traps whatever remains of the dust. Now there are structures in your airways that look like little hairs but they are anything but. They are called cillia and their responsibility is a wave like motion to move the excess mucous escalator fashion back up towards the trachea. Once enough mucous gets into the trachea it stimulates a cough, if you haven't already and expels the dust out.


Explain the function of the respiratory system and its function?


Group Project

The human body is composed of a number of organ systems that work together to perform all the necessary functions of the body. Each organ system is comprised of a number of component organs that work together to accomplish certain tasks.

Here are three important human organ systems:  Circulatory, Respiratory, & Endocrine.

Your group will choose one of these three organ systems.

Imagine that you have been asked to provide an explanation about the structure and function of this system to a specific segment of the general public, perhaps a group of senior citizens, pregnant women, or student athletes, who want to learn more about normal functions of the human body as well as health concerns.

You will be providing the seniors with an informative handout. In this handout you will cover the following topics:

Describe the general function of the system and explain how the organ system contributes to physiological homeostasis of the human organism?
Explain how the organ system interacts with other organ systems in the human body.
List the organs in this system and state the function of each organ listed.
Select one representative organ in this system. Describe its structure and explain how the structure relates to the specific function of the organ. When describing the structure, include details about the types of cells in the organ as well as the types of tissues.
Select one specific disease associated with this organ system and explain how it affects the system and human health
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