Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.BrazilSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United StatesRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.IndiaLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.IranDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.JapanChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.TurkeyChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.ItalyTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.MexicoEuropean Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.EnglandGreat BritainFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.PortugalMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.GermanyConfidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.EuropeRespiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.TaiwanSexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.VietnamPapillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Blood DonorsNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.GreeceCardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Schools: Educational institutions.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.PakistanAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).IsraelSubstance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Saudi ArabiaLife Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)SwitzerlandSwedenSyphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.PolandIndonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.CaliforniaBlindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.ScotlandDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.NorwayOccupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.AfricaDepression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.PrisonersPapillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.ArgentinaPeruSmoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.FinlandHelicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.BangladeshSingaporeHelicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Denmark

*  How does the prevalence of family history of early cardiovascular disease compare in patients with
How does the prevalence of family history of early ... . How does the prevalence of family history of early ... 2007. How does the prevalence of family history of early ... How does the prevalence of family history of early cardiovascular disease compare in patients with and without familial hypercholesterolemia. - UCL Discovery. UCL Discovery. UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery Enter your search terms. Advanced search. Browse by:. Department. Year. UCL Theses. Latest. For everyone Open Access. About UCL Discovery. UCL Press. Statistics. FAQs. For UCL authors Deposit your research. UCL Publications Policy. REF 2020. How to deposit. Re-formatting deposits. Open Access funding. Funder requirements. UCL e-theses guidelines. Contact us. Bookmark Share. . How does the prevalence of family history of early cardiovascular disease compare in patients with and without familial hypercholesterolemia. Descamps, OS ; Humphries, SE ; 2007. How does the prevalence of family history of e...
http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/97368/
*  CDC - Asthma - BRFSS 2009 - Prevalence Tables and Maps
- BRFSS 2009 - Prevalence Tables and Maps. Skip directly to ... AsthmaStats BRFSS Prevalence Data. 1999-2010 Tables and Graphs. ... 2009 Child Prevalence Tables. Child Table L1. Child Table ... CDC - Asthma - BRFSS 2009 - Prevalence Tables and Maps. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. Start of Search Controls. Search Form Controls. Search The CDC Cancel. Submit Search The CDC. CDC A-Z Index. MENU. CDC A-Z. SEARCH. Start of Search Controls. Search Form Controls. Search The CDC Cancel. Submit Search The CDC. Asthma. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov. Asthma Basic Information. Data and Surveillance. Tables and Graphs. Asthma Call-back Survey AsthmaStats BRFSS Prevalence Data. 1999-2010 Tables and Graphs. 2009 Adult Technical Information. 2009 Adult Tables and Graphs. Table L1. Map L1. Map L1 B/W. Table L2.1. Table L2.2. Table L3. Table L4. Table L5. Tab...
http://cdc.gov/asthma/brfss/09/brfssdata.htm
*  Browsing
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in under 5s An. ... Prevalence of atopic eczema in rural Ethiopia Is ... ... Browsing. Browsing. Things that caught my attention Pedagogy, librarianship, health and maybe other things. Friday, April 15, 2005. BBC radio programme about plagiariasm in higher education BBC Radio 4 are broadcasting a documentary today about the rise in the number of students plagiarising material and buying essays online. Read BBC news item. Posted by. Keith Nockels. Email This. BlogThis. Share to Twitter. Share to Facebook. Share to Pinterest. No comments:. Post a Comment. Newer Post. Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Keith Nockels. I live in Sheffield but work in Leicester, at the University of Leicester, as a Learning and Teaching Services Librarian in the areas of health sciences, medicine, social work, operating department practice and biological sciences. 2015 68. September 10. August 8. July 10. June 4. May 1. April 6. March 8. February 15. January 6. 2014 11. December 3...
http://browsing.blogspot.com/2005/04/bbc-radio-programme-about-plagiariasm.html
*  Arthritis Research & Therapy | Full text | Epidemiological studies in incidence, prevalence, mortali
in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and comorbidity of the ... arthritis research therapy full text epidemiological studies in incidence prevalence mortality and comorbidity of the rheumatic diseases arthritis research com article ar bottom top biomed central journals gateways search this journal biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my arthritis research therapy top abstract introduction the epidemiol the epidemiol the epidemiol the epidemiol the epidemiol the epidemiol the epidemiol the epidemiol the epidemiol the role of c conclusion abbreviations competing interests note acknowledgements references arthritis research therapy volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf kb additional files associated material pubmed record article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar gabriel se michaud k on pubmed gabriel se michaud k related articles pages on google on goog...
http://arthritis-research.com/content/11/3/229/
*  .. Researchers Find Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Increased Likelihood of Celiac Diseas
showed that prevalence of celiac disease in IBS patients was 4 ... 1 times the prevalence in patients without IBS. Positive ... Researchers Find Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Increased Likelihood of Celiac Disease. Celiac disease is four times as likely in patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome IBS as it is in people without IBS, according to a report in the April 13, 2009, issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine. A group of investigators headed by Alexander Ford, M.D., at the Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, searched databases containing studies published from 1950 through mid-2008 and identified 14 studies that involved patients diagnosed with IBS, tests for antibodies associated with celiac disease, and biopsy-confirmed celiac disease. The studies were then evaluated through meta-analysis—a statistical approach that analyzes a single set of pooled data from numerous small studies designed to investigate similar hypotheses. In this case, the...
http://gourmetrd.com/2009/08/21/ibs-associated-with-increased-likelihood-of-celiac-disease/
*  A national epidemiological survey of oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia - OpenDepot.org
28Kb. Abstract The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia was ... 's mucosa. The prevalence of oral precancer was highest amongst ... 5 while the lowest prevalence was amongst the Chinese 0.5. Item Type ... A national epidemiological survey of oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia - OpenDepot.org. A page from the OpenDepot.org service Jump to the start of the main contents. The strapline. The menu Login. Browse. Search. Zain, R. B and Ikeda, N. and Razak, I. A and Axell, T. and Majid, Z. A and Gupta, P. C and Yaacob, M. 1997 A national epidemiological survey of oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia. Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology, 25 5. ISSN 0301-5661. PDF Download 28Kb. Abstract The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia was determined by examining a representative sample of 11 707 subjects aged 25 years and above throughout the 14 states over a period of 5 months during 1993/1994. A two-stage stratified random sampling was undertaken. A predetermined number of enumeration blocks, the sm...
http://opendepot.org/584/
*  Schizophrenia and Acute Psychosis
and Etiology. Prevalence and Risk Factors. Pathophysiology and ... Back to Top Prevalence and Risk Factors The point prevalence ... Schizophrenia and Acute Psychosis. The acute phase of the illness features a predominance of positive psychotic symptoms, whereas the chronic phase is typified by negative and cognitive symptoms. Back to Top Diagnosis Accurate diagnosis of schizophrenia is often challenging because symptoms are nonspecific and progression to full illness is gradual. The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are symptomatic, functional, and time based, and they require exclusion of both medical and other psychiatric disorders that can mimic schizophrenia. These include psychiatric disorders, substance use, and general medical disorders Boxes 2 and 3. Acute psychosis, although not recognized as a diagnostic term in DSM-5 is commonly used to describe a rapid deterioration of behavior associated with hallucinations and delusions. The DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder depends on the p...
http://clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/psychiatry-psychology/schizophrenia-acute-psychosis/
*  Contraceptive use dynamics of Asian women In Britain - ePrints Soton
... Contraceptive use dynamics of Asian women In Britain - ePrints Soton. ePrints Soton Policies Latest Additions Download Statistics Browse by Year Browse by Subject Browse by School. Contraceptive use dynamics of Asian women In Britain. 1999 Contraceptive use dynamics of Asian women In Britain. Non-professional women typically have little knowledge about contraception until after their marriage or first birth. Non-professional women are influenced by their extended family, religion and cultural expectations on their fertility and family planning decisions. They are more likely to have knowledge about contraception before marriage, use some method of contraception throughout their childbearing years typically the pill and cite personal, practical or economic considerations in their fertility decisions rather than religious, cultural or extended family influences. Variations are evident in knowledge about family planning methods, timing of a first birth and timing of first use of contraception, birth spacing,...
http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/34201/
*  iAH Search interface 2.4 - Results of the search
Concomitant high prevalence of Hepatitis C virus antibodies and...
http://scielo.br/cgi-bin/wxis.exe/iah/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&base=article^dlibrary&format=iso.pft&lang=i&nextAction=lnk&indexSearch=AU&exprSearch=FONTES, COR JESUS FERNANDES
*  Browsing Department of Environmental & Molecular Toxicology by Author "Matzke, Melissa M."
known about their prevalence in Native American smoked fish. In ... browsing department of environmental molecular toxicology by author matzke melissa m mirage mirage mirage browsing department of environmental molecular toxicology by author matzke melissa m dspace manakin repository login sa osu home department of environmental molecular toxicology browsing department of environmental molecular toxicology by author javascript is disabled for your browser some features of this site may not work without it browsing department of environmental molecular toxicology by author matzke melissa m a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z or enter first few letters sort by submit date issue date title order ascending descending results now showing items of effect of native american fish smoking methods on dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and possible risks to human health forsberg norman d stone dave harding anna harper barbara harris stuart matzke melissa m cardenas andres waters katri...
http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/25639/browse?value=Matzke, Melissa M.&type=author
*  Survey shows rising rates of treated disease prevalence increase health care costs in U.S
... Published on May 7, 2013 at 9:40 AM. The increasing proportion of the population that received treatment for a specific medical condition - called treated disease prevalence -- along with higher spending per treated case accounted for most of the rise in health care spending in the U.S. Thorpe, PhD, chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management at Emory's Rollins School of Public Health, analyzed data from the National Medical Expenditure Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys from 1987-2009 to investigate the roles that the rise in treated disease prevalence, spending per treated case, obesity, and increased treatment intensity played in the increase in health care spending. Thorpe determined that 50.8 percent of the rise in health care spending among adults ages 18 years and older was associated with rising rates of treated disease prevalence, while 39.0 percent of that rise was associated with rising spending per treated case. Pre-birth arsenic exposure associated with early pu...
http://news-medical.net/news/20130507/Survey-shows-rising-rates-of-treated-disease-prevalence-increase-health-care-costs-in-US.aspx
*  .. Olympics Themed Ad Highlights Autism Prevalence Figures .. Share this: .. Like this: .. Related
Home. Awareness Olympics Themed Ad Highlights Autism Prevalence Figures Olympics Themed Ad Highlights Autism Prevalence Figures February 24, 2010. Autism Speaks. Leave a comment. Go to comments. A new ad constrasting the odds of a child becoming an Olympic athlete contrasting the odds of a child being diagnosed with autism has been created as part of Autism Speaks’ award-winning “Odds” campaign. Many thanks to our friends at the Ad Council and BBDO for this fabulous addition to our awareness campaign. Autism prevalence figures are growing and we need answers. Share this:. Facebook Google Twitter Email LinkedIn Reddit Print. Like this:. Like Loading... Related. Categories: Awareness. Tags: Ad Council, autism, BBDO, Olympics. Autism in the News – Wednesday, 2.24.10. 5|25: Celebrating Five Years of Autism Science Day 24: Early Intervention for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. RSS feed Google. Youdao. Xian Guo. Zhua Xia. My Yahoo. newsgator. Bloglines. iNezha. Twitter. Search for:. Join us on Face...
http://blog.autismspeaks.org/2010/02/24/did-you-know/
*  .. What is Causing the Increase in Autism Prevalence? .. Share this: .. Like this: .. Related .. J
Autism Speaks. that approximately 26% of the rise in autism caseload between 1992 and 2005 could be directly attributed to changes in diagnostic criteria, specifically the shift from mental retardation diagnoses to autism diagnoses. In other words, 1 in 4 children diagnosed with autism in California today would not have been diagnosed using older diagnostic criteria. the California sample in an effort to quantify the influence of autism awareness on the rise in autism prevalence. The investigators found that children living in close proximity to another child that had been previously diagnosed with autism had a better chance of being diagnosed with autism themselves. The proposed explanation is information diffusion, or parents talking to and educating other parents about autism resulting in an increased likelihood of their children being diagnosed. It is estimated that 16% of the increase in autism prevalence over time in California was due to social influence and increased awareness., that older mothers...
http://blog.autismspeaks.org/2010/10/22/got-questions-answers-to-your-questions-from-the-autism-speaks’-science-staff-2/?like=1&source=post_flair&_wpnonce=20ee2ea151
*  .. What is Causing the Increase in Autism Prevalence? .. Share this: .. Like this: .. Related .. J
Autism Speaks. that approximately 26% of the rise in autism caseload between 1992 and 2005 could be directly attributed to changes in diagnostic criteria, specifically the shift from mental retardation diagnoses to autism diagnoses. In other words, 1 in 4 children diagnosed with autism in California today would not have been diagnosed using older diagnostic criteria. the California sample in an effort to quantify the influence of autism awareness on the rise in autism prevalence. The investigators found that children living in close proximity to another child that had been previously diagnosed with autism had a better chance of being diagnosed with autism themselves. The proposed explanation is information diffusion, or parents talking to and educating other parents about autism resulting in an increased likelihood of their children being diagnosed. It is estimated that 16% of the increase in autism prevalence over time in California was due to social influence and increased awareness., that older mothers...
http://blog.autismspeaks.org/2010/10/22/got-questions-answers-to-your-questions-from-the-autism-speaks’-science-staff-2/?like=1&source=post_flair&_wpnonce=7ebcc2514d
*  Symptom Prevalence in the Last days of Life in Germany: The Role of Place of Death - ResearchGate
... Article Symptom Prevalence in the Last days of Life in Germany: The Role of Place of Death. Remove suggestion. Remove suggestion. Kirsten Isabel Zepf. Kirsten Isabel Zepf. Remove suggestion. Remove suggestion. Remove suggestion. Impact Factor: 1.38. ABSTRACT Investigations have shown that symptom prevalence varies according to the place of death. We sought to assess the symptom prevalence of chronically ill people in Germany and how this prevalence differs depending on the place of death. DOI:10.1007/s00520-012-1587-4 2.36 Impact Factor Source Available from: europepmc.org. Dying With Dementia Symptom Burden, Quality of Care, and Place of Death. Kirsten Isabel Zepf. ABSTRACT: No detailed information has been available until now about the care setting, circumstances and place of death, symptom burden, and quality of care of persons with end-stage dementia in Germany. Data were obtained in this way for 310 persons with dementia and 931 persons without dementia. 42.4% of the persons with dementia died at ho...
http://researchgate.net/publication/51773673_Symptom_Prevalence_in_the_Last_days_of_Life_in_Germany_The_Role_of_Place_of_Death
*  Systematic Review of the Literature Regarding the Diagnosis of Sleep Apnea: Summary of Evidence Repo
... rt/Technology Assessment No. Systematic Review of the Literature Regarding the Diagnosis of Sleep Apnea. Return to Contents Findings All Studies: PSG 71 studies 7,572 patients, mean evidence score = 20.6 range, 16 to 34. Partial Channel PSGs 3 studies of partial channel PSGs 213 patients, mean evidence score = 17.7 range, 17 to 19. Sensitivity ranged from 82 percent to 94 percent and specificity from 82 percent to 100 percent. Sensitivity ranged from 32 percent to 100 percent and specificity from 33 percent to 100 percent. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity are 87.4 percent range, 36 percent to 100 percent and 64.9 percent range, 23 percent to 99 percent, respectively. Partial Time PSGs 7 studies of partial time PSGs 505 patients, mean evidence score = 18.6 range, 17 to 20. Mean sensitivity at AI/AHI threshold of 5 was 69.7 percent range, 66 percent to 93 percent, and at threshold of 10, 79.5 percent range, 42 percent to 89 percent. Specificity at AI/AHI threshold of 5 was 87.4 percent range, 50 percen...
http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/apneasum.htm
*  SEER*Stat Prevalence Exercise 1: Limited-Duration Prevalence
... Race / Sex. Age at Diagnosis or Death. For Researchers Datasets and Software Datasets SEER Data. Standard Population Data. More Data Software. Statistical Software SEER*Stat. Documentation Recodes Behavior Recode for Analysis. Cause of Death Recode. Incidence Site Recode Variables. Data Documentation Variable Recodes. Tutorials SEER*Stat Prevalence Exercise 1: Limited-Duration Prevalence. Datasets SEER Data 1973-2012. Standard Population Data. Estimates Used in SEER*Stat Software. SEER*Stat Prevalence Exercise 1: Limited-Duration Prevalence Cancer prevalence is defined as the number or percent of people alive on a certain date in a population who previously had a diagnosis of the disease. SEER makes the assumption that these cancers are malignant, as is true of the majority of SEER cancers. Thus, if the first SEER-registered tumor is coded as the person's second or later tumor any others were non-SEER cancers this person's cancers are excluded using this option. The prevalence estimates calculated in thi...
http://seer.cancer.gov/seerstat/tutorials/prev1/webprint/
*  Selected Behaviors That Increase Risk for HIV Infection, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and U
... nintended Pregnancy Among High School Students -- United States, 1991. Selected Behaviors That Increase Risk for HIV Infection, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Unintended Pregnancy Among High School Students -- United States, 1991 Since the 1970s, sexual activity has increased among adolescents in the United States 1 ; at the same time, rates of sexually transmitted diseases STDs 1, unintended pregnancy 2, and -- beginning in the 1980s -- human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection 3,4 also have increased among adolescents. Of students participating in the state and local surveys, 33%- 79% median: 55%; national prevalence: 54% reported ever having had sexual intercourse Table 1 ; 54%-78% median: 70%; national prevalence: 69% reported being currently sexually active i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey ; and 8%-46% median: 20%; national prevalence: 19% reported having had sexual intercourse with four or more partners during their lifetime. Among the state and...
http://cdc.gov/MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/00018150.htm
*  Herpes Prevalence NHANES 2010
... Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. CDC A-Z Index. CDC A-Z. Genital Herpes. STDs Home Page. Genital Herpes. HIV/AIDS & STDs. Human Papillomavirus HPV. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease PID. STDs & Infertility. STDs & Pregnancy. Other STDs. CDC Analysis of National Herpes Prevalence. Some recent media reports have questioned the accuracy of CDC’s latest report on national herpes prevalence herpes simplex virus type 2, or HSV-2. The latest HSV-2 data – announced at CDC’s National STD Conference in Atlanta on March 9, 2010, and published today in CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report MMWR – indicates that overall national HSV-2 prevalence remains high 16.2% and that the disease continues to disproportionately burden African-Americans 39.2% prevalence, particularly black women 48.0% prevalence, who face a number of factors putting them at greater risk, including higher community prevalence an...
http://cdc.gov/std/herpes/herpes-NHANES-2010.htm
*  JAMA Network | JAMA | Smoking and Mental Illness: A Population-Based Prevalence Study
Results Current smoking rates for respondents with no mental illness, lifetime mental illness, and past-month mental illness were 22.5%, 34.8%, and 41.0%, respectively. + View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. We also estimated the proportion of all cigarettes smoked in the United States that were consumed by persons with mental illness via the following calculation: M C 1 / { N C 2 + M C 1 }, where M = the number of current smokers with mental illness in the past month; C 1 = the mean peak consumption of cigarettes per day by current smokers with mental illness in the past month; N = the number of current smokers without mental illness in the past month, which includes persons with and without lifetime mental illness; and C 2 = the mean peak consumption of cigarettes per day by current smokers without mental illness in the past month. The demographic characteristics of persons with a lifetime history of mental illness and persons with mental illness in the past month are sho...
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=193305
*  Frequently Asked Questions | International Diabetes Federation
IDF Europe Publications. IDF gathers information from peer-reviewed journals, national health statistics reports, reports from international agencies such as the CDC and WHO including STEPwise approach to surveillance reports, and from personal communication with investigators within the IDF network. These studies are then judged for quality and used to generate the estimates for diabetes found in the IDF Diabetes Atlas. Estimates for mortality and health expenditures rely on IDF prevalence data and other WHO figures to estimate the number of deaths and the medical costs attributable to diabetes. The national prevalence is a percentage of the number of adults 20 – 79 years who have diabetes in the given year either 2014 or 2035 in a country or region. In order to compare these countries, we take the national prevalence and make an adjustment to estimate what the prevalence would be for that country if the distribution of the population in different ages were different. The distribution that is used for this c...
http://idf.org/diabetesatlas/FAQs?language=fr
*  prevalence - definition and meaning
... Community. Word of the day. Random word. Log in or Sign up. prevalence love. Help Wordnik hunt for a million missing words by backing our Kickstarter. prevalence. n The condition of being prevalent. n Medicine The total number of cases of a disease in a given population at a specific time. n The quality or condition of being prevalent; superior strength, force, or influence; general existence, reception, or practice; wide extension; as the prevalence of virtue, of a fashion, or of a disease; the prevalence of a rumor. n The total number of cases of a disease in the given statistical population at a given time. n The total number of cases of a disease in the given statistical population at a given time, divided by the number of individuals in the population. n The quality or condition of being prevalent; superior strength, force, or influence; general existence, reception, or practice; wide extension. n The state or quality of being prevalent. n Superior strength, influence, or efficacy; predominance. n G...
https://wordnik.com/words/prevalence
*  Definitions of Statistical Terms
One out of 100 equals 1%; 50 out of 100 equals 50%, or half of the total number; 25% is a quarter of the total, or one in four; 75% is three out of every four in a group or 75 out of 100. Incidence - Incidence refers to the number of new cases of a disease or condition. If the disease tends to last a very short time as pancreatic cancer does, incidence and prevalence are close see definition of prevalence below. If the disease lasts a long time, prevalence is greater than incidence as with asthma. Prevalence - Prevalence refers to the number of existing cases of a disease. For example, having a family history of high blood pressure for example, your mother has high blood pressure, being overweight, and smoking are all risk factors for high blood pressure. Having all these risk factors makes it even more likely you will have high blood pressure. High blood pressure or hypertension, in turn, is a risk factor for stroke, kidney damage, and heart disease. Sensitivity - Sensitivity is one measure of how good a tes...
http://netwellness.uc.edu/healthtopics/netwellness/statisticalterms.cfm
*  NICHQ Helps Autism Treatment Centers as Prevalence Rates Rise
nichq helps autism treatment centers as prevalence rates rise search images maps play youtube news gmail drive more send feedback web history help sign in home home profile people photos collections communities events hangouts pages settings feedback help region privacy terms maps terms start a hangout nichq nichq shared publicly nichq helps autism treatment centers as prevalence rates rise news nichq org nichq helps autism treatment centers as prevalence rates rise april in the face of rising autism rates nichq helps providers address the disorder s physical symptoms by kristina grifan add a comment...
https://plus.google.com/ NICHQorg/posts/H3ZfcAJZjZe
*  Sonning Common Health Walks
... the sonning common health walks was set up in by dr william bird who is a general practitioner in reading berkshire england the walks aim to reduce heart disease reduce cholesterol and blood pressure relieve depression and anxiety reduce stress help with weight management obesity and help with diabetes each walk is led by a leader who is a trained volunteer the leaders know the route you walk at your own pace but you are advised to stretch yourself to raise your heart rate and get you breathing faster bird set up health walks from his practice in sonning common oxfordshire and then worked with the countryside agency and the british heart foundation to expand it nationally references external links category health in oxfordshire category walking in the united kingdom...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonning_Common_Health_Walks
*  Judge Approves 29 Out-of-Court Settlements Involving Kerr-McGee
... Contact Us. Contact Us. Jury Duty FAQ Testimonials Reviews Verdicts Our Team PW Main Office PW in the News PW Blog. Contact Us PW Case Review Form. Judge Approves 29 Out-of-Court Settlements Involving Kerr-McGee. The Citizen's Voice Luzerne County Judge Thomas Burke approved 29 out-of-court settlements between the Kerr-McGee Corp. and several hundred area residents who claimed ground contamination from the company's former wood treatment facility in Avoca caused serious health problems or deaths. After Kerr-McGee closed its Avoca plant in 1996, residents began to raise concerns about serious health problems they said were related to the facility, including the deaths of several area children who had developed brain tumors. The Avoca plant, which operated for more than 32 years at the 34-acre site off York Avenue, treated railroad ties with toxic chemicals that allegedly seeped into the ground and contaminated soil and water supplies. Among the civil complaints filed against Kerr-McGee was a class-action ...
http://yourlawyer.com/articles/title/judge-approves-29-out-of-court-settlements-involving-kerr-mcgee
*  My baseline results
... Join POZ:. POZ 100. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Symptoms Opportunistic Infections OIs Newly Diagnosed Disclosing Your HIV Status Living With HIV The Big Treatment Questions Side Effects and Other Health Problems POZ Focus / Fact Sheets Finding a Doctor Finding Support Health Services Directory. Newsfeed Treatment News POZ Exclusives Opinion Criminalization News Conference Coverage Global News World AIDS Day RSS Feeds. POZ Community Forums. Main Forums. Living With HIV. My baseline results. Main Forums. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits Questions About Treatment Side Effects Insurance, Benefits Programs HIV Mental Health HIV Lipodystrophy Metabolic Problems Nutrition HIV Research News Studies. Stats Total Posts: 675712 Total Topics: 52423 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Click here for posting guidelines pertaining to all other POZ/AIDSmeds community forums. My baseline results on: June 15, 2006, 11:05:31 PM. Im actually very worried about the hep-b coinfection more than any...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=869.0
*  Waist Size and Body Mass Index Are Important Risk Factors for Sleep Disordered Breathing in Child
... ren - American Academy of Sleep Medicine AASM. SLEEP 2014. Waist Size and Body Mass Index Are Important Risk Factors for Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children. A study in the June 1 issue of the journal SLEEP found that waist circumference and body mass index BMI are consistent, independent risk factors for all severity levels of sleep disordered breathing SDB in children, suggesting that as with adult SDB, metabolic factors are important risk factors for childhood SDB. Results indicate that BMI and waist circumference, but not neck circumference, were significant and strong predictors of SDB at all severity levels primary snoring, mild SDB and moderate SDB. Nasal anatomic factors such as chronic sinusitis, rhinitis and nasal drain were significant predictors of mild SDB; minority status was associated with primary snoring and mild SDB. Overall, 1.2 percent of children had moderate SDB an apnea/hypopnea index of five or more breathing pauses per hour of sleep, 25 percent had mild SDB AHI of at least one ...
http://aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=1296
*  New Risk Factor for Dementia Discovered | dailyRx
New Risk Factor for Dementia Discovered. dailyRx. New Risk Factor for Dementia Discovered. Alzheimer's disease risk higher for people with high blood levels of ceramide. dailyRx News Looking for biomarkers of Alzheimer s disease AD may lead scientists to new treatments. Recent research discovered a new biomarker for AD ceramides in the blood. High levels of ceramides may mean higher risk of AD. The test looked at levels of ceramide in the blood. Researchers placed the women into categories based on the level of ceramide in their blood test low, middle and high levels of ceramide. Then they followed the women for up to nine years after the initial blood test and looked for how many women developed dementia or AD. Women with low levels of ceramide were eight times less likely to develop AD than those with the middle level of cermide. They were 10 times less likely to develop AD than women with the high level of ceramide. The researchers concluded that this easy, low-cost blood test could help in early detection...
http://dailyrx.com/alzheimers-disease-risk-higher-people-high-blood-levels-ceramide
*  JAMA Network | JAMA | Comparison of Novel Risk Markers for Improvement in Cardiovascular Risk Ass
Context Risk markers including coronary artery calcium, carotid intima–media thickness, ankle-brachial index, brachial flow–mediated dilation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein CRP , and family history of coronary heart disease CHD have been reported to improve on the Framingham Risk Score FRS for prediction of CHD, but there are no direct comparisons of these markers for risk prediction in a single cohort. Objective We compared improvement in prediction of incident CHD/cardiovascular disease CVD of these 6 risk markers within intermediate-risk participants FRS 5%- 20% in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis MESA. Conclusions Coronary artery calcium, ankle-brachial index, high-sensitivity CRP, and family history were independent predictors of incident CHD/CVD in intermediate-risk individuals. Risk markers that have shown promise in improving risk discrimination include carotid intima–media thickness CIMT , coronary artery calcium CAC scores, brachial flow–mediated dilation FMD , ankle-brachial index AB...
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1352110
*  ADIPOGENIX, INC. | SBIR.gov
The STTR Program STTR Mission and Program Goals STTR Participating Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business STTR Policy Directive Tibbetts Awards and Hall of Fame. PROGRAM/PHASE AWARD AMOUNT $ NUMBER OF AWARDS SBIR Phase I $499,560.00 6 SBIR Phase II $1,325,815.00 2. SBIR Phase I 1999 Department of Health and Human Services N/A Amount: $99,930.00 N/A. SBIR Phase I 2000 Department of Health and Human Services Anti-obesity drug development using human preadipocytes Amount: $0.00 N/A. SBIR Phase I 2001 Department of Health and Human Services Anti-obesity drug development using human preadipocytes Amount: $602,471.00 N/A. SBIR Phase II 2001 Department of Health and Human Services SECRETED PROTEIN FROM ADIPOCYTES AND PREADIPOCYTES Amount: $99,820.00 DESCRIPTION provided by applicant : Obesity is a well-established risk factor for a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. SBIR Phase I 2002 Department of Health and Human Services New Agents That Inhibi...
https://sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/72185?quicktabs_award-display-style=1
*  WHO | Biological risk factors and hazards
WHO. Biological risk factors and hazards. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Occupational health. Menu Occupational health. Topics. Activities. Collaborating centres network. Publications. Regions and partners. Links. . Biological risk factors and hazards Related sites Protecting health-care workers - preventing needlestick injuries tool kit. Joint WHO/ILO guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis PEP to prevent HIV infection. HIV/AIDS site. Stop TB. Tuberculosis and HIV. AIRBORNE - A journey into the challenges and solutions to stopping MDR-TB and XDR-TB. SARS site. Injection safety pdf, 81kb. Guiding principles to ensure injection device security pdf, 99kb. Injection safety - SIGN. ...
http://who.int/occupational_health/topics/risks_biological/en/
*  Determining the Role of Subclinical Disease Testing in Patients at Intermediate Risk - NHLBI, NIH
... NHLBI Trials At NIH Clinical Center. Determining the Role of Subclinical Disease Testing in Patients at Intermediate Risk. TABLE OF CONTENTS. Background Review of Previous Recommendations Subclinical CVD and the Framingham Risk Score Subclinical Disease Testing: Study Design Review of Subclinical Disease Measures Clinical Screening Algorithms Population Considerations Interventions Outcomes Recommendations and Remaining Issues References Working Group Roster Planning Group Roster. The objective of the Working Group was to provide advice to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute about research that is currently needed to inform clinical guidelines for the use of subclinical cardiovascular disease testing to identify persons at high risk for CVD and to target intervention. that is, a 10-year risk for coronary heart disease of 6-20%. Back to Table of Contents. Persons at intermediate risk have the greatest likelihood of having their estimated risk altered by subclinical disease testing. Coronary calc...
http://nhlbi.nih.gov/research/reports/2004-subclinical
*  The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary hear
... t disease and stroke events - DRO. Home. Library. DRO home. . You are not logged in. Submit research. Contact DRO. DRO. The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary heart disease and stroke events Vartiainen, Erkki, Laatikainen, Tiina, Philpot, Benjamin, Janus, Edward, Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie and Dunbar, James 2011, The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary heart disease and stroke events, Medical journal of Australia, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 10-15. Attached Files. Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads. Title. The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary heart disease and stroke events. Author s. Vartiainen, Erkki Laatikainen, Tiina Philpot, Benjamin Janus, Edward Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie Dunbar, James. Journal name. Medical journal of Australia. Volume number. 194. Issue number. 1. Start page. 10. End page. 15. Publisher. Australasian Medical Publi...
http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30032116
*  .. .. Health Library .. Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases .. Primary risk factors for chronic dis
Health Care Home / Health Information / Library / Diseases Conditions / Adult Health Library /. At the top of the CDC's list of primary risk factors for all chronic diseases are: smoking, poor nutrition, and sedentary lifestyle. Sticking to a heart-healthy diet. Following an appropriate exercise program. Eliminate all tobacco products. As soon as you stop smoking, your body begins to heal itself from the devastating effects of tobacco. Adhere to a heart-healthy diet. One aspect of managing your heart attack risk factors includes eating a heart-healthy diet, including appropriate levels of the following:. The food plate can help you eat a variety of foods while encouraging the right amount of calories and fat. To find more information about the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 and to determine the appropriate dietary recommendations for your age, sex, and physical activity level, visit the Online Resources page for the links to the ChooseMyPlate.gov and 2010 Dietary Guidelines sites. M...
http://healthcare.utah.edu/healthlibrary/library/diseases/adult/doc.php?type=85&id=P00708
*  Other possible heart disease risk factors | womenshealth.gov
Other possible heart disease risk factors. womenshealth.gov. A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation. Skip top navigation Home. A-Z Health Topics. ePublications. News. About Us. Contact Us. Text size. Print. Skip left navigation Heart Health and Stroke. Heart disease and stroke prevention. Heart disease: Know your risk. Heart disease risk factors you can control. Heart disease risk factors you can't control. Other possible heart disease risk factors. Stroke: Know your risk. Signs of a heart attack. Signs of a stroke. Government in action on heart health and stroke. Heart Health and Stroke in Spanish en español. Subscribe to Heart Health and Stroke email updates. Enter email address. Submit. . Home. Heart Health and Stroke. Heart disease: Know your risk Heart Health and Stroke. Other possible heart disease risk factors. Related information Depression fact sheet. Stress and your health fact sheet. Depression, stress, and anxiety. Not enough sleep. L...
http://womenshealth.gov/heart-health-stroke/heart-disease-risk-factors/other-heart-disease-risk-factors.html
*  Psychological risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction
... redirect myocardial infarction risk factors...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_risk_factors_in_patients_with_myocardial_infarction
*  What are risk factors for heart disease? | Healthy Heart - Home
What are risk factors for heart disease. Healthy Heart - Home. What are risk factors for heart disease. Learn what conditions and behaviors might put you at risk. The Heart Truth. Posted: 11:16 AM EST Dec 29, 2011. Updated: 11:46 AM EST Jan 13, 2010. Risk factors are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. They can also increase the chances that an existing disease will get worse. Important risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are:. High blood pressure. High blood cholesterol. Being physically inactive. Having a family history of early heart disease. Age 55 or older for women. Some risk factors, such as age and family history of early heart disease, can't be changed. For women, age becomes a risk factor at 55. After menopause, women are more apt to get heart disease, in part because their body's production of estrogen drops. Women who have gone through early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to d...
http://wfmz.com/lifestyle/healthy-heart/What-are-risk-factors-for-heart-disease/7223982?view=print
*  Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Prevalence Among Bayer's Employees in São Paulo, Brazil - Full
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Prevalence Among Bayer's Employees in S o Paulo, Brazil - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Find Studies Study Record Detail. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Prevalence Among Bayer's Employees in S o Paulo, Brazil This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02055651 First received: January 24, 2014 Last updated: July 1, 2015 Last verified: July 2015 History of Changes. Objective: Evaluate Bayer employees' cardiovascular health according to the AHA definition and the acceptance to engage in lifestyle change programs. If the employee accepts to participate, after providing a written informed consent, he will be evaluated according to the AHA cardiovascular health metrics. After medical evaluation, employees will receive a printed feedback with their cardiovascular health score and will be referred to indicated lifestyle change programs healthy weight, smoking cessation, diabetes control, high blood pressure control, dyslipi...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02055651?term="High Blood Pressure"&lup_s=01/29/2014&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14
*  Increases in heart disease risk factors may decrease brain function
... News and Press Release Distribution, Since 1995. Deliver Your News to the World. Sign In Create a Free Account. Home. News. How We Work. Compare Services. FAQ. All. WebPost. WebPost PPC. WebRelease. Targeted Media. Wire Service. Increases in heart disease risk factors may decrease brain function. WEBWIRE. Thursday, May 02, 2013 NewMediaWire via Webwire Study Highlights: Increases in heart disease risk factors may decrease brain function. The association between the two was noted in young and middle-age adults as well as the elderly. Smoking and diabetes were especially linked with reduced brain function. EMBARGOED UNTIL 3 p.m. CT/4 p.m. ET, Thursday, May 2, 2013 DALLAS, May 2, 2013 — Brain function in adults as young as 35 may decline as their heart disease risk factors increase, according to new research in the American Heart Association journal Stroke. “Young adults may think the consequences of smoking or being overweight are years down the road, but they aren’t,” said Hanneke Joosten, M.D., lead auth...
http://webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=174087
*  Heart disease risk factors - Heart - Body & Health
... Body Health Home. What is heart disease. Causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease. Heart attack: Know the symptoms. Heart disease risk factors. Heart disease risk factors There are several risk factors that increase the risk of developing heart disease or the risk that heart disease will worsen. Some risk factors are things you can change: they are called modifiable risk factors. Things you can change include: Smoking : Smoking, including exposure to second-hand smoke, plays a role in the buildup of plaque in the arteries, reduces the oxygen in the blood, increases blood pressure, and increases the risk of heart disease. Physical inactivity : Low levels of physical activity are associated with a higher risk of heart disease. High blood pressure : High blood pressure - over 140/90 mm Hg for most people or over 130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes - is associated with an increased risk for heart disease. High cholesterol : If you do not have cholesterol levels at target especially bad cholesterol...
http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_section_details.asp?text_id=5400&channel_id=2104&relation_id=85907
*  Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: a Fres
... h Look at the Evidence - Springer. Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: a Fresh Look at the Evidence. Keywords Cardiovascular disease Diabetes mellitus Diet Nutrition Saturated fatty acids Fatty acids. CrossRef. PubMed. Am J Clin Nutr 77 5 :1146–1155. PubMed. Eur J Clin Nutr 63 Suppl 2 :S22–S33. CrossRef. PubMed. Micha R, Mozaffarian D 2009 Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. Diabetes Care 27 3 :813–823. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. Rasmussen BM et al 2006 Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects. Christiansen E et al 1997 Intake of a diet high in trans monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids: effects on postprandial insulinemia and glycemia in obese patients with NIDDM. Salmeron J et al 2001 Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Hardin...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11745-010-3393-4
*  What are risk factors for heart disease? | Healthy Heart - Home
What are risk factors for heart disease. Healthy Heart - Home. View full site. Family. Weird News. Sports. SoFlo TASTE. Technology. Traffic. Travel. Submit a Tip. Email Sign-Up. Healthy Heart. What are risk factors for heart disease. Risk factors are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. Important risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are:. High blood cholesterol. Having a family history of early heart disease. Age 55 or older for women. Some risk factors, such as age and family history of early heart disease, can't be changed. For women, age becomes a risk factor at 55. After menopause, women are more apt to get heart disease, in part because their body's production of estrogen drops. Women who have gone through early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to develop heart disease as women of the same age who have not yet gone through menopause. Another reason for the increasing risk is that middle ...
http://m.local10.com/healthy-heart/What-are-risk-factors-for-heart-disease/7223982
*  .. What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease and Stroke in People with Diabetes?
Emilia.Cure. What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease and Stroke in People with Diabetes. stumble. 31. 23. 12. 10. Get New Treatments Alerts:. Sign Up. The risk factors for heart disease and stroke for diabetic people include smoking, hypertension etc. According to the scientific studies, the risk of getting heart disease and stroke is as high as twice for those with diabetes than those without non-diabetics. Statistically, the ratio has been recorded as 2 persons for getting affected with these two ailments in every 3 diabetic patients. So, you can see that the risk is really high. On top of this, there are several other risk factors which aggravate the situation and result into critical consequences. These risk factors can be categorized as modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors are the ones, which you can control to enjoy a better health condition, whereas the non-modifiable risk factors are normally out of your control. The non-modifiable risk factors will ...
http://trialx.com/curetalk/2011/01/what-are-the-risk-factors-for-heart-disease-and-stroke-in-people-with-diabetes/
*  What are the risk factors for thymus cancer?
What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Asian Pacific Languages. How can we help you. Learn About Cancer. Stay Healthy. Find Support & Treatment. Find Local ACS. Learn About Cancer. Thymus Cancer. What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Share this Page Close. Push escape to close share window. Share. Save Saved this Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles. My ACS. Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention TOPICS Document Topics What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Do we know what causes thymus cancer. Can thymus cancer be prevented. What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Do we know what causes thymus cancer. Can thymus cancer be prevented. Previous Topic What are the key statistics about thymus cancers. Next Topic Do we know what causes thymus cancer. What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing the s...
http://cancer.org/cancer/thymuscancer/detailedguide/thymus-cancer-risk-factors
*  Heart Disease Risk Factors News, Photos and Videos - Livebetteramerica.com
Heart Disease Risk Factors News, Photos and Videos - Livebetteramerica.com. FITNESS. FOOD. RECIPES. RELATIONSHIPS. VIDEO. Heart Disease Risk Factors. 6 Good Reasons To Lose Weight That Most People Never Consider. Posted 02.20.2013. Read More: Preventing Diabetes, Dieting Tips, Weight Loss Success, Preventing Obesity, When to Go on a Diet, Dieting Success, Weight Loss Success Stories, Heart Disease Risk Factors, Diet Inspiration, Video, Dieting, Losing Weight After 50, Obesity Cancer Risks, Diabetes Risks, Weight Loss, Heart Disease, Diabetes, Cancer, Causes of Diabesity, Reasons to Lose Weight, Diabetes Prevention, Losing Weight, Weight Loss Inspiration, Cancer Prevention, Heart Disease Risks, Obesity, Breast Cancer Risks, Diabesity, Preventing Heart Disease, Livebetteramerica-Fitness, Cancer Risks, Diabetes Risk Factors, News. Oh, it feels so good to lose weight. Read Whole Story. Why I Still Smoke. Posted 03.25.2013. Read More: Quitting Smoking Genetics, Cigarette Health Effects, Smoking, Relapse, Heart...
http://livebetteramerica.aol.com/tag/heart-disease-risk-factors/1
*  Impact of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors on long-term cardiovascular outcome in adu
... lt survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Oncolink - Cancer Resources. Toggle navigation. Cancer Types. Cancer Types. Bone Cancers. Brain Tumors. Breast Cancer. Carcinoid & Neuroendocrine Tumors. Endocrine System Cancers. Gastrointestinal Cancers. Gynecologic Cancers. Head and Neck Cancers. Leukemia. Lung Cancers. Lymphomas. Metastatic Cancer. Multiple Myeloma. OncoLink Vet. Pediatric Cancers. Penile Cancer. Pheochromocytoma. Prostate Cancer. Sarcomas. Skin Cancers. Testicular Cancer. Thyroid Cancer. Urinary Tract Cancers. Patients. Cancer Treatment. Biologic Therapy. Bone Marrow Transplants. Chemotherapy. Clinical Trials. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Gene Therapy. Getting Treatment. Start Here. Hormone Therapy. Hospital Helpers. Interventional Radiology. Procedures & Diagnostic Tests. Proton Therapy. Radiation. Surgery. Targeted Therapies. Vaccine Therapies. Risk and Prevention. Diet, Alcohol and Cancer. Environmental Factors UV Exposure, Radon, Radia...
http://oncolink.org/conferences/article.cfm?c=3&s=67&ss=346&id=2138
*  What are risk factors for heart disease? | Healthy Heart - Home
What are risk factors for heart disease. Healthy Heart - Home. Back To Mobile Site. Back To Mobile Site. Back To Mobile Site. Sign Up for Email Newsletters. RSS. More Local News. Seen on Local 10. Call Christina. Family. Local. › Healthy Heart. What are risk factors for heart disease. Risk factors are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. Important risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are:. Some risk factors, such as age and family history of early heart disease, can't be changed. After menopause, women are more apt to get heart disease, in part because their body's production of estrogen drops. Women who have gone through early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to develop heart disease as women of the same age who have not yet gone through menopause. Another reason for the increasing risk is that middle age is a time when women tend to develop risk factors for heart disease. Family history of ...
http://local10.com/thats-life/healthy-heart/What-are-risk-factors-for-heart-disease/7223982
*  worried about high risk exposure
... ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. HIV Prevention and Testing. worried about high risk exposure. HIV Prevention and Testing Am I Infected. Stats Total Posts: 675714 Total Topics: 52424 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Welcome to the "Am I Infected?" POZ forum. Anyone who needs to post more than three messages in the "Am I Infected?" forum -- including past, present and future POZ Forums members -- will need to subscribe, with secure payments made via PayPal. NOTE: HIV testing questions will still need to be posted in the "Am I Infected?" forum; attempts to post HIV symptoms or testing questions in any other forums will be considered violations of our rules of membership and subject to time-outs and permanent bans. so with that and me having zero symptoms i am aware symptoms or lack there of don t mean much what is the likely i got hiv from the exposure 2 years ago. Re: worried about high risk exposure Reply #1 on: July 04, 2013, 05:41:31 PM. Here s wh...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=49332.0
*  REASONS FOR INDIA’S GROWING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE EPIDEMIC PINPOINTED IN LARGEST-EVER RISK FACTOR
... STUDY | World Heart Federation. Press contacts REASONS FOR INDIA’S GROWING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE EPIDEMIC PINPOINTED IN LARGEST-EVER RISK FACTOR STUDY 19.04.2012 22:55 REASONS FOR INDIA’S GROWING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE EPIDEMIC PINPOINTED IN LARGEST-EVER RISK FACTOR STUDY. Dubai 20 April 2012 : The Indian Heart Watch IHW study has revealed the truth behind the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of key risk factors that are driving the country’s growing cardiovascular disease CVD epidemic, in a first-of-a-kind presentation of data at the World Congress of Cardiology today. Seventy-nine per cent of men and 83 per cent of women were found to be physically inactive, while 51 per cent of men and 48 per cent of women were found to have high fat diets. Some 60 per cent of men and 57 per cent of women were found to have a low intake of fruit and vegetables, while 12 per cent of men and 0.5 per cent of women smoke. Overweight and obesity was reported in 41 per cent of men and 45 per cent of women....
http://world-heart-federation.org/press/releases/detail/article/reasons-for-indias-growing-cardiovascular-disease-epidemic-pinpointed-in-largest-ever-risk-factor/
*  Moffitt Cancer Center: Risk Factors
... Cancers We Treat. Find a Doctor. Clinical Trials Research. Patient Family. Cancers. Lung Cancer. Risk Factors. Risk Factors. Clinical Trials. Radiation Therapy. Lung Cancer Screening and Surveillance Program. Insurance Financial Information. Lung Cancer Risk Factors Through dedicated research, scientists have identified several risk factors for lung cancer. While some of these factors, like a patent’s genetics, can’t be changed, others can be diminished through lifestyle adjustments. Smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Cigarettes contain a number of carcinogens, and smoking introduces those toxins into the lungs. Inhaling another person’s smoke secondhand smoke exposure is also a known risk factor. While a person’s lung cancer risk goes up with the number of cigarettes they smoke per day and the number of years they have smoked, their risk can go down if they are able to stop smoking. Other lung cancer risk factors include: Exposure to radon, air pollution or other environmental hazard...
https://moffitt.org/cancers/lung-cancer/risk-factors/
*  .. Breast Cancer: Who Is at Risk?
← Join Our 2012 Denton Heart Walk Team. How Diabetes Affects Heart Health →. Breast Cancer: Who Is at Risk. October 8, 2012. Posted by. laicos. Some women are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than others. Anyone can get cancer, but some people have risk factors that may increase their chances. Certain risk factors, such as gender, are out of your control, and they do not necessarily mean you will get the disease. Even so, it is important to understand if you are at risk. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Some of the women had several risk factors but it’s still hard to know just how much they contributed. Risk Factors that are Out of Your Control. Breast cancer risk factors that women cannot change include:. Gender. Women are more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Age. The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age. Race / ethnicity. Family history of breast cancer. Age of first period and onset of menopaus...
http://blog.dentonregional.com/2012/10/08/breast-cancer-who-is-at-risk/
*  Phys.org - risk factors(... continued page 15)
Phys.org - risk factors ... Home risk factors. News tagged with risk factors. heart disease · patients · women · heart attack · cardiovascular disease. Patients at risk for complications after coronary artery fistula closure. Mar 23, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Infertile men have an increased risk of developing high grade prostate cancer, which is more likely to grow and spread quickly. Mar 22, 2010 in Cancer. Mar 16, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Mar 15, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Mar 03, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Individuals who were identified as being at increased risk of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events based on screening for low ankle brachial index, a type of pressure measurement used in the diagnosis of peripheral artery ... Mar 01, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Nearly 40 different inherited risk factors which predispose to the disease have now been identified. Blacks more likely to have undiagnosed key stroke risk factor, have hi...
http://phys.org/tags/risk factors/page15.html
*  Go Red in February — Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camd
Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camdenton, MO. Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. By Jennifer Bethurem. The Lake News Online. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM Lake area. Go Red in February Part 7: Know your family history. Go Red in February Part 5: Controlling blood pressure... Lake Regional forum will address heart attacks, risk factors. There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. Using tobacco increases your risk of heart disease, and the likelihood that you would not survive a heart attack. Stay active, eat hea...
http://lakenewsonline.com/article/20130204/LIFESTYLE/130209619/0/ENTERTAINMENTLIFE
*  Go Red in February — Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camd
Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camdenton, MO. newsletter. Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. By Jennifer Bethurem. The Lake News Online. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM Lake area. Go Red in February Part 7: Know your family history. Go Red in February Part 5: Controlling blood pressure... Lake Regional forum will address heart attacks, risk factors. There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. Using tobacco increases your risk of heart disease, and the likelihood that you would not survive a heart attack. Stay act...
http://lakenewsonline.com/article/20130204/LIFESTYLE/130209619/0/Events
*  socioeconomic risk factors: Topics by WorldWideScience.org
Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after controlling for standard behavioral risk factors. Science.gov United States Goulden, R; Ibrahim, T; Wolfson, C 2015-06-01 High socioeconomic status SES is generally associated with better health outcomes, but some research has linked it with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis MS. 2015-01-01 Background Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality can be explained by different groups of risk factors. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with l...
http://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/s/socioeconomic risk factors.html
*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Heart Disease Prevention - Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease
... Heart Center Heart Disease Prevention - Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease According to the American Heart Association AHA, diseases caused by smoking kill more than 440,000 people in the United States each year; of that number, more than 135,000 deaths are cardiovascular related. Smokers not only have increased risk for lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk for heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer. In posing health risks on the body's cardiovascular system, smoking: Causes immediate and long-term increases in blood pressure Causes immediate and long-term increases in heart rate Reduces cardiac output and coronary blood flow Reduces the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues Changes the properties of blood vessels and blood cells allowing cholesterol and other fatty substances to build up Contributes to higher blood pressure and increased risk for blood clot formation Damages blood vessels Doubles the risk for ischemic stroke reduced blood flow to the...
http://nyhq.org/diw/content.asp?PageID=P06598&More=EVC&language=Korean
*  Study: 2 in 5 adults at risk for diabetes | WNOR FM99
Study: 2 in 5 adults at risk for diabetes. WNOR FM99. Listen Live. Search. Facebook. Twitter. Instagram. YouTube. RSS. Email. SMS. Tunein. Menu Home Media Photos. Stream FM99. Listen Live. Babe of the Day. Rumble Rumble on Demand. Stupid News. Videos. The Reach Around. Shelley s Puppies. On Air Rumble in the Morning. Shelley s Lunch Box. Eric Afternoons. Nikki Sixx. News Military. Music. Sports. Weird. Viral Videos. National. Entertainment. Events All Events. Helping Hand. Contests See All Contests. Football Challenge. Military Hero. Contest Rules. Connect Contact Us. Facebook. YouTube. Twitter. Text Club. FM99 Emails. Signup. Preferences. About Advertise with us. Contact Us. Jobs at FM99. Christmas Wish. Helping Hand. Home. News. Story. News Study: 2 in 5 adults at risk for diabetes. in National. DIABETES: Heidi Elbarky draws blood from a finger of her son, Omar, 8, to test his sugar level using OneTouch Ping that transfers the sugar level to Omar's insulin pump. More than 29 million people in the United Sta...
http://fm99.com/news/030030-study-2-in-5-adults-at-risk-for-diabetes/
*  Novel Risk Factors and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
Diabetes care. Page 1 Novel Risk Factors and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ARIC Study L.A. For prediction analyses, we started with a simple or basic prediction model,previouslyvalidatedinARIC 25, that includes age, parental history of di- abetes, race/ethnicity, fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides, systolic blood Table 1dBaseline characteristics mean or percentage of the total ARIC cohort by incident type 2 diabetes status Type 2 diabetes N = 1,457 No type 2 diabetes N = 10,820 P value Basic risk factors Age years Parental history of diabetes % Race African American, % Systolic blood pressure mmHg Waist circumference cm Height cm Fasting triglycerides mg/dL HDL-C mg/dL Fasting glucose mg/dL Novel risk factors WBC count 1,000/mm3 Fibrinogen mg/dL Albumin g/dL vWF % aPTT s Factor VIII % Magnesium mg/dL FEV1 L FVC L Hematocrit % Heart rate bpm Low-frequency-power heart rate variability ms Leg length cm Hip circumference cm Blood viscosity centipoise Genetic risk...
http://researchgate.net/publication/230763240_Novel_Risk_Factors_and_the_Prediction_of_Type_2_Diabetes_in_the_Atherosclerosis_Risk_in_Communities_(ARIC)_Study
*  .. What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease? .. Stay Informed! .. Learn Reflexology Free! .. He
What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease. By. Dee Braun. on February 8, 2013 in. Heart, Blood, Circulatory. There are two types of risk factors for heart disease, those that are controllable and those that you cannot control. The main risk factors for heart disease are being male, becoming older, a family history of heart disease, being a post-menopausal woman, and being African American, American Indian, or being Mexican American. These risk factors are the ones that you cannot control. The risk factors for heart disease that you can control are smoking, having high LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol, whether you are physically active or not, obesity, and having uncontrolled diabetes, or a high C-reactive protein, and also having uncontrolled stress or anger. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control. You can lower your risk for heart disease by making lifestyle changes that will lower those risks that you can control. You can make lifestyle changes that will improve your eating habits or you can bec...
http://natural-holistic-health.com/risk-factors-heart-disease/
*  .. Diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease .. Interesting Times .. About me/this blog .. Rece
“OBJECTIVE—To compare the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD death and the impact of hyperglycemia on the risk of CVD mortality associated with type 1 diabetes to that associated with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS—During an 18-year follow-up, 86 participants with type 1 diabetes, 567 participants with type 2 diabetes, and 252 nondiabetic participants died. CVD mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were 23.1 95% CI 16.9–31.9 in type 1 diabetic, 35.3 30.8–40.4 in type 2 diabetic, and 4.6 3.8–5.7 in nondiabetic participants. CONCLUSIONS—The impact of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on CVD mortality was similar. The effect of increasing hyperglycemia on the risk of CVD mortality was more profound in type 1 than in type 2 diabetic subjects.”. “At baseline type 1 diabetic participants, when compared with nondiabetic participants, were leaner and had higher HDL cholesterol and lower diastolic blood pressure, but they had a slightly higher prevalence of hypertension, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher cont...
https://econstudentlog.wordpress.com/2010/08/07/
*  Your Health Information Library: Adults & Kids Health Topics
Browse all Community health services and other services. Awards and honors. Community Heart and Vascular Hospital. Health Services. Community Home Health. Health Information Library. Sports Medicine. Programs. Emergency Medical Services. Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases Primary risk factors for chronic disease: At the top of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC list of primary risk factors for all chronic diseases are: smoking, poor nutrition, and sedentary lifestyle. This includes the following: eliminating all tobacco products adhering to a heart-healthy diet following an appropriate exercise program. Eliminate all tobacco products: You should be aware that all tobacco products are included as risk factors for chronic illness, not just cigarettes. One aspect of managing your heart attack risk factors includes eating a heart-healthy diet, including appropriate levels of the following: calories cholesterol fat fiber sodium. To find more information about the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 20...
https://ecommunity.com/health/index.aspx?pageid=P00708
*  Risk Factors Influencing Antibody Responses to Kaposi's Sarc... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
Text sizing: A. Analysis of HIV-related factors and coinfections based on ANY serostatus revealed a higher seropositivity rate in patients with CD4 T cells/mm 3 less than 200 than greater than 200 53% versus 33%; OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.37-4.02; P = 0.002, HIV copies/mL greater than 400 than less than 400 42% versus 32%; OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.09-2.65; P = 0.019, with than without syphilis 56% versus 34%; OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.28-4.79; P = 0.007, and with than without hepatitis 47% versus 33%; OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07-2.90; P = 0.027 Table 1. The results thus far indicated an association of CD4 T cell count, HIV load, or duration of HIV infection with ORF65 but not LANA serostatus. However, detection rate of latent antibodies was lower in those with CD4 T cells/mm 3 less than 200 than greater than 200 35% versus 67%; OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.61; P = 0.002, CD8 T cells/mm 3 less than 400 than greater than 400 28% versus 64%; OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.67; P = 0.007, and duration of HIV infection greater than 15 years than ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2011/01010/Risk_Factors_Influencing_Antibody_Responses_to.13.aspx
*  Heart Attack Prevention Overview: Follow These Tips
Pill Identifier. Kulick received his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Southern California, School of Medicine. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease. What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease. Well-known risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart attacks are: Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol the "bad" cholesterol in the blood; Family history of early coronary heart disease, including a heart attack or sudden death before age 55 in the father or other male first-degree relative, or before age 65 in the mother or other female first-degree relative; Cigarette smoking; Diabetes mellitus; High blood pressure; Low levels of HDL the "good" cholesterol in the blood; and Sedentary lifestyle. Less recognized but just as important risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis ...
http://rxlist.com/heart_attack_and_atherosclerosis_prevention/page6.htm
*  .. Women, Blacks Hit Harder by Heart Disease Risk Factors .. RELATED CONDITIONS .. WEEKLY NEWSLETT
Type 2 Diabetes Home Type 2 Diabetes Journey Risks, Symptoms, and Tests After Your Diagnosis Doctors and Other Health-Care Support Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Eating Healthy Weight Loss and Exercise Living With Diabetes Non-Insulin Drugs If You Need Insulin Complications of Diabetes. News Headlines. RELATED CONDITIONS. Heart Disease Depression High Cholesterol Men's Sexual Dysfunction Heart Attack. WEEKLY NEWSLETTER Free Healthy Living Email Newsletter Get the latest health, fitness, anti-aging, and nutrition news, plus special offers, insights and updates from Health.com. Women, Blacks Hit Harder by Heart Disease Risk Factors August 11, 2014. By Dennis Thompson HealthDay Reporter. MONDAY, Aug. 11, 2014 HealthDay News — Chronic diseases that can increase a person’s risk of heart attack or stroke appear to hit women and blacks the hardest, a new population-based study found. Diabetes and high blood pressure in particular, contribute to an ongoing gender and race gap in heart disease risk, researchers report on...
http://news.health.com/2014/08/11/women-blacks-hit-harder-by-heart-disease-risk-factors/
*  Risk Factors for Heart Attack - Kendall Regional Medical Center | Miami, FL
Risk Factors for Heart Attack - Kendall Regional Medical Center. Lawnwood Medical Center & Heart Institute. Women's Health. H2U - health to you. Health Library. It is possible to have a heart attack with or without the risk factors listed below. People who continue to smoke in the presence of established cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for repeated heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest. It also helps reduce the chance of other heart attack risk factors such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Drinking too much alcohol can increase blood pressure and lead to other heart problems. Testosterone Therapy Men aged 65 years and older who are taking testosterone therapy are more likely to have a heart attack. Talk to your doctor about your risk of heart attack if you are taking testosterone therapy medications. If you have hypertension and are not keeping your blood pressure in a specific target range, you have an increased risk of having a heart attack. It also adds to your chances of dev...
http://kendallmed.com/your-health/?/20336/Other-Treatments-for-Heart-Attack~Risk-Factors
*  What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relati
... on to India. What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relation to India. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol. In this review, we discuss the evidence for public health interventions in reducing NCD burden from both developed and developing countries and describe how such interventions can be contextualised to the Indian perspective. 4, 5 Since risk factors exert a steadily rising effect on the risk of disease and interact with each other to increase the overall risk, strategies for prevention must attempt...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3354911/?lang=en-ca
*  Primary care practice structure affects control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among pat
... ients with diabetes. Primary care practice structure affects control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes Research Activities, September 2009. Primary care practices that have teams with well-defined leadership and effective teamwork, where the appointment and visit systems are well structured, and where followup and coordination of care after the visit are well planned, seemed to be better at controlling risk factors for cardiovascular CV disease among patients with diabetes, concludes a new study. Kaissi, Ph.D., of Trinity University, found that a primary care practice's community connections and its actual delivery of care during a patient's visit were linked to good control of three CV risk factors among patients with diabetes: glycosylated hemoglobin or A1C a measure of blood-sugar level, blood pressure BP, and low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol. Clinicians in each clinic completed the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care survey about use of the six Chron...
http://archive.ahrq.gov/news/newsletters/research-activities/sep09/0909RA18.html
*  Belly Fat Is Culprit in Stroke Gender Gap
... Symptoms. Health A-Z. See what your medical symptoms could mean, and learn about possible conditions. WebMD Pain Coach Track your pain levels, triggers, and treatments. FDA Approves Diet Pill Belviq. FDA Delays Decision on Blood Thinner Eliquis WebMD Mobile Drug Information App Drug, supplement, and vitamin information on the go. Living Healthy. Diet, Food Fitness Diet Weight Management. Oral Care Living Well Women's Health. Men's Health. Your Birth Control Options. Food Fitness Planner: Personalize Your Weight Loss Plan WebMD Allergy App for iPhone Fight allergies with daily forecasts, local alerts, and personalized tips. Family Pregnancy. Family and Pregnancy Centers Pregnancy. Featured Topics Know the Signs of Early Pregnancy. WebMD Vaccine Tracker: Manage Vaccinations for Your Entire Family WebMD Pregnancy App for iPhone The big day is coming. News Experts. Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox. WebMD Health Experts and Community. WebMD Communities Connect with peop...
http://webmd.com/women/news/20100225/belly-fat-culprit-stroke-gender-gap
*  The ageing brain | OUPblog
The Oxford Comment. Do vascular risk factors such as high blood pressure and smoking make us forgetful. Cognitive ageing, such as symptoms of forgetfulness, is increasingly seen as the result of the joint effect of several vascular disease risk factors, including high blood pressure, BMI, cholesterol levels, and smoking. However, the combined influence of these on cognitive decline is less commonly explored among older adults at increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In a recent paper, we looked at Framingham stroke and cardiovascular risk scores a measure used to assess an individual’s probability of developing stroke or cardiovascular disease over a 10-years period and investigated their association with cognitive decline in older adults. Participants with the highest risk of future stroke or cardiovascular events, based on their risk factors values, were found to perform more poorly on tests of memory and executive functioning after a four year period. This adds weight to the ...
http://blog.oup.com/2012/12/ageing-high-blood-pressure-forgetfulness/
*  DCCPS: BRP: BBPSB: Key Initiatives
... Key Initiatives. Basic Biobehavioral and Psychological Sciences Branch. Basic Biobehavioral and Psychological Sciences Branch BBPSB Key Initiatives: The Complex Patient and Co-Morbid Conditions. Strategy Text-only description appears below Many risk factors that contribute to disease: biological risks e.g. obesity , behavioral risks e.g. smoking, sedentary lifestyle , psychological risks e.g. These include Sympathetic Nervous System SNS activity, Parasympathetic Nervous System PNS activity, the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal HPA axis, Inflammation and the Immune response. The "complex patient" has a "co-morbid condition," meaning they have two or more physical diseases or they have one chronic disorder and develops another due to common risk factors or iatrogenic effects of treatment for the first. The combination of cancer and cardiovascular disease CVD is a common co-morbid condition. The shared risk factors of Cancer and CVD include smoking, obesity and sedentary lifestyle. There are a...
http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/bbpsb/complex.html
*  Study identifies 10 risk factors linked to 90% of strokes | News | Nursing Times
Study identifies 10 risk factors linked to 90% of strokes. News. Nursing Times. Skip to main content. Skip to navigation. FAQs. Contact. About. Marketing & Advertising. Events. Group Access. Recruitment. Subscribe. Register. Sign in. By continuing to use the site you agree to our Privacy Cookies policy. Your browser seems to have cookies disabled. For the best experience of this website, please enable cookies in your browser. Close. Accept. 'Nurses key to success of new care models'. Steve Ford, news editor. SPEAK OUT SAFELY CAMPAIGN. Search the site. Home. Nursing Practice. Nursing Times Learning. Opinion. Student Nursing Times. Jobs. Subscribe. Your browser is no longer supported For the best possible experience using our website we recommend you upgrade to a newer version or another browser. Close. Study identifies 10 risk factors linked to 90% of strokes 7 May, 2014. By The Press Association. Ten risk factors are associated with 90% of strokes, according to preliminary findings from a study presented for ...
http://nursingtimes.net/study-identifies-10-risk-factors-linked-to-90-of-strokes/5070601.article
*  Multilevel modeling versus cross-sectional analysis for assessing the longitudinal tracking of cardi
... ovascular risk factors over time. Article Multilevel modeling versus cross-sectional analysis for assessing the longitudinal tracking of cardiovascular risk factors over time. We focus on cardiovascular epidemiological research where investigators are often interested in quantifying the relations between clinical risk factors and outcome measures X and Y, respectively, where X and Y are measured repeatedly over time, for example, using serial observations on participants attending multiple examinations in a longitudinal cohort study. In this tutorial, we describe the application of multilevel modeling to cardiovascular risk factors and outcome data using serial echocardiographic data as an example of an outcome. ABSTRACT: To elucidate the hospital characteristics associated with hospital performance and time trends in acute myocardial infarction AMI care using multilevel multivariable analysis of longitudinal data. The following factors were significantly associated with time trends of improvement in perf...
http://researchgate.net/publication/240306579_Multilevel_modeling_versus_cross-sectional_analysis_for_assessing_the_longitudinal_tracking_of_cardiovascular_risk_factors_over_time
*  Low risk for heart attack? Could an ultrasound hold the answer?
Low risk for heart attack. Could an ultrasound hold the answer. Home. Medicine Health. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. November 11, 2008 Low risk for heart attack. Could an ultrasound hold the answer. November 11, 2008 By adding the results of an imaging technique to the traditional risk factors for coronary heart disease, doctors at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston found they were able to improve prediction of heart attacks in people previously considered low risk. The findings are being presented today at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions in New Orleans. Researchers used ultrasound imaging to view the carotid intima media thickness C-IMT, or thickness of the artery walls. "The ultrasound added another dimension to the risk factor score and showed us that those with thick arteries in the higher end of low risk group actually are at intermediate risk for coronary heart disease," said Dr. Vijay Nambi, assistant professor of medicine - atherosclerosis and vascular medicine at BCM and le...
http://phys.org/news/2008-11-heart-ultrasound.html
*  Protein May Be Heart Risk Factor - NYTimes.com
... campaign: nyt2014 bar1 digihd regi BAU -- 268632, creative: nyt2015 bar1 digihd BAU 4JQ88 4JQ8F 4JQ8J 4JQ8L -- 399712, page: www.nytimes.com/archive/article/us, targetedPage: www.nytimes.com/archive/article/us, position: Bar1. The protein appears to mark a particular risk for white men and women under 65. It is also not known what can or should be done to reduce elevated blood levels of Lp a. However, the association between Lp a and heart disease may help to explain why heart attacks occur in some people who have otherwise low cholesterol levels and who have no other major coronary risk factors. The study, published in the current issue of Circulation, a journal of the American Heart Association, found an increased coronary risk associated with high blood levels of Lp a in women both before and after menopause. Among the 292 women who had heart attacks or angina, blood levels of Lp a averaged 38 percent higher than among 292 healthy women who were otherwise comparable in age and other coronary risk fact...
http://nytimes.com/1997/01/29/us/protein-may-be-heart-risk-factor.html?src=pm
*  Incredible Discoveries - Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime with Iampur - Incredible Discoveries
... Oceans 2003 Navigating the Ocean we call business -. Home. About Us. Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime with Iampur. On 03.07.12, In Health, Health and Wellness, Marketing, Media, by IncredibleDiscoveries The following segment aired on Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime Television. Joining Incredible Discoveries was Iampur. to discuss Iampur Relief. Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime Television Guest: Phil Hudson. Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime Television: One out of every three adults has arthritis or joint pain, and it can ruin your daily life. There is a smart, natural solution to deal with this on-going pain problem Iampur- relief. As seen on Incredible Discoveries, Iampur-relief was professionally formulated to provide fast-acting and long-lasting pain relief, so you can enjoy life to the fullest. It s that simple. To relieve your aches, you simply apply Iampur-relief directly to the site of pain, and the natural ingredients will produce an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. Iampur-relief s...
http://oceans2003.org/incredible-discoveries-iampur/
*  .. .. Health Library .. Understanding Cancer Statistics .. Cancer facts and figures .. Centers, P
Statistics are often used in cancer to help guide decision-making about identifying people at risk for getting cancer and identifying the best test or treatment. Relative risk. The relative risk compares the risk of people getting a cancer with certain risk factors family history or certain behaviors like smoking with a similar group of people without those risk factors. For example, it was estimated that 604 men and 456 women per 100,000 people in Massachusetts had cancer between 2001 and 2005. For example, 238 men and 166 women per 100,000 people in Massachusetts and 206 men and 151 women per 100,000 in California were estimated to have died of cancer between 2001 and 2005. All of this information can help people make decisions about changing behaviors, taking tests or treatments, and overall outlook. Breast Cancer Overview. Study Refutes Notion That Diabetes Drug Actos Raises Bladder Cancer Risk. Family History of Breast Cancer Doesn't Worsen Patient's Prognosis: Study. Genes Linked to Breast, Ovarian Canc...
http://healthcare.utah.edu/healthlibrary/related/doc.php?type=34&id=24227-1
*  New study challenges current thinking on risk factors for contrast induced nephrotoxicity
... May 1, 2012 New study challenges current thinking on risk factors for contrast induced nephrotoxicity May 1, 2012 Contrary to current belief, a new study finds that patients with a history of diabetes are not one of the most at risk for contrast induced nephrotoxicity. Instead, the study found that patients with a history of renal disease, hypertension and/or heart disease are more likely to suffer from renal insufficiency, putting them at greater risk for contrast induced nephrotoxicity. The study, done at Northwestern Memorial Hospital-Northwestern University in Chicago, included 2,404 patients. "Since all patients underwent the eGFR test, we had an unusual opportunity to see if the traditional risk factors truly predict reduced renal function, said Vahid Yaghmai, MD, one of the authors of the study. The study found that "patients with history of renal disease, hypertension and heart disease had significantly higher odds of having abnormal eGFR," said Dr. Many facilities ask patients to fill out a surv...
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-05-current-factors-contrast-nephrotoxicity.html
*  Logos - VCU Massey Cancer Center
VCU Massey Cancer Center. Anatomy Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment. Types of brain tumors Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Long-term outlook. Anatomy of the brain Types of brain tumors Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Long-term outlook. Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment. Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment. Causes, risk factors and prevention Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Long-term outlook. Causes and risk factors Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment Long-term outlook. Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment Other types of liver cancer. Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment. Causes and risk factors Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment Long-term-outlook. Causes and risk factors Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and ...
http://massey.vcu.edu/news/identity/logos/
*  SMW - Swiss Medical Weekly - 21293981
BACKGROUND: The burden of abdominal obesity AO and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors is not known in coronary artery disease CAD patients attending cardiac rehabilitation CR. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the prevalence of AO and differences in cardiovascular risk factors between AO and non-AO patients. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the prevalence of AO in a large cohort of CAD patients attending CR and to evaluate differences in cardiovascular risk factors in AO and non-AO patients, thus sensitising physicians to this medical entity. The SF-36 is a health survey designed to assess health-related quality of life that is not disease-, treatment- or age-specific. The association of AO with other cardiovascular risk factors is shown in table 2. AO was associated significantly with diabetes p = 0.003 and hypertension p 0.001, whereas BMI equal or higher than 30 kg/m 2 was only associated with diabetes p = 0.036, not shown in the table. In contrast...
http://smw.ch/content/smw-2011-13153/
*  Women, Blacks Hit Harder by Heart Disease Risk Factors | Newsday
Newsday. Subscribe to Newsday. Newsday Fun Book. Top Stories. Top Stories. Top Stories. Top Stories. Top Stories. Get unlimited digital access $14.99 A MONTH Join Now To continue reading, Newsday subscribers log in To continue reading, Newsday subscribers log in or register. The study evaluated the combined and individual impact of five major risk factors for heart disease -- high cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. The combined risk from all five factors remained the same in blacks over a 10-year period, causing a steady 67 percent increased risk of heart disease. Combined heart disease risk fell for women during the same 10 years, decreasing from 68 percent increased risk to 58 percent. But their risk still remained higher than that of men, whose combined risk decreased from 51 percent to 48 percent during the study period. Diabetes and high blood pressure emerged as the two factors that continue to drive up the risk of heart attack and stroke, particularly in women and blacks. ...
http://newsday.com/news/health/women-blacks-hit-harder-by-heart-disease-risk-factors-1.9030508
*  291 diseases and injuries + 67 risk factors + 1,160 non-fatal complications = 650 million estimates
... of how we age, sicken, and die. 291 diseases and injuries + 67 risk factors + 1,160 non-fatal complications = 650 million estimates of how we age, sicken, and die December 14, 2012 11:08 AM. From the team for the massive Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010. In addition to the data visualizations, the IHME provides GBD 2010 publication summaries : Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Healthy life expectancy for 187 countries, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Age‐specific and sex‐specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global ...
http://metafilter.com/122905/291-diseases-and-injuries-67-risk-factors-1160-nonfatal-complications-650-million-estimates-of-how-we-age-sicken-and-die
*  JAMA Network | JAMA Internal Medicine | "Successful Aging": Effect of Subclinical Cardiovascul
"Successful Aging": Effect of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease. Previous Article Next Article. The authors have no relevent financial interest in this article. Article. COMMENT. ARTICLE INFORMATION. Figures in this Article. To determine whether subclinical vascular disease and CVD risk factors were associated with more years free of physical and cognitive disability when not combined with the incident CVD outcome, we modeled separately ADL difficulty and a combined physical and cognitive disability, using the predictors identified in the successful aging models, with and without adjustment for intervening CVD. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. Proportion of Men and Women With Successful Aging by Age, Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease CVD, and Selected Risk Factors. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. Within each age group, the participants with subclinical dis...
http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=216217
*  MO Arthritis: Self-Management
... MO Arthritis. Home. About Arthritis. Find a Class. Course Registration. Arthritis Links. Leader Resources. Partner Resources. Self-Management Toolkit. Sustainability Project. Find a RAC. Contact Us. Self-Management. Did you know that February is American Heart Month. Did you know that February is American Heart Month. Million Hearts ® and The Heart Truth ® are two campaigns that help support American Heart Month here in the United States. Million Hearts® is a national initiative that works to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, while The Heart Truth® is a 28-day challenge during the month of February that encourages women to take action to lower their risk for heart disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC states that there are three key risk factors tied to heart disease: high blood pressure, high cholesterol LDL, and smoking. 49% of Americans have one or more key risk factors linked back to heart disease. It’s not too late to make the decision to change. If you would...
http://moarthritis.org/self-management/page/4/
*  Risk Factors for Heart Attack | Blake Medical Center | Bradenton, FL
Risk Factors for Heart Attack. Blake Medical Center. Find A Doctor. Find A Doctor Find A Doctor. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Patients & Visitors. H2U - health to you. Health Info. Health Info Health Info. Health Library. Hospital Affiliation Letters for Medical Center Staff. Find A Doctor. Find A Doctor Doctor of the Year Ballot. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Classes & Events. H2U - health to you. Blake Medical Center @BlakeMedCenter October is #BreastCancerAwareness Month. It is possible to have a heart attack with or without the risk factors listed below. It also helps reduce the chance of other heart attack risk factors such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Talk to your doctor about your risk of heart attack if you are taking testosterone therapy medications. If you have hypertension and are not keeping your blood pressure in a specific target range, you have an increased risk of having a heart attack. It also adds to your chances of developing high blood pressure, h...
http://blakemedicalcenter.com/hl/?/20336/Diagnosis-of-Heart-Attack~Risk-Factors
*  CDC - Podcasts
Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. Cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure, is the leading cause of death in the U.S. The audio file can be found at Audio Download. Save This File 6MB. A CUP OF HEALTH WITH CDC Heart Health American Heart Month – February 2014 Recorded: February 25, 2013; posted: February 27, 2013. is caused by cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure; it’s the leading cause of death. Fleetwood Loustalot is a researcher with CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. He’s joining us today to discuss ways to prevent cardiovascular disease. Leading risk factors include high blood pressure and cholesterol, diabetes, being overweight or obese, smoking, lack of physical activity, and an unhealthy diet, including consuming too much sodium in your diet. Fleetwood, what lifes...
http://www2c.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=8631495
*  USMLE Step 2 - Cardiovascular Flashcards - Cram.com
Shuffle Toggle On Toggle Off Alphabetize Toggle On Toggle Off Front First Toggle On Toggle Off Both Sides Toggle On Toggle Off Read Toggle On Toggle Off. Leading cause of M M in US Clinically - SOB DOE arrhythmias stable unstable angina MI heart failure sudden death risk factors - age gender hypercholesterolemia DM HTN smoking family Hx. RF = risk factor 0-1 RF - treat: by diet if LDL 160 by meds if LDL 190 2 RFs - treat: by diet if LDL 130 by meds if LDL 160 CHD or MI or angina or DM - treat: by diet if LDL 100 by meds if LDL 130. ■ Admit monitor by EKG/telemetry ■ acute Sxs - O2 sublingual nitroglycerin ASA IV B-blockers Ca2+ channel blockers - if can't tolerate B-blockers ticlopidine or clopidogrel - if allergic to ASA ■ chronic Sxs - nitrates B-blockers ASA risk factors' reduction stress test lipid panel statins ■ pain inc. Vasospasm of coronary vessels happens at rest early morning young women Dx - angiography clean coronary arteries Tx - Ca2+ channel blockers. ■ Lifestyle mod - init Tx for stages 1 2 ■ ...
http://cram.com/flashcards/usmle-step-2-cardiovascular-493218
*  Avoiding risk factors ensures longer survival in men - Nutrition Express Articles
... Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Newsletters > 2007 Newsletters > November 2007 Avoiding risk factors ensures longer survival in men by Newsletter Editor Avoiding midlife risk factors ensures longer survival in men. For men, healthy survival has been linked to lifestyle choices. In a 40-year-long study of 5,820 Japanese men, overall survival rates compared to exceptional survival rates were shown to be linked to healthy lifestyle factors and higher education. Out of all the subjects, 58% died before the age of 85, 31% survived to 85 with disease or disability and 11% survived to 85 without 6 major chronic diseases and without cognitive or physical impairment. The probability of exceptional survival was 60% with no risk factors and less than 10% with 6 or more risk factors. Therefore, aiming to reduce multiple risk factors such as being overweight, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, smoking and excessive drinking while maintaining healthy body weight may improve the pro...
http://nutritionexpress.com/article index/newsletters/2007 newsletters/november 2007/showarticle.aspx?articleid=876
*  Browsing Epidemiology by Title
... → Browsing Epidemiology by Title. Browsing Epidemiology by Title. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism, such as impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, have been associated with increased risk of multiple types of cancers. Alcohol intake, viral hepatitis B infection, viral hepatitis C infection, and the risk of primary liver cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis . Accurate estimation of the contribution of major risk factors of liver cancer namely, alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infection, is essential ... Background: Pediatric HIV is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental deficits. In serodiscordant couples, provision of antiretroviral therapy ART to the HIV-infected partner significantly decreases risk of sexual HIV transmission of HIV. Background: Aortic sclerosis is associated with increased ... Area-level socioeconomic status and cancer outcomes: Is there an association and can it be explained by behavior. Increasingly, area-level socioeconomic status SES is recognized as...
https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/4918/browse?type=title
*  Vytorin Bad, Statins Good? : Disease Proof:
Vytorin Bad, Statins Good. : Disease Proof:. Disease Proof Posted at 8:40 AM on April 1, 2008 by Gerald Pugliese Vytorin Bad, Statins Good. Vytorin is a bust, so, doctors are urging people to turn back to statins. Yeah, great idea. More from the Associated Press : Millions of Americans already take the drug or one of its components, Zetia. But doctors were stunned to learn Vytorin failed to improve heart disease, even though it worked as intended to reduce three key risk factors. People need to turn back to statins, said Yale University cardiologist Dr. We know that statins are good drugs. The study tested whether Vytorin was better than Zocor alone at limiting plaque buildup in the arteries of 720 people with super high cholesterol because of a gene disorder. Fuhrman explains: The known side effects for various statins the most popular and effective medications to lower cholesterol include hepatitis, jaundice, other liver problems, gastrointestinal upsets, muscle problems and a variety of blood complications...
http://diseaseproof.com/archives/cardiovascular-disease-vytorin-bad-statins-good-print.html
*  Human Resources News
Obesity Alone Raises Risk of Fatal Heart Attack, Study Finds. Obese men face a dramatically higher risk of dying from a heart attack, regardless of whether or not they have other known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, a new study reveals. The finding stems from an analysis involving roughly 6,000 middle-aged men, and it suggests that there is something about carrying around excess weight that contributes to heart disease independent of risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol and arterial disease. "Obese, middle-aged men have a 60 percent increased risk of dying from a heart attack than non-obese middle-aged men, even after we cancel out any of the effects of cholesterol, blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors," noted study author Jennifer Logue, a clinical lecturer of metabolic medicine with the British Heart Foundation's Cardiovascular Research Centre at the University of Glasgow, in Scotland. What's more, even after also accounting for risk factors such as ...
http://wku.edu/hr/news/index.php?view=article&articleid=814&return=archive
*  Info Center - EMC.org
Guleria : There are certain risk factors that we know are greater than others: total cholesterol that is higher than 240; systolic blood pressure greater than 160 or diastolic pressure greater than 100; if a person smokes or has diabetes, or has a close relative with history of heart attack or cardiovascular disease. There are also established risk scores that patients and doctors can use to help determine their likely risk for a heart attack, including the Reynolds Risk Score for women, and the Framingham Risk Score. Shaver: Another risk factor is the metabolic syndrome. Guleria, tell us about metabolic syndrome. These are the people who have abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, triglycerides greater than 150, low HDL high-density lipoprotein, good cholesterol, fasting blood glucose greater than 100. Shaver: In terms of body fat, is all fat the same when it comes to risk factors. If there is less LDL cholesterol formed in the liver, then the LDL receptor in the liver attracts cholesterol circulating in th...
http://emc.org/info-center/?xyzpdqabc=0&action=detail&dataRef=1509&source=511&issue=554&format=pdf&template=basic
*  .. Know Your Risk
know your risk as a woman the single most important thing you can do to safeguard your heart health is to educate yourself about your unique risk factors studies show that most women in canada donâ t realize that heart disease and stroke is a leading cause of death for women in canada in fact heart disease and stroke kills seven times more women than breast cancer becoming aware of your health profile and learning how to recognize the warning signs of heart disease and stroke will allow you to take preventive action and control your risk factors learn more about heart disease and your risk profile and find your path to heart health by exploring this section of the website what is heart disease and stroke evaluate your risk women heart health warning signs prevention treatment for heart disease stroke living with heart disease stroke questions to ask your doctor...
http://thehearttruth.ca/know-your-risk/
*  Whole Health Source: August 2008
... Posted by. Stephan Guyenet. at 1:19 PM. 8 comments:. Email This. BlogThis. Share to Twitter. Share to Facebook. Share to Pinterest. Labels: diabetes, overweight, Pima. Posted by. Stephan Guyenet. 11 comments:. Email This. BlogThis. Share to Twitter. Share to Facebook. Share to Pinterest. Tuesday, August 26, 2008. 69% of their calories come from carbohydrate, 21% from fat and 10% from protein. There are examples of cultures that were/are healthy eating high-fat diets, high-carbohydrate diets and everything in between. Leptin is secreted by adipose fat tissue, and its blood levels are proportional to fat mass. This isn't surprising, since leptin levels track with fat mass and the Kitavans are very lean average male BMI = 20, female BMI = 18. These data show that exercise can not explain Kitavans' low insulin levels. We can guess that total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate do not cause hyperinsulinemia, based on data from the Inuit, the Masai and the Kitavans, respectively. Judging by these numbers, Kita...
http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008_08_01_archive.html
*  .. Booster Shots .. Researchers find a way to subtract 12 years from your life .. Oddities, musings
Business. Sports. Entertainment. Health. Travel. Opinion. Booster Shots Oddities, musings and news from the health world. Previous Post. Booster Shots Home. Next Post. Researchers find a way to subtract 12 years from your life April 26, 2010. 1:01 pm You know that smoking is bad for your health. Ditto heavy drinking, a slovenly lifestyle or a preference for chili cheese fries over fruits and vegetables. Epidemiologists have linked each of these behaviors to increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. Giske Ursin – studied the effect of all four bad behaviors at once. Smokers fill that bill, while nonsmokers and former smokers did not. Men who consumed more than 21 8-gram servings of alcohol and women who drank more than 14 servings of alcohol were considered to have poor drinking behavior. Anyone who got less than 120 minutes of exercise each week was defined as having poor physical activity, and bad diets were those that contained fewer than 3 fruits or vegetables each day. After tracking nearly 5,...
http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/booster_shots/2010/04/risk-of-death-from-drinking-smoking-unhealthy-eating-poor-exercise.html
*  The Mermaid's Tale: Who, me? I don't believe in single-gene causation! (or do I?). Part I. What
I don't believe in single-gene causation. I don't believe in single-gene causation. Ken Weiss. genes 'for' a trait is still on. Single gene causation does exist, at least sometimes doesn't it. There are well-documented single risk factors, genetic and otherwise, that everyone accepts 'cause' some disease in a very meaningful sense. Examples are some alleles variant states of the CFTR gene and Cystic Fibrosis CF , BRCA1 and 2 variants and breast cancer, or smoking and lung cancer. Gene X doesn't cause the disease after all. Or disease and none of the known causal mutations. If you have a dysfunctional BRCA1 genotype, you are at risk of some one breast cell acquiring a set of mutations that don't get detected and repaired. Gene X plus time plus environmental risk factors cause the disease. Though, we all believe it's a single gene, BRCA1 or 2, that causes cancer. The obvious non-genetic instance, smoking and lung cancer, is similar but not exactly the same. The reason the risk is probabilistic -- that is, a smo...
http://ecodevoevo.blogspot.com/2013/05/who-me-i-dont-believe-in-single-gene.html
*  Popular Blogs for heart disease | SparkPeople
Join Now for Free. Healthy Cooking. Healthy Heart. Healthy Home. Posted 1/23/2014 12:00:00 AM By: Jen Mueller : 2 comments 15,276 views Read More. Posted 8/5/2013 12:00:00 PM By: SparkPeople Guest Blogger : 7 comments 15,649 views Read More. DailySpark: What are the top lifestyle changes women can make to ensure their hearts stay healthy. Desvigne-Nickens: Most heart disease risk factors are preventable or controllable by making healthy lifestyle changes, including: stopping smoking, being physically active, following a healthy diet, and maintaining a healthy weight. Additional risk factors that you can prevent and control include: high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high blood sugar or diabetes. High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and high blood sugar are often treatable with healthy lifestyle but may require medical prescriptions. You can reduce your risk for heart disease by over 80% by controlling risk factors and a healthy lifestyle. Posted 2/22/2013 12:00:00 PM By: Stepfanie Romine ...
http://sparkpeople.com/blog/blog_topics.asp?topic=heart_disease
*  Family history (medicine)
Family history medicine. Family history medicine. In medicine, a 'family history' consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered. Genealogy typically includes very little of the medical history of the family, but the medical history could be considered a specific subset of the total history of a family. 1 Accurate knowledge of a patient's family history may identify a predisposition to developing certain illnesses, which can inform clinical decisions and allow effective management or even prevention of conditions. Uses Consequences Definitions References. cardiovascular disease s, autoimmune disorder s, mental disorders, diabetes, cancer to assess whether a person is at risk of developing similar problems. Some medical conditions are carried only by the female line such as X-linked conditions and some Mitochondrial diseases. Tracing female ancestors can be difficult in societies that change the woman's family name when she marries. Death records of...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family_history_(medicine)
*  Rate ratio
... a rate ratio sometimes called an incidence density ratio in epidemiology is a relative difference measure used to compare the incidence rate s of events occurring at any given point in time a common application for this measure in analytic epidemiologic studies is in the search for a causal association between a certain risk factor and an outcome text rate ratio frac text incidence rate text incidence rate http www ctspedia org do view ctspedia rateratio where incidence rate is the occurrence of an event over person time for example person years text incidence rate frac text events text person time note the same time intervals must be used for both incidence rates see also ratio risk ratio odds ratio references category biostatistics category epidemiology category rates...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rate_ratio
*  .. Can You Be Fat and Healthy? Depends Where You Are Fat .. RELATED CONDITIONS .. WEEKLY NEWSLETTE
Heart Disease Home Heart Disease Journey Perspectives On Heart Disease Risks and Symptoms Heart Tests Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease Arrhythmia Diet and Exercise Depression and Heart Disease Statins and Other Drugs Heart Surgery. Diabetes Type 2 Obesity Cholesterol Heart Failure Depression Stress Management. Can You Be Fat and Healthy. Just like force-fed geese develop fatty livers that are used to make foie gras, excess calories may lead to fat infiltration of the human liver, says Wylie-Rosett, who is a coauthor of the second study in the journal. “We don’t yet know what the longer term risks are, but we assume that it may then lead to scarring, and what we are now talking about is nonalcoholic liver disease,” says Wylie-Rosett. “It’s an area of tremendous concern particularly as younger people are becoming heavier and heavier and appear to be getting some of these fatty infiltrations in the liver.”. They found a cluster of high-risk symptoms—elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, and b...
http://news.health.com/2008/08/11/fat-and-healthy/2/

QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.University of CampinasClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Cancer screeningThermal cyclerList of universities in Iran: This is a list of universities in Iran.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Niigata UniversityPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.HypertensionNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Intestinal parasiteTriangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingOld Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Overweight PoochNational Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Yi Byeong-cheon: Yi Byeong-cheon (Hangeul: 이병천, also spelled Lee Byeong-chun, born January 5, 1965) is the veterinary professor at Seoul National University responsible for the ₩300 million KRW "Toppy" dog cloning program. Yi is a former aide to Hwang Woo-suk, a pioneer in the field with the "Snuppy" clone, who fell from grace after his stem cell research turned out to have been fabricated.List of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Ladies Open of Portugal: The Ladies Open of Portugal was a women's professional golf tournament on the Ladies European Tour that took place Portugal.Mental disorderCigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Rainbow (South Korean band)GA²LENHepatitis B immune globulinWat Chiang ManBacitracinNational Taiwan University Hospital: The National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; ) started operations under Japanese rule in Daitōtei (today's Dadaocheng) on June 18, 1895, and moved to its present location in 1898. The Hospital was later annexed to the Medical School of Taihoku Imperial University and renamed Taihoku Imperial University Medical School Affiliated Hospital in 1937.Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City: The Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City is a Vietnamese national institute initially created by the French in 1891 under the name Pasteur Institute - Sai Gon, in 1975 renamed the Institute of Epidemiology, and in 1991 given the current name.World Blood Donor Day: Every year on 14 June, countries around the world celebrate World Blood Donor Day (WBDD). The event, established in 2004, serves to raise awareness of the need for safe blood and blood products, and to thank blood donors for their voluntary, life-saving gifts of blood.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj Jadeja

(1/39136) Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer.

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

(2/39136) Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk.

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

(3/39136) Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

(4/39136) Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

(5/39136) Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress.

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

(6/39136) Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups.

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

(7/39136) Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

(8/39136) Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE.  (+info)


What is your thoughts of the prevalence of planning to have children outside of marriage?


Has anyone besides me noticed the prevalence of couples planning to have children outside of marriage?  I am not talking about unplanned pregnancies.  I am not talking about a woman deciding she is ready to have a baby but she is not in a relationship and does not feel she can wait any longer.  I am talking about two people in a committed relationship deciding they are ready to have children, yet they are not married.  I wanted to know other's thoughts on the subject.
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That indeed is a prevalent case nowadays--unmarried people with children. The question is: what is the couple's reason for keeping themselves out of a commitment such as marriage? That one has to be thought of. If they cannot commit themselves to marriage, why would they want to have children? Usually, in the Philippines, others do not get married yet due to economical reasons. But isn't it that having children cost a lot? 

If the people takes delight on having kids around and at the same time making the set-up convenient for them (i.e. they can get out of the tacit 'relationship' anytime), then wouldn't that be unfair for the children as well?


What is the prevalence (percentage) of teenage smokers?


I need to identify the prevalence of teenage cigarette smoking for an assignment.
Can anybody help me?
Include referencing if you can.
Thanks heaps [:
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try this website:
http://promises.com/promisesnews/articles/smoking/teen-smoking-rates-remain-high/

They have a lot of percentages of recent teen smokers


What criminological perspective do you think is most effective in combat the prevalence transgeneration offend?


What criminological perspective do you think is most effective in attempting to combat the prevalence and existence transgenerational offenders?
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is this in english?


What do you think the US should do to decrease the prevalence of obesity?


What do you think the US should do to decrease the prevalence of obesity?
another thought how does ur environment effect obsiety?
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I can think of a couple ways.

1) P.E. as mandatory in schools, everyday, moderate-intense exercise for at least an hour. 
Where I lived in the UK there was a military training ground nearby and our gym teacher was one of the retired Drill Sergeants. Damn, if that guy told you to run you ran. He was scary as hell and he didn't take excuses. He didn't care if it was raining, snowing or hailing outside, you WOULD lap the one mile field in your shorts and t-shirt three times before he let you back in.
Every school in the world should have a guy like this. True he terrified us but he was also really competent as a teacher and medic and he didn't just bark instructions at us, he'd actually participate as well.

2) Lower the sugar, sweeteners, fats, oils and salts in packaged foods and drinks. A can of soda has the equivalent of 14 teaspoons of sugar and even the ones that say "sugar-free" have the exact equivalent in dangerous chemical sweeteners. This harms the body in ways that people can't even imagine, not just weight gain and it's an addiction, people come to rely on high amounts of sugar for their energy just as coffee drinkers can become reliant on caffeine or smokers becoming reliant on nicotine. When people come off these foods and switch to health diets they actually suffer withdrawal symptoms. The western world needs to lower the content of all these things in their shelf produce and ween people away from that desperate need of junk food and sugar.

3) Better health education. The western world consumes an incredibly disproportionate amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates. In other words dairy, meat and grains. Carbs contain tremendous amounts of calories because they are energy foods, Americans consume far too many and they're just not burning them off. Meat, fatty meats in particular are a major part of the American diet and are consumed most every day. People do not need to eat this much meat for a healthy diet. Dairy, the ultimate evil is in this group, cheese, the western world, especially America loves cheese and it contains so much fat. Americans need to be taught alternative eating patterns from an early age.

4) Incentive. Lower the food prices for healthy raw produce like fresh fruit and veg. The cost of these things are just ridiculous. The unhealthy food should be taxed and priced higher if it does not meet a certain food standard. This will offer incentive both to the shoppers and producers.

5) Free gyms and health facilities like swimming pools. There should be a few Government funded and well maintained places where people can exercise for free. Gyms, Swimming facilities, sports centers, they're great for getting in shape but they're so expensive. For people who can't afford them there should be a few free locations.

6) Tighter enforcement on work hours. There are rules that dictate that everyone is entitled to their work breaks and that people only work for a certain number of hours per week. It's amazing how often these are ignored both by the employers and the employees. There needs to be tighter regulations and enforcements of this to ensure that people don't merely sit sluggishly behind a desk all day.

7) I hate to suggest this one as it's clearly the easy way out, not very natural or healthy and very expensive. It would truly be a last resort and quick fix, but then again that's what America is renowned for isn't it? Quick fixes.
Science. If people won't lose weight themselves then perhaps medical science needs to look for a way to simulate the process. It's the thyroid that largely controls weight gain and loss. Those with an active thyroid have a high metabolism those who have an inactive one have a slow metabolism, perhaps science could look for a way to control that. There's already medication for lowering cholesterol and fat.


why is the prevalence of obesity such a concern?


why is the prevalence of obesity such a concern?

What impact do fast food establishments have on the health of individuals and the types of dietary imbalances that occur?
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Beyond the aesthetic aspect, the reasons to lose weight are numerous. It was established that people with an overweight of more than 20% have more probabilities of suffering from diseases, especially from cardiovascular problems and diabetes or a premature death. This risk disappears with a return of the weight to the normal. 

IF 20 MILLION AMERICANS WERE TO appear on the streets tomorrow, each with a cement block weighing between 20 and 40 pounds permanently attached to his person, it would create a tremendous stir. Fantastic? Not at all. As a matter of fact, such a situation does prevail right at this moment. The only difference is that the weights those 20 million Americans are carrying consist of fat rather than cement. And the burdens are less conspicuous because they are distributed over their bodies.

 A single, fundamental disease of the human body can now be held accountable for much of the illness and more than half of all deaths occurring each year in the United States It is a disorder known by the general term of "arteriosclerosis," which means a hardening and thickening of the arteries. 

The outstanding fats eaten daily in the United States and Europe are butter, eggs, whole milk, cream, meat, fish and poultry fats, and cheese in various combinations. These fats, at 9 calories per gram, contain more than twice the amount of calories than protein or carbohydrate does at four calories each per gram. Excessive intake of fats leads to the shortening of life, premature death by heart attacks and strokes, obesity, and numerous crippling illnesses.

 One of the greatest factors influential in the current epidemic of heart attacks has unquestionably been the startling increase in fat intake. In the United States alone, the fat content of our diet has just about doubled in recent times. Where fat formerly constituted some 15 to 20 per cent of our meals 50 years ago, it now has jumped to 30 and 40 per cent or more.


why do people moving to the UK from area of High TB prevalence need vaccinated?


The UK vaccination policy for Tuberculosis vaccination requires that anyone moving to the UK from a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis should get vaccinated. Why do people need vaccinated if they are coming into the UK?
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I do not know why the UK cannot test each immigrant for TB instead of inoculating each of them.  If the test is not accurate, then get another test.

The US tests each person for TB and then treats the condition if the test is positive. The US has over 2 million legal immigrants a year and there are believed to be 12-30 million illegal immigrants living in the US from nations all over the globe and we do have the problem under control, or at least that is what the government is telling us. 

Children are tested for school enrollment and everyone who works with children or in healthcare is tested every three years.


What is the prevalence and patterns of drug use in teens?


i need like a website or graph of some sort that outlines the prevalence and patterns of drug use in teens.

thanks
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You can find that type of information in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. If you intend to use this information in a school report or anything beyond personal edification, I strongly suggest reading the methodology.

http://oas.samhsa.gov/nsduhLatest.htm

http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k7NSDUH/appA.htm


From medical view, why African American have more diabetes prevalence rate than Whites?


According to CDC, the diabetes prevalence in African American is 2 times higher than in non-Hispanic Whites.
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First of all, only Type 2 diabetes (the common kind usually related to obesity) is more common in non-whites. Type 1 diabetes (formerally known as juvenile or insulin dependent diabetes) is RARE in non-whites.

Why is Type 2 diabetes more common?

-Genetics. Non-whites seems to more often have certain "thrifty" genes that predispose them to weight gain and insulin resistance, the contributing factors for Type 2 diabetes. Of course, this genetic tendency can most often be over-ridden with healthy lifestyle choices. When food was not plentiful (i.e. famine), these genes were a good thing for survival. In today's world with excess food and little exercise, they can be lethal.

-Cultural/Ethnic practices and beliefs. Certain foods (waffles and fried chicken anyone;), cooking styles, and acceptance of obesity as "healthy" or "normal" can all lead to increased Type 2 diabetes cases. In some cultures, being overweight is considered ideal. Good for getting dates, no so good for Type 2 diabetes risk.

-I personally hate to generalize even more than I have (I was kidding with the chicken and waffles!), but stats do show that a large percentage of African-Americans live in poverty where there is restricted access to healthy foods, or a lack of education to help these people make better choices.

So, there are likely 3 main factors:

-Genetics put them at higher risk
-Lifestyles and cultural norms/foods increase that risk
-Socioeconomic factors contribute to not being able to decrease risk.

That said, it is important for governments to provide healthy food banks, and educate people at risk how they can live healthy and prevent Type 2 diabetes. It's not rocket science, but if you have no education and no resources, it can't get done.