Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Veronica: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain bis-sesquiterpene and iridoid glucosides.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Mediterranean SeaFresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pacific OceanMuscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Lead Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).MontanaCharadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Atlantic OceanMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Granulovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by ovicylindrical occlusion bodies. The type species is Cydia pomonella granulovirus.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Reduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteria, AerobicTropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.ArgentinaIce Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.BrazilWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.

*  Potatoes | SASA (Science & Advice for Scottish Agriculture)
R D. Epidemiology Population Dynamics Molecular Genotyping Pest ... infestans population changes: implications Lees, A. K., D ... infestans population changes: implications ." In Proceedings ... Potatoes. SASA Science Advice for Scottish Agriculture. Potatoes Potatoes. Dickeya Survey 2011. File size: 27 kb. Read more about Dickeya Survey 2011. Seed Potato Register 2011. File size: 398kb. Read more about Seed Potato Register 2011. Online Scottish Seed Potato Crop Register Poster. Read more about Online Scottish Seed Potato Crop Register Poster. Development and evaluation of ELISA assays incorporating monoclonal antibodies for the detection of potato A potyvirus Browning, I., R. " Development and evaluation of ELISA assays incorporating monoclonal antibodies for the detection of potato A potyvirus ." EPPO Bulletin 25, no. Read more about Development and evaluation of ELISA assays incorporating monoclonal antibodies for the detection of potato A potyvirus. Phytophthora infestans population changes: implicat...
http://sasa.gov.uk/category/subjects/plants/crops/vegetables/potatoes?page=5
*  Study Search Results
economic growth 1. population dynamics 1. Geography. view all ... /Investigator. 1 Population Redistribution and Economic Growth in ... the United States: Population Data, 1870-1960. ICPSR 7753 Kuznets, ... study search results skip to main content log in create account find analyze data membership in icpsr deposit data icpsr summer program resources for instructors data management curation find analyze data find data search compare variables find publications resources for students get help filter results skip results filters and go to search results subject view all demographic characteristics mortality rates birth rates census data census records economic growth population dynamics geography view all arkansas alabama alaska arizona california colorado data format sas spss stata time period to enter year as yyyy recency new updated this week new updated this month new updated this quarter new updated this year export results max comma delimited marc xml study search results your query returned resul...
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*  Study Search Results
of Michigan. Population Studies Center. 2 Cebu Longitudinal ... 6 Family and Population Control Study: Puerto Rico, 1953-1954. ... , 1970. Carolina Population Center; National Research University...
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*  Freedom forex formula
for the effect of population momen- Freedom forex formula tum see Population Dynamics Momentum of Popul- ation ... assumes that the population is stable immediately prior to...
http://zaym-deneg-online.ru/freedom-forex-formula.html
*  Publications Search Results
funded through the Population Dynamics Branch PDB of NICHD...
http://icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/DSDR/biblio/resources?journal[0]=Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology&collection=DATA&author[0]=Goodwin R.D.&paging.startRow=1
*  Browse by Subject Term
6. aging 66. aging population 8. agricultural census 3. agricultural ... funded through the Population Dynamics Branch PDB of NICHD...
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*  Briones
the PaV1 disease in populations of Caribbean spiny lobsters in ... -Fourz n P 2002 Population dynamics of the spiny lobster Panulirus...
http://icmyl.unam.mx/arrecifes/-briones.html
*  ARCHIVE: Exploring the Import of Health-Related Residential Mobility to Local Area Studies (Geronimu
ARCHIVE: Exploring the Import of Health-Related Residential Mobility to Local Area Studies Geronimus, Bound. Overview. Search Projects. Browse Projects. Projects by Country. PSC Small Funds. Search All. U-M Researchers. Off-Campus Researchers. Training Faculty. Pubs. Overview. Search All Pubs. Browse All Pubs. Pubs by Country. Browse PSC Reports. PSC in the News. Overview. Small Funds. Alumni Award. Data. Overview. Census. Search. Center Services. Center Overview. Alumni Fund. Freedman Fund. Weinberg Fund. PSC at 50. Search. Country. Browse. Small Grants. PSC In The News. Exploring the Import of Health-Related Residential Mobility to Local Area Studies a PSC Research Project. Geronimus, John Bound Most studies of place effects on health are ecological or multilevel analyses of cross-sectional data. But if residential mobility across local areas is health-related, common contextual interpretations of cross-sectional findings might be misleading. Few data sets both provide information on health and migration an...
http://psc.isr.umich.edu/research/project-detail/34427
*  Factors associated with child vaccination status : residential mobility and a mother's employment, k
... nowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. My ScholarSpace. . Home. Search. Browse. By Author. By Subject. By Title. By Date. Communities Collections. Contact. eVols. UH System. UHM Library. Hamilton Library Homepage. Research Tools. Personal Services. About the Library. ScholarSpace Home → Dissertations Theses → Public Health → D.P.H. - Public Health → View Item. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Item Description. Title:. Factors associated with child vaccination status : residential mobility and a mother's employment, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs . Author:. Hatcher, Penny Ann. Date:. 1993. Description:. Thesis D.P.H. --University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993. Microfiche. xv, 261 leaves, bound 29 cm. URI:. http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10262. Rights:. All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from ...
http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/10262
*  Stocking of captive-bred fish can cause long-term population decline and gene pool replacement: pred
... ictions from a population dynamics model incorporating density-dependent mortality - Springer. Stocking of captive-bred fish can cause long-term population decline and gene pool replacement: predictions from a population dynamics model incorporating density-dependent mortality. Affiliated with Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology EAWAG , Center of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry. Abstract Releasing captive-bred fish into natural environments stocking is common in fisheries worldwide. Using a population dynamics model that takes into account a density-dependent recruitment, a gene responsible for the fitness difference between wild and captive-bred fish, and hybridization between them, we show that there is little or no contribution of recurrent stocking to the stock enhancement without a replacement of the wild gene pool by the captive-bred gene pool. Share Share this content on Facebook Share this content on Twitter Share this content ...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12080-011-0128-y
*  Population reduction
... the term population reduction may be used in relation to many topics including the following population decline or depopulation reductions in human population levels for reasons such as low birth rate emigration disease or war a euphemism for genocide sometimes used by perpetrators of genocide to disguise their actions population control deliberate attempts to control human population levels typically seeking an initial reduction as opposed to an increase sometimes related to the optimum population concept culling deliberate reductions in animal or plant population levels by human action population reduction the phase preceding the extinction of a species...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_reduction
*  SOFTWARE FOR HABITAT BASED METAPOPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS | SBIR.gov
SOFTWARE FOR HABITAT BASED METAPOPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS. SBIR.gov. sba. SBIR. The SBIR Program SBIR Mission and Program Goals SBIR Participation Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business SBIR Policy Directive SBIR/STTR Inter-agency Policy Committee: Fueling Small Business Innovation Reports Annual Report Transmittal Letters STTR. The STTR Program STTR Mission and Program Goals STTR Participating Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business STTR Policy Directive Tibbetts Awards and Hall of Fame. Recognizing Excellence SBIR Hall of Fame Tibbetts Awards Roland Tibbetts SBIR Tibbetts Award Eligibility Selection Process Recent Awards Award Ceremonies FAST Partnership Program. Purpose Guidelines FAST Partnership Awards Program Announcements Congressional History Leadership. Javier Saade John Williams Birth History of SBIR Program Funding. Open Future Closed Solicitation Listing Health-Related Funding Awards. Award Listing Company Listing Analytics Dashbo...
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*  Population fluctuations and regulation in great snipe: a time series analysis › Research Explorer
... Search. Frontpage. Staff. Research units. Activities. Research output. Clippings. About. Population fluctuations and regulation in great snipe: a time series analysis Research output : Scientific - peer-review › Article. Animal Population Biology. Overview. Cite this. . Documents PDF 282 KB, PDF-document Request copy DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2007.01246.x. A Kölzsch. S.A. Saether H. Gustafsson P. Fiske J. Höglund J.A. Kålås 1. During the last centuries, the breeding range of the great snipe Gallinago media has declined dramatically in the western part of its distribution. To examine present population dynamics in the Scandinavian mountains, we collected and analysed a 19-year time series of counts of great snipe males at leks in central Norway, 1987–2005. 2 The population showed large annual fluctuations in the number of males displaying at lek sites range 45–90 males at the peak of the mating season, but no overall trend. 3 We detected presence of direct density-dependent mechanisms regulating this popula...
https://pure.knaw.nl/portal/en/publications/uuid(0dae0a2d-82f9-4170-9ea3-43071c817168).html
*  Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort - AcaWiki
... Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort From AcaWiki. Jump to: navigation, search. Citation: Wilmoth, John R. Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort. Sociological Methodology. RSS. Tagged: uw-madison. RSS, wisconsin. RSS, sociology. RSS, demography. RSS, prelim. RSS, qual. RSS, WisconsinDemographyPrelimAugust2009. RSS. Summary:. The analysis of age-specific vital rates is studied, and special attention is given to the problem of decomposing an array of rates into factors related to age, period, and cohort. A complete, symmetric decomposition of the data array into age, period, and cohort components is not attempted. Instead, the paper focuses on the age and period dimensions and derives an initial description of the matrix's structure with regard to changes only in those 2 directions. This 2-dimensional description is then augmented by a consideration of residual patterns that seem clearly linked to cohorts. The use of a model that is asymmetric in age, period, and cohort is just...
http://acawiki.org/Variation_in_Vital_Rates_by_Age,_Period,_and_Cohort
*  Matrix population models
... Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. 'Matrix population models' are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra. N t+1 = abundance at time t+1 N t = abundance at time t B = number of births within the population between N t and N t+1 D = number of deaths within the population between N t and N t+1 I = number of individuals immigrating into the population between N t and N t+1 E = number of individuals emigrating from the population between N t and N t+1. Estimates of B might be obtained via a ratio of immatures to adults soon after the breeding season, R i. Number of deaths can be obtained by estimating annual survival probability, usually via mark and recapture methods, then multipling present abundance and survival rate. For added simplicity it may help to think of time t as the end of the breeding season in year t and to imagine that one is studying a species that has only one discrete breeding season per year. : N {t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_population_models
*  Wilmoth: Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort
... Overview. Search Projects. Browse Projects. Projects by Country. PSC Small Funds. Search All. U-M Researchers. Off-Campus Researchers. Training Faculty. Pubs. Overview. Search All Pubs. Browse All Pubs. Pubs by Country. Browse PSC Reports. PSC Report Series. PSC in the News. Overview. Small Funds. Alumni Award. Data. Overview. Search. Center Overview. Alumni Fund. Freedman Fund. Hermalin Fund. Mueller Fund. Weinberg Fund. PSC at 50. Publications. Search All. Browse All. Browse PSC Pubs. PSC Report Series. PSC In The News. Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort Archived Abstract of Former PSC Researcher Wilmoth, John. "Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort." PSC Research Report No. The analysis of age-specific vital rates is studied in this paper, with special attention given to the problem of decomposing an array of rates into factors related to age, period, and cohort. A complete, symmetric decomposition of the data array into age, period, and cohort components is not attempte...
http://psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs/790
*  genetics - Smallest viable reproducing population - Biology Stack Exchange
... Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Ask Question. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. Smallest viable reproducing population. up vote 24 down vote favorite 1. What is the smallest viable reproducing population, such as in a human population. A very strongly related question: what is the expected number of generations a given population can survive. genetics ecology population-dynamics conservation-biology share. improve this question. asked Dec 23 '11 at 2:14. add a comment. 2 Answers 2 active oldest votes. up vote 21 down vote accepted. Because the question specifically mentions human populations, I'll focus my answer on the genetics of small human populations, though considerably less information is available. 2002; Am J Hum Genet 70:673-685 present a more modern study of linkage disequilibri...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/305/smallest-viable-reproducing-population/317
*  Population Density - Biology Video by Brightstorm
... Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Algebra 2. Biology. Test Prep. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. Test Prep. Start Your Free Trial. Biology. / Population Density. Learn math, science, English SAT ACT from high-quaility study videos by expert teachers Preview playing in 3. To unlock all 5,300 videos, start your free trial. Start Your Free Trial Learn more. Population Density. 12,225 views. Patrick has been teaching AP Biology for 14 years and is the winner of multiple teaching awards. Population density is loosely defined as the number of organisms in an area divided by the amount of area. High population density can cause increased competition for resources while low population density can cause problems with finding mates and inbreeding. In studying population ecology a common measurement that is made of a population in a particular area is what is known as population density and that is simply what is the number of organisms in a particular area divided by that area. Now population densities can vary from one species t...
http://brightstorm.com/science/biology/ecology/population-density/
*  effective population size | genetics | Britannica.com
effective population size. Britannica.com. Effective population size. Effective population size , in genetics, the size of a breeding population, a factor that is determined by the number of parents, the average number of children per family, and the extent to which family size varies from the average. The determination of the effective population size of a breeding population is necessary for studies of population growth rates and of gene flow. Email. Additional resources for this article Help us expand our resources for this article by submitting a link or publication Keep exploring. What made you want to look up effective population size. MORE QUIZZES Animals and Insects: Fact or Fiction. Terms of Use. 2015 Encyclop dia Britannica, Inc. MLA style: "effective population size". Encyclop dia Britannica. Encyclop dia Britannica Online. Encyclop dia Britannica Inc., 2015. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/science/effective-population-size. APA style: effective population size. In Encyclop dia Britannica. Retrieved...
http://britannica.com/science/effective-population-size
*  Threshold host density
'Threshold host density N T ', in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density N T of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population. 1 Threshold host density N T only applies to density dependent diseases, where there is an "aggregation of risk" to the host in either high host density or low host density patches. When low host density causes an increase in incidence of parasitism or disease, this is known as inverse host density dependence, whereas when incidence of parasitism or disease is elevated in high host density conditions, it is known as direct host density dependence. Host density independent diseases show no correlation between the concentration of a given host population and the incidence of a particular disease. Host density-dependent diseases Host density-independent diseases Contact between ind...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threshold_host_density
*  Metropolitan statistical area
... List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas. In the United States, a 'metropolitan statistical area' 'MSA' is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. MSAs are defined by the Office of Management and Budget OMB and used by the Census Bureau and other federal government agencies for statistical purposes. 1 Map Definitions See also References External links. Office of Management and Budget defines a set of core based statistical area s CBSAs throughout the country. CBSAs are delineated on the basis of a central urban area or urban clusterin other words: a contiguous area of relatively high population density. Census Bureau The counties containing the core urban area are known as the 'central counties' of the CBSA. Additional surrounding counties, known as 'outlying counties', can be included in the CBSA if these counties have strong social and economic ties to the central counties as measured by commuting and employment. As well as ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolitan_statistical_area
*  Density dependence
Density-dependence in macroparasite life cycles Implications for parasite persistence and control Extinction threshold. In this life-cycle, the life expectancy of the black fly vector decreases as the worm load ingested by the vector increases. 6 Density-dependence in macroparasite life cycles. thumb|250px|right|Density-dependence processes red in filariasis life cycle In macroparasite life cycles, density-dependent processes can influence parasite fecundity, survival, and establishment. For filarial worms, density-dependent processes can act at the host/vector interface or within the host/vector life-cycle stages. Within the life-cycle stages taking place in the vector, density-dependence may influence the development of L3 larvae in vectors and vector life expectancy. Within the life-cycle stages taking place in the host, density-dependence may influence the development of microfilariae and host life expectancy. 7 In reality, combinations of negative restriction and positive facilitation density-dependent p...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Density_dependence
*  Epizootic
... In epizoology, an 'epizootic' from Greek : 'epi-' upon + 'zoon' animal is a disease event in a nonhuman animal population, analogous to an epidemic in humans. An epizootic may be: restricted to a specific locale an " outbreak ", general an "'epizootic'" or widespread " panzootic ". High population density is a major contributing factor to epizootics. Aquaculture is an industry sometimes plagued by disease because of the large number of fish confined to a small area. Defining an epizootic can be subjective; it is based upon the number of new cases in a given animal population, during a given period, and must be judged to be a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected based on recent experience 'i.e.' a sharp elevation in the incidence rate. Because it is based on what is "expected" or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like a TSE outbreak in a cervid population might be classified as an "epizootic", while many cases of a common disease like lymphocystis in esocids would not. Common ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epizootic
*  Kerma Basin
... the kerma basin is a low lying area by the nile in sudan located just below the third cataract it is the largest section of flood plain on the donogola reach at maximum extent some acres km can be inundated by the annual nile flood but a more regular year sees only about half that this creates the largest section of arable land between aswan and the fourth cataract this has led to a high population density that has long made the kerma basin one of the central portions of nubia the ancient city of kerma was in the basin and it was the core of the kingdom of kerma category nile category geography of sudan category nubia...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerma_Basin
*  tropics
... Home. Biology. Medicine. Technology. Products. News. Definition. Dictionary. Movies. Links. Tags. Search. RSS Navigation Links Biology News Medicine News Biology Products Medicine Products Biology Definition Medicine Definition Biology Technology Medicine Technology Biology Dictionary Medicine Dictionary. tropics in Medical News. Scientists say tropics are next emerging disease hotspot Scientists from four well-known institutions say the next major disease like HIV/AIDS or SARS could occur in any of a number of developing countries concentrated along the equator. They encourage increased surveillance to prevent the spread of a potential outbreak. Using global databases and so... Notion Behind Spread of Flu Epidemic may Not Hold True for the Tropics A study from Brazil has revealed that the notion that flu epidemics begin in areas of high population density and extend outwards may not be appropriate for the tropics. The study revealed that in Brazil, flu is triggered in less populated North area and moves...
http://bio-medicine.org/tag/tropics/
*  Brightwell Aquatics FlorinBacter, 500 ml
... www.marineandreef.com View Cart. My Account. About Us/Contact. Returns. Help. Your shopping cart is empty. Search. Navigation. ADDITIVES/ SUPPLEMENTS. AIR PUMPS/ CO2. AQUARIUMS. CONTROLLERS/ TESTING. DECORATIONS. FILTRATION. FOOD/ FEEDERS. HEATERS/ CHILLERS. LIGHTING. MAINTENANCE. PLUMBING. PROTEIN SKIMMERS. PUMPS. UV STERILIZERS. Quick Links. Accept Credit Cards. Join our mailing list. Join our mailing list. Home > ADDITIVES/ SUPPLEMENTS >. Additives, Supplements & Water Treatments By Type > Aquarium Additives by Type: Planted Tank > Brightwell Aquatics FlorinBacter, 500 ml. Our Price: $14.10. Stock Status:In Stock Product Code: RBA01454. Description. Technical Specs. Complete Bioculture for all Freshwater and Planted Aquaria Suspension of non-pathogenic aerobic and anaerobic microbes, as well as natural enzymes, specifically formulated to establish biological filtration in new aquarium set-ups, and to enhance the rate of nitrification, denitrification, and organic waste degradation through complete nut...
http://marineandreef.com/Brightwell_Aquatics_FlorinBacter_500_ml_p/rba01454.htm
*  Population size
... in population genetics and population ecology population size usually denoted n is the number of individual organism s in a population the effective population size n e is defined as the number of breeding individuals in an idealized population that would show the same amount of dispersion of allele frequencies under random genetic drift or the same amount of inbreeding as the population under consideration n e is usually less than n the absolute population size and this has important applications in conservation genetics small population size results in increased genetic drift population bottleneck s are when population size reduces for a short period of time overpopulation may indicate any case in which the population of any species of animal may exceed the carrying capacity of its ecological niche see also holocene extinction event population growth rate overpopulation carrying capacity lists of organisms by population category ecological metrics category population genetics...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_size
*  About project - Monitoring Ptaków Polski EN
... Strona korzysta z plików cookies w celu realizacji usług i zgodnie z Polityką Plików Cookies. Monitoring of Birds of Poland MBP is a project consisting of several programmes implemented in Poland in 2006, to fill requirements of the EU Bird Directive: the effective protection and monitor favourable conservation status of endangered species. Monitoring of Birds of Poland MBP is an extensive project, which includes 21 separate monitoring programmes designed to collect data on single species or groups of species, during both breeding, migration and wintering periods. In total, MBP covers 170 species, among which 150 are monitored during breeding season 65% of breeding avifauna, 26 in winter and 3 during migrations. The state of avian populations is characterized by two basic parameters: abundance absolute or relative numbers, i.e., indices and occupancy range size. Breeding bird populations are either censused the whole national populations monitored or sampled surveys of populations within a sample of plot...
http://monitoringptakow.gios.gov.pl/
*  Regulating factors
... in population ecology a regulating factor is something that keeps a population at equilibrium neither increasing nor decreasing in size over time an example of a regulating factor would be food supply if the population increases to a certain size there will be less food for each organism this will lead to fewer births a decrease in fecundity and more deaths making a negative growth rate as there are now fewer animal s the amount of food for each organism will increase meaning the growth rate will become positive this would lead to a large population size again and the cycle would start over therefore food is a regulating factor in this scenario as food supply keeps the population at relative equilibrium all regulating factors are density dependent meaning they keep populations at equilibrium by counteracting fluctuations in population size other regulating factors of the human population at present are drinking water supply amount of arable land obviously a more fundamental term for food air pollution an...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulating_factors
*  Related: habitat conditions: Ducks Unlimited
... habitat conditions. Field Reports: Spring Habitat Conditions MJ15 Significant precipitation will be needed to maintain or improve wetland habitats in many important waterfowl breeding areas. Spring 2014 Habitat Conditions in Canada After a long winter and late spring for most areas, the breeding season is underway. Field Reports: Duck Production Outlook The stage is set for good waterfowl production across many important breeding areas. Field Reports: 2014 Spring Habitat Conditions Waterfowl should find good spring wetland conditions on many important breeding areas this year. 2013 Late Winter Habitat Conditions in Canada Late-winter habitat conditions across Canada has been average to above average so far this year. 2012 Late Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada Overall summary and regional Canada habitat conditions for late spring 2012. Field Reports: 2012 Duck Production Outlook Prospects for breeding waterfowl have improved in many areas since last report. Field Reports: 2012 Spring Habitat Conditions...
http://ducks.org/related/habitat-conditions?poe=magma14
*  Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis
... . Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis. DSpace/Manakin Repository. University of Jyväskylä. University Library. SherpaRomeo. JYKDOK. Login. Contact. Help. About JYX. en. fi. JYX front page. →. Dissertations. →. Jyväskylä Studies in Biological and Environmental Science. → View Item. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis. Name: 9789513931018.pdf. Size: 554.0Kb. Format: PDF. Downloads:. Title:. Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis. Author:. Syväranta, Jari. Abstract:. Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems is an increasing problem, especially threatening small and shallow freshwater lakes. While the extreme inputs of nutrients phosphorus and nitrogen can nowadays be redu...
https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/handle/123456789/18045
*  2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada
... Waterfowl Habitat. Duck Hunting Tips. Where We Work How We Conserve Public Policy Waterfowl Biology Waterfowl Habitat Land Protection Ecosystem Markets. Home > Conservation > Habitat : 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada. 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada Above-average habitat conditions throughout most of Canada PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SIGN IN. While snowpacks on the north and central coast were a bit low this past winter ~80 percent of average, they were near the long-term average on the south coast and island. This promises a steady supply of water through the spring and summer, and breeding conditions look to be good for the year. Precipitation was variable in the northern and southern Interior, and habitat conditions reflect this. Related: 2013 habitat conditions 2013-14 migration alert du canada canada habitat habitat conditions breeding. Free DU Decal Receive a free DU decal when you signup for our free monthly newsletter. Waterfowl Habitat. Comment: http://www.ducks.org/conservation/ha...
http://ducks.org/conservation/habitat/2013-spring-habitat-conditions-in-canada/page2?poe=migmaprhs
*  Coastal Ecosystems : Oceanus Magazine
... Topics Special Series Print Issues Archives Multimedia. Topics. Special Series. AROUND WHOI. Print Issues. September 17, 2015 The Riddle of Rip Currents Scientists investigate how and where these dire beach hazards occur September 9, 2015 Setting a Watchman for Harmful Algal Blooms New undersea technology offers ways to monitor toxic outbreaks September 3, 2015 The Man Who Opened Our Ears to the Ocean Historic archive of marine mammal recordings established August 24, 2015 An Appetite Stimulant for Bacteria in the Ocean An Infographic August 24, 2015 Short-circuiting the Biological Pump Tiny chemical compounds help choreograph a planet-size dance. Email Alerts. Coast : Coastal Ecosystems. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: NOV 2014 From Lab to Sea. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: FEB 2014 The Mesocosm Lab. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: FEB 2014 Mysterious Jellyfish Makes a Comeback. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: NOV 2011 Between the Beach and the Deep Blue Sea. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: FEB 2011 Where the Food Is in the Sea, and Why. COASTAL ECOS...
https://whoi.edu/oceanus/topics/coastal-ecosystems
*  Ecosystem Services - living within environmental limits
... home. ecosytem project. ecosystem services. related projects. reports publications. project partners. news. links. contact. What are Ecosystem Services. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to aid our understanding of the human use and management of natural resources. Our health and wellbeing depends upon the services provided by ecosystems and their components: water, soil, nutrients and organisms. Therefore, ecosystem services are the processes by which the environment produces resources utlilised by humans such as clean air, water, food and materials. Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment provided the most comprehensive assessment of the state of the global environment to date; it classified ecosystem services as follows: Supporting services: The services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services including soil formation, photosynthesis, primary production, nutrient cycling and water cycling. Provisioning serv...
http://ecosystemservices.org.uk/ecoserv.htm
*  2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada
... Public Policy. Waterfowl Biology. Waterfowl Habitat. Waterfowl ID. Duck Hunting Tips. Where We Work How We Conserve Public Policy Waterfowl Biology Waterfowl Habitat Land Protection Ecosystem Markets. Home > Conservation > Habitat : 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada. 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada Above-average habitat conditions throughout most of Canada PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SIGN IN. Wetland conditions are favorable throughout the southwest breeding range, but areas lacking spring precipitation are feeling the effects of those dry soil conditions. If haying is not delayed, this could have an impact on nesting birds affected by the late spring. Crop seeding has also been delayed but the favorable late-May conditions have allowed producers to get a quick jump on seeding. Related: 2013 habitat conditions 2013-14 migration alert du canada canada habitat habitat conditions breeding. Free DU Decal Receive a free DU decal when you signup for our free monthly newsletter. Conservation Resource...
http://ducks.org/conservation/habitat/2013-spring-habitat-conditions-in-canada/page6?poe=migmaprhs
*  Unbound MEDLINE : A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem chang
... Publisher Full Text. Byrnes JE. Duffy JE. Extinction, Biological. A global synthesis reveals bio Unbound MEDLINE. A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Further species loss will accelerate change in ecosystem processes, but it is unclear how these effects compare to the direct effects of other forms of environmental change that are both driving diversity loss and altering ecosystem function. Here we use a suite of meta-analyses of published data to show that the effects of species loss on productivity and decomposition--two processes important in all ecosystems--are of comparable magnitude to the effects of many other global environmental changes. In experiments, intermediate levels of species loss 21-40% reduced plant production by 5-10%, comparable to previously documented effects of ultraviolet radiation and climate warming. At intermediate levels, species loss generally had equal or greater effects on decomposition than did elevated CO 2 and nitrogen addi...
http://unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22678289/full_citation/A_global_synthesis_reveals_biodiversity_loss_as_a_major_driver_of_ecosystem_change_
*  Diversity–function debate
Functional diversity, composition, and species richness affect the biogeochemical processes of ecosystem s. However, the degree to which these factors influence ecosystems and whether that influence is significant is much debated. In the article 'The Influence of Functional Diversity and Composition on Ecosystem Processes,' Tilman, D., Knops, J, Wedin, D., Reich, P., Ritchie, M., and E. 'The Influence of Functional Diversity and Composition on Ecosystem Processes'. scientists reported on an experiment in which they studied the effects of plant species diversity, functional diversity, and functional composition on ecosystem processes, as measured in six response variables productivity, plant % N, plant tot. The statistical results show that functional diversity and species composition significantly affected the six response variables to a greater extent than species diversity. By themselves, all three factors significantly affected ecosystem processes and also influenced each other. Uncertainty is implied in t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diversity–function_debate
*  Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis: Key Questions on Biodiversity in the Millen
In natural ecosystems, the effects of abiotic and land use drivers on ecosystem services are usually more important than changes in species richness. The type of poverty experienced by individuals will therefore differ for different rates and levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services loss and if the loss is transitory or permanent. The direct drivers of biodiversity loss in southern Africa include the impacts of land use change, alien invasives, overgrazing, and over- harvesting all of which have already had a large impact on the region s biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being, and all of which are likely to spread in the absence of interventions. Observed recent changes in climate, especially warmer regional temperatures, have already had signifi cant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, including causing changes in species distributions, population sizes, the timing of reproduction or migration events, and an increase in the fre quency of pest and disease outbreaks. Providing food to ...
http://eoearth.org/view/article/152285/
*  SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration | resources | Society for Ecological Restorati
SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration. Attributes of Restored Ecosystems 4. Reference Ecosystems 6. Exotic Species 7. Reciprocity exists in these cultural ecosystems between cultural activities and ecological processes, such that human actions reinforce ecosystem health and sustainability. Attributes of Restored Ecosystems. Instead, it is only necessary for these attributes to demonstrate an appropriate trajectory of ecosystem development towards the intended goals or reference. The restored ecosystem is sufficiently resilient to endure the normal periodic stress events in the local environment that serve to maintain the integrity of the ecosystem. As in any intact ecosystem, the species composition and other attributes of a restored ecosystem may evolve as environmental conditions change. A reference ecosystem can serve as the model for planning an ecological restoration project, and later serve in the evaluation of that project. In other words, the restored e...
http://ser.org/resources/resources/resources-detail-view/ser-international-primer-on-ecological-restoration
*  Water most likely basis for complex ecosystem development
... Astronomy Space. January 10, 2011 Water most likely basis for complex ecosystem development January 10, 2011 By Steve Nerlich, Universe Today. But given the chemical possibilities available from the most abundant elements in the universe, even an alien scientist with a different biochemistry would probably agree that a water-solvent-based biochemistry is quite likely to occur elsewhere in the universe and might well be the most likely foundation for a complex ecosystem in which intelligent life could develop. Based on what we know of life and biochemistry, it seems likely that an alien biochemistry will need a solvent like water and one or more elemental units for its structure and function like carbon. Nonetheless, from the list of potentially abundant solvents in the universe, water looks to be the best candidate to support a complex ecosystem. Water also has the advantages of: having strong hydrogen bonds that gives it a strong surface tension three times that of liquid ammonia which would encourage t...
http://phys.org/news/2011-01-basis-complex-ecosystem.html
*  Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review - NERC Open Res
... earch Archive. nerc.ac.uk. Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS Simple Metadata iShare HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote Dublin Core iShare OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. 2011 Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review. The historical development of dune woodland during these stable phases has been documented for sites all over Europe. During roughly the past century a tendency of increasing fixation and succession is observed on coastal dunes throughout northwest Europe. 1 Changes in land use, mainly abandonment of agricultural practices, have led to the development of late successional stages such as scrub and woodland. 3 A general tendency of landscape fixation is observed due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. 4 Eutrophi...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/8794/
*  IDL-BNC @ IDRC: Urban Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health: Linkages between Research Results and Po
... licy Development: Kathmandu Case Study - A Response. . English. français. Skip navigation. Home. About. IDRC Digital Library. IDRC Library. Conditions of Use. Search. Browse. Themes and Sub-Themes. Browse Items by:. Titles. Authors. Subjects. Date. Help. Login. Log into the IDRC Digital Library. Subscribe to Alerts. IDL-BNC @ IDRC. IDRC / CRDI. IDRC Research Results / Résultats de recherches du CRDI. Attribution: Please use this identifier to share, cite, or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/49623. Title: Urban Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health: Linkages between Research Results and Policy Development: Kathmandu Case Study - A Response. Authors: Waltner-Toews, David. Keywords: ECHINOCOCCOSIS EPIDEMIOLOGY DOG DISEASES ECOSYSTEM APPROACHES NEPAL--KATHMANDU. Date: 2003. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/49623. Project Number: 100840. Project Title: International For...
http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/handle/10625/49623
*  Editorial. Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems, pollen calibration and quantitative reconstructi
... on of past land cover - ePrints Soton. . Advanced Search University Home. ePrints Soton Policies Latest Additions Download Statistics Browse by Year Browse by Subject Browse by School. Login. RSS 1.0. RSS 2.0. Atom. Editorial. Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems, pollen calibration and quantitative reconstruction of past land cover. Gaillard, Marie-José, Sugita, Shinya, Bunting, Jane, Dearing, John and Bittmann, Felix eds. 2008 Editorial. Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems, pollen calibration and quantitative reconstruction of past land cover. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 175, 5, 415-418. doi:10.1007/s00334-008-0170-x. Download Full text not available from this repository. Original Publication URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00334-008-0170-x. Item Type: Article. ISSNs:. 0939-6314 print. Related URLs:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003...008-0170-x. Subjects:. G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography Q Science QK Botany. Divisions:. University Structure - Pre A...
http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/64014/
*  WHO | Ecosystem goods and services for health
Ecosystem goods and services for health. Play Store. Climate change and human health. Climate change and human health Global environmental change Policy Training Projects Media centre Partnerships Resources Publications Links. Ecosystem goods and services for health. Why do ecosystems matter for human health. Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. From the availability of adequate food and water, to disease regulation of vectors, pests, and pathogens, human health and well-being depends on these services and conditions from the natural environment. Human health ultimately depends upon ecosystem products and services such as availability of fresh water, food and fuel sources which are requisite for good human health and productive livelihoods. The types of health effects experienced are determined by the degree to which local population’s depend on ecosystem services, and factors such as poverty which affect vulnerability to changes in elements like access to food and water. Th...
http://who.int/globalchange/ecosystems/en/
*  Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems|
Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems. Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems. Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems EPA Grant Number: FP916315 Title: Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems Investigators:. Recipients Lists Research Category: Fellowship - Terrestrial Ecology and Ecosystems, Academic Fellowships, Ecological Indicators/Assessment/Restoration Description: Objective: The objective of this research is to examine linkages between terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, focusing on the role of highly mobile organisms as vectors of nutrients. I intend to characterize and quantify links between Pacific salmon, brown bears Ursus arctos, and riparian ecosystem functioning in terms of nutrient cycling and primary productivity. By illuminating the mechanisms through which salmon-derived nu...
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/7309/report/0
*  B1510F07 L18 ecosystems2 - Gross vs. Net Primary Production Gross primary
Net Primary Production Gross primary. Find Study Resources. Main Menu. Main Menu. View Flashcards. Create Flashcards. Upload Documents. Upload Documents. Find Study Resources. View Flashcards. Create Flashcards. Upload Documents. Upload Documents. Sign up. Georgia Tech. Net Primary Production... Georgia Tech. TYPE Notes. This preview shows pages 1 11. Sign up to view the full content. View Full Document. BIOL 1510 Fall 2007 Gross vs. Net Primary Production Gross primary production GPP. Net primary production NPP. The energy/biomass retained in excess of primary producer respiration. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. View Full Document. Net PP of Major Ecosystems why these peaks. Terrestrial Primary Production. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. View Full Document. Marine Primary Production. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. View Full Document. This preview has inten...
https://coursehero.com/file/79464/B1510F07-L18-ecosystems2/
*  Ecological Succession
"Ecological succession" is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. This observed change over time in what is living in a particular ecosystem is "ecological succession". As long as the ecosystem's set of environmental conditions remains constant, those species optimally adapted to those conditions will flourish. The "engine" of succession, the cause of ecosystem change, is the impact of established species have upon their own environments. The rise and the decline of numerous species within our various communities illustrates both of the types of motive forces of succession: the impact of an established species to change a site's environmental conditions, and the impact of large external forces to suddenly alter the environmental nature of a site. The consequence of this hardwood tree growth is the increased shading and subsequent mortality of the sun loving red pines by the shade tolerant hardwood seedlings. The shaded forest floor conditions generated by...
http://php.scripts.psu.edu/dept/nkbiology/naturetrail/succession.htm
*  Ecosystems Assignment
... Writing Assignment on Ecosystems Complete the following questions and s ubmit answers for grade. We hear the word ecosystem used frequently in the news today. In your own words, explain what an ecosystem is. Be specific. 2 Describe in as much detail as you can what factors determine the type of ecosystem biome found in a given geographic area. 3 Select an ecosystem pond, salt marsh, deciduous forest, old field, etc. and explain a food web that occurs in that ecosystem. Label plants and animals as specifically as possible and indicate the trophic level they occupy. 4 It is intuitively obvious that there are few large predators in an ecosystem; there is even a book about why large, fierce animals are rare. The grizzly bear requires any where from 11 square miles to 1000 square miles of habitat for its home range. The average in the Brooks Range of Alaska where there is minimal human interference is 521 square miles. Range size seems to be at least a factor of richness of food supplies. From your knowledge ...
http://community.tncc.edu/faculty/zahn/EcologyWeb/ecosyste1.htm
*  Uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements |
uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements fluxnet primary links home about fluxnet introduction methodology tools why develop a flux network sponsors fluxnet database what s new data data search data policies site data availability data citation modis land products subset flux data processing code phenopix code to process digital photos archived flux data submit data webmap server eos land validation data lat long converter resources news announcements job postings newsletters meetings workshops participants publications fluxnet mailing list young scientist network regional networks photo gallery maps graphics useful links help frequently asked questions general scientific contact home biblio uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements morgan monroe state forest title uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements publication type journal article y...
http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/node/1094
*  Nutrient Cycles: Recycling in Ecosystems, The Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles
 Nutrient Cycles: Recycling in Ecosystems, The Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles. Biology. Adaptation Classification Ecosystems Evolution Food and Energy Human Influence Nutrient Cycles Predation Studying Ecosystems Other Sections Biochemistry Cell Biology Ecology Genetics Human Biology Microbiology Plant Biology. Nutrient Cycles. Recycling in and Ecosystem Nutrient cycles look at how important molecules in an ecosystem are transferred. Like energy, these nutrients are never lost from the cycle, merely stored in a different form - be it fossil fuels, living organisms or CO 2. The Carbon Cycle All life is based on carbon; it is contained in proteins, carbohydrates ; indeed all organic molecules contain carbon. So it is the most important nutrient in an ecosystem. The carbon cycle involves several stages of carbon being fixed incorporated as part of by plants from the atmosphere. Below is an example of a carbon cycle, they can be represented a number of ways, and this is just one example. Although much is said about ...
http://scienceaid.co.uk/biology/ecology/nutrient.html
*  Ecosystems of the World - 4th Grade Worksheets | Education.com
Ecosystems of the World - 4th Grade Worksheets. Education.com. Try Premium. As a Plus or Pro member, get unlimited access to: Over 15,000 Worksheets Over 300 Printable Workbooks Hundreds of Fun Games and Activities Get Started. Sign In. Already a member. Sign in Become a free basic member: Get free worksheets plus activities, articles, and science projects. Sign Up. Games. Worksheets. Workbooks. Activities. Lesson Plans. Science Projects. More. Log In. Ecosystems of the World. set. All living things must adapt to different conditions, depending on where in the world they are. Study the ecosystems of the world with this series. Download All 13. Download All is only available to Education.com Plus and Pro members. Learn More. Click on a worksheet in the set below to see more info or download the PDF. Desert Ecosystem Download Worksheet More info Give your student a fun reading page and word search, filled with fun facts all about the Earth's desert ecosystem. Grasslands Ecosystem Download Worksheet More info Gi...
http://education.com/slideshow/ecosystems-slideshow/temperate-forest/
*  Primary production
Overview {{anchor|GPP and NPP}}Gross primary production and net primary production Terrestrial production Oceanic production Light. Primary Production and Plant Biomass for the Earth From R.H. Gross primary production and net primary production. Terrestrial Higher Plant Respiration and Net Primary Production. Net primary production is the rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy; it is equal to the difference between the rate at which the plants in an ecosystem produce useful chemical energy GPP and the rate at which they use some of that energy during respiration. Net photosynthesis in the water column is determined by the interaction between the photic zone and the mixed layer. When it is much deeper than the photic zone, this results in phytoplankton spending too much time in the dark for net growth to occur. However, as long as the photic zone is deep enough, primary production may continue below the mixed layer where light-limited growth rates mean that nutrients ar...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_production
*  Ecology and Society: Linking Future Ecosystem Services and Future Human Well-being
ecology and society linking future ecosystem services and future human well being table well being and ecosystem services vary substantially over these four scenarios which differ according to their evolution of policies ecosystem services and institutions global orchestration free trade and a good heart reign in this scenario there is a determined effort to fight poverty and inequality as a result there is a huge boost in food and other provisioning services in developing countries however the general approach to ecosystem services is reactive rather than preventative the costs are borne by regulating services such as climate change and a loss in cultural services order from strength the world fragments into regional markets and alliances nations are obsessed with security issues and the tragedy of the commons deepens most categories of ecosystem services decline especially in developing countries technogarden this is a globally connected world with abundant green technology and a focus on preventing ecosyst...
http://ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art30/table1.html
*  Populations and Ecosystem 1: dead organisms and returns the raw ...
... For the best experience please enable JavaScript. Create Free Flashcards. Quizzes. Browse Free Quizzes. Populations and Ecosystem 1. dead organisms and returns the raw material to the environment. View Populations and Ecosystem 1 as Flashcard Deck. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 Consumers that eat only animals. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 Consumers that eats both plant and animals. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 eats both plants and animal 9/10. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 consumers that feed on the bodies of dead organisms Every hour. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 What are the three levels or catagories that are used to tell how much trouble a species is in. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 What are animals needs affected by. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 What animal has the biggest impact on survival of other animals. missymayholly Answer...
http://funnelbrain.com/c-40230-last-few-centuries-number-species-becoming-extinct-on-earth.html
*  Example Ecosystem Services Report Card | World Resources Institute
Example Ecosystem Services Report Card. WRI China. WRI India. WRI Indonesia. WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities. CAIT 2.0 – WRI’s climate data explorer. Electricity Governance Initiative EGI. Menu What We Do. Climate Energy Food Forests Water Sustainable Cities Business Economics Finance Governance Project Directory Top Outcomes Our Approach Support our Work Where We Work. Africa Brazil China India Indonesia More... Publications Maps Data. Charts Graphs Data Sets Data Visualizations Maps Presentations Videos Blog News Events About. Mission Goals Strategic Plan Managing for Results Experts Staff Board of Directors Annual Reports Donors Sustainability at WRI Get Involved: Individuals Get Involved: Corporations Careers. Donate. Topics Climate Energy Food Forests Water Sustainable Cities. Search Search. Business Economics Finance Governance. Maps Data. Example Ecosystem Services Report Card. Example Ecosystem Services Report Card. This hypothetical "report card" summarizes the state of ecosystem services in t...
http://wri.org/resources/charts-graphs/example-ecosystem-services-report-card
*  USGS: Science Topics: grassland ecosystems
... USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Science Topics. Biological resource status and trends: Grassland ecosystems. Information concerning status and trends of biological resources, focusing on Grassland ecosystems Maps of distribution and abundance of selected species of birds on uncultivated native upland grasslands and shrubsteppe in the northern Great Plains. Links to maps of breeding distributions of bird species on grasslands and shrublands in the northern Great Plains. Avian conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region, Northern Great Plains-Understanding the links between climate, ecosystem processes, wetland management, and bird communities. Guide to identification, selection, and management of grassland habitats in Wisconsin to conserve the populations of grassland birds. Biological resource status and trends: Savanna ecosystems. Information concerning status and trends of biological resources, focusing on savanna ecosystems Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Homepage for the Northern Prairi...
http://usgs.gov/science/science.php?term=499&b=0&n=20
*  Ecosystem ecology
... These include primary productivity production of biomass, decomposition, and trophic interactions. in: 'Ecology' 84:2867-2876. Biogeochemistry and hydrology focus on several fundamental ecosystem processes such as biologically mediated chemical cycling of nutrients and physical-biological cycling of water. Trophic dynamics. Net primary productivity NPP is the primary measure of biomass accumulation within an ecosystem. Decomposition and nutrient cycling are fundamental to ecosystem biomass production. Decomposition of plant litter accounts for the majority of nutrients recycled through ecosystems Figure 3. Rates of plant litter decomposition are highly dependent on litter quality; high concentration of phenolic compounds, especially lignin, in plant litter has a retarding effect on litter decomposition. "Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics". Globally, rates of decomposition are mediated by litter quality and climate. Ecosystems dominated by plants with low-lignin co...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem_ecology
*  Dollar Value of Ecosystem Services
Climate Change. Health. Ecosystem Services. Ecosystem Services. Environmental Health. Holzman*, appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Accounting for Nature's Benefits: The Dollar Value of Ecosystem Services Healthy ecosystems provide us with fertile soil, clean water, timber, and food. In 1997 Robert Costanza, Distinguished University Professor of sustainability at Portland State University, Oregon, and colleagues first estimated that ecosystem services worldwide are worth an average $33 trillion annually $44 trillion in today s dollars, nearly twice the global GNP of around $18 trillion $24 trillion in today s dollars. But he adds that some benefits probably came at the expense of natural capital elsewhere in the world, as declines in forest cutting coincided with a rise in imported timber. Another leader in guiding decision makers on payments for ecosystem services is the Natural Capital NatCap Project, cofounded by Stanford s Daily in ...
http://eoearth.org/view/article/51cbf2fa7896bb431f6ab6aa/?topic=49575
*  Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author "van Wijk, Mark T."
... Toggle navigation. . Login. About WHOAS Toggle navigation. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author. WHOAS Home. Marine Biological Laboratory. Ecosystems Center. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author. WHOAS Home. Marine Biological Laboratory. Ecosystems Center Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search WHOAS. This Collection. Browse. All of WHOAS Communities Collections By Issue Date Authors Titles Keywords This Collection By Issue Date Authors Titles Keywords. My Account. Login Register. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author "van Wijk, Mark T.". 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. Go. Sort by:. title issue date submit date. Order:. ascending descending. Results:. 5 10 20 40 60 80 100. Update. Now showing items 1-4 of 4. title. issue date. submit date. ascending. descending. 5. 10. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. The contribu...
https://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org/handle/1912/13/browse?value=van Wijk, Mark T.&type=author
*  Connell–Slatyer model of ecological succession
... Ecological succession can be understood as a process of changing species composition within a community due to an ecological disturbance, and varies largely according to the initial disturbance prompting the succession. The 1977 study The Models Facilitation Model. their relative success in later-successional stages .' Connell & Slatyer, 1121-1124. thumb|200px|Facilitation Model Based on the assumption that only particular species with qualities ideal for “early succession” can colonize the newly exposed landforms after an ecological disturbance. ::*Thus, the presence of early successional species often changes the environment so that the habitat is less hospitable for the original species’ own ecological demands and facilitates the invasion of later-successional species. thumb|200px|Tolerance Model In this case, new pioneer species neither inhibit nor facilitate the growth and success of other species. Eventually, dominant species replace or reduce pioneer species abundance through competition. thumb|20...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connell–Slatyer_model_of_ecological_succession
*  Irrigated rice and ecosystem services (22.02.11) - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ - Fors
Irrigated rice and ecosystem services 22.02.11 - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ - Forschen für die Umwelt. Kontakt. Ausschreibungen Vergaben. Impressum/Datenschutz. Glossar. Sitemap. Forschen für die Umwelt. Start Forschung Fachbereiche Presse Veranstaltungen Karriere Service Über uns. Veranstaltungen Vorträge Irrigated rice and ecosystem services 22.02.11. Start. Forschung. Fachbereiche. Presse. Veranstaltungen. Helmholtz Environmental Lecture. Antimony 2015. Vorträge. Wasser und Umwelt. Chemicals in the Environment. UFZ-Kolloquium. Leipziger Umweltstammtisch. Messen und Ausstellungen. Karriere. Service. Über uns. UFZ Vorlesungsreihe "Biodiversität und Landnutzung". Irrigated rice and biodiversity related ecosystem services the LEGATO project. PD Dr. Josef Settele Department Biozönoseforschung, UFZ. 22. Februar 2011, 15:00 h im Leipziger KUBUS. General aim of LEGATO: LEGATO stands for: L and-use intensity and E cological En G ineering A ssessment T ools for risks and O pportunities in irrigated ri...
http://ufz.de/index.php?de=19878
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=2816
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=2842
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=2843
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=3107
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=3116
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=3807
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?item=30801&related=11203
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO&query=climate AND change
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO&query=water
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Arthropods
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Coral AND (restoration OR recovery)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Earth Surface Dynamics Program
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Eels AND (diversity OR life history OR life histories)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Feral Pigs
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Forecasting%20&%20Mapping
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Land-based Pollution AND Coral Reefs
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Mussels AND (restoration OR recovery)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Natural Resource Management
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Shad AND (diversity OR life history OR life histories)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Sunfish
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=snake
*  Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title
... WHOAS Home. Ecosystems Center. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title. WHOAS Home. Ecosystems Center Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title. title issue date submit date. title. issue date. Johnson, David S. Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China . Chemical nitrogen N fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. The freshwater system west of the Antarctic Peninsula : spatial and temporal changes . Climate change west of the Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapid of anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere, with associated changes in the rates and distributions of freshwater inputs to the ocean. Future effects of ozone on carbon sequestration and climate change policy using a global biogeochemical model . Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone . Multiple environmental changes will ...
https://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org/handle/1912/13/browse?order=ASC&rpp=20&sort_by=1&etal=-1&offset=77&type=title
*  Performance ecosystems: Which model is right for you? - Dupress
Performance ecosystems: Which model is right for you. - Dupress. Dupress. Featured. Close menu. Internet of Things. Deloitte Review: Issue 17. Press Room podcasts. Videos. Authors. All Collections. Topics. Close menu. Analytics. Customer Business Growth. Digital Emerging Technology. Innovation Business Models. Operating Performance. Risk Security. Social Impact. Sustainability. Talent. Industries. Close menu. Consumer Industrial Products. Energy Resources. Financial Services. Life Sciences Health Care. Public Sector. Tech, Media Telecom. Periodicals. Close menu. Asia Pacific Economic Outlook. Behind the Numbers. Deloitte Review. Global Economic Outlook. Issues by the Numbers. Signals for Strategists. Trends. US Economic Forecast. Search. Download This Article. Performance Ecosystems. Download a PDF. Download for Kindle. SHARE THIS ARTICLE. Performance Ecosystems. Facebook. Twitter. Linkedin. Email. Performance Ecosystems. A decision framework to take performance to the next level. No company is an island—each...
http://dupress.com/articles/performance-ecosystems-which-model-is-right-for-you/?top=7
*  SERC - Lab CO2: Ecosystem Gas Exchange
... Ecosystem Gas Exchange In order to establish the amount of carbon assimilated by the scrub oak ecosystem exposed to elevated CO 2, we periodically measure net ecosystem gas exchange using the open top chamber fitted with a ventilated top to prevent the backflow of outside air. Hymus et al. Net ecosystem gas exchange NEE was shown to be very close to the measurements obtained by eddy flux methods in scrub oak of the same age Dore et al. Measurements of NEE at elevated CO 2 shows growth in elevated CO 2 increased maximum NEE from 50% in the winter to 180% in the summer Hymus et al., 2003. When expressed per unit leaf area the stimulation of NEE ranged from 7% to 60%, with the increase depending on soil water content: the greater the soil water, the greater was the stimulation of NEE. At night, CO 2 effluxes from the ecosystem were on average 39% higher in elevated CO 2 and varied between 6% and 64%: increased biomass of leaves, high temperature and wetter soil produced greater ecosystem respiration during ...
http://serc.si.edu/labs/co2/florida_gas_exchange.aspx
*  Conditions Under Which Nitrogen Can Limit Steady-State Net Primary Production in a General Class of
... Ecosystem Models - Springer. Conditions Under Which Nitrogen Can Limit Steady-State Net Primary Production in a General Class of Ecosystem Models. L Menge. Affiliated with National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University. Share Share this content on Facebook Share this content on Twitter Share this content on LinkedIn. Related Content. CrossRef. CrossRef. Molybdenum limitation of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest soils. CrossRef. Oecologia 165 2 :511–20. PubMed. CrossRef. Benner JW, Conroy S, Lunch CK, Toyoda N, Vitousek PM. Biotropica 39 3 :400–5. CrossRef. Ecology 73 6 :2022–33. CrossRef. Cleveland CC, Townsend AR, Schimel DS, Fisher H, Howarth RW, Hedin LO, Perakis SS, Latty EF, Von Fischer JC, Elseroad A et al. Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen N-2 fixation in natural ecosystems. CrossRef. Crews TE, Farrington H, Vitousek PM. Organic matter and nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen fixation during ea...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-011-9426-x
*  SEEA Ecosystems EGM
PDF 22 KB. PDF 21 KB. PDF 172 KB. Presentation of Discussant on policy applications P. PPT 5,309 KB. PDF 1,393 KB. An Experimental Framework for Simplified Ecosystem Capital Accounts J.L. PDF 251 KB. Presentation of Discussant on structure of accounts C. PPT 534 KB. ISSUE 3 Land cover mapping, land cover classifications, and accounting units. Land Cover Mapping in Canada with Respect to Ecosystem Accounting P. PDF 1,781 KB. PDF 456 KB. PDF 142 KB. Accounting Units for Ecosystem Accounts A. PDF 54 KB. Land Cover Classification for Ecosystem Accounting A. PDF 1,017 KB. Presentation of Discussant on land cover mapping, land cover classifications, and accounting units L. PPT 291 KB. PDF 224 KB. Accounting for Carbon in the National Accounting Framework: A Note on Methodology H. Gundimeda. PDF 56 KB. Haines-Young, J.L. PDF 440 KB. Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Carbon Accounting of SEEA Ecosystem Accounts J. PDF 140 KB. Provision of Ecosystem Services by Soil Resources R. PDF 3,615 KB. Presentation of Discussant on c...
http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaLES/egm/lod.htm
*  Ecosystems | NRCS
Ecosystems. NRCS. Skip Navigation. Natural Resources Conservation Service South Dakota. United States Department of Agriculture Topics. Technical Resources. Conservation Planning. Data, Maps, Analysis. Ecological Science. Engineering. Land Use. State Technical Committee. Soils. Soil Health. Soil Surveys. Water. Watersheds. Water Resources. Air. Air Quality. Plants Animals. Energy. People. Partners. Teachers and Students. Volunteers. NRCS Employees. Programs. Farm Bill. Financial Assistance. Easements. Landscape Initiatives. Landscape Planning. Newsroom. News Releases. Features. Photos and Videos. Public Notices. Publications Fact Sheets. Success Stories. Contact Us. Local Service Centers. State Office. Feedback Forms. About Us. . National Centers. . State Websites. . Enter Keyword, Phrase, or Text to search the site. Browse By Audience. . A-Z Index. . Advanced Search. . Help. You are Here: Home / Technical Resources / Ecosystems. Stay Connected. . Loading Tree... Technical Resources Conservation Planning. Con...
http://nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/sd/technical/?cid=nrcs141p2_036553
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CIazzdGj6pECFRynQQodMyWDWw
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CIei2rnD45ECFRlbiAodgV_ziQ
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CJSyq-HHu5ECFQQeewodo3Bj5A
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CN-3xfjb15ECFQgrlAodEgRHaA
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CN_3z7H_v5ECFQslHgodSxKcyQ
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CNa2p-uC15ECFQmJTAodxGoxdg
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=COD9hb-F0JECFSYCkgodsFeCyw
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=COLz_Nb_7Y8CFSIPTAoduyxrGg
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=COOs7YTmwo8CFQsvYAodFVJAlQ
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=COvR5tOGtZECFQqMTAodqRdUYQ
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CPaNvq315ZECFQsNkgoduSwwcA

Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.EcosystemMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAMBER: AMBER (an acronym for Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement) is a family of force fields for molecular dynamics of biomolecules originally developed by Peter Kollman's group at the University of California, San Francisco. AMBER is also the name for the molecular dynamics software package that simulates these force fields.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Doob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentNonlinear system: In physics and other sciences, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle – meaning that the output of a nonlinear system is not directly proportional to the input.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Infrastructure Lifecycle Management: Infrastructure Lifecycle Management (ILM) is a term coined by the real estate sector. It covers the management of all core processes around planning, construction, operation, maintenance and commercialization of buildings or property.Dermanyssus gallinae: Dermanyssus gallinae (also known as the red mite, poultry mite, red poultry mite, roost mite and chicken mite) is an ectoparasite of poultry and other bird species.Staphylococcus microti: Staphylococcus microti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. This species was originally isolated from viscera of the common vole, Microtus arvalis.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Genetic variation: right|thumbThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Meramec Conservation AreaMicrobial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Veronica LakeTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Acoustical oceanography: Acoustical oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents.Erythronium japonicum: Katakuri (Erythronium japonicum; ) is a pink-flowered species trout lily, belonging to the Lily family and native to Japan, Korea, the Russian Far East (Sakhalin Island, Kuril Islands) and northeastern China (Jilin and Liaoning).Flora of China v 24 p 126Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families It is a spring ephemeral, blooming April–June in woodlands.Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventCalifornia Wolf Center: California Wolf Center is a 501(c)3 nonprofit located 50 miles east of San Diego, near the town of Julian, California. It is a one-of-a-kind, conservation, education, and research center dedicated to wolf recovery in the wild.PhytoplanktonLow Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Silver fox (animal): The silver fox is a melanistic form of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Silver foxes display a great deal of pelt variation: some are completely black except for a white coloration on the tip of the tail, some are bluish-grey, and some may have a cinereous color on the sides.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Dactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesSnow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Psorophora howardiiPermissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.List of drainage basins by area: The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than are included as well as selected smaller basins.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Andesobia jelskiiSymbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Antelope: An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae, encompassing those Old World species that are not cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, or goats.Victor Willard: Victor M. Willard (1813 – December 10, 1869) was an American farmer from Waterford, Wisconsin who spent two years (1849–1850) as a Free Soil Party member of the Wisconsin State Senate from the 17th District.Ellobiopsis: Ellobiopsis is a genus of alveolae parasitic protozoa.Planorbella trivolvis: Planorbella trivolvis is a species of freshwater air-breathing snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails, or planorbids, which all have sinistral or left-coiling shells.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Ruminant: Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again.Monarch Butterfly Biosphere ReserveDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Ecosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.Philornis downsi: Philornis downsi is a species of fly (Diptera, Muscidae) that was first recorded in Trinidad and Brazil in the 1990s.Dudaniec RY, Fessl B & Kleindorfer S.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Rice weevilChrysomya albiceps: Chrysomya albiceps is a species belonging to the blow fly family, Calliphoridae. It is of great medical and sanitary importance, being associated with myiasis in Africa and America although it plays a more significant role as a predator of other dipteran larvae.Central Park Medical UnitDiseases and parasites in salmonWaterfalls of Montana: There are at least 120 named waterfalls in Montana.Kittiwake: The kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake (R. tridactyla) and the red-legged kittiwake (R.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Alkaliflexus: Alkaliflexus is a genus in the phylum Bacteroidetes (Bacteria).Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Clean Water State Revolving Fund: The Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) is a self-perpetuating loan assistance authority for water quality improvement projects in the United States. The fund is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and state agencies.Aedes aegyptiReaction coordinateAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Weed control: Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with domesticated plants and livestock. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Coles Phillips

(1/4953) Prediction of genetic contributions and generation intervals in populations with overlapping generations under selection.

A method to predict long-term genetic contributions of ancestors to future generations is studied in detail for a population with overlapping generations under mass or sib index selection. An existing method provides insight into the mechanisms determining the flow of genes through selected populations, and takes account of selection by modeling the long-term genetic contribution as a linear regression on breeding value. Total genetic contributions of age classes are modeled using a modified gene flow approach and long-term predictions are obtained assuming equilibrium genetic parameters. Generation interval was defined as the time in which genetic contributions sum to unity, which is equal to the turnover time of genes. Accurate predictions of long-term genetic contributions of individual animals, as well as total contributions of age classes were obtained. Due to selection, offspring of young parents had an above-average breeding value. Long-term genetic contributions of youngest age classes were therefore higher than expected from the age class distribution of parents, and generation interval was shorter than the average age of parents at birth of their offspring. Due to an increased selective advantage of offspring of young parents, generation interval decreased with increasing heritability and selection intensity. The method was compared to conventional gene flow and showed more accurate predictions of long-term genetic contributions.  (+info)

(2/4953) Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes.

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the origins of Native Americans. Our sample consisted of 2,198 males from 60 global populations, including 19 Native American and 15 indigenous North Asian groups. A set of 12 biallelic polymorphisms gave rise to 14 unique Y-chromosome haplotypes that were unevenly distributed among the populations. Combining multiallelic variation at two Y-linked microsatellites (DYS19 and DXYS156Y) with the unique haplotypes results in a total of 95 combination haplotypes. Contra previous findings based on Y- chromosome data, our new results suggest the possibility of more than one Native American paternal founder haplotype. We postulate that, of the nine unique haplotypes found in Native Americans, haplotypes 1C and 1F are the best candidates for major New World founder haplotypes, whereas haplotypes 1B, 1I, and 1U may either be founder haplotypes and/or have arrived in the New World via recent admixture. Two of the other four haplotypes (YAP+ haplotypes 4 and 5) are probably present because of post-Columbian admixture, whereas haplotype 1G may have originated in the New World, and the Old World source of the final New World haplotype (1D) remains unresolved. The contrasting distribution patterns of the two major candidate founder haplotypes in Asia and the New World, as well as the results of a nested cladistic analysis, suggest the possibility of more than one paternal migration from the general region of Lake Baikal to the Americas.  (+info)

(3/4953) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

(4/4953) Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona.

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

(5/4953) A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona.

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.  (+info)

(6/4953) The changing elderly population and future health care needs.

The impending growth of the elderly population requires both fiscal and substantive changes in Medicare and Medicaid that are responsive to cost issues and to changing patterns of need. More emphasis is required on chronic disease management, on meaningful integration between acute and long-term care services, and on improved coordination between Medicare and Medicaid initiatives. This paper reviews various trends, including the growth in managed-care approaches, experience with social health maintenance organizations and Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly demonstrations, and the need for a coherent long-term care policy. Such policies, however, transcend health care and require a broad range of community initiatives.  (+info)

(7/4953) Sex-biased dispersal in sperm whales: contrasting mitochondrial and nuclear genetic structure of global populations.

The social organization of most mammals is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal. Such sex-biased dispersal can cause the genetic structure of populations to differ between the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the bi-parental nuclear genome. Here we report on the global genetic structure of oceanic populations of the sperm whale, one of the most widely distributed mammalian species. Groups of females and juveniles are mainly found at low latitudes, while males reach polar waters, returning to tropical and subtropical waters to breed. In comparisons between oceans, we did not find significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies of microsatellite loci (exact test; p = 0.23). Estimates of GST = 0.001 and RST = 0.005 also indicated negligible if any nuclear DNA differentiation. We have previously reported significant differentiation between oceans in mtDNA sequences. These contrasting patterns suggest that interoceanic movements have been more prevalent among males than among females, consistent with observations of females being the philopatric sex and having a more limited latitudinal distribution than males. Consequently, the typical mammalian dispersal pattern may have operated on a global scale in sperm whales.  (+info)

(8/4953) Patient health management: a promising paradigm in Canadian healthcare.

Disease management, or the focused application of resources to achieve desired health outcomes, began in Canada in 1971 with the introduction of a universal healthcare program and a single government payor. Although relatively unfocused and nonrestrictive by contemporary standards, this program was successful in terms of outcomes. However, it is expensive, and Canada's rapidly aging population is fueling a growing demand for more efficacious medical therapies. As a result, isolated services are being restricted in an effort to reduce costs. As a result of these changes and low prescription and patient compliance rates for efficacious therapies, total system costs have risen, there is a growing concern about deterioration of health outcomes, and stakeholders are dissatisfied. To optimize healthcare outcomes and reduce costs, a new paradigm--patient health management (PHM)--has emerged. With PHM, clinical and cost outcomes are continually measured and communicated to providers in an attempt to promote more efficacious care. PHM also seeks to avoid restrictive practices that are now associated with detrimental health outcomes and increased costs. PHM has proved successful when applied to acute and chronic cardiac disease treatment. It remains untested for most other diseases, but available data suggest that the comprehensive, evidence-based disease and systems management that characterizes PHM is likely to achieve the best health outcomes for the most people at the lowest possible costs.  (+info)


What are the dynamics of opening a window?


What are the dynamics of opening a window?
what actually happends when you open a window? And will doing this get rid of the smell of smoke? is it better to have a fan and window, just window or just fan?
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opening a window exposes the room to the environment, and air likes to mix together as well as possible until the air outside has the same proportion of smoke molecules as the air inside.

if you got smoke, the cleaner air from outside enters and the dirtier, smokier air escapes until both air masses are equally filled with smoke. since there's a much bigger supply of air outside, it's gonna take a lot of smoke to make the entire outside airmass as smoky as your room, so the outside air will "steal" all the smoke in your room.


What population of people have a caffeine addiction?


I need to know what type of population has caffeine addictions and what the treatment plan is.
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Depends on how you define addiction. 

If addiction is defined by withdrawal symptoms, then as an above poster said, 90% is a fair estimate of the caffeine drinking population worldwide, if you include milder versions like green tea in the East, and these people would likely all experience some degree of withdrawal if caffeine were withheld. 

If addiction is defined by the consequences of the substance use, then you'd have to make the case that a caffeine addict suffers relationship problems, money problems, and other addiction related consequences due to their consumption of caffeine.


When the government introduces population control, how will it work?


It's going to happen sooner or later with global warming, as global over-population is one of the major contributing factors to climate change.

What would be the criteria involved in having children? Should there be genetic screening first? How would population control be enforced? Through the tax system?
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Yes if I had that power I would make these rules..

•Put a limit of two children to every couple...If you exceed the limit after the year 2009 you will pay a tax....I think the rule of one child in China is to harsh.
•If one of your children dies you can fill their place with another pregnancy.
•People will be paid if they adopt instead of having biological children.
•Make BC free.
•Try to get other nations to take up the law.
•This way the children don't out number the parents...over time if it were enforced everywhere would hopefully reduce the population of the world.

•AND I would also do several things to help the enviroment anyway.


If the world population is increasing how do vegetarians hope to make a difference?


If the population is increasing how do vegetarians hope to make a difference when they hold a small small minority of the world population, obviously it is better to attempt to help. But is yer choice of being a vegetarian due to the moral ethics (ie you don't agree with the standard that meat is procured etc & feel less ''sinful'' by avoiding it) 
or are you trying to make a difference through activism or denying yourself meat?
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Well, I don't like smoking cigarettes, so I don't do that either. Will I single-handedly put the entire tobacco industry to rest simply by avoiding their products? No, and I feel the same way about meat. I like animals and I take them seriously enough to not eat them. I don't need their flesh to survive, so I would rather take the ethical high-road and do what I feel is right. I don't expect to make a big difference, but the least I can say for myself is that I am not directly or purposefully contributing to the exploitation of animals. :)


What percentage of the population upstream has their urine drunk by lowerstream populations?


The water we drink comes from upstream places. I would like to know what proportion of the upstream population's urine we drink. This is the water that comes from sewage treatment plants.
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There is no urine in the water you drink except possible on the molecule level.  It would not be detectable, except after an accident.  The water is purified before being put back in the river.  Depending on the place we are talking about you could be drinking water resulting from the use by >95% of the people.  It would include all household uses including the water from bathing, washing, and laundry.  See the references on how it works.  There would be a greater amount of animal urine than human when they take it out of the river.  Again, before use, it is purified again.


What is the population of Mexico City where the flu outbreak originated?


I keep getting mixed answers about this. On the wikipedia page it says that the city has the population of 8 somewhat million people but my boyfriend insists it is 28 million. I read that the Metro area of Mexico City has a population of 28 million or so. I am puzzled by their distinction between city and metro when it is a city and not a metropolis. I'm not city expert but was the flu break out in the city part of the city or the metro?
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close to 9 million

it originated from a US military base and released in Mexico they called it swine flu but is really H1N1 this is flu bird flu, human flu and pig flu combined from other part of countries and continents and somehow it appears in Mexico.


What percent of the world population dies because of disease?


It can be any disease or disorder. Please base it on the world population and have it either in number form or percentage form. Links/Sources will be appreciated. Thanks.
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Im not going to type all of the answers, so im going to send you the link, so you can read it, it is very simple and short.
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index.html


Is there a relationship between population growth and disease?


Like in history the Black Plague caused many people to die and the population decreased for a while and yet we recovered. Is there a proven (or at least studied) relationship between death by disease and overpopulation? Any websites or history is greatly appreciated. I'm writing a paper on overpopulation. Please list the source.
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Certainly there is.  Aside from the logical conclusion of greater instances of disease conditions in proportion to population growth, there is the conclusion that more infected persons with communicable diseases will result in a greater amount of people to which the condition is passed on.

In earlier times, such as in early North American settlement, entire populations of infected areas were certainly decimated.  From examples of such occurrences, it is not unreasonable to believe that entire populations were entirely eradicated due to not enough uninfected persons - or those infected but survived -  to maintain the anent population of that area.

It may be interesting to note that in such earlier times, the survival was not due to the surviving portion of the population per se, but rather the failure of the organisms that caused the disease to survive certain condition, such as the cold winter months.

In more contemporary times, the greater instances of certain conditions – such as say, Asperger’s Syndrome – can be attributed to the growing awareness of the condition itself, and thus the availability of an established symptomatology by which to affix persons that would otherwise go unnoticed as having the condition.