Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Paramecium aurelia: A species of ciliated PARAMECIUM possessing two micronuclei.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.HomoserinePredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.BrazilHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.VietnamAnopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.ScotlandAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.CaliforniaLipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.EuropeCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.United StatesMalaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.GermanyDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.SwedenAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Post-Synaptic Density: Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).IndiaReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Great Britain

*  Ellsworth County Health Profile, 1999
; Getting Started; Population Density Peer Groups; County Map and ... Listing of Most Populated Cities. Population .pdf Population ... Trends; Population by Age Group and Gender; Population by ... ellsworth county health profile back to county health profile index page ellsworth county health profile introduction pdf foreword acknowledgments getting started population density peer groups county map and listing of most populated cities population pdf population trends population by age group and gender population by race and hispanic ethnicity by gender families and households pdf general household and family characteristics marriage and divorce physical environment pdf general housing characteristics community water systems epa watershed website economic health pdf poverty by age race ethnicity and family structure poverty ratios and poverty estimates income and unemployment public assistance and medical services pdf general public and ...
http://public1.kdhe.state.ks.us/county_health/Ellsworth/index.htm
*  Wabaunsee County Health Profile, 1999
; Getting Started; Population Density Peer Groups; County Map and ... Listing of Most Populated Cities. Population .pdf Population ... Trends; Population by Age Group and Gender; Population by ... wabaunsee county health profile back to county health profile index page wabaunsee county health profile introduction pdf foreword acknowledgments getting started population density peer groups county map and listing of most populated cities population pdf population trends population by age group and gender population by race and hispanic ethnicity by gender families and households pdf general household and family characteristics marriage and divorce physical environment pdf general housing characteristics community water systems epa watershed website economic health pdf poverty by age race ethnicity and family structure poverty ratios and poverty estimates income and unemployment public assistance and medical services pdf general public and ...
http://public1.kdhe.state.ks.us/county_health/Wabaunsee/index.htm
*  Coping with crowds : density-dependent disease resistance in desert locusts. - Research Portal | Lan
with crowds : density-dependent disease resistance in desert ... with crowds : density-dependent disease ... with crowds : density-dependent disease resistance in desert...
http://research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/coping-with-crowds--density-dependent-disease-resistance-in-desert-locusts(4004e6c5-ad02-4b6a-9b65-69efe95f5c95).html
*  Balmerino ScoP through time | Census tables with data for the Scottish Parish
statistics. Population. Housing. Boundary map. Census ... Available Themes. Population Densities and rates of growth. Age ... 1, 'Comparison of population, density per 100 acres, and houses with ... Balmerino ScoP through time. Census tables with data for the Scottish Parish. A vision of Britain through time A vision of Britain between 1801 and 2001. Including maps, statistical trends and historical descriptions. Help using this website. Home. Places. Statistical atlas. Historical maps. Census reports. Travel writing. Learning zone. Data access. Home. Britain. Scotland. Fife. Balmerino. Balmerino ScoP. Administrative unit Balmerino ScoP Scottish Parish. Historical statistics. Population. Housing. Boundary map. Census reports. Historical statistics. Relationships and changes. Available Themes. Population Densities and rates of growth. Age structure: concentrations of young people, and of the old. Housing Numbers of houses. Amenities: central heating, baths and WCs. Preferred Name: BALMERINO Unit Type:...
http://visionofbritain.org.uk/unit_page.jsp?u_id=10078593
*  Duplexes for Rent in Lamar County, TX - HotPads
square miles population density people per square mile total population k people per capita income median...
https://hotpads.com/lamar-county-tx/duplexes-for-rent
*  Apartments for Rent in Albany, VT - HotPads
square miles population density people per square mile total population people per capita income median...
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*  NEP-DEM-2012-06-25
of Excellence in Population Ageing Research CEPAR , Australian ... of Excellence in Population Ageing Research CEPAR , Australian ... " Effects of Population Density on Smallholder Agricultural...
https://ideas.repec.org/n/nep-dem/2012-06-25.html
*  Greig Associates Vancouver Ultrasound — Xray, Ultrasound, Bone Density and Mammography for Vancouv
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*  Physical Therapy, Buy Exercise Equipment, High Density Roller, 30-2200, 30-2201, 30-2210, 30-2211, 3
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*  Evaluation of epidermal nerve density and opioid receptor levels in psoriatic itch.
of epidermal nerve density and opioid receptor levels in psoriatic ... of epidermal nerve density and opioid receptor levels in psoriatic ... epidermal nerve density and opioid receptor levels in psoriatic...
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*  File
and low population density  Be able to explain why these areas ... or high population density  Be able to discuss the problems of ... and high population density  Important Population Definitions...
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*  Population Density - Biology Video by Brightstorm
... Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Algebra 2. Biology. Test Prep. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. Test Prep. Start Your Free Trial. Biology. / Population Density. Learn math, science, English SAT ACT from high-quaility study videos by expert teachers Preview playing in 3. To unlock all 5,300 videos, start your free trial. Start Your Free Trial Learn more. Population Density. 12,225 views. Patrick has been teaching AP Biology for 14 years and is the winner of multiple teaching awards. Population density is loosely defined as the number of organisms in an area divided by the amount of area. High population density can cause increased competition for resources while low population density can cause problems with finding mates and inbreeding. In studying population ecology a common measurement that is made of a population in a particular area is what is known as population density and that is simply what is the number of organisms in a particular area divided by that area. Now population densities can vary from one species t...
http://brightstorm.com/science/biology/ecology/population-density/
*  effective population size | genetics | Britannica.com
effective population size. Britannica.com. Effective population size. Effective population size , in genetics, the size of a breeding population, a factor that is determined by the number of parents, the average number of children per family, and the extent to which family size varies from the average. The determination of the effective population size of a breeding population is necessary for studies of population growth rates and of gene flow. Email. Additional resources for this article Help us expand our resources for this article by submitting a link or publication Keep exploring. What made you want to look up effective population size. MORE QUIZZES Animals and Insects: Fact or Fiction. Terms of Use. 2015 Encyclop dia Britannica, Inc. MLA style: "effective population size". Encyclop dia Britannica. Encyclop dia Britannica Online. Encyclop dia Britannica Inc., 2015. 2015 http://www.britannica.com/science/effective-population-size. APA style: effective population size. In Encyclop dia Britannica. Retrieved...
http://britannica.com/science/effective-population-size
*  Threshold host density
'Threshold host density N T ', in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density N T of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population. 1 Threshold host density N T only applies to density dependent diseases, where there is an "aggregation of risk" to the host in either high host density or low host density patches. When low host density causes an increase in incidence of parasitism or disease, this is known as inverse host density dependence, whereas when incidence of parasitism or disease is elevated in high host density conditions, it is known as direct host density dependence. Host density independent diseases show no correlation between the concentration of a given host population and the incidence of a particular disease. Host density-dependent diseases Host density-independent diseases Contact between ind...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threshold_host_density
*  Metropolitan statistical area
... List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas. In the United States, a 'metropolitan statistical area' 'MSA' is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. MSAs are defined by the Office of Management and Budget OMB and used by the Census Bureau and other federal government agencies for statistical purposes. 1 Map Definitions See also References External links. Office of Management and Budget defines a set of core based statistical area s CBSAs throughout the country. CBSAs are delineated on the basis of a central urban area or urban clusterin other words: a contiguous area of relatively high population density. Census Bureau The counties containing the core urban area are known as the 'central counties' of the CBSA. Additional surrounding counties, known as 'outlying counties', can be included in the CBSA if these counties have strong social and economic ties to the central counties as measured by commuting and employment. As well as ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolitan_statistical_area
*  Density dependence
Density-dependence in macroparasite life cycles Implications for parasite persistence and control Extinction threshold. In this life-cycle, the life expectancy of the black fly vector decreases as the worm load ingested by the vector increases. 6 Density-dependence in macroparasite life cycles. thumb|250px|right|Density-dependence processes red in filariasis life cycle In macroparasite life cycles, density-dependent processes can influence parasite fecundity, survival, and establishment. For filarial worms, density-dependent processes can act at the host/vector interface or within the host/vector life-cycle stages. Within the life-cycle stages taking place in the vector, density-dependence may influence the development of L3 larvae in vectors and vector life expectancy. Within the life-cycle stages taking place in the host, density-dependence may influence the development of microfilariae and host life expectancy. 7 In reality, combinations of negative restriction and positive facilitation density-dependent p...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Density_dependence
*  Epizootic
... In epizoology, an 'epizootic' from Greek : 'epi-' upon + 'zoon' animal is a disease event in a nonhuman animal population, analogous to an epidemic in humans. An epizootic may be: restricted to a specific locale an " outbreak ", general an "'epizootic'" or widespread " panzootic ". High population density is a major contributing factor to epizootics. Aquaculture is an industry sometimes plagued by disease because of the large number of fish confined to a small area. Defining an epizootic can be subjective; it is based upon the number of new cases in a given animal population, during a given period, and must be judged to be a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected based on recent experience 'i.e.' a sharp elevation in the incidence rate. Because it is based on what is "expected" or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like a TSE outbreak in a cervid population might be classified as an "epizootic", while many cases of a common disease like lymphocystis in esocids would not. Common ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epizootic
*  Kerma Basin
... the kerma basin is a low lying area by the nile in sudan located just below the third cataract it is the largest section of flood plain on the donogola reach at maximum extent some acres km can be inundated by the annual nile flood but a more regular year sees only about half that this creates the largest section of arable land between aswan and the fourth cataract this has led to a high population density that has long made the kerma basin one of the central portions of nubia the ancient city of kerma was in the basin and it was the core of the kingdom of kerma category nile category geography of sudan category nubia...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerma_Basin
*  tropics
... Home. Biology. Medicine. Technology. Products. News. Definition. Dictionary. Movies. Links. Tags. Search. RSS Navigation Links Biology News Medicine News Biology Products Medicine Products Biology Definition Medicine Definition Biology Technology Medicine Technology Biology Dictionary Medicine Dictionary. tropics in Medical News. Scientists say tropics are next emerging disease hotspot Scientists from four well-known institutions say the next major disease like HIV/AIDS or SARS could occur in any of a number of developing countries concentrated along the equator. They encourage increased surveillance to prevent the spread of a potential outbreak. Using global databases and so... Notion Behind Spread of Flu Epidemic may Not Hold True for the Tropics A study from Brazil has revealed that the notion that flu epidemics begin in areas of high population density and extend outwards may not be appropriate for the tropics. The study revealed that in Brazil, flu is triggered in less populated North area and moves...
http://bio-medicine.org/tag/tropics/
*  Brightwell Aquatics FlorinBacter, 500 ml
... www.marineandreef.com View Cart. My Account. About Us/Contact. Returns. Help. Your shopping cart is empty. Search. Navigation. ADDITIVES/ SUPPLEMENTS. AIR PUMPS/ CO2. AQUARIUMS. CONTROLLERS/ TESTING. DECORATIONS. FILTRATION. FOOD/ FEEDERS. HEATERS/ CHILLERS. LIGHTING. MAINTENANCE. PLUMBING. PROTEIN SKIMMERS. PUMPS. UV STERILIZERS. Quick Links. Accept Credit Cards. Join our mailing list. Join our mailing list. Home > ADDITIVES/ SUPPLEMENTS >. Additives, Supplements & Water Treatments By Type > Aquarium Additives by Type: Planted Tank > Brightwell Aquatics FlorinBacter, 500 ml. Our Price: $14.10. Stock Status:In Stock Product Code: RBA01454. Description. Technical Specs. Complete Bioculture for all Freshwater and Planted Aquaria Suspension of non-pathogenic aerobic and anaerobic microbes, as well as natural enzymes, specifically formulated to establish biological filtration in new aquarium set-ups, and to enhance the rate of nitrification, denitrification, and organic waste degradation through complete nut...
http://marineandreef.com/Brightwell_Aquatics_FlorinBacter_500_ml_p/rba01454.htm
*  Population size
... in population genetics and population ecology population size usually denoted n is the number of individual organism s in a population the effective population size n e is defined as the number of breeding individuals in an idealized population that would show the same amount of dispersion of allele frequencies under random genetic drift or the same amount of inbreeding as the population under consideration n e is usually less than n the absolute population size and this has important applications in conservation genetics small population size results in increased genetic drift population bottleneck s are when population size reduces for a short period of time overpopulation may indicate any case in which the population of any species of animal may exceed the carrying capacity of its ecological niche see also holocene extinction event population growth rate overpopulation carrying capacity lists of organisms by population category ecological metrics category population genetics...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_size
*  About project - Monitoring Ptaków Polski EN
... Strona korzysta z plików cookies w celu realizacji usług i zgodnie z Polityką Plików Cookies. Monitoring of Birds of Poland MBP is a project consisting of several programmes implemented in Poland in 2006, to fill requirements of the EU Bird Directive: the effective protection and monitor favourable conservation status of endangered species. Monitoring of Birds of Poland MBP is an extensive project, which includes 21 separate monitoring programmes designed to collect data on single species or groups of species, during both breeding, migration and wintering periods. In total, MBP covers 170 species, among which 150 are monitored during breeding season 65% of breeding avifauna, 26 in winter and 3 during migrations. The state of avian populations is characterized by two basic parameters: abundance absolute or relative numbers, i.e., indices and occupancy range size. Breeding bird populations are either censused the whole national populations monitored or sampled surveys of populations within a sample of plot...
http://monitoringptakow.gios.gov.pl/
*  Regulating factors
... in population ecology a regulating factor is something that keeps a population at equilibrium neither increasing nor decreasing in size over time an example of a regulating factor would be food supply if the population increases to a certain size there will be less food for each organism this will lead to fewer births a decrease in fecundity and more deaths making a negative growth rate as there are now fewer animal s the amount of food for each organism will increase meaning the growth rate will become positive this would lead to a large population size again and the cycle would start over therefore food is a regulating factor in this scenario as food supply keeps the population at relative equilibrium all regulating factors are density dependent meaning they keep populations at equilibrium by counteracting fluctuations in population size other regulating factors of the human population at present are drinking water supply amount of arable land obviously a more fundamental term for food air pollution an...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulating_factors
*  ARCHIVE: Exploring the Import of Health-Related Residential Mobility to Local Area Studies (Geronimu
ARCHIVE: Exploring the Import of Health-Related Residential Mobility to Local Area Studies Geronimus, Bound. Overview. Search Projects. Browse Projects. Projects by Country. PSC Small Funds. Search All. U-M Researchers. Off-Campus Researchers. Training Faculty. Pubs. Overview. Search All Pubs. Browse All Pubs. Pubs by Country. Browse PSC Reports. PSC in the News. Overview. Small Funds. Alumni Award. Data. Overview. Census. Search. Center Services. Center Overview. Alumni Fund. Freedman Fund. Weinberg Fund. PSC at 50. Search. Country. Browse. Small Grants. PSC In The News. Exploring the Import of Health-Related Residential Mobility to Local Area Studies a PSC Research Project. Geronimus, John Bound Most studies of place effects on health are ecological or multilevel analyses of cross-sectional data. But if residential mobility across local areas is health-related, common contextual interpretations of cross-sectional findings might be misleading. Few data sets both provide information on health and migration an...
http://psc.isr.umich.edu/research/project-detail/34427
*  Factors associated with child vaccination status : residential mobility and a mother's employment, k
... nowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. My ScholarSpace. . Home. Search. Browse. By Author. By Subject. By Title. By Date. Communities Collections. Contact. eVols. UH System. UHM Library. Hamilton Library Homepage. Research Tools. Personal Services. About the Library. ScholarSpace Home → Dissertations Theses → Public Health → D.P.H. - Public Health → View Item. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Item Description. Title:. Factors associated with child vaccination status : residential mobility and a mother's employment, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs . Author:. Hatcher, Penny Ann. Date:. 1993. Description:. Thesis D.P.H. --University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993. Microfiche. xv, 261 leaves, bound 29 cm. URI:. http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10262. Rights:. All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from ...
http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/10262
*  Stocking of captive-bred fish can cause long-term population decline and gene pool replacement: pred
... ictions from a population dynamics model incorporating density-dependent mortality - Springer. Stocking of captive-bred fish can cause long-term population decline and gene pool replacement: predictions from a population dynamics model incorporating density-dependent mortality. Affiliated with Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology EAWAG , Center of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry. Abstract Releasing captive-bred fish into natural environments stocking is common in fisheries worldwide. Using a population dynamics model that takes into account a density-dependent recruitment, a gene responsible for the fitness difference between wild and captive-bred fish, and hybridization between them, we show that there is little or no contribution of recurrent stocking to the stock enhancement without a replacement of the wild gene pool by the captive-bred gene pool. Share Share this content on Facebook Share this content on Twitter Share this content ...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12080-011-0128-y
*  Population reduction
... the term population reduction may be used in relation to many topics including the following population decline or depopulation reductions in human population levels for reasons such as low birth rate emigration disease or war a euphemism for genocide sometimes used by perpetrators of genocide to disguise their actions population control deliberate attempts to control human population levels typically seeking an initial reduction as opposed to an increase sometimes related to the optimum population concept culling deliberate reductions in animal or plant population levels by human action population reduction the phase preceding the extinction of a species...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_reduction
*  SOFTWARE FOR HABITAT BASED METAPOPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS | SBIR.gov
SOFTWARE FOR HABITAT BASED METAPOPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS. SBIR.gov. sba. SBIR. The SBIR Program SBIR Mission and Program Goals SBIR Participation Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business SBIR Policy Directive SBIR/STTR Inter-agency Policy Committee: Fueling Small Business Innovation Reports Annual Report Transmittal Letters STTR. The STTR Program STTR Mission and Program Goals STTR Participating Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business STTR Policy Directive Tibbetts Awards and Hall of Fame. Recognizing Excellence SBIR Hall of Fame Tibbetts Awards Roland Tibbetts SBIR Tibbetts Award Eligibility Selection Process Recent Awards Award Ceremonies FAST Partnership Program. Purpose Guidelines FAST Partnership Awards Program Announcements Congressional History Leadership. Javier Saade John Williams Birth History of SBIR Program Funding. Open Future Closed Solicitation Listing Health-Related Funding Awards. Award Listing Company Listing Analytics Dashbo...
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*  Population fluctuations and regulation in great snipe: a time series analysis › Research Explorer
... Search. Frontpage. Staff. Research units. Activities. Research output. Clippings. About. Population fluctuations and regulation in great snipe: a time series analysis Research output : Scientific - peer-review › Article. Animal Population Biology. Overview. Cite this. . Documents PDF 282 KB, PDF-document Request copy DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2007.01246.x. A Kölzsch. S.A. Saether H. Gustafsson P. Fiske J. Höglund J.A. Kålås 1. During the last centuries, the breeding range of the great snipe Gallinago media has declined dramatically in the western part of its distribution. To examine present population dynamics in the Scandinavian mountains, we collected and analysed a 19-year time series of counts of great snipe males at leks in central Norway, 1987–2005. 2 The population showed large annual fluctuations in the number of males displaying at lek sites range 45–90 males at the peak of the mating season, but no overall trend. 3 We detected presence of direct density-dependent mechanisms regulating this popula...
https://pure.knaw.nl/portal/en/publications/uuid(0dae0a2d-82f9-4170-9ea3-43071c817168).html
*  Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort - AcaWiki
... Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort From AcaWiki. Jump to: navigation, search. Citation: Wilmoth, John R. Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort. Sociological Methodology. RSS. Tagged: uw-madison. RSS, wisconsin. RSS, sociology. RSS, demography. RSS, prelim. RSS, qual. RSS, WisconsinDemographyPrelimAugust2009. RSS. Summary:. The analysis of age-specific vital rates is studied, and special attention is given to the problem of decomposing an array of rates into factors related to age, period, and cohort. A complete, symmetric decomposition of the data array into age, period, and cohort components is not attempted. Instead, the paper focuses on the age and period dimensions and derives an initial description of the matrix's structure with regard to changes only in those 2 directions. This 2-dimensional description is then augmented by a consideration of residual patterns that seem clearly linked to cohorts. The use of a model that is asymmetric in age, period, and cohort is just...
http://acawiki.org/Variation_in_Vital_Rates_by_Age,_Period,_and_Cohort
*  Matrix population models
... Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. 'Matrix population models' are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra. N t+1 = abundance at time t+1 N t = abundance at time t B = number of births within the population between N t and N t+1 D = number of deaths within the population between N t and N t+1 I = number of individuals immigrating into the population between N t and N t+1 E = number of individuals emigrating from the population between N t and N t+1. Estimates of B might be obtained via a ratio of immatures to adults soon after the breeding season, R i. Number of deaths can be obtained by estimating annual survival probability, usually via mark and recapture methods, then multipling present abundance and survival rate. For added simplicity it may help to think of time t as the end of the breeding season in year t and to imagine that one is studying a species that has only one discrete breeding season per year. : N {t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_population_models
*  Wilmoth: Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort
... Overview. Search Projects. Browse Projects. Projects by Country. PSC Small Funds. Search All. U-M Researchers. Off-Campus Researchers. Training Faculty. Pubs. Overview. Search All Pubs. Browse All Pubs. Pubs by Country. Browse PSC Reports. PSC Report Series. PSC in the News. Overview. Small Funds. Alumni Award. Data. Overview. Search. Center Overview. Alumni Fund. Freedman Fund. Hermalin Fund. Mueller Fund. Weinberg Fund. PSC at 50. Publications. Search All. Browse All. Browse PSC Pubs. PSC Report Series. PSC In The News. Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort Archived Abstract of Former PSC Researcher Wilmoth, John. "Variation in Vital Rates by Age, Period, and Cohort." PSC Research Report No. The analysis of age-specific vital rates is studied in this paper, with special attention given to the problem of decomposing an array of rates into factors related to age, period, and cohort. A complete, symmetric decomposition of the data array into age, period, and cohort components is not attempte...
http://psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/abs/790
*  genetics - Smallest viable reproducing population - Biology Stack Exchange
... Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Ask Question. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. Smallest viable reproducing population. up vote 24 down vote favorite 1. What is the smallest viable reproducing population, such as in a human population. A very strongly related question: what is the expected number of generations a given population can survive. genetics ecology population-dynamics conservation-biology share. improve this question. asked Dec 23 '11 at 2:14. add a comment. 2 Answers 2 active oldest votes. up vote 21 down vote accepted. Because the question specifically mentions human populations, I'll focus my answer on the genetics of small human populations, though considerably less information is available. 2002; Am J Hum Genet 70:673-685 present a more modern study of linkage disequilibri...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/305/smallest-viable-reproducing-population/317
*  Related: habitat conditions: Ducks Unlimited
... habitat conditions. Field Reports: Spring Habitat Conditions MJ15 Significant precipitation will be needed to maintain or improve wetland habitats in many important waterfowl breeding areas. Spring 2014 Habitat Conditions in Canada After a long winter and late spring for most areas, the breeding season is underway. Field Reports: Duck Production Outlook The stage is set for good waterfowl production across many important breeding areas. Field Reports: 2014 Spring Habitat Conditions Waterfowl should find good spring wetland conditions on many important breeding areas this year. 2013 Late Winter Habitat Conditions in Canada Late-winter habitat conditions across Canada has been average to above average so far this year. 2012 Late Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada Overall summary and regional Canada habitat conditions for late spring 2012. Field Reports: 2012 Duck Production Outlook Prospects for breeding waterfowl have improved in many areas since last report. Field Reports: 2012 Spring Habitat Conditions...
http://ducks.org/related/habitat-conditions?poe=magma14
*  Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis
... . Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis. DSpace/Manakin Repository. University of Jyväskylä. University Library. SherpaRomeo. JYKDOK. Login. Contact. Help. About JYX. en. fi. JYX front page. →. Dissertations. →. Jyväskylä Studies in Biological and Environmental Science. → View Item. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis. Name: 9789513931018.pdf. Size: 554.0Kb. Format: PDF. Downloads:. Title:. Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis. Author:. Syväranta, Jari. Abstract:. Impacts of biomanipulation on lake ecosystem structure revealed by stable isotope analysis Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems is an increasing problem, especially threatening small and shallow freshwater lakes. While the extreme inputs of nutrients phosphorus and nitrogen can nowadays be redu...
https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/handle/123456789/18045
*  2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada
... Waterfowl Habitat. Duck Hunting Tips. Where We Work How We Conserve Public Policy Waterfowl Biology Waterfowl Habitat Land Protection Ecosystem Markets. Home > Conservation > Habitat : 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada. 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada Above-average habitat conditions throughout most of Canada PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SIGN IN. While snowpacks on the north and central coast were a bit low this past winter ~80 percent of average, they were near the long-term average on the south coast and island. This promises a steady supply of water through the spring and summer, and breeding conditions look to be good for the year. Precipitation was variable in the northern and southern Interior, and habitat conditions reflect this. Related: 2013 habitat conditions 2013-14 migration alert du canada canada habitat habitat conditions breeding. Free DU Decal Receive a free DU decal when you signup for our free monthly newsletter. Waterfowl Habitat. Comment: http://www.ducks.org/conservation/ha...
http://ducks.org/conservation/habitat/2013-spring-habitat-conditions-in-canada/page2?poe=migmaprhs
*  Coastal Ecosystems : Oceanus Magazine
... Topics Special Series Print Issues Archives Multimedia. Topics. Special Series. AROUND WHOI. Print Issues. September 17, 2015 The Riddle of Rip Currents Scientists investigate how and where these dire beach hazards occur September 9, 2015 Setting a Watchman for Harmful Algal Blooms New undersea technology offers ways to monitor toxic outbreaks September 3, 2015 The Man Who Opened Our Ears to the Ocean Historic archive of marine mammal recordings established August 24, 2015 An Appetite Stimulant for Bacteria in the Ocean An Infographic August 24, 2015 Short-circuiting the Biological Pump Tiny chemical compounds help choreograph a planet-size dance. Email Alerts. Coast : Coastal Ecosystems. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: NOV 2014 From Lab to Sea. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: FEB 2014 The Mesocosm Lab. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: FEB 2014 Mysterious Jellyfish Makes a Comeback. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: NOV 2011 Between the Beach and the Deep Blue Sea. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS :: FEB 2011 Where the Food Is in the Sea, and Why. COASTAL ECOS...
https://whoi.edu/oceanus/topics/coastal-ecosystems
*  Ecosystem Services - living within environmental limits
... home. ecosytem project. ecosystem services. related projects. reports publications. project partners. news. links. contact. What are Ecosystem Services. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to aid our understanding of the human use and management of natural resources. Our health and wellbeing depends upon the services provided by ecosystems and their components: water, soil, nutrients and organisms. Therefore, ecosystem services are the processes by which the environment produces resources utlilised by humans such as clean air, water, food and materials. Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment provided the most comprehensive assessment of the state of the global environment to date; it classified ecosystem services as follows: Supporting services: The services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services including soil formation, photosynthesis, primary production, nutrient cycling and water cycling. Provisioning serv...
http://ecosystemservices.org.uk/ecoserv.htm
*  2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada
... Public Policy. Waterfowl Biology. Waterfowl Habitat. Waterfowl ID. Duck Hunting Tips. Where We Work How We Conserve Public Policy Waterfowl Biology Waterfowl Habitat Land Protection Ecosystem Markets. Home > Conservation > Habitat : 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada. 2013 Spring Habitat Conditions in Canada Above-average habitat conditions throughout most of Canada PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SIGN IN. Wetland conditions are favorable throughout the southwest breeding range, but areas lacking spring precipitation are feeling the effects of those dry soil conditions. If haying is not delayed, this could have an impact on nesting birds affected by the late spring. Crop seeding has also been delayed but the favorable late-May conditions have allowed producers to get a quick jump on seeding. Related: 2013 habitat conditions 2013-14 migration alert du canada canada habitat habitat conditions breeding. Free DU Decal Receive a free DU decal when you signup for our free monthly newsletter. Conservation Resource...
http://ducks.org/conservation/habitat/2013-spring-habitat-conditions-in-canada/page6?poe=migmaprhs
*  Unbound MEDLINE : A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem chang
... Publisher Full Text. Byrnes JE. Duffy JE. Extinction, Biological. A global synthesis reveals bio Unbound MEDLINE. A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Further species loss will accelerate change in ecosystem processes, but it is unclear how these effects compare to the direct effects of other forms of environmental change that are both driving diversity loss and altering ecosystem function. Here we use a suite of meta-analyses of published data to show that the effects of species loss on productivity and decomposition--two processes important in all ecosystems--are of comparable magnitude to the effects of many other global environmental changes. In experiments, intermediate levels of species loss 21-40% reduced plant production by 5-10%, comparable to previously documented effects of ultraviolet radiation and climate warming. At intermediate levels, species loss generally had equal or greater effects on decomposition than did elevated CO 2 and nitrogen addi...
http://unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22678289/full_citation/A_global_synthesis_reveals_biodiversity_loss_as_a_major_driver_of_ecosystem_change_
*  Diversity–function debate
Functional diversity, composition, and species richness affect the biogeochemical processes of ecosystem s. However, the degree to which these factors influence ecosystems and whether that influence is significant is much debated. In the article 'The Influence of Functional Diversity and Composition on Ecosystem Processes,' Tilman, D., Knops, J, Wedin, D., Reich, P., Ritchie, M., and E. 'The Influence of Functional Diversity and Composition on Ecosystem Processes'. scientists reported on an experiment in which they studied the effects of plant species diversity, functional diversity, and functional composition on ecosystem processes, as measured in six response variables productivity, plant % N, plant tot. The statistical results show that functional diversity and species composition significantly affected the six response variables to a greater extent than species diversity. By themselves, all three factors significantly affected ecosystem processes and also influenced each other. Uncertainty is implied in t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diversity–function_debate
*  Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis: Key Questions on Biodiversity in the Millen
In natural ecosystems, the effects of abiotic and land use drivers on ecosystem services are usually more important than changes in species richness. The type of poverty experienced by individuals will therefore differ for different rates and levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services loss and if the loss is transitory or permanent. The direct drivers of biodiversity loss in southern Africa include the impacts of land use change, alien invasives, overgrazing, and over- harvesting all of which have already had a large impact on the region s biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being, and all of which are likely to spread in the absence of interventions. Observed recent changes in climate, especially warmer regional temperatures, have already had signifi cant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, including causing changes in species distributions, population sizes, the timing of reproduction or migration events, and an increase in the fre quency of pest and disease outbreaks. Providing food to ...
http://eoearth.org/view/article/152285/
*  SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration | resources | Society for Ecological Restorati
SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration. Attributes of Restored Ecosystems 4. Reference Ecosystems 6. Exotic Species 7. Reciprocity exists in these cultural ecosystems between cultural activities and ecological processes, such that human actions reinforce ecosystem health and sustainability. Attributes of Restored Ecosystems. Instead, it is only necessary for these attributes to demonstrate an appropriate trajectory of ecosystem development towards the intended goals or reference. The restored ecosystem is sufficiently resilient to endure the normal periodic stress events in the local environment that serve to maintain the integrity of the ecosystem. As in any intact ecosystem, the species composition and other attributes of a restored ecosystem may evolve as environmental conditions change. A reference ecosystem can serve as the model for planning an ecological restoration project, and later serve in the evaluation of that project. In other words, the restored e...
http://ser.org/resources/resources/resources-detail-view/ser-international-primer-on-ecological-restoration
*  Water most likely basis for complex ecosystem development
... Astronomy Space. January 10, 2011 Water most likely basis for complex ecosystem development January 10, 2011 By Steve Nerlich, Universe Today. But given the chemical possibilities available from the most abundant elements in the universe, even an alien scientist with a different biochemistry would probably agree that a water-solvent-based biochemistry is quite likely to occur elsewhere in the universe and might well be the most likely foundation for a complex ecosystem in which intelligent life could develop. Based on what we know of life and biochemistry, it seems likely that an alien biochemistry will need a solvent like water and one or more elemental units for its structure and function like carbon. Nonetheless, from the list of potentially abundant solvents in the universe, water looks to be the best candidate to support a complex ecosystem. Water also has the advantages of: having strong hydrogen bonds that gives it a strong surface tension three times that of liquid ammonia which would encourage t...
http://phys.org/news/2011-01-basis-complex-ecosystem.html
*  Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review - NERC Open Res
... earch Archive. nerc.ac.uk. Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS Simple Metadata iShare HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote Dublin Core iShare OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. 2011 Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review. The historical development of dune woodland during these stable phases has been documented for sites all over Europe. During roughly the past century a tendency of increasing fixation and succession is observed on coastal dunes throughout northwest Europe. 1 Changes in land use, mainly abandonment of agricultural practices, have led to the development of late successional stages such as scrub and woodland. 3 A general tendency of landscape fixation is observed due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. 4 Eutrophi...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/8794/
*  IDL-BNC @ IDRC: Urban Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health: Linkages between Research Results and Po
... licy Development: Kathmandu Case Study - A Response. . English. français. Skip navigation. Home. About. IDRC Digital Library. IDRC Library. Conditions of Use. Search. Browse. Themes and Sub-Themes. Browse Items by:. Titles. Authors. Subjects. Date. Help. Login. Log into the IDRC Digital Library. Subscribe to Alerts. IDL-BNC @ IDRC. IDRC / CRDI. IDRC Research Results / Résultats de recherches du CRDI. Attribution: Please use this identifier to share, cite, or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/49623. Title: Urban Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health: Linkages between Research Results and Policy Development: Kathmandu Case Study - A Response. Authors: Waltner-Toews, David. Keywords: ECHINOCOCCOSIS EPIDEMIOLOGY DOG DISEASES ECOSYSTEM APPROACHES NEPAL--KATHMANDU. Date: 2003. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/49623. Project Number: 100840. Project Title: International For...
http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/handle/10625/49623
*  Editorial. Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems, pollen calibration and quantitative reconstructi
... on of past land cover - ePrints Soton. . Advanced Search University Home. ePrints Soton Policies Latest Additions Download Statistics Browse by Year Browse by Subject Browse by School. Login. RSS 1.0. RSS 2.0. Atom. Editorial. Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems, pollen calibration and quantitative reconstruction of past land cover. Gaillard, Marie-José, Sugita, Shinya, Bunting, Jane, Dearing, John and Bittmann, Felix eds. 2008 Editorial. Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems, pollen calibration and quantitative reconstruction of past land cover. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 175, 5, 415-418. doi:10.1007/s00334-008-0170-x. Download Full text not available from this repository. Original Publication URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00334-008-0170-x. Item Type: Article. ISSNs:. 0939-6314 print. Related URLs:. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003...008-0170-x. Subjects:. G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography Q Science QK Botany. Divisions:. University Structure - Pre A...
http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/64014/
*  WHO | Ecosystem goods and services for health
Ecosystem goods and services for health. Play Store. Climate change and human health. Climate change and human health Global environmental change Policy Training Projects Media centre Partnerships Resources Publications Links. Ecosystem goods and services for health. Why do ecosystems matter for human health. Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. From the availability of adequate food and water, to disease regulation of vectors, pests, and pathogens, human health and well-being depends on these services and conditions from the natural environment. Human health ultimately depends upon ecosystem products and services such as availability of fresh water, food and fuel sources which are requisite for good human health and productive livelihoods. The types of health effects experienced are determined by the degree to which local population’s depend on ecosystem services, and factors such as poverty which affect vulnerability to changes in elements like access to food and water. Th...
http://who.int/globalchange/ecosystems/en/
*  Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems|
Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems. Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems. Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems EPA Grant Number: FP916315 Title: Fish Out of Water: The Importance of Salmon and Bears for Productivity of Riparian Ecosystems Investigators:. Recipients Lists Research Category: Fellowship - Terrestrial Ecology and Ecosystems, Academic Fellowships, Ecological Indicators/Assessment/Restoration Description: Objective: The objective of this research is to examine linkages between terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, focusing on the role of highly mobile organisms as vectors of nutrients. I intend to characterize and quantify links between Pacific salmon, brown bears Ursus arctos, and riparian ecosystem functioning in terms of nutrient cycling and primary productivity. By illuminating the mechanisms through which salmon-derived nu...
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/7309/report/0
*  B1510F07 L18 ecosystems2 - Gross vs. Net Primary Production Gross primary
Net Primary Production Gross primary. Find Study Resources. Main Menu. Main Menu. View Flashcards. Create Flashcards. Upload Documents. Upload Documents. Find Study Resources. View Flashcards. Create Flashcards. Upload Documents. Upload Documents. Sign up. Georgia Tech. Net Primary Production... Georgia Tech. TYPE Notes. This preview shows pages 1 11. Sign up to view the full content. View Full Document. BIOL 1510 Fall 2007 Gross vs. Net Primary Production Gross primary production GPP. Net primary production NPP. The energy/biomass retained in excess of primary producer respiration. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. View Full Document. Net PP of Major Ecosystems why these peaks. Terrestrial Primary Production. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. View Full Document. Marine Primary Production. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. View Full Document. This preview has inten...
https://coursehero.com/file/79464/B1510F07-L18-ecosystems2/
*  Ecological Succession
"Ecological succession" is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. This observed change over time in what is living in a particular ecosystem is "ecological succession". As long as the ecosystem's set of environmental conditions remains constant, those species optimally adapted to those conditions will flourish. The "engine" of succession, the cause of ecosystem change, is the impact of established species have upon their own environments. The rise and the decline of numerous species within our various communities illustrates both of the types of motive forces of succession: the impact of an established species to change a site's environmental conditions, and the impact of large external forces to suddenly alter the environmental nature of a site. The consequence of this hardwood tree growth is the increased shading and subsequent mortality of the sun loving red pines by the shade tolerant hardwood seedlings. The shaded forest floor conditions generated by...
http://php.scripts.psu.edu/dept/nkbiology/naturetrail/succession.htm
*  Ecosystems Assignment
... Writing Assignment on Ecosystems Complete the following questions and s ubmit answers for grade. We hear the word ecosystem used frequently in the news today. In your own words, explain what an ecosystem is. Be specific. 2 Describe in as much detail as you can what factors determine the type of ecosystem biome found in a given geographic area. 3 Select an ecosystem pond, salt marsh, deciduous forest, old field, etc. and explain a food web that occurs in that ecosystem. Label plants and animals as specifically as possible and indicate the trophic level they occupy. 4 It is intuitively obvious that there are few large predators in an ecosystem; there is even a book about why large, fierce animals are rare. The grizzly bear requires any where from 11 square miles to 1000 square miles of habitat for its home range. The average in the Brooks Range of Alaska where there is minimal human interference is 521 square miles. Range size seems to be at least a factor of richness of food supplies. From your knowledge ...
http://community.tncc.edu/faculty/zahn/EcologyWeb/ecosyste1.htm
*  Uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements |
uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements fluxnet primary links home about fluxnet introduction methodology tools why develop a flux network sponsors fluxnet database what s new data data search data policies site data availability data citation modis land products subset flux data processing code phenopix code to process digital photos archived flux data submit data webmap server eos land validation data lat long converter resources news announcements job postings newsletters meetings workshops participants publications fluxnet mailing list young scientist network regional networks photo gallery maps graphics useful links help frequently asked questions general scientific contact home biblio uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements morgan monroe state forest title uncertainty of annual net ecosystem productivity estimated using eddy covariance flux measurements publication type journal article y...
http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/node/1094
*  Nutrient Cycles: Recycling in Ecosystems, The Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles
 Nutrient Cycles: Recycling in Ecosystems, The Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles. Biology. Adaptation Classification Ecosystems Evolution Food and Energy Human Influence Nutrient Cycles Predation Studying Ecosystems Other Sections Biochemistry Cell Biology Ecology Genetics Human Biology Microbiology Plant Biology. Nutrient Cycles. Recycling in and Ecosystem Nutrient cycles look at how important molecules in an ecosystem are transferred. Like energy, these nutrients are never lost from the cycle, merely stored in a different form - be it fossil fuels, living organisms or CO 2. The Carbon Cycle All life is based on carbon; it is contained in proteins, carbohydrates ; indeed all organic molecules contain carbon. So it is the most important nutrient in an ecosystem. The carbon cycle involves several stages of carbon being fixed incorporated as part of by plants from the atmosphere. Below is an example of a carbon cycle, they can be represented a number of ways, and this is just one example. Although much is said about ...
http://scienceaid.co.uk/biology/ecology/nutrient.html
*  Ecosystems of the World - 4th Grade Worksheets | Education.com
Ecosystems of the World - 4th Grade Worksheets. Education.com. Try Premium. As a Plus or Pro member, get unlimited access to: Over 15,000 Worksheets Over 300 Printable Workbooks Hundreds of Fun Games and Activities Get Started. Sign In. Already a member. Sign in Become a free basic member: Get free worksheets plus activities, articles, and science projects. Sign Up. Games. Worksheets. Workbooks. Activities. Lesson Plans. Science Projects. More. Log In. Ecosystems of the World. set. All living things must adapt to different conditions, depending on where in the world they are. Study the ecosystems of the world with this series. Download All 13. Download All is only available to Education.com Plus and Pro members. Learn More. Click on a worksheet in the set below to see more info or download the PDF. Desert Ecosystem Download Worksheet More info Give your student a fun reading page and word search, filled with fun facts all about the Earth's desert ecosystem. Grasslands Ecosystem Download Worksheet More info Gi...
http://education.com/slideshow/ecosystems-slideshow/temperate-forest/
*  Primary production
Overview {{anchor|GPP and NPP}}Gross primary production and net primary production Terrestrial production Oceanic production Light. Primary Production and Plant Biomass for the Earth From R.H. Gross primary production and net primary production. Terrestrial Higher Plant Respiration and Net Primary Production. Net primary production is the rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy; it is equal to the difference between the rate at which the plants in an ecosystem produce useful chemical energy GPP and the rate at which they use some of that energy during respiration. Net photosynthesis in the water column is determined by the interaction between the photic zone and the mixed layer. When it is much deeper than the photic zone, this results in phytoplankton spending too much time in the dark for net growth to occur. However, as long as the photic zone is deep enough, primary production may continue below the mixed layer where light-limited growth rates mean that nutrients ar...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_production
*  Ecology and Society: Linking Future Ecosystem Services and Future Human Well-being
ecology and society linking future ecosystem services and future human well being table well being and ecosystem services vary substantially over these four scenarios which differ according to their evolution of policies ecosystem services and institutions global orchestration free trade and a good heart reign in this scenario there is a determined effort to fight poverty and inequality as a result there is a huge boost in food and other provisioning services in developing countries however the general approach to ecosystem services is reactive rather than preventative the costs are borne by regulating services such as climate change and a loss in cultural services order from strength the world fragments into regional markets and alliances nations are obsessed with security issues and the tragedy of the commons deepens most categories of ecosystem services decline especially in developing countries technogarden this is a globally connected world with abundant green technology and a focus on preventing ecosyst...
http://ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art30/table1.html
*  Populations and Ecosystem 1: dead organisms and returns the raw ...
... For the best experience please enable JavaScript. Create Free Flashcards. Quizzes. Browse Free Quizzes. Populations and Ecosystem 1. dead organisms and returns the raw material to the environment. View Populations and Ecosystem 1 as Flashcard Deck. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 Consumers that eat only animals. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 Consumers that eats both plant and animals. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 eats both plants and animal 9/10. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 consumers that feed on the bodies of dead organisms Every hour. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 What are the three levels or catagories that are used to tell how much trouble a species is in. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 What are animals needs affected by. missymayholly Answered in Populations and Ecosystem 1 What animal has the biggest impact on survival of other animals. missymayholly Answer...
http://funnelbrain.com/c-40230-last-few-centuries-number-species-becoming-extinct-on-earth.html
*  Example Ecosystem Services Report Card | World Resources Institute
Example Ecosystem Services Report Card. WRI China. WRI India. WRI Indonesia. WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities. CAIT 2.0 – WRI’s climate data explorer. Electricity Governance Initiative EGI. Menu What We Do. Climate Energy Food Forests Water Sustainable Cities Business Economics Finance Governance Project Directory Top Outcomes Our Approach Support our Work Where We Work. Africa Brazil China India Indonesia More... Publications Maps Data. Charts Graphs Data Sets Data Visualizations Maps Presentations Videos Blog News Events About. Mission Goals Strategic Plan Managing for Results Experts Staff Board of Directors Annual Reports Donors Sustainability at WRI Get Involved: Individuals Get Involved: Corporations Careers. Donate. Topics Climate Energy Food Forests Water Sustainable Cities. Search Search. Business Economics Finance Governance. Maps Data. Example Ecosystem Services Report Card. Example Ecosystem Services Report Card. This hypothetical "report card" summarizes the state of ecosystem services in t...
http://wri.org/resources/charts-graphs/example-ecosystem-services-report-card
*  USGS: Science Topics: grassland ecosystems
... USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Science Topics. Biological resource status and trends: Grassland ecosystems. Information concerning status and trends of biological resources, focusing on Grassland ecosystems Maps of distribution and abundance of selected species of birds on uncultivated native upland grasslands and shrubsteppe in the northern Great Plains. Links to maps of breeding distributions of bird species on grasslands and shrublands in the northern Great Plains. Avian conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region, Northern Great Plains-Understanding the links between climate, ecosystem processes, wetland management, and bird communities. Guide to identification, selection, and management of grassland habitats in Wisconsin to conserve the populations of grassland birds. Biological resource status and trends: Savanna ecosystems. Information concerning status and trends of biological resources, focusing on savanna ecosystems Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Homepage for the Northern Prairi...
http://usgs.gov/science/science.php?term=499&b=0&n=20
*  Ecosystem ecology
... These include primary productivity production of biomass, decomposition, and trophic interactions. in: 'Ecology' 84:2867-2876. Biogeochemistry and hydrology focus on several fundamental ecosystem processes such as biologically mediated chemical cycling of nutrients and physical-biological cycling of water. Trophic dynamics. Net primary productivity NPP is the primary measure of biomass accumulation within an ecosystem. Decomposition and nutrient cycling are fundamental to ecosystem biomass production. Decomposition of plant litter accounts for the majority of nutrients recycled through ecosystems Figure 3. Rates of plant litter decomposition are highly dependent on litter quality; high concentration of phenolic compounds, especially lignin, in plant litter has a retarding effect on litter decomposition. "Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics". Globally, rates of decomposition are mediated by litter quality and climate. Ecosystems dominated by plants with low-lignin co...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem_ecology
*  Dollar Value of Ecosystem Services
Climate Change. Health. Ecosystem Services. Ecosystem Services. Environmental Health. Holzman*, appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Accounting for Nature's Benefits: The Dollar Value of Ecosystem Services Healthy ecosystems provide us with fertile soil, clean water, timber, and food. In 1997 Robert Costanza, Distinguished University Professor of sustainability at Portland State University, Oregon, and colleagues first estimated that ecosystem services worldwide are worth an average $33 trillion annually $44 trillion in today s dollars, nearly twice the global GNP of around $18 trillion $24 trillion in today s dollars. But he adds that some benefits probably came at the expense of natural capital elsewhere in the world, as declines in forest cutting coincided with a rise in imported timber. Another leader in guiding decision makers on payments for ecosystem services is the Natural Capital NatCap Project, cofounded by Stanford s Daily in ...
http://eoearth.org/view/article/51cbf2fa7896bb431f6ab6aa/?topic=49575
*  Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author "van Wijk, Mark T."
... Toggle navigation. . Login. About WHOAS Toggle navigation. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author. WHOAS Home. Marine Biological Laboratory. Ecosystems Center. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author. WHOAS Home. Marine Biological Laboratory. Ecosystems Center Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search WHOAS. This Collection. Browse. All of WHOAS Communities Collections By Issue Date Authors Titles Keywords This Collection By Issue Date Authors Titles Keywords. My Account. Login Register. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Author "van Wijk, Mark T.". 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. Go. Sort by:. title issue date submit date. Order:. ascending descending. Results:. 5 10 20 40 60 80 100. Update. Now showing items 1-4 of 4. title. issue date. submit date. ascending. descending. 5. 10. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. The contribu...
https://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org/handle/1912/13/browse?value=van Wijk, Mark T.&type=author
*  Connell–Slatyer model of ecological succession
... Ecological succession can be understood as a process of changing species composition within a community due to an ecological disturbance, and varies largely according to the initial disturbance prompting the succession. The 1977 study The Models Facilitation Model. their relative success in later-successional stages .' Connell & Slatyer, 1121-1124. thumb|200px|Facilitation Model Based on the assumption that only particular species with qualities ideal for “early succession” can colonize the newly exposed landforms after an ecological disturbance. ::*Thus, the presence of early successional species often changes the environment so that the habitat is less hospitable for the original species’ own ecological demands and facilitates the invasion of later-successional species. thumb|200px|Tolerance Model In this case, new pioneer species neither inhibit nor facilitate the growth and success of other species. Eventually, dominant species replace or reduce pioneer species abundance through competition. thumb|20...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connell–Slatyer_model_of_ecological_succession
*  Irrigated rice and ecosystem services (22.02.11) - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ - Fors
Irrigated rice and ecosystem services 22.02.11 - Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ - Forschen für die Umwelt. Kontakt. Ausschreibungen Vergaben. Impressum/Datenschutz. Glossar. Sitemap. Forschen für die Umwelt. Start Forschung Fachbereiche Presse Veranstaltungen Karriere Service Über uns. Veranstaltungen Vorträge Irrigated rice and ecosystem services 22.02.11. Start. Forschung. Fachbereiche. Presse. Veranstaltungen. Helmholtz Environmental Lecture. Antimony 2015. Vorträge. Wasser und Umwelt. Chemicals in the Environment. UFZ-Kolloquium. Leipziger Umweltstammtisch. Messen und Ausstellungen. Karriere. Service. Über uns. UFZ Vorlesungsreihe "Biodiversität und Landnutzung". Irrigated rice and biodiversity related ecosystem services the LEGATO project. PD Dr. Josef Settele Department Biozönoseforschung, UFZ. 22. Februar 2011, 15:00 h im Leipziger KUBUS. General aim of LEGATO: LEGATO stands for: L and-use intensity and E cological En G ineering A ssessment T ools for risks and O pportunities in irrigated ri...
http://ufz.de/index.php?de=19878
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=2816
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=2842
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=2843
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=3107
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=3116
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?ID=3807
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?item=30801&related=11203
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO&query=climate AND change
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO&query=water
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Arthropods
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Coral AND (restoration OR recovery)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Earth Surface Dynamics Program
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Eels AND (diversity OR life history OR life histories)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Feral Pigs
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Forecasting%20&%20Mapping
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Land-based Pollution AND Coral Reefs
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Mussels AND (restoration OR recovery)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Natural Resource Management
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Shad AND (diversity OR life history OR life histories)
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=Sunfish
*  U.S. Geological Survey: Ecosystems
Geological Survey: Ecosystems. USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Geological Survey - Ecosystems. Browse by Location. Science. Cooperative Research Units. Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Program. Genetics Genomics. Invasive Species Program. Priority Ecosystems Science. Status Trends Program. Wildlife: Terrestrial and Endangered Resources Program. Natural Hazards. Ecosystems Mission Area Bats Keep Social Networks. Ecosystems Science Cooperative Research Units Supports natural resource management decisions through research, education and technical assistance. Energy and Wildlife USGS science can help allow for renewable energy growth while lessening conflicts between renewable energy, ecosystems and wildlife. Environments Conducts ecosystem science and develops models for restoration and adaptive management. Fisheries Supports management, conservation, and restoration of the Nation's fish and aquatic resources. Invasive Species Provides methodologies and information to reduce threats from invasive ...
http://usgs.gov/ecosystems/?v%3Asources=USGS-ECO&v%3Aproject=USGS-ECO-RESULTS&query=snake
*  Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title
... WHOAS Home. Ecosystems Center. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title. WHOAS Home. Ecosystems Center Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title. Browsing Ecosystems Center by Title. title issue date submit date. title. issue date. Johnson, David S. Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China . Chemical nitrogen N fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. The freshwater system west of the Antarctic Peninsula : spatial and temporal changes . Climate change west of the Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapid of anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere, with associated changes in the rates and distributions of freshwater inputs to the ocean. Future effects of ozone on carbon sequestration and climate change policy using a global biogeochemical model . Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone . Multiple environmental changes will ...
https://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org/handle/1912/13/browse?order=ASC&rpp=20&sort_by=1&etal=-1&offset=77&type=title
*  Performance ecosystems: Which model is right for you? - Dupress
Performance ecosystems: Which model is right for you. - Dupress. Dupress. Featured. Close menu. Internet of Things. Deloitte Review: Issue 17. Press Room podcasts. Videos. Authors. All Collections. Topics. Close menu. Analytics. Customer Business Growth. Digital Emerging Technology. Innovation Business Models. Operating Performance. Risk Security. Social Impact. Sustainability. Talent. Industries. Close menu. Consumer Industrial Products. Energy Resources. Financial Services. Life Sciences Health Care. Public Sector. Tech, Media Telecom. Periodicals. Close menu. Asia Pacific Economic Outlook. Behind the Numbers. Deloitte Review. Global Economic Outlook. Issues by the Numbers. Signals for Strategists. Trends. US Economic Forecast. Search. Download This Article. Performance Ecosystems. Download a PDF. Download for Kindle. SHARE THIS ARTICLE. Performance Ecosystems. Facebook. Twitter. Linkedin. Email. Performance Ecosystems. A decision framework to take performance to the next level. No company is an island—each...
http://dupress.com/articles/performance-ecosystems-which-model-is-right-for-you/?top=7
*  SERC - Lab CO2: Ecosystem Gas Exchange
... Ecosystem Gas Exchange In order to establish the amount of carbon assimilated by the scrub oak ecosystem exposed to elevated CO 2, we periodically measure net ecosystem gas exchange using the open top chamber fitted with a ventilated top to prevent the backflow of outside air. Hymus et al. Net ecosystem gas exchange NEE was shown to be very close to the measurements obtained by eddy flux methods in scrub oak of the same age Dore et al. Measurements of NEE at elevated CO 2 shows growth in elevated CO 2 increased maximum NEE from 50% in the winter to 180% in the summer Hymus et al., 2003. When expressed per unit leaf area the stimulation of NEE ranged from 7% to 60%, with the increase depending on soil water content: the greater the soil water, the greater was the stimulation of NEE. At night, CO 2 effluxes from the ecosystem were on average 39% higher in elevated CO 2 and varied between 6% and 64%: increased biomass of leaves, high temperature and wetter soil produced greater ecosystem respiration during ...
http://serc.si.edu/labs/co2/florida_gas_exchange.aspx
*  Conditions Under Which Nitrogen Can Limit Steady-State Net Primary Production in a General Class of
... Ecosystem Models - Springer. Conditions Under Which Nitrogen Can Limit Steady-State Net Primary Production in a General Class of Ecosystem Models. L Menge. Affiliated with National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University. Share Share this content on Facebook Share this content on Twitter Share this content on LinkedIn. Related Content. CrossRef. CrossRef. Molybdenum limitation of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest soils. CrossRef. Oecologia 165 2 :511–20. PubMed. CrossRef. Benner JW, Conroy S, Lunch CK, Toyoda N, Vitousek PM. Biotropica 39 3 :400–5. CrossRef. Ecology 73 6 :2022–33. CrossRef. Cleveland CC, Townsend AR, Schimel DS, Fisher H, Howarth RW, Hedin LO, Perakis SS, Latty EF, Von Fischer JC, Elseroad A et al. Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen N-2 fixation in natural ecosystems. CrossRef. Crews TE, Farrington H, Vitousek PM. Organic matter and nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen fixation during ea...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-011-9426-x
*  SEEA Ecosystems EGM
PDF 22 KB. PDF 21 KB. PDF 172 KB. Presentation of Discussant on policy applications P. PPT 5,309 KB. PDF 1,393 KB. An Experimental Framework for Simplified Ecosystem Capital Accounts J.L. PDF 251 KB. Presentation of Discussant on structure of accounts C. PPT 534 KB. ISSUE 3 Land cover mapping, land cover classifications, and accounting units. Land Cover Mapping in Canada with Respect to Ecosystem Accounting P. PDF 1,781 KB. PDF 456 KB. PDF 142 KB. Accounting Units for Ecosystem Accounts A. PDF 54 KB. Land Cover Classification for Ecosystem Accounting A. PDF 1,017 KB. Presentation of Discussant on land cover mapping, land cover classifications, and accounting units L. PPT 291 KB. PDF 224 KB. Accounting for Carbon in the National Accounting Framework: A Note on Methodology H. Gundimeda. PDF 56 KB. Haines-Young, J.L. PDF 440 KB. Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Carbon Accounting of SEEA Ecosystem Accounts J. PDF 140 KB. Provision of Ecosystem Services by Soil Resources R. PDF 3,615 KB. Presentation of Discussant on c...
http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeaLES/egm/lod.htm
*  Ecosystems | NRCS
Ecosystems. NRCS. Skip Navigation. Natural Resources Conservation Service South Dakota. United States Department of Agriculture Topics. Technical Resources. Conservation Planning. Data, Maps, Analysis. Ecological Science. Engineering. Land Use. State Technical Committee. Soils. Soil Health. Soil Surveys. Water. Watersheds. Water Resources. Air. Air Quality. Plants Animals. Energy. People. Partners. Teachers and Students. Volunteers. NRCS Employees. Programs. Farm Bill. Financial Assistance. Easements. Landscape Initiatives. Landscape Planning. Newsroom. News Releases. Features. Photos and Videos. Public Notices. Publications Fact Sheets. Success Stories. Contact Us. Local Service Centers. State Office. Feedback Forms. About Us. . National Centers. . State Websites. . Enter Keyword, Phrase, or Text to search the site. Browse By Audience. . A-Z Index. . Advanced Search. . Help. You are Here: Home / Technical Resources / Ecosystems. Stay Connected. . Loading Tree... Technical Resources Conservation Planning. Con...
http://nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/sd/technical/?cid=nrcs141p2_036553
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CIazzdGj6pECFRynQQodMyWDWw
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CIei2rnD45ECFRlbiAodgV_ziQ
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CN-3xfjb15ECFQgrlAodEgRHaA
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=CNa2p-uC15ECFQmJTAodxGoxdg
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=COD9hb-F0JECFSYCkgodsFeCyw
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
... collaboration negotiation overview case studies lessons learned education training research publications evaluation adaptive management overview training facilitation tools resources research publications education training overview undergraduate graduate fellowships mid career research publications overview featured research publications about emi people em approach resources events at emi search site map home quick emi links conservation forward symposium snre alumni and doris duke fellows recently returned to snre to talk about their work in fields including collaboration and mediation building sustainable communities biofuels and energy development environmental policy and politics and more check out the videos and photos emi administers the doris duke conservation fellows and wyss scholars programs download the evaluation sourcebook a ready reference of ecological socio economic and organizational progress measures read about our featured research on the resource legacy fund s preserving wild califo...
http://snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/?gclid=COOs7YTmwo8CFQsvYAodFVJAlQ
*  Ecosystem Management Initiative
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Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.EcosystemQuantitative computed tomographyThe White ReindeerFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentAcyl-homoserine-lactone synthase: Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase (, acyl-homoserine lactone synthase, acyl homoserine lactone synthase, acyl-homoserinelactone synthase, acylhomoserine lactone synthase, AHL synthase, AHS, AHSL synthase, AhyI, AinS, AinS protein, autoinducer synthase, autoinducer synthesis protein rhlI, EsaI, ExpISCC1, ExpISCC3065, LasI, LasR, LuxI, LuxI protein, LuxM, N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase, RhlI, YspI, acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing)) is an enzyme with system name acyl-(acyl-carrier protein):S-adenosyl-L-methionine acyltranserase (lactone-forming, methylthioadenosine-releasing). This eHadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightDitch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Meramec Conservation AreaMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Outline of hydrology: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology:Respiratory system of gastropods: The respiratory system of gastropods varies greatly in form. These variations were once used as a basis for dividing the group into subclasses.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Aedes aegyptiAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Planorbella trivolvis: Planorbella trivolvis is a species of freshwater air-breathing snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails, or planorbids, which all have sinistral or left-coiling shells.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Lancia Aurelia: The Lancia Aurelia is a grand tourer that was produced by the Italian manufacturer Lancia. Designed by Vittorio Jano, the Aurelia was launched in 1950 and production lasted until the summer of 1958.Neuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Lough TaltVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Pyrites Island: Pyrites Island () is the largest of three small islands lying northeast of Gam Point and forming the east side of Esther Harbor, off the north coast of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands. In 1913–14, the rocky extremity of Gam Point and the adjoining islands to the northwest and southeast were named Esther, Pyritis (sic) or Pyritic Islands by Scottish geologist David Ferguson, who reported they were composed of pyrites and vein quartz.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Ukiah Ambulance: Ukiah Ambulance is now Medstar Ambulance of Mendocino County Inc., a private non-profit ground transport ambulance provider serving central and southern Mendocino County.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingHudson Bay Mountain: Hudson Bay Mountain is an ultra prominent peak located above Smithers, British Columbia, Canada. It is the location of the Hudson Bay Mountain Resort (formerly Ski Smithers) ski resort.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Yamaha Grizzly 600: The Yamaha Grizzly is a large utility all-terrain vehicle manufactured by the Yamaha Motor Company. It has a 595cc four-stroke engine from the XT600.Psorophora howardiiCitizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.WormsgrabenBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.East Sussex Cricket Ground: East Sussex Cricket Ground was a cricket ground in St Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. The ground was located at the site of a racecourse which had moved after 1826 from the Bulverhythe Salts.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Autoinducer-2Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.Staphylococcus microti: Staphylococcus microti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. This species was originally isolated from viscera of the common vole, Microtus arvalis.Public water systemBird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase: Quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (, acyl homoserine degrading enzyme, acyl-homoserine lactone acylase, AHL lactonase, AHL-degrading enzyme, AHL-inactivating enzyme, AHLase, AhlD, AhlK, AiiA, AiiA lactonase, AiiA-like protein, AiiB, AiiC, AttM, delactonase, lactonase-like enzyme, N-acyl homoserine lactonase, N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase, N-acyl-homoserine lactone lactonase, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase, quorum-quenching lactonase, quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase) is an enzyme with system name N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase.{{cite journal | title = The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase |author = Kim, M.Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983Andesobia jelskiiGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Dengue fever outbreaksNational Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Brevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.University of CampinasPacific ElectricLists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.List of locust species: This is a list of locust species. These are Orthoptera that swarm and cause significant economic losses to agricultural crops.

(1/3450) Capture-recapture models including covariate effects.

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

(2/3450) Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny.

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

(3/3450) Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States.

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

(4/3450) Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

(5/3450) Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona.

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

(6/3450) A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona.

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.  (+info)

(7/3450) Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities.

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

(8/3450) Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado.

A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV.  (+info)


I am going to London for one week. Will I die of swine flu?


Hi, I am going to London next month and I am scared that I will get swine flu. I heard that a lot of people got it in Britain, plus in London there is a big population density and a lot of people. Do you think I should be scared?
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Yes


How is nutrient density affected by a high proportion of simple to complex carbohydrates in the diet?


How is nutrient density affected by a high proportion of simple to complex carbohydrates in the diet?
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Because complex and simple both means different and both functions different


What population of people have a caffeine addiction?


I need to know what type of population has caffeine addictions and what the treatment plan is.
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Depends on how you define addiction. 

If addiction is defined by withdrawal symptoms, then as an above poster said, 90% is a fair estimate of the caffeine drinking population worldwide, if you include milder versions like green tea in the East, and these people would likely all experience some degree of withdrawal if caffeine were withheld. 

If addiction is defined by the consequences of the substance use, then you'd have to make the case that a caffeine addict suffers relationship problems, money problems, and other addiction related consequences due to their consumption of caffeine.


When the government introduces population control, how will it work?


It's going to happen sooner or later with global warming, as global over-population is one of the major contributing factors to climate change.

What would be the criteria involved in having children? Should there be genetic screening first? How would population control be enforced? Through the tax system?
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Yes if I had that power I would make these rules..

•Put a limit of two children to every couple...If you exceed the limit after the year 2009 you will pay a tax....I think the rule of one child in China is to harsh.
•If one of your children dies you can fill their place with another pregnancy.
•People will be paid if they adopt instead of having biological children.
•Make BC free.
•Try to get other nations to take up the law.
•This way the children don't out number the parents...over time if it were enforced everywhere would hopefully reduce the population of the world.

•AND I would also do several things to help the enviroment anyway.


What is the best way to increase my bone density?


My Bone Density test said I have a 10 year fracture probability of 9.8% and a hip fracture probability of 3.7%. Is there a way to lower those by increasing my bone density? How? I am 69.
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Yes, you must take Calcium (with vitamin D) supplements and exercise, weight bearing. So that is walking. Try for 20 minutes every day, longer if you can manage it.
Also, if you are carrying any extra pounds, try and eat better and the walking will help you lose some pounds too!


If the world population is increasing how do vegetarians hope to make a difference?


If the population is increasing how do vegetarians hope to make a difference when they hold a small small minority of the world population, obviously it is better to attempt to help. But is yer choice of being a vegetarian due to the moral ethics (ie you don't agree with the standard that meat is procured etc & feel less ''sinful'' by avoiding it) 
or are you trying to make a difference through activism or denying yourself meat?
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Well, I don't like smoking cigarettes, so I don't do that either. Will I single-handedly put the entire tobacco industry to rest simply by avoiding their products? No, and I feel the same way about meat. I like animals and I take them seriously enough to not eat them. I don't need their flesh to survive, so I would rather take the ethical high-road and do what I feel is right. I don't expect to make a big difference, but the least I can say for myself is that I am not directly or purposefully contributing to the exploitation of animals. :)


What percentage of the population upstream has their urine drunk by lowerstream populations?


The water we drink comes from upstream places. I would like to know what proportion of the upstream population's urine we drink. This is the water that comes from sewage treatment plants.
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There is no urine in the water you drink except possible on the molecule level.  It would not be detectable, except after an accident.  The water is purified before being put back in the river.  Depending on the place we are talking about you could be drinking water resulting from the use by >95% of the people.  It would include all household uses including the water from bathing, washing, and laundry.  See the references on how it works.  There would be a greater amount of animal urine than human when they take it out of the river.  Again, before use, it is purified again.


What is the population of Mexico City where the flu outbreak originated?


I keep getting mixed answers about this. On the wikipedia page it says that the city has the population of 8 somewhat million people but my boyfriend insists it is 28 million. I read that the Metro area of Mexico City has a population of 28 million or so. I am puzzled by their distinction between city and metro when it is a city and not a metropolis. I'm not city expert but was the flu break out in the city part of the city or the metro?
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close to 9 million

it originated from a US military base and released in Mexico they called it swine flu but is really H1N1 this is flu bird flu, human flu and pig flu combined from other part of countries and continents and somehow it appears in Mexico.