Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Bacteriocin Plasmids: Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids: Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Lactose Factors: Plasmids which determine the ability of a bacterium to ferment lactose.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Nebramycin: A complex of antibiotic substances produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Trimethoprim Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Spiroplasma citri: The type species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SPIROPLASMA, family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, causing citrus stubborn disease.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rhodococcus equi: A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Hemolysin Factors: Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Klebsiella oxytoca: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.

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http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.276293
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Plasmid duplication sites
plasmid.JPG (21.67 KiB) Viewed 6467 times. mehdi71000 Coral. Posts: 216. Joined: Fri Jan 12, 2007 5 ... Oh yeh if I cut the pvib plasmid with SalI how do I attach it to the other dna? thanks ... Plasmid duplication sites. by mehdi71000 » Sat Jun 16, 2007 12:34 pm ... Plasmids usually have one Origin (of replication) where the the replication is started. Some of ......
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-82883.html
*  European Commission : CORDIS : Projects and Results : pCMVDerP1 cyt DNA...
The plasmid is also suitable for DNA immunization purposes, to study plasmid immunogenicity in the ... Plasmid pCMVDerp1 cyt is an in-house developed construct containing the Der P1 gene, to be used for ... In this plasmid, DerP1 is cloned directly downstream from the CMV promoter, in order to avoid Derp1 ... The plasmid is able to express the encoded antigen in vitro transiently transfected cells. This ......
http://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/44018_en.html
*  Pages that link to "Transmissible plasmid" - Biology-Online Dictionary
The following pages link to Transmissible plasmid: View (previous 50 , next 50) (20 , 50 , 100 , ......
http://biology-online.org/bodict/index.php?title=Special:WhatLinksHere&target=Transmissible_plasmid
*  Biology-Online • View topic - How can I add a kozak sequence in plasmid pMT/bip...
How can I add a kozak sequence in plasmid pMT/bip/V5-His A. by yiwi123 » Tue Mar 12, 2013 8:04 pm ... I plan to express a scfv in S2 cell using the plasmid pMT/bip/V5-His A (with enzyme site BglII and ... How can I add a kozak sequence in plasmid pMT/bip/V5-His A. Discussion of all aspects of biological ......
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about29344.html?hilit=Gene
*  Sabinet | Evaluation of different methods of identification of methicillin...
The molecular weight of plasmids ranged from 1.2 to 23 MDa and the number of plasmids per isolate ... Plasmid profile analysis showed that 55 (72.4%) MRSA strains harboured plasmids, while 21(27.6%) ... Most of them contained plasmids which may be responsible for antibiotic resistance. Oxacillin ... to analyze the plasmid profile and know the role of hospital staff in transmition of infection ......
http://journals.co.za/content/mdv/1/1/AJA16872010_8
*  Isolation, sequence analysis, and comparison of two plasmids (28 and 29...
Two plasmids, of 28,878 bp and 28,012 bp, were isolated from Leptospirillum ferrooxidans ATCC 49879 ... An analysis of the ORFs and other features of the two plasmids, the first to be isolated from a ... Altogether, a total of 67 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on both plasmids, of which 32 ... It has been previously determined that plantaricin 423 is encoded by a plasmid designated pPLA4, ......
http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/9906
*  Mouse TOMM40L Gene cDNA clone plasmid
Human SIK1 ORF mammalian expression plasmid, N-OFPSpark / RFP tag. *Human GP9 / GPIX ORF mammalian ... Canine SDHC ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C-Flag tag. *Canine CAPZA1 ORF mammalian expression ......
http://ru.sinobiological.com/commodity~9318~productProtocols.html
*  Plus it
Plasmids. pcDNA3.1-BQ323636.1 was constructed by inserting the human variant BQ323636.1 cDNA into ... variant was confirmed by overexpression of BQ323636.1 in both HeLa and 293T cell line with plasmid ......
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/73/1/246
*  Plus it
Control plasmid pGLCMV β-GAL was a gift from H. Paris (INSERM U388, Toulouse, France). All plasmids ... Plasmids. The murine sst2 cDNA, subcloned into pCMV6c vector, was kindly provided by G. I. Bell ( ... PEI complexed with plasmid pCMVLacZ (10 μg) or recombinant adenoviruses (1 × 109 pfu) carrying the ......
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/62/21/6124
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA
Biology-Online View topic - Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Please login to access all site features. Create account. Log me on automatically each visit. Join for Free. 121316 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Home. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Articles. Tutorials. Books. Directory. Share your work. Biology-Online. Skip to content. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. Molecular Biology. Change font size. Advanced search. FAQ. Register. Login. Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in the field. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 3 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA by xbritoe. Mon Jan 16, 2012 8:23 am Hi, so I have been transforming recombinant plasmid DNA into E.coli bacteria to clone the DNA. The plasmid consist of an ampicillin resistant gene. After I grow the bacteria, I would purify the plasmid DNA out of the bacterial ...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about23900.html?p=138766&hilit=Ampicillin
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA
Biology-Online View topic - Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Please login to access all site features. Create account. Log me on automatically each visit. Join for Free. 121316 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Home. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Articles. Tutorials. Books. Directory. Share your work. Biology-Online. Skip to content. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. Molecular Biology. Change font size. Advanced search. FAQ. Register. Login. Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in the field. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 3 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Purifying Recombinant plasmid DNA by xbritoe. Mon Jan 16, 2012 8:23 am Hi, so I have been transforming recombinant plasmid DNA into E.coli bacteria to clone the DNA. The plasmid consist of an ampicillin resistant gene. After I grow the bacteria, I would purify the plasmid DNA out of the bacterial ...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-138770.html
*  Taxonomy for plasmids - Biology Stack Exchange
... current community. chat blog. Biology. . Biology Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Biology Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. It's 100% free, no registration required. Taxonomy for plasmids. up vote 8 down vote favorite. I liked the question about F' and R plasmids. What is a good resource that describes what is known about the functions and diversity of plasmids in the wild. Prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Wikipedia points to five kinds of plasmids fertility F, resistance R, col plasmids offensive genes that let a bacteria kill other bacteria, degradative function plasmids, ...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/1175/taxonomy-for-plasmids?answertab=oldest
*  Curing E.coli plasmids
curing e coli plasmids curing e coli plasmids tamas gaal tgaal at macc wisc edu mon mar est previous message silver sequencing next message curing e coli plasmids messages sorted by duncan at genesys demon co uk duncan clark wrote hi folks has anyone got a good high efficiency method for curing both cole replicon based plasmids pbr deriv and p a replicon based plasmids pacyc series etbr acridine orange electroporation if plasmids can go in they can also come out etc try growing your culture in sub lethal concentration of novobiocin for hours novobiocin selectively inhibits the replycation of the plasmids i would try something like microgramm ml in lb ml culture plate the culture which still grows fairly well screen single colonies for the loss of the resistance marker more than of the cells should loose the plasmid greetings tamas tamas gaal univ of wisconsin dept of bacteriology tgaal at macc wisc edu previous message silver sequencing next message curing e coli plasmids messages sorted by more information a...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1995-March/026229.html
*  Triparental mating
... is a form of bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain plasmid s are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation cloning or transposon mutagenesis triparental matings can help overcome some of the barriers to efficient plasmid mobilization for instance if the conjugative plasmid and the mobilizable plasmid are members of the same incompatibility group they do not need to stably coexist in the second bacterial strain for the mobilizable plasmid to be transferred thumb the information being transferred in conjugation process requirements see also external links references process requirements a helper strain carrying a conjugative plasmid such as the f plasmid that codes for genes required for conjugation and dna transfer a donor strain carrying a mobilizable plasmid that can utilize the transfer functions of the conjugative plasmid a reci...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triparental_mating
*  Plasmid Isolation MBS-002
... Shopping Cart 0 Items Buy 2 Epitope Antibodies, Get 1 Free. My Rockland Log In. Contact Us. Site Content Products Catalog #. PRODUCTS. Primary Antibodies. Secondary Antibodies. Proteins and Peptides. Supporting Reagents. Blood Products. Cell Lysates. Melanoma Cell Lines. Custom Products. SERVICES. Custom Antibody Production. Host Cell Protein HCP Antibody Generation. Custom Molecular Biology Production. Custom Antibody Conjugation. Purification Services. Antibody Fragmentation Services. Cell Culture Services. SUPPORT. Customer Support. Technical Service. Protocols. Ordering FAQs. Technical FAQs. Technical Tips. The Rockland Advantage. Contact Us. You'll need this too: Anti-AKT pS473 MOUSE Monoclonal Antibody - 200-301-268. Anti-MOUSE IgG H&L RABBIT Antibody Peroxidase Conjugated - 610-4302. Anti-RABBIT IgG H&L GOAT Antibody Peroxidase Conjugated - 611-1302. Custom Products > Custom Molecular Biology Production. Plasmid Isolation. Number: MBS-002 Size: 1 Each Price: Price On Request Availability: Ships wi...
http://rockland-inc.com/Product.aspx?id=40135
*  RK2 plasmid
The 'RK2 Plasmid' is a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to the incP incompatibility group David H. Kelton: "Broad host range plasmid RK2 encodes multiple kil genes potentially lethal to Escherichia coli host cells", 'Genetics', Volume 79. The 'kil' and 'kor' genes together are suspected to play a role in the broad host range of RK2. The essential replication system in RK2 consists of an origin of replication, 'oriV', and a gene, 'trfA', whose gene product, the TrfA protein, binds to and activates 'oriV'. HELINSKI:"Mutations in the trfA Replication Gene of the Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RK2 Result in Elevated Plasmid Copy Numbers", 'JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY', Vol. HELINSKI: "Regions of Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RK2 Which Are Essential for Replication and Maintenance", 'JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY', Vol. In these plasmids most of the genes have been removed, leaving only genes essential for replication and one or more selectable marker s. PFF1 consists of an origin of replication, oriV, an origin of transfer, oriT, a...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RK2_plasmid
*  Co-transfection with 2 plasmids - Molecular Cloning
Co-transfection with 2 plasmids - Sep/19/2012 Visit this topic in live forum Printer Friendly Version Pages: 1 2 Next My current plasmid of interest was constructed in another lab and doesn't contain the GFP tag, so I wouldn't be able to see transfection efficiency post-transfection. What would the transfection efficiency be if I had two plasmids. Can I safely assume that if the HEK cells were successfully transfected with the GFP plasmid, that those cells would also contain my plasmid of interest 16kb. You would need the same selection marker on both plasmids to make co-transfection more likely. bob1 on Thu Sep 20 09:26:23 2012 said:. You would need the same selection marker on both plasmids to make co-transfection more likely. Why same selection markers needed. bob1 on Thu Sep 20 09:26:23 2012 said:. You would need the same selection marker on both plasmids to make co-transfection more likely. Why same selection markers needed. Because if you have different selection markers you will be selecting wi...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums-2/posts/27001.html
*  Plasmid
Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning , serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms. This host-to-host transfer of genetic material is called horizontal gene transfer , and plasmids can be considered part of the mobilome. Unlike viruses which encase their genetic material in a protective protein coat called a capsid , plasmids are "naked" DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host. 5 Smaller plasmids make use of the host replicative enzymes to make copies of themselves, while larger plasmids may carry genes specific for the replication of those plasmids. The normal number of copies of plasmid that may be found in a single cell is called the copy number , and is determined by how the replication initiation is regulated and the size of the molecule. Such single-copy plasmids have systems that attempt to actively distribute a copy to both daughter cells. Conjugative plasmids contain a set of...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmid
*  Plasmid preparation
Many methods have been developed to purify plasmid DNA from bacteria. 1 Growth of the bacterial culture Harvesting and lysis of the bacteria Purification of plasmid DNA. Growth of the bacterial culture Harvesting and lysis of the bacteria Preparations by size Minipreparation. Purification of plasmid DNA References External links. Growth of the bacterial culture. Harvesting and lysis of the bacteria. After the addition of acetate -containing neutralization buffer the large and less supercoiled chromosomal DNA and proteins precipitate, but the small bacterial DNA plasmids stay in solution. Preparations by size. Kits are available from varying manufacturers to purify plasmid DNA, which are named by size of bacterial culture and corresponding plasmid yield. The plasmid DNA yield will vary depending on the plasmid copy number, type and size, the bacterial strain, the growth conditions, and the kit. Minipreparation. Minipreparation of plasmid DNA is a rapid, small-scale isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria. It is...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmid_preparation
*  Zyppy™ Plasmid Miniprep Kit - Plasmid DNA Purification - DNA
... DNA Purification. All Services DNA Methylation Analysis. DNA /. Plasmid DNA Purification /. Zyppy™ Plasmid Miniprep Kit. Zyppy™ Plasmid Miniprep Kit. The fastest, easiest miniprep available for purifying transfection quality plasmid DNA. Pellet-free procedure omits conventional cell pelleting and resuspension steps. DNA quality appropriate for cloning, sequencing, and transfection. Product Size Catalog # Price Qty Zyppy Plasmid Miniprep Kit 50 Preps D4036 $61.00. Zyppy Plasmid Miniprep Kit 100 Preps D4019 $104.00. Zyppy Plasmid Miniprep Kit 400 Preps D4020 $352.00. Zyppy Plasmid Miniprep Kit 800 Preps D4037 $642.00. About Zyppy™ Plasmid Miniprep Kit The Zyppy Plasmid Miniprep Kit features a pellet-free modified alkaline lysis method that bypasses bacterial culture centrifugation and resuspension steps common to classical plasmid preparation procedures. Additionally, the innovative colored buffers included in the kit permit error-free visualization and identification of complete bacterial cell lysis and n...
http://zymoresearch.com/dna/plasmid-dna-purification/zyppy-plasmid-miniprep-kit
*  Iteron
'Iterons' are directly repeated DNA sequence s which play an important role in regulation of plasmid copy number in bacteria l cells. It is one among the three negative regulatory elements found in plasmids which control its copy number, the others being antisense RNA s and ctRNA s. Iterons complex with cognate replication Rep initiator protein s to achieve the required regulatory effect. Iterons have an important role in plasmid replication. These iterons provide a saturation site for initiator receptor proteins and promote replication thus increasing plasmid copy number in a given cell. 1 Limiting Factors of Initiation. There are 4 main limiting factors leading to no initiation of replication in iterons:. Transcriptional autorepression Initiator Dimerization Initiator titration Handcuffing. Transcription al autorepression is thought to reduce initiator synthesis by repression the formation of the Rep proteins. Dimerization works to dimerize these Rep proteins and as a result monomers of these proteins are n...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iteron
*  Ghost bands on plasmid preps
... Daniel MacArthur dmac125 at hotmail.com. Sat Mar 31 19:11:18 EST 2001. Previous message: Biovisa.net -- links to 1339 protocols, 1191 journ Next message: Ghost bands on plasmid preps Messages sorted by:. Dear group, I'm an undergraduate biochemistry student currently attempting to write up a practical report on a plasmid miniprep practical. coli colonies transfected with pBluescript IISK+ vectors one containing a fragment from an EcoRI digest of lambda phage DNA and one with no insert, purified the plasmids using a Quantum Miniprep from Bio-Rad, digested the plasmid DNA using EcoRI, BamHI, and a combination of the two, and then ran out the products on an agarose gel. In several of the lanes there are faint bands running at roughly half the size of the full-length linear plasmid, which my demonstrator called ghost bands. She told us that these bands were actually single-stranded plasmid molecules formed during the cell lysis step of the miniprep, which seems reasonable given their size in relation to the ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2001-March/088193.html
*  Plasmid DNA Extraction
... Lixin Zhou U09723 at uicvm.uic.edu. Tue Dec 29 23:11:12 EST 1992. Previous message: Plant RNA Isolation Methods Next message: Plasmid DNA Extraction Messages sorted by:. I got troubles in extracting plasmid DNA from Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram-positive. The plasmid is about 15 kb. Pneumococcal chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA are AT rich about 62%. The method I used is a modified alkali lysis protocol. Solution II contains 1% SDS and 0.175 N NaOH instead of 0.2 N NaOH. Solution III contains 50 mM Tris.Cl-pH8.0 in addition to 0.1 M NaAc-pH4.8. The troubles were: in both minipreparation 1-10 ml culture and big-CsCl-preparation 3 Liters, I always could not separate plasmid DNA from 'chromosomal DNA' or whatever else. In CsCl centrifugation tubes, I always got only one band which appeared not sharp 50Ti rotor, 48K rpm for 50-60 hrs, or even longer. When I run DNA from that band on agarose gel, I saw both plasmid and 'chromosomal DNA' It appears to be chromosome or from chromosome. I will called it smear DNA...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1992-December/003867.html
*  Help with R751Helper Plasmid
help with r helper plasmid help with r helper plasmid molapo qhobela molapo at micro uct ac za tue mar est previous message search for cyclosporin a next message methods for plant rna isolation messages sorted by hallow netters help could anyone tell me what the antibiotic resistant markers are for the helper plasmid r used for mobilization of rsf derived plasmids a reference or better still a plasmid map would also be appreciated many thanks please respond either to katrina downing at katrina at micro uct ac za or to myself molapo qhobela phd department of microbiology internet molapo at micro uct ac za university of cape town tel private bag rondebosch fax south africa previous message search for cyclosporin a next message methods for plant rna isolation messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1994-March/012268.html
*  HELP: Coli is rearranging recombinant plasmid
help coli is rearranging recombinant plasmid help coli is rearranging recombinant plasmid alexey merz alexey at webcom com wed apr est previous message help coli is rearranging recombinant plasmid next message help coli is rearranging recombinant plasmid messages sorted by clemen suter crazzolara wrote on wed apr alexey merz said great vectors are the pwks pwsk vectors these vectors are identical to the pbluescript plasmids same polylinker f ori etc but have a low copy origin and better yet wsk and wks are kanamycin resistant instead of amp resistant meaning zero satellite colonies wasn t there a new antibiotic which functions like ampicillin ie is a target for beta lactamase which is much more stable and also results in much fewer satillites yeah carbenicillin make or mg ml stock in etoh store use at similar concentration as amp one problem expensive another option ampicillin methicillin mixture anybody try this with what results alexey merz url http www webcom com alexey email alexey at webcom com pgp publi...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1998-April/066417.html
*  20.109(S13):Prepare expression system (Day4) - OpenWetWare
In order to transform BL21 DE3 cells with your mutant IPC plasmids, you will first have to make the cells competent, i.e., able to efficiently take up foreign DNA. - #While you are waiting, prepare 3 large glass test tubes containing LB+Amp/Cam, and label them with your team color and sample name. - You will perform diagnostic digests on the following samples: the inverse pericam parent plasmid pRSET-IPC , a known mutant pRSET-M124S or -T79P or -E67K, and two candidates for your X#Z mutation. Digest 1 D1 will be used to show that the positive control DNA contains the correct mutation, and Digest 2 D2 will be used to test whether your X#Z candidates do. + You will perform diagnostic digests on the following samples: the inverse pericam parent plasmid pRSET-IPC , a known mutant pRSET-M124S or -T79P or -E67K or -D24H , and two candidates for your X#Z mutation. + - + - For this assignment, you should plan restriction enzyme digests that allow you to distinguish parental and mutant pRSET-IPC for your X#Z mutation ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=20.109(S13):Prepare_expression_system_(Day4)&diff=684990&oldid=683357
*  Subcloning
... In molecular biology, 'subcloning' is a technique used to move a particular gene of interest from a 'parent vector ' to a 'destination vector' in order to further study its functionality. Procedure Amplification of product plasmid Selection Example case: bacterial plasmid subcloning See also References. Restriction enzymes are used to excise the gene of interest the 'insert' from the parent. The insert is purified in order to isolate it from other DNA molecules. The number of copies of the gene is then amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR. The insert and the destination vector are then mixed together with DNA ligase. In order to ensure growth of only transformed bacteria which carry the desired plasmids to be harvested, a marker gene is used in the destination vector for selection. Typical marker genes are for antibiotic resistance or nutrient biosynthesis. So, for example, the "marker gene" could be for resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. Example case: bacterial plasmid subcloning. In this...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcloning
*  Re: How to transform thecells with two different plasmids with d... - Molecular Biology
re how to transform thecells with two different plasmids with d molecular biology biojob bioblog pubalert biotool bioproduct bioforum protocol home forum index home live discussion top forum archives molecular biology re how to transform thecells with two different plasmids with d mar thanks for read my problem i extracted chloromosomal dna from plant and i need to quantitate the dna but i can t obtain pure dna through chloroform step at least three times the ratio of a a is only if there were protein how can i get pure dna ratio a a thanks for read my problem againand my e mail address is ritww hanmail net have a good day try peg purification of the maxiprep sankar go to the forum page printer friendly version about terms of service privacy feedback sponsorship protocol online all rights reserved...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/382.html
*  Q. Double Zap method of yeast-E.coli plasmid transfer??
Q. Double Zap method of yeast-E.coli plasmid transfer?. Q Double Zap method of yeast-E.coli plasmid transfer?. Dima Klenchin klenchin at REMOVE TO REPLY.facstaff.wisc.edu. Thu Sep 7 19:21:17 EST 2000. Previous message: EtOH Next message: What's going on with phenol. Messages sorted by:. In article 39AE1D7B.154ED13D at hgu.mrc.ac.uk, G.Dellaire at hgu.mrc.ac.uk Graham wrote: Hello All, I have been trying to do the double zap method of plasmid transfer from yeast to E. coli KC8 cells - leu/trp/his, KanR to rescue library plasmids. The conditions I tried where 65 ul of KC8 competent cells with a small toothpick ~5ul of a yeast smear mixed before zapping. First zap was at 1500 volts, 25 uF, 100 ohms 30 sec rest Second zap 2500 volts, 25 uF, 200 ohms immediately add 1ml LB and incubate at 37 degrees for 45 minutes before plating 150 ul of the suspension on M9 -leu plates plus Amp and Kan. I got some background but no real colonies, not sure what to expect. Yes, I vaguely recall a number of bacteria-to-bacteria and...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-September/084910.html
*  Double-transfection (stable) of COS-7 cells
Double-transfection stable of COS-7 cells. Double-transfection stable of COS-7 cells Ian A. York iayork at panix.com. Previous message: Double-transfection stable of COS-7 cells Next message: Double-transfection stable of COS-7 cells Messages sorted by:. In article 54qj36$ fip at bignews.shef.ac.uk, Kevin Mulcahy K.Mulcahy at sheffield.ac.uk wrote: Another possibility may be that the cells were not able to support the episomal maintainance of two different plasmids with the same origin of replication. It shouldn't be a *general* problem, but with the OriP/EBNA1 system I'm pretty sure it will be. This system keeps low-level replication going, as I understand it, and there aren't many copies of the episomes. This being the case, there's only the selection to keep both plasmids going in the cell; if there are very low copy numbers maintained then it may be difficult for the cell to keep both plasmids going even in the presence of selection. Brett Lindenbach said, You might also consider utilizing the SV40 large ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-October/050778.html
*  Plasmid - Everything2.com
A plasmid may be the smallest symbiont : the host bacterium replicate s it when replicating its own DNA, and in return the plasmid codes for gene s that provide benefit to the host, such as antibiotic resistance. Plasmids code for protein s responsible for all kinds of cell ular processes -- reproduction, defense, repair, etc. Plasmids are like free-floating information in the cell, and whether or not that information is helpful to the cell determines whether or not the plasmid will be passed on to future generation s. They do, however, reproduce via transcriptase and the rest of DNA reproduction, and their suitability to a given environment determines their ability to reproduce further, by determining their bacteria's likelyhood of survival. For example, one type of plasmid is responsible for the proteins which make a connection between two bacteria in which genetic information can pass. That is, one of the bacteria has that plasmid, but may not have others that would be useful for its survival. Once connect...
http://everything2.com/title/Plasmid
*  20.109(S09):Prepare expression system (Day4) - OpenWetWare
2.3 Part 3: Transform BL21 DE3 with mutant DNA 2.4 Part 4: Count mutant colonies 2.5 Part 5: Prepare DNA for Evaluation 2.5.1 Diagnostic Digests 2.5.2 Sequencing Reactions. The XL1-Blue cell line, although it now carries the inverse pericam DNA, cannot produce the inverse pericam protein. Today you will extract DNA from the XL1-Blue cells, prepare it for analysis, and transform your IPC mutant plasmids into a new bacterial system that can produce the protein directly. In order to transform BL21 DE3 cells with your mutant IPC plasmids, you will first have to make the cells competent, i.e., able to efficiently take up foreign DNA. Next time, you will add IPTG to these liquid cultures to induce expression of your mutant proteins, which you will then isolate and characterize. Add 200 L of Solution II to each sample and invert the tubes five or six times to mix. Remember, you are testing plasmid DNA that was prepared from two different colonies for your X#Z mutant, along with DNA from a colony that is already know...
http://openwetware.org/wiki/20.109(S09):Prepare_expression_system_(Day4)
*  Making Antibiotics Obsolete in Fermentation | GEN Magazine Articles | GEN
Click Image To Enlarge +. Figure 1. Delphi Genetics has designed a stabilization system called Staby™ based on the use of selection modules naturally found in plasmids, bacterial chromosomes, and bacteriophages. The antidote gene has been separated from the selection gene, locating the former on the expression plasmid and the latter in the chromosome of the expression strain. This stabilization technology solves the problem of plasmid instability and insures that upon induction, 100% of the bacteria will produce the recombinant protein leading to higher yields of the target protein and less background caused by unwanted proteins. To maximize protein expression, the Staby system was combined with T7 polymerase technology for the over-expression of recombinant proteins; the gene of interest is under the control of the T7 promoter. The SE1 strain, in which the ccdB selection gene is inserted in the chromosome to stabilize the pStaby1 plasmid, has been engineered by Delphi Genetics as a dedicated bacterial strain...
http://genengnews.com/gen-articles/making-antibiotics-obsolete-in-fermentation/2561/?kwrd=Delphi Genetics
*  high molecular plasmid DNA
... aawara chowdhury via methods net bio net by aawara from pontiff playground org fri jan est previous message high molecular plasmid dna next message high molecular plasmid dna messages sorted by in mailman methods from net bio net dr hiranya s roychowdhury hroychow from nmsu edu wrote well this has never been suficiently explained nor do i know of any specific investigation into this i tend to believe that the high mw species may exist as a complex of bacterial chromosome and other proteins usually a clean plasmid prep does not show the hmw bands it also has nothing to do with the conc of the agarose gel excessive treatment with alkali will cause this to appear when nicked dna denatures it creates a fast migrating single stranded circle that is undigestable by restriction endonucleases the other product is linear ssdna that tends to aggregate by partial base pairing into large complexes that migrates near the well of a...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2008-January/102803.html
*  E. coli plasmid vector pRK2013 - incomplete.
e coli plasmid vector prk incomplete prk vector ig sequence link general plasmid ds dna bp functions tri parental mating conjugation selection copy number hosts e coli hb e coli agrobacterium suppliers clontech atcc misc comments this is a helper plasmid for mobilization of non self transmissible plasmids atcc staff medium is lb plus kanamycin parents siblings descendents ncbi entrez link return to vector homepage...
http://genome-stanford.edu/vectordb/vector_descrip/PRK2013.html
*  Arking:JCAOligoTutorial1 - OpenWetWare
... Arking:JCAOligoTutorial1. From OpenWetWare. Difference between revisions. Jump to: navigation, search. Revision as of 15:58, 7 December 2008 view source. JCAnderson Talk. contribs. → Quiz #2. ← Previous diff. Current revision 11:29, 1 March 2009 view source. JCAnderson Talk. contribs. → Step 3: Design the annealing sequences. 13 intermediate revisions not shown. Line 20:. Line 20:. The format you're seeing is the common GenBank format. Many programs including ApE 'A' 'p'lasmid 'E'ditor can interpret this format and perform the operations described in this tutorial locating restriction sites and reverse complementing sequences. If you are unable to download a suitable program, these functions can also be performed with the tools at http://searchlauncher.bcm.tmc.edu/seq-util/seq-util.html. The format you're seeing is the common GenBank format. Many programs including ApE 'A' 'p'lasmid 'E'ditor can interpret this format and perform the operations described in this tutorial locating restriction sites and rev...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Arking:JCAOligoTutorial1&diff=290404&oldid=268055
*  Blue white screen
Cells transformed with vectors containing recombinant DNA will produce white colonies; cells transformed with non-recombinant plasmids i.e. A gene of interest may be inserted into a plasmid vector via ligation, and the plasmid is then transformed into ' Escherichia coli ' cells. However, not all the plasmids transformed into cells may contain the desired gene insert, and checking each individual colony for the presence of the insert is time-consuming, therefore a method for the detection of the insert would be useful for making this procedure less time- and labor-intensive. 4 In this method, DNA ligated into the plasmid disrupts the α peptide and therefore the complementation process, and no functional β-galactosidase can form. Cells transformed with plasmid containing an insert therefore form white colonies, while cells transformed with plasmid without an insert form blue colonies; result of a successful ligation can thus be easily identified by the white coloration of cells formed from the unsuccessful blue...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_white_screen
*  ParABS system
... originally identified as a genetic element required for faithful partitioning of low copy number plasmid s the parabs system is a broadly conserved molecular mechanism for plasmid partitioning and chromosome segregation in bacteria it consists of three components the para atpase the parb dna binding protein and the cis acting pars sequence the para and parb genes are typically found in the same operon with pars elements located within or adjacent to this operon collectively these components function to ensure accurate partitioning of plasmids or whole chromosomes between bacterial daughter cells prior to cell division mechanism based on chromatin immunoprecipitation chip experiments parb has the ability to bind not only to high affinity pars sites but also to adjacent nonspecific dna a behavior known as spreading the parb dna complex is thought to be translocated by a brownian ratchet mechanism involving the para atpase para binds dna nonspecifically to dna in its atp bound state but much more weakly in ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ParABS_system
*  www.virologyj.com - Table
www virologyj com table table efficiencies of mirnas targeting the fmdv ires in inhibiting egfp expression in bhk cells as assayed by flow cytometry reporter plasmid inhibition efficiency of each mirna pmir pmir pmir pmir bi mirna dual mirna phn ires egfp pfc ires egfp pjs ires egfp bi mirna a mixture of pmir and pmir plasmids dual mirna a co cistronic expression plasmid pmir containing two pre mirna pmir and pmir hairpin structures percentage inhibition in each co transfected vector delivered mirnas and the reporter plasmids cell population was calculated by comparison with the control cells transfected only with the same reporter plasmid at h post transfection chang et al chang et al virology journal doi x...
http://virologyj.com/content/11/1/1/table/T2
*  pBEND anyone?
pbend anyone pbend anyone gc genecutl at mendel berkeley edu fri aug est previous message qiagen this is ridiculous next message pbend anyone messages sorted by does anyone out there have plasmids to look at dna bending by dna binding proteins since i have received no reply after going through normal sources i turn to the internet community for someone who has plasmids such as pbend or the various phasing plasmids thanks gene cutler theroadtonowhere http sp berkeley edu previous message qiagen this is ridiculous next message pbend anyone messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-August/048548.html
*  Prep
... may refer to a nickname for anything associated with a university preparatory school such as a member of the american preppy social group stemming from the word preparatory another name for someone who attends a preparatory school in the united states prep a novel by curtis sittenfeld prep short form for a plasmid preparation including minipreps and bulk preps or the dna prepared by such a method prep short form for preparation of or for something prep the powerpc reference platform p rep a statistical value of the probability of replicating an observed effect preparative a nato signal flag presequence protease a mitochondrial and chloroplastic protein pre exposure prophylaxis a medical procedure to prevent disease before exposure...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prep
*  NTCB proteolytic cleavage
... es at jii afrc ac uk es at jii afrc ac uk thu may est previous message sequences of invitrogen ptrchis vectors next message vendor for pet plasmids messages sorted by dear all despite a search in my usual references i couldn t find out what ntcb was standing for it is a proteolytic chemical which cleaves at xaa cys and which is listed in the proteolytic enzymes list of ie the gcg package map program or i suppose also the amos bairoch list could anyone help me with this thanks ps as i am not registered to this bionet mail group could the answers be sent to my personnal address please eric schoonejans es at jii afrc ac uk or es at uk ac afrc jii previous message sequences of invitrogen ptrchis vectors next message vendor for pet plasmids messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1993-May/005631.html
*  Relaxosome
... is the complex of proteins that facilitates plasmid s during bacterial conjugation the proteins are encoded by the tra gene in the origin of transfer orit region the most important of these proteins is relaxase which is responsible for beginning the conjugation process by cutting at the nic site via transesterification this nicking results in a dna protein complex with the relaxosome bound to a single strand of the plasmid dna and an exposed hydroxyl group relaxase also unwinds the plasmid being conjugated with its helicase properties the relaxosome interacts with integration host factors within the orit other genes that code for relaxosome components include trah which stabilizes the relaxosome s structural formation trai which encodes for the relaxase protein traj which recruits the complex to the orit site trak which increases the nicked state of the target plasmid and tray which imparts single stranded dna character on the orit site tram plays a particularly important role in relaxase interaction by ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxosome
*  Nic site
... the nic site or nick region is found within the origin of transfer orit site and is a key in starting bacterial conjugation purpose a single strand of dna called the t strand is cut at nic by an enzyme called relaxase lanka erich wilkins brian m dna processing reactions in bacterial conjugation annu rev biochem this single strand is eventually transferred to the recipient cell during the process of bacterial conjugation before this cleavage can occur however it is necessary for a group of proteins to attach to the orit site this group of proteins is called the relaxosome it is thought that portions of the orit site are bent in a way that creates interaction between the relaxosome proteins and the nic site cleaving the t strand involves relaxase cutting a phosphodiester bond at the nic site interestingly the cleaved strand is left with a hydroxyl group at the end which may allow for the strand to form a circular plasmid after moving into the recipient cell matson s w nelson w c morton b s characterization...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nic_site
*  Swapping single-stranded DNA sequence specificities of relaxases from conjugative plasmids F and R10
Usually, the effects of variant proteins on anisotropy and intensity of a 3′-TAMRA-labeled 22-base oligonucleotide were similar to those caused by binding of the wild-type protein. F TraI36 binds a single-stranded F oriT sequence with a subnanomolar KD, and some single-base substitutions over a 10-base region can reduce affinity by between 10- and 10,000-fold 24. Cleavage of single-stranded, 22-base oligonucleotide with F factor or R100 sequence by various TraI36 proteins was examined by using a nicking assay 18 as described 24. The affinity of this protein for F oriT is reduced 10-fold but its affinity for R100 oriT is unchanged, relative to wild-type F TraI36 Table 1. Binding constants of wild-type and chimeric TraI36 proteins TraI36 protein F oriT R100 oriT KD nM. F-E153D binds the R100 oriT oligonucleotide with 8-fold higher affinity, and F-R75K with 3-fold higher affinity, than wild- type F TraI36. F-I185S shows a 2-fold reduction in affinity for F oriT but a 16-fold increased affinity for the R100 oriT ...
http://researchgate.net/publication/9085586_Swapping_single-stranded_DNA_sequence_specificities_of_relaxases_from_conjugative_plasmids_F_and_R100
*  Origin of transfer
... an origin of transfer orit is a short sequence up to bp that is necessary for transfer of the dna that contains it from a bacterial host to recipient during bacterial conjugation the orit is cis acting it is found on the same dna that is being transferred and it is transferred along with the dna the origin of transfer consists of three functionally defined domains a nicking domain a transfer domain and a termination domain at the beginning of conjugation of plasmids a multi protein complex called the relaxosome assembles around the orit with each individual protein binding at specific sites on the orit a relaxase one of the proteins of the relaxosome nicks the plasmid at the nic site of the orit catalyzing a trans esterification reaction that transfers the end of the dna at the nic site to a tyrosine residue on the relaxase relaxase then moves in the to direction on the plasmid unwinding the dna in a helicase like fashion until it comes a full circle back to the orit where the relaxase recognizes a termi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_transfer
*  Transfer gene
'Transfer operon', commonly called 'tra operon', or tra genes, are some genes necessary for non-sexual transfer of genetic material in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The tra locus includes the pilin gene and regulatory genes, which together form pili on the cell surface, polymeric proteins that can attach themselves to the surface of F-bacteria and initiate the conjugation. The existence of the tra region of a plasmid genome was first discovered in 1979 by David H. An origin of transfer The oriT or bom site must be located on the plasmid itself to allow recognition of the plasmid and initiation of transfer. The transfer genes Though a functioning set of tra genes is necessary for plasmid transfer, they may be located in a variety of places including the plasmid in question, another plasmid in the same host cell, or even in the bacterial genome. 3 The tra genes encode proteins which are useful for the propagation of the plasmid from the host cell to a compatible donor cell or maintenance of the...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_gene
*  Pilus
... '''2-''' Pilus attaches to recipient cell, brings the two cells together. '''3-''' The mobile plasmid is nicked and a single strand of DNA is then transferred to the recipient cell. The terms ''pilus'' and '' fimbria '' Latin for 'fringe'; plural: ''fimbriae'' can be used interchangeably, although some researchers reserve the term ''pilus'' for the appendage required for bacterial conjugation. Types Conjugative pili. Conjugative pili allow for the transfer of DNA between bacteria, in the process of bacterial conjugation. During conjugation, a pilus emerging from the donor bacterium ensnares the recipient bacterium, draws it in close, and eventually triggers the formation of a mating bridge , which establishes direct contact and the formation of a controlled pore that allows transfer of DNA from the donor to the recipient. Typically, the DNA transferred consists of the genes required to make and transfer pili often encoded on a plasmid , and so is a kind of selfish DNA ; however, other pieces of DNA are o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilus
*  R-factor (crystallographic)
r factor crystallographic r factor crystallographic redirect r factor crystallography...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-factor_(crystallographic)
*  HELP ! bacterial genomic DNA kit
HELP. bacterial genomic DNA kit. HELP. bacterial genomic DNA kit Sforvo Sforvo at hotmail.com. Wed Apr 12 13:11:29 EST 2000. Previous message: Acrylamide gel expansion during staining Next message: HELP. bacterial genomic DNA kit Messages sorted by:. Hi netters, I was wondering if anyone could indicate me better if cheap!. a kit for extraction/purification of bacterial genomic DNA that worked fine in your hands. thanks for any advices !. Marcello. Previous message: Acrylamide gel expansion during staining Next message: HELP. bacterial genomic DNA kit Messages sorted by:. More information about the Methods mailing list....
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-April/082459.html
*  no band observed for bacterial genomic DNA during agarose gel electrophoresis - Molecular Biology
... no band observed for bacterial genomic DNA during agarose gel electrophoresis - May/29/2011 Visit this topic in live forum Printer Friendly Version Hi,. I have extract bacterial genomic DNA using phenol chloroform extraction method and did gel electrophoresis after DNA extraction. There will not be intact band shown in gel... adrian kohsf on Mon May 30 04:39:13 2011 said:. There will not be intact band shown in gel... is it there will be 1 intact band for genomic DNA that we extracted when we run gel. if the smears were due to RNA, then where is my genomic DNA. i'm gonna send the DNA for whole genome sequencing, so the DNA integrity is very important. i'm gonna send the DNA for whole genome sequencing, so the DNA integrity is very important. What kind of genome sequencing are you sending it for. A260/A280 ratio from what I understand only shows the purity of your DNA, but not degradation/fragmented of DNA, that might explain the smearing, but with good ratio value. This is because the genomic DNA...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums-2/posts/21365.html
*  Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Related Products - References
Place Order Home Site Map Search: Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Related Products References Aktipis, S.: DNA - The Replicative Process and Repair, Textbook Biochem. with Clin. Correlations, 3rd ed,,, 767, 1992 Albertini, J., and Garnier-Suillerot, A.: Iron-Bleomycin-Deoxyribonucleic Acid System. Evidence of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Interaction with the alpha-Amino Group of the beta-Aminoalanine Moiety, Biochemistry 23, 47, 1984 Alberts, B.: Prokaryotic DNA Replication Mechanisms, Phil Trans R Soc Lond 317, 395, 1987 Alberts, B., and Herrick, G.: Methods in Enzymology Vol. 21,S. Colowick and N. Kaplan, Academic Press, NY, 198, 1971 Antonarakis, S.: Recombinant DNA Technology in the Diagnosis of Human Genetic Disorders, Clin Chem 35, B4, 1989 Aposhian, H., and Kornberg, A.: Enzymatic Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid. IX. The Polymerase Formed After T2 Bacteriophage Infection of Escherichia coli : A New Enzyme, J Biol Chem 237, 519, 1962 Basile, L., Raphael, A., and Barton, J.: Metal-Activated Hydrolytic Cleavage of ...
http://worthington-biochem.com/DNA/references.html
*  List of strains of Escherichia coli
... escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by theodor escherich after whom it was later named strains innocuous escherichia coli strain nissle also known as mutaflor laboratory e coli k one of two laboratory strains innocuous clifton wild type w dh αe dam dcm strain escherichia coli b the other of the two lab strains from which all lab substrains originate escherichia coli bl de pathogenic enterotoxigenic e coli etec enteropathogenic e coli epec enteroinvasive e coli eiec enterohemorrhagic e coli ehec uropathogenic e coli upec verotoxin producing e coli e coli o h is an enterohemorrhagic strain also north american e coli outbreak e coli o h also e coli o h outbreak escherichia coli o escherichia coli o h escherichia coli k meningitis e coli o escherichia coli nc shigella shigella flexneri shigella dysenteriae shigella boydii shigella sonnei references category enterobacteria category escherichia coli category gram negative bacteria...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_strains_of_Escherichia_coli
*  E Coli (Bacteria)
E Coli Bacteria. E Coli. Real Estate. Video. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT E COLI BACTERIA ","query":" des = \"E COLI BACTERIA \" ","search query":" subject:\"E COLI \\ BACTERIA\\ \" ","num search articles":"10","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true,"show subtopics":true,"exclude topics":"E COLI BACTERIA ","more on header":"MORE ON E COLI BACTERIA AND:","alternate index subidx":"","show thumbnails":true}. MORE ON E COLI BACTERIA AND: Editorials, Hamburgers, Cattle, Factory Farming, Meat, Consumer Protection, Food Contamination and Poisoning, Consumer Reports, Pew Charitable Trusts, Beef, Food and Drug Administration, Agriculture Department, E Coli Bacteria, Salmonella Bacteria. MORE ON E COLI BACTERIA AND: Food Contamination and Poisoning, Salmonella Bacteria, E Coli Bacteria, United States, Law and Legislation, Agriculture Department. MORE...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/e/e_coli_bacteria/index.html?query=Labeling and Labels&field=des&match=exact
*  Isolation, Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Human Renin in Escherichia Coli System - Universi
... ti Putra Malaysia Institutional Repository. Admin Login. Search. Faculty and Institute. Admin Login. Isolation, Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Human Renin in Escherichia Coli System. Ng, Chyan Leong 2002 Isolation, Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Human Renin in Escherichia Coli System. Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Therefore, recombinant protein technologies are used to produce the recombinant human renin protein. In this study, the full-length human renin coding gene REN was isolated from the human kidney cDNA library by using the polymerase chain reaction PCR technique. The PCR amplified REN gene was cloned into pCR-Blunt cloning vector. The REN gene was cloned into two different E. coli expression vectors, pRSETB and pGEX4T l, to express the recombinant protein. coli strains BL2 1-S1 and BL21 DE3 pLysS with the recombinant protein corresponding to the expected size -48 kDa. Both recombinant proteins have been confirmed with western blotting by using monoclonal anti-His antibod...
http://psasir.upm.edu.my/8486/
*  Recombinant Protein Production in Prokaryotic Systems | Wistar
Recombinant Protein Production in Prokaryotic Systems. Wistar. Postdoctoral Programs Predoctoral Programs High School Programs. Annual Biology Essay Contest Biomedical Research for High School Students Awards for Trainee Excellence Chemistry-Biology Interface Training Program Biomedical Technician Training Program Cancer Biology Graduate Program Support Wistar. Wistar Centers. Protein Expression Facility. Services Recombinant Protein Production in Prokaryotic Systems Our Science. Wistar Centers Research Areas Scientists Support and Infrastructure Centers Shared Resources Cores. Recombinant Plasmid DNA Engineering Recombinant Protein Production via BVES Recombinant Protein Production in Prokaryotic Systems Recombinant Protein Purification Retrovirus Production How to Obtain Services Helpful Information Instrumentation Policies and User Fees Contact Us Proteomics Facility Translational Research Management Facility Vector Core. Recombinant Protein Production in Prokaryotic Systems Recombinant Protein Production ...
http://wistar.org/our-science/shared-resources-cores/protein-expression-facility/services/recombinant-protein-produc-0
*  Niekonwencjonalne metody wykrywania Escherichia coli w wodzie do picia - Technologia Wody - Tom Nr 5
... 2012 - BazTech - Yadda. Szukaj. Przeglądaj. Pomoc. O bazie. . Narzędzia. Preferencje. Polski. English. Język Widoczny. Abstrakt 10 20 50 100. Liczba wyników. Artykuł - szczegóły. http://yadda.icm.edu.pl:80/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BPC2-0011-0006. Czasopismo Technologia Wody. Tytuł artykułu Niekonwencjonalne metody wykrywania Escherichia coli w wodzie do picia. Autorzy Trela, B. Papciak, D. Treść / Zawartość. Warianty tytułu EN Unconventional methods of detecting Escherichia coli in drinking water. Języki publikacji PL. Abstrakty PL W artykule przedstawiono sposoby wykrywania bakterii Escherichia coli w wodzie, oparte na konwencjonalnych i nowoczesnych metodach detekcji z zastosowaniem biosensor w. Zaprezentowano mechanizmy detekcji oraz techniki przetwarzania sygna u. Biosensory ze wzgl du na szybki pomiar s alternatyw dla konwencjo-nalnych metod opartych na izolowaniu i hodowaniu bakterii. Pozwalaj na szybkie reagowanie w przypadku stwierdzenia ska enia, chocia granica wykrywalno ...
http://yadda.icm.edu.pl/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BPC2-0011-0006
*  Common Drugs and Medications to Treat Appendicitis caused by Escherichia Coli Bacteria
... . Skip to content. Enter Search Keywords. Use the arrow keys to navigate suggestions. Symptoms. Doctors. Health Care Reform. Health A-Z. Common Conditions View All. ADD/ADHD. Allergies. Arthritis. Cancer. Cold, Flu Cough. Depression. Diabetes. Eye Health. Heart Disease. Heartburn/GERD. Pain Management. Sexual Conditions. Skin Problems. Sleep Disorders Featured Topics Identifying Bugs and Their Bites. Bothered by Yeast Infections. The Worst Shoes for Your Feet. WebMD Symptom Checker Health concern on your mind. See what your medical symptoms could mean, and learn about possible conditions. Get Started. Resources Second Opinion: Read expert perspectives on popular health topics. Communities: Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life. Insurance Guide: Get ready for changes to your health care coverage. Physician Directory: Find a doctor in your area. WebMD Pain Coach Track your pain levels, triggers, and treatments. Set goals and get tips with our app for iPhone. Drugs S...
http://webmd.com/drugs/condition-2068-Appendicitis caused by Escherichia Coli Bacteria.aspx?diseaseid=2068&diseasename=Appendicitis caused by Escherichia Coli Bacteria&source=3&sortColumn=4&sortDirection=a
*  Intel Wants to Put a Supercomputer in Your Pock...
You are the content you publish Get Started for FREE Sign up with Facebook. Sign up with Twitter I don't have a Facebook or a Twitter account Need content for your business. Scooped by ComplexInsight onto Complex Insight - Understanding our world. ComplexInsight's insight: IF you are involved in developing or using professional mapping, survey and photogrammetric products - Dielmo have released their back office cloud platform that enables teams to upload, store, process and share LiDAR, Raster, Vector data derived from UAV, Helicopter, Fixed-wing and Mobile platforms. ComplexInsight's insight: As evidence builds that fruit bats may be a vector for the recent ebola outbreak in Western Africa - I was reminded of this paper in CDC's EID journal which found 5 out of 276 3.5% tested bats in Bangladesh had antibodies to Ebola. ComplexInsight's insight: Discussion of limits is key to creating new ideas - Igor Markov's paper is worth reading for exploring lmitations and engineering implications and to trigger off ne...
http://scoop.it/t/complex-insight/p/3179502120/2012/11/02/intel-wants-to-put-a-supercomputer-in-your-pocket
*  Jeff Hawkins Develops a Brainy Big Data Company...
You are the content you publish Get Started for FREE Sign up with Facebook. Sign up with Twitter I don't have a Facebook or a Twitter account Need content for your business. Scooped by ComplexInsight onto Complex Insight - Understanding our world. ComplexInsight's insight: IF you are involved in developing or using professional mapping, survey and photogrammetric products - Dielmo have released their back office cloud platform that enables teams to upload, store, process and share LiDAR, Raster, Vector data derived from UAV, Helicopter, Fixed-wing and Mobile platforms. ComplexInsight's insight: As evidence builds that fruit bats may be a vector for the recent ebola outbreak in Western Africa - I was reminded of this paper in CDC's EID journal which found 5 out of 276 3.5% tested bats in Bangladesh had antibodies to Ebola. ComplexInsight's insight: Discussion of limits is key to creating new ideas - Igor Markov's paper is worth reading for exploring lmitations and engineering implications and to trigger off ne...
http://scoop.it/t/complex-insight/p/3566001896/2012/12/02/jeff-hawkins-develops-a-brainy-big-data-company
*  Interview with Brian Mathews, Group CTO @ Autod...
You are the content you publish Get Started for FREE Sign up with Facebook. Sign up with Twitter I don't have a Facebook or a Twitter account Need content for your business. Scooped by ComplexInsight onto Complex Insight - Understanding our world. ComplexInsight's insight: IF you are involved in developing or using professional mapping, survey and photogrammetric products - Dielmo have released their back office cloud platform that enables teams to upload, store, process and share LiDAR, Raster, Vector data derived from UAV, Helicopter, Fixed-wing and Mobile platforms. ComplexInsight's insight: As evidence builds that fruit bats may be a vector for the recent ebola outbreak in Western Africa - I was reminded of this paper in CDC's EID journal which found 5 out of 276 3.5% tested bats in Bangladesh had antibodies to Ebola. ComplexInsight's insight: Discussion of limits is key to creating new ideas - Igor Markov's paper is worth reading for exploring lmitations and engineering implications and to trigger off ne...
http://scoop.it/t/complex-insight/p/3567407948/2012/12/03/interview-with-brian-mathews-group-cto-autodesk
*  Big Data Myths…BUSTED. | Innovation | Co...
You are the content you publish Get Started for FREE Sign up with Facebook. Sign up with Twitter I don't have a Facebook or a Twitter account Need content for your business. Scooped by ComplexInsight onto Complex Insight - Understanding our world. ComplexInsight's insight: Open science is critically important to future development and increasingly under attack from a wired varied of scources - sadly including the government - worth reading. ComplexInsight's insight: As evidence builds that fruit bats may be a vector for the recent ebola outbreak in Western Africa - I was reminded of this paper in CDC's EID journal which found 5 out of 276 3.5% tested bats in Bangladesh had antibodies to Ebola. ComplexInsight's insight: Discussion of limits is key to creating new ideas - Igor Markov's paper is worth reading for exploring lmitations and engineering implications and to trigger off new discussions and ideas. ComplexInsight's insight: Knowing which machine learning method to apply for a given problem takes time to...
http://scoop.it/t/complex-insight/p/2008326571/2012/06/21/big-data-myths-busted-innovation
*  Interactive Physical Simulation | Complex Insig...
You are the content you publish Get Started for FREE Sign up with Facebook. Sign up with Twitter I don't have a Facebook or a Twitter account Need content for your business. Scooped by ComplexInsight onto Complex Insight - Understanding our world. If interactive physics or comptuer graphics is your thing then you need to read tje collected Research from Computer Graphics Group at University of Copenhagen. ComplexInsight's insight: As evidence builds that fruit bats may be a vector for the recent ebola outbreak in Western Africa - I was reminded of this paper in CDC's EID journal which found 5 out of 276 3.5% tested bats in Bangladesh had antibodies to Ebola. ComplexInsight's insight: Discussion of limits is key to creating new ideas - Igor Markov's paper is worth reading for exploring lmitations and engineering implications and to trigger off new discussions and ideas. ComplexInsight's insight: Knowing which machine learning method to apply for a given problem takes time to learn - fortunately the fine folks ...
http://scoop.it/t/complex-insight/p/2807456924/2012/09/27/interactive-physical-simulation
*  E. Coli Growth Curves
Coli Growth Curves. E Coli Growth Curves Paul N Hengen pnh at ncifcrf.gov. Previous message: Is ligation reaction volume only 10 ul. Coli Growth Curves Messages sorted by:. Joe Boutell boutell at cf.ac.uk wrote:. coli to see how expression of a variety of plasmids affects them; what's the best way. Can you spin down the cells and weigh them, or is taking an OD more accurate and at what wavelength. The OD will not tell you if the plasmid is stable in E. coli. For studying that you'll have to plate dilutions on selective media. But how about if you're growing the E. coli up in selective liquid media. media, and if most of the bugs are chucking out a particular plasmid. Joe Boutell. If you grow a population of bacteria in selective liquid media, a certain proportion of the cells will not carry the plasmid and they will not be resistant to the antibiotic, yet grow in liquid. You can prove this if you want, but my feeling is that growing up a culture in liquid and determining density is different from determining ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1997-June/058458.html
*  .. E Coli Bacteria: A Few Interesting Facts .. Related Articles: .. 9 Responses to “E Coli Bacter
Home » Health Conditions » Viral Infections » Other Viruses E Coli Bacteria: A Few Interesting Facts. E Coli Can Be Helpful or Harmful Depending on the Strain Hand Washing is the Number One Prevention Method for E. Coli Bacteria Since you can’t always make sure that people do their part in avoiding spreading infections, you can be sure to gird up your immune system to combat anything that comes your way. Check out products like Echinacea/Goldenseal w/Org. Alcohol, Ester C 500mg and Sambucus Immune Support/AF to give your immune system the boost it needs. What are the Main Causes of Viral Infections. Differences between Viral and Bacterial Infections. All You Need to Know about Viral Infections. 9 Responses to “E Coli Bacteria: A Few Interesting Facts”. coli is a fecal form of bacteria, and is mainly transmitted in fecal form or growing in the large intestine. coli are not harful but instead helpful, and like sarah said, it would be quite difficult for E. coli to survive in your drinking water unless it was a ...
http://nutralegacy.com/blog/general-healthcare/e-coli-bacteria-a-few-interesting-facts/
*  Identification of essential residues within Lit, a cell death peptidase of Escherichia coli K-12. -
... Lancaster EPrints. Lancaster EPrints. Identification of essential residues within Lit, a cell death peptidase of Escherichia coli K-12. Copeland, Nikki and Bingham, Ryan and Georgiou, Theonie and Cooper, Peter and Kleanthous, Colin 2004 Identification of essential residues within Lit, a cell death peptidase of Escherichia coli K-12. Bacteriophage exclusion is a suicide response to viral infection. In strains of Escherichia coli K-12 infected with T4 phage this process is mediated by the host-encoded Lit peptidase. Lit is activated by a unique sequence in the major head protein of the T4 phage the Gol sequence which then cleaves site-specifically the host translation factor EF-Tu, ultimately leading to cell death. Lit has very low sequence identity with other peptidases, with only a putative metallopeptidase motif, H 160 EXXH, giving an indication of its catalytic activity. The aim of the present study was to ascertain if Lit is a metallopeptidase, identify residues essential for Lit activity, and probe t...
http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/52425/
*  Number of species of bacteria in mammalian la - bacteria - BNID 105655
... Home \ Search. Browse. Resources. Cell Biology by the Numbers. Login \ Submit. Popular BioNumbers. Recent BioNumbers. Key BioNumbers. Amazing BioNumbers. Find Terms. e.g., ribosome coli, p53 human, transcription, OD. BioNumber Details Page. Click search to return to the full list. ID 105655. Property Number of species of bacteria in mammalian large intestine. Organism bacteria. Range 400-500. Units unitless. Reference Peekhaus N, Conway T. What's for dinner?: Entner-Doudoroff metabolism in Escherichia coli. Reference PubMed ID 9657988. Primary Source Borrelio S P. Microbial flora of the gastro-intestinal tract. In: Hill M J, editor. Microbial metabolism in the digestive tract. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, Inc. 1986. pp. 2–16. AND Finegold S M, Sutter V L, Mathisen G E. Normal indigenous intestinal microflora. In: Hentges D J, editor. Human intestinal microflora in health and disease. New York, N.Y: Academic Press, Inc. 1983. pp. 3–31.AND Hill M J. The normal gut bacterial flora. In: Hill M J, editor. Role...
http://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?id=105655&ver=5
*  BL21(DE3) and trc promoter
bl de and trc promoter bl de and trc promoter chenha hzhen at freeuk com tue feb est previous message bl de and trc promoter next message bl de and trc promoter messages sorted by petri kursula wrote confused by all these e coli genotypes and strains i would like to know if anyone has used bl de cells to produce recombinant proteins from a vector with the trc promoter such as ptrc a if yes is this expression tightly regulatable by iptg or do you get leaky expression this is likely to be leaky i haven t used ptrc a for a long time but i think it has a laciq which should help with the regulation in general as long as the expression is reasonably well controlled it should be ok if your protein is not toxic to the cell you only need to worry about how tight the regulation is if your protein is toxic in which case ptrc a is a bad choice and you will have to consider using other vectors btw the de bit of your bl de is unncessary for ptrc a if you are confused by the strains all you need to know is that there are cl...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-February/080939.html
*  .. Over 400 articles on the E. coli bacteria available online on SpringerLink .. Post navigation
coli bacteria available online on SpringerLink. Springer Science+Business Media is offering all journal articles and book chapters which deal with the E. coli bacteria free of charge on its online information platform www.springerlink.com. The articles can be found by using the search terms “Enterohaemorrhagic and Escherichia and coli” or by using the link www.springer.com/ehec. A total of over 400 scientific articles are available to print out or download from now until 1 September 2011. coli strain of bacterium has the potential to cause severe diarrhea, followed by serious organ system damage. During the past few weeks, a significant increase in the number of patients with the disease has been reported in Europe, especially in Germany. The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control says transmission of the strain of bacterium, commonly found in cattle, usually occurs through contaminated food or water and contact with animals. Eric Merkel-Sobotta, Executive Vice President Corporate Communicatio...
http://libsys.uah.edu/LibraryBlog/wordpress/?p=482
*  Site - glnVSite glnV
CGSC Coli Genetic Stock Center. E coli Genetic Resources at Yale CGSC, The Coli Genetic Stock Center. About the CGSC CGSC Home:. The Database Acknowledgment of Support Searching the CGSC Database Help With Query Forms Help with Genetic Nomenclature Strain Query Mutation Query Gene/Site Query Gene Product Query Reference Query Query Help How to Request Strains or Information Contact Information Charges How We Ship Strains Strains Not Found. Other CGSC Information FAQ on Procedures Current Working Map 1998 MMBR Map 1998 MMBR Gene List Map Diagrams PDFs Other Links E. coli Links Other Stock Collections Other Bio Links Yale Web. Site - glnV Site glnV Site glnV Name: glnV Type: Gene. Mnemonic: Glutamine Left End Point: 14.99 Right End Point: 15.00 Products: glutamine tRNA2. Direction: < Properties: Property Comment amber suppressor NULL. tRNA gene glutamine tRNA2. duplicate gene tandem;. glnV22 AS. glnV33 AS. glnV41 AS. glnV42 AS. glnV89 AS. glnV93 AS. External Database Links: Host Site Page Links EcoGene.org EG30...
http://cgsc.biology.yale.edu/Site.php?ID=695
*  Mutation - lpxL10(ts)::mini-Tn10Mutation lpxL10(ts)::mini-Tn10
cgsc coli genetic stock center e coli genetic resources at yale cgsc the coli genetic stock center pay an invoice about the cgsc cgsc home scope of the collection the database acknowledgment of support searching the cgsc database help with query forms help with genetic nomenclature strain query mutation query gene site query gene product query reference query query help how to request strains or information contact information charges how we ship strains strains not found other cgsc information faq on procedures current working map mmbr map mmbr gene list map diagrams pdfs other links e coli links other stock collections other bio links yale web funded by a grant from the national science foundation mutation lpxl ts mini tn mutation lpxl ts mini tn mutation lpxl ts mini tn name lpxl ts mini tn type tn mutation of gene lpxl approx map location properties property symbol temperature sensitive ts tetracycline resistant comments grows in rich media below c but not at higher temperatures references karow m s raina...
http://cgsc.biology.yale.edu/Mutation.php?ID=65138
*  OCA Atlas for 1SC4
... 1SC4 Hydrolase. date Feb 11, 2004. . title Crystal Structure Of The Human Caspase-1 C285a Mutant After Malonate authors M.J.Romanowski, J.M.Scheer, T.O'Brien, R.S.Mcdowell compound source. Molecule : Interleukin-1 Beta Convertase Chain : A Fragment : Interleukin-1 Beta Convertase P20 Synonym : Il-1bc, Il-1 Beta Converting Enzyme, Ice, Interleu Converting Enzyme, P45, Caspase-1, Casp-1; Ec : 3.4.22.36 Engineered : Yes Mutation : Yes Organism scientific : Homo Sapiens Organism common : Human Organism taxid : 9606 Gene : Casp1, Il1bc, Il1bce Expression system : Escherichia Coli Expression system taxid : 562 Expression system strain : Bl21 De3 Codon+ Expression system vector type : Plasmid Expression system plasmid : Prset. Molecule : Interleukin-1 Beta Convertase Chain : B Fragment : Interleukin-1 Beta Convertase P10 Synonym : Il-1bc, Il-1 Beta Converting Enzyme, Ice, Interleu Converting Enzyme, P45, Caspase-1, Casp-1; Ec : 3.4.22.36 Engineered : Yes Organism scientific : Homo Sapiens Organism common : Huma...
http://oca.weizmann.ac.il/oca-bin/ocashort?id=1SC4
*  OCA Atlas for 3L9J
... 3L9J Immune System. date Jan 05, 2010. . title Selection Of A Novel Highly Specific Tnfalpha Antagonist: In The Crystal Structure Of The Antagonist-Tnfalpha Complex authors P.Byla, M.H.Andersen, H.C.Thogersen, H.H.Gad, R.Hartmann compound source. Molecule : Tnfalpha Chain : C Engineered : Yes Organism scientific : Homo Sapiens Organism common : Human Organism taxid : 9606 Expression system : Escherichia Coli Expression system taxid : 562 Expression system vector type : Plasmid Expression system plasmid : Pt7ciih6. Molecule : Tumor Necrosis Factor, Soluble Form Chain : T Fragment : Unp Residues 85-233 Synonym : Tnf-Alpha, Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamil 2, Tnf-A, Cachectin; Engineered : Yes Organism scientific : Homo Sapiens Organism common : Human Organism taxid : 9606 Expression system : Escherichia Coli Expression system taxid : 562 Expression system vector type : Plasmid Expression system plasmid : Pt7ciih6. symmetry. Space Group : P 63 2 2 R factor 0.173. R Free 0.217. crystal cell. length a ...
http://oca.weizmann.ac.il/oca-bin/ocashort?id=3L9J
*  .. E. coli found in Hazy Hill water supply
E coli found in Hazy Hill water supply. March 31, 2012 Williamson County Politics. TRAVIS COUNTY KXAN – Residents of the Hazy Hill community, a small residential area off State Highway 71 near Spicewood, learned E. coli was found in their water system two days after the test came back positive. Gulf Utility Service Inc., the Houston-based company responsible for supplying the water, sent a note to residents dated March 23. Most residents received the letter the following day and were using contaminated water without knowing it. E coli or Escherichia coli bacteria, according to the Mayo Clinic, normally live in the intestines of healthy people and animals. Most varieties of E. coli are harmless or cause relatively brief diarrhea. But a few particularly nasty strains, such as E. Healthy adults usually recover from infection with E. coli O157:H7 within a week, but young children and older adults can develop a life-threatening form of kidney failure called hemolytic uremic syndrome. The letter told residents a w...
http://txwclp.org/2012/03/e-coli-found-in-hazy-hill-water-supply/
*  dut- ung- E. coli strain request
dut ung e coli strain request dut ung e coli strain request the wagner lab ewlab at uci edu thu feb est previous message dut ung e coli strain request next message dut ung e coli strain request messages sorted by ottok at u washington edu kevin g otto wrote we are looking for a dut ung e coli strain named cj or any other transformable dut ung strain thanks kevin otto kevin i know this strain is available from biorad as part of their mutagene kit if you re too cheap to buy it ask some of your neighbors i m sure that someone has to have it as it is a fairly common strain matthew petroski mdpetros at uci edu molecular biology and biochemistry university of california irvine previous message dut ung e coli strain request next message dut ung e coli strain request messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-February/041156.html
*  BISC209: Lab4 - OpenWetWare
room temperature BR. room temperature BR. Today you will insert your bacterial 16s rRNA gene fragments into a patented cloning vector pCR-BluntII TOPO® and then transform that vector into a special genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that will express a vector gene for kanamycin resistance, allowing us to select for transformants on media containing kanamycin. 4 Add 1 μL of pCR®II-Blunt-TOPO® cloning vector plasmid. Transforming One Shot® Competent Cells Introduction : Once you have performed the TOPO® Cloning reaction, you will transform your pCR®-Blunt II-TOPO® construct into TOPO10 competent E. Preparing for Transformation For each transformation, you will need one vial of competent cells and two selective plates. When medium size, ISOLATED colonies, have appeared, refrigerate your transformation plates until LAB 5. Make sure that these potentially pure cultures have colonies that look like the original source colony and that all of the colonies look the same they can be of different...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=BISC209:_Lab4&diff=424983&oldid=393895
*  SHuffle® Express Competent E. coli | NEB
SHuffle® Express Competent E. coli. NEB. My NEB. My NEB. SHuffle® Express Competent E. coli Products,. coli Expression Strains. E.coli Protein Expression,. FAQs Tech Tips. Other Tools Resources. Related Products. coli B cells engineered to form proteins containing disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. Highlights Transformation efficiency: 1 x 10 7 cfu/µg pUC19 DNA Engineered E. coli cells. Is there anything I can do to increase protein yield when using SHuffle strains. Can I conduct blue/white screening using alpha complementation of lacZ in SHuffle strains. Datacards The Product Summary Sheet, or Data Card, includes details for how to use the product, as well as details of its formulation and quality controls. The following file naming structure is used to name the majority of these document files: Datasheet-Lot. For those product lots not listed below, please contact NEB at info@neb.com or fill out the Technical Support Form for appropriate document. Individual lot data can be found on the Product Summary Sheet...
https://neb.com/products/c3028-shuffle-express-competent-e-coli
*  .. Return to Strain Description
CGSC Strain#: 7145 Strain Designation: KJ173      Source of Strain: J.R. Beckwith Sex: F- Chromosomal Markers:. araA-leu 7697 , B/r , codB-lacI 3 , phoR82 , zaj-2085::Tn10 , secD29 Cs , galK16 , galE15 GalS , - , e14- , relA1 , rpsL150 strR , spoT1 , mcrB1 Strain Comments:. araA-leu 7697 -- Shown by Durfee et al. to be a deletion of the first 295 codons of hepA to the first 82 codons of fruR. araA-leu 7697 -- Gerdes et al. show this deletion to cover from 63.4 kb to 89 kb, from polB through fruR. B/r -- The thr-leu region was transduced from an E. coli B/r strain SB3118 in early steps of strain derivation; ara or in some strains ara-leu or thr-leu are from B. codB-lacI 3 -- is a deletion of the entire lac operon, from the strain Hfr 3000 X74 of Jacob. on extent of deletion: Sung et al.1987,J.Bact.169:2639; Gerdes et al.2001. codB-lacI 3 -- Shown by Durfee et al. to extend from codon 292 of yahG through mhpE. codB-lacI 3 -- Shown by Ferrandez et al. 1997 to extend to mhpD secD29 Cs -- : The secD lo...
http://cgsc.biology.yale.edu/StrainRpt.php?ID=38551
*  .. Return to Strain Description
CGSC Strain#: 7729 Strain Designation: ALS225      Source of Strain: E. Altman Sex: F' Episome/Plasmid: F128-xxx Plasmid Markers/Mutations: Chromosomal Markers:. araA-leu 7697, B/r, codB-lacI 3, galK16, galE15 GalS, -, e14-, mcrA0, relA1, rpsL150 strR, spoT1, mcrB9999, hsdR2 Strain Comments:. araA-leu 7697 -- Shown by Durfee et al. to be a deletion of the first 295 codons of hepA to the first 82 codons of fruR. araA-leu 7697 -- Gerdes et al. show this deletion to cover from 63.4 kb to 89 kb, from polB through fruR. B/r -- The thr-leu region was transduced from an E. coli B/r strain SB3118 in early steps of strain derivation; ara or in some strains ara-leu or thr-leu are from B. codB-lacI 3 -- is a deletion of the entire lac operon, from the strain Hfr 3000 X74 of Jacob. Refs. on extent of deletion: Sung et al.1987,J.Bact.169:2639; Gerdes et al.2001. codB-lacI 3 -- Shown by Ferrandez et al. 1997 to extend to mhpD. codB-lacI 3 -- Shown by Durfee et al. to extend from codon 292 of yahG through mhpE g...
http://cgsc.biology.yale.edu/StrainRpt.php?ID=76211
*  Protein toxity in E.coli
protein toxity in e coli protein toxity in e coli al r plummer aplummer at brain uccs edu fri jun est previous message inappropriate messages next message high copy trp library messages sorted by our lab is trying to overexpress and isolate a rather large yeast s cerevisiae protein in e coli the gene is ca kb and encodes a protein of a a we transformed dh alpha with a plasmid containing the gene but are unable to see it also when the expression is induced iptg the e coli become sick grow slower does anyone have any experience expressing large or toxic proteins in e coli any help would be greatly appreciated al plummer at em uni frankfurt de previous message inappropriate messages next message high copy trp library messages sorted by more information about the yeast mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/yeast/1997-June/007099.html
*  E.Coli Westerns
e coli westerns e coli westerns dan szymanski dan szymanski at qms life uiuc edu wed nov est previous message gel database next message e coli westerns messages sorted by greetings netters a couple of us have been trying to detect recombinant e coli proteins with rabbit polyclonal ab backround is horrendous does anyone have an explanation or suggestions to reduce backround thanks dan previous message gel database next message e coli westerns messages sorted by more information about the proteins mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/proteins/1994-November/001915.html
*  BMW M3 Forum (E90 E92) - View Single Post - New E93 goodness
bmw m forum e e view single post new e goodness thread new e goodness view single post pm sor lieutenant rep posts drives e m mw fr join date jun location ut itrader no since they re mineral white they catch the light differently at different angles i imagine you re referring to the fourth photo see the first photo quote sor view public profile find more posts by sor...
http://m3post.com/forums/showpost.php?p=8340400&postcount=25
*  Need help:insoluble to soluble
need help insoluble to soluble need help insoluble to soluble jared quentin lemaster lemaster at osu edu mon oct est previous message announce vmd beta next message need help insoluble to soluble messages sorted by hi i expressed foreign protein in e coli to the level of about total protein after iptg induction but it is insoluble does anyone have any experiences that could make it soluble without loss of function or expressed as a soluble protein in e coli pls send your suggestion to wang at osu edu thanks a lot previous message announce vmd beta next message need help insoluble to soluble messages sorted by more information about the proteins mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/proteins/1999-October/007531.html
*  Method of DNA base sequence determination - Hitachi, Ltd.
... Login. Sign up. Search. Expert Search. Quick Search. Patents/Apps. Non-Patent Literature. Blogs/Groups. MPEP. Case Law. . SEARCH. BLOGS. MPEP 2.0. TOOLS RESOURCES. PRODUCT SERVICES. HELP. Title: Method of DNA base sequence determination. United States Patent 5935794. Abstract: The method of base sequence determination according to the present invention ensures an effective determination of a long DNA base sequence, by providing simultaneous determination of base sequences of two or more positions of the long DNA or base sequences of two or more DNAs, using the DNA probe chip which classifies and retains the DNA oligomers having various sequences, and using fluorophorelabeled primers which have the same sequencies as the oligomers in the chip and are labeled by various fluorophores, then followed by the extension of the determined base length by re-selection of the primers complementary to the sequence thus determined. Inventors: Kambara, Hideki Hachiouji, JP Okano, Kazunori Shiki, JP Nasu, Hisanori Yokoh...
http://freepatentsonline.com/5935794.html
*  Patent US7635771 - siRNA targeting amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) - Google Patents
U 2 =1 if U is the base at position 2 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 3 =1 if U is the base at position 3 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 4 =1 if U is the base at position 4 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 7 =1 if U is the base at position 7 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 9 =1 if U is the base at position 9 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 10 =1 if U is the base at position 10 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 15 =1 if U is the base at position 15 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 16 =1 if U is the base at position 16 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 17 =1 if U is the base at position 17 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 18 =1 if U is the base at position 18 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0. U 2 =1 if U is the base at position 2 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 3 =1 if U is the base at position 3 on the sense strand, otherwise its value ...
http://google.com/patents/US7635771?dq=6188988
*  Direct DNA Sequencing of PCR Products - Current Protocols
... Direct DNA Sequencing of PCR Products. PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Basic Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Products for Dideoxy Sequencing by Asymmetric PCR Alternate Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Template for Dideoxy Sequencing by Single Primer Reamplification Alternate Protocol 2: Preparing Double Stranded PCR Products for Dideoxy Sequencing Alternate Protocol 3: Generating Single Stranded Template for Dideoxy Sequencing by Exonuclease Digestion of Double Stranded PCR Products Alternate Protocol 4: One Step Enzymatic Purification of PCR Products for Direct Sequencing Basic Protocol 2: Labeling PCR Products for Chemical Sequencing Alternate Protocol 5: Genomic Sequencing of PCR Products Reagents and Solutions Commentary. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Basic Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Products for Dideoxy Sequencing by Asymmetric PCR. 6.4, ethanol precipitation unit 2.1, and did...
http://currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-mb1502.html
*  Symmetry element
... a symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operation s can take place in particular symmetry elements can be centers of inversion axes of rotation and mirror planes see also symmetry group theory crystallography hermann mauguin notation schoenflies notation references category symmetry...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry_element
*  Protein–DNA interaction
... thumb|The lambda repressor protein interacting with the lambda operator DNA.|250px. 'Protein–DNA interactions' are when a protein binds a molecule of DNA, often to regulate the biological function of DNA, usually the expression of a gene. Among the proteins that bind to DNA are transcription factors that activate or repress gene expression by binding to DNA motifs and histones that form part of the structure of DNA and bind to it less specifically. Also proteins that repair DNA such as uracil-DNA glycosylase interact closely with it. In general, proteins bind to DNA in the major groove ; however, there are exceptions. 1 Protein–DNA interaction are of mainly two types, either specific interaction, or non-specific interaction. Design Detection methods See also References. Designing DNA-binding proteins that have a specified DNA-binding site has been an important goal for biotechnology. Zinc finger proteins have been designed to bind to specific DNA sequences and this is the basis of zinc finger nucleases. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein–DNA_interaction
*  Patent US20030203382 - Methods for analysis of molecular events - Google Patents
In one embodiment, wild-type and variant nucleotides are the only nucleotides added to the primer extension reaction. Further methods of the invention include providing a target nucleic acid; contacting the target nucleic acid sequence with a nucleic acid primer substantially complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence to form a nucleic acid complex; extending the nucleic acid primer in the presence of an unlabeled extension nucleotide complementary to a variant nucleotide base at a position downstream from the nucleic acid primer in the target nucleic acid sequence to form an unlabeled primer extension product, wherein the extending step is performed in the essential absence of an unlabeled extension nucleotide complementary to a wild-type nucleotide base at a position downstream from the nucleic acid primer; and extending the unlabeled primer extension product in the presence of a labeled extension nucleotide complementary to a corresponding wild-type nucleotide downstream from the position of the var...
http://google.com/patents/US20030203382?ie=ISO-8859-1
*  Cis-Regulatory element
... 'cis-regulatory elements CREs ' are regions of non-coding DNA which regulate the transcription of nearby gene s. CREs typically regulate gene transcription by functioning as binding sites for transcription factor s. Overview Promoters Evolutionary role Examples Examples in RNA. Both of these sequence elements are structural regions of DNA that serve as transcriptional regulators. 2 In order to initiate transcription of the downstream gene, a host of DNA-binding proteins called transcription factors TFs must bind sequentially to this region. Contrastingly, enhancers influence transcription of genes on the same molecule of DNA and can be found upstream, downstream, within the intron s, or even relatively far away from the gene they regulate. An example of a cis-acting regulatory sequence is the operator in the lac operon. This DNA sequence is bound by the lac repressor, which, in turn, prevents transcription of the adjacent genes on the same DNA molecule. The lac operator is, thus, considered to "act in ci...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-Regulatory_element
*  Nucleotide sequence analysis of the unusually long terminal inverted repeats of a giant linear plasm
... id, SCP1. BioMedSearch. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Document Detail. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the unusually long terminal inverted repeats of a giant linear plasmid, SCP1. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 1749818 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. SCP1 is a giant linear plasmid of 350 kb coding for the methylenomycin biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. The unusually long terminal inverted repeats present on both ends of SCP1 were analyzed on the nucleotide sequence level. Analysis of six clones containing the terminal 0.35-kb XbaI fragment revealed a slight heterogeneity in the nucleotide sequences of the SCP1 ends. Moreover, it was indicated that this fragment contained seven palindromic inverted repeats and a GT-rich region in the 5'-end strand. The size of the terminal inverted repeats was determined to be 81 kb by the cloning and sequencing of their end-points. An insertion sequence, IS466 was shown to be present just at the end of the right terminal inv...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Nucleotide-sequence-analysis-unusually-long/1749818.html
*  A DNA template having the base sequence -U-C-U-A-C-U- what is the mRNA base sequence?I need answer b
... y tonight. - Homework Help - eNotes.com. Literature Guides. Literature Lesson Plans. A DNA template having the base sequence -U-C-U-A-C-U- what is the mRNA base sequence?I need answer by tonight. Please answer asap Topic: Science. Level 3 Senior Educator Posted on April 29, 2012 at 11:37 PM Answer #1. If there is the base A adenine in the DNA, it pairs with U uracil in the messenger RNA. Level 1 eNoter Posted on April 30, 2012 at 4:09 PM Answer #2. codons are tree base codes that determine the amino acid that is to be added to the protein that the DNA is making. DNA codes for RNA which codes for proteins. These bases are in three letter sequences called codons, for example a codon might be TAG it's anti codon is then ATC, because A bind with T and C binds with G. Let's say there is a big strand of DNA That is TAGTAGTAGTAGTAG, This is the codon TAG five times and the anti codon ATC five times. We're done with anti-codons for a little while. Lets say TAG codes for amino acid X there is no amino acid X, I'm ...
http://enotes.com/homework-help/dna-template-having-base-sequence-u-c-u-c-u-what-334492
*  Cis-acting Elements and Trans-acting Factors
... Regulatory Sequences Control Gene Expression Enhancer and Silencer Elements Role of 3' Sequences Role of Introns Conserved Sequences in Eukaryotic Promoters Trans-Acting Factors Control Gene Expression Cloning A Plant Trans-Acting Factor Regulatory Genes As Trans-Acting Factors Tissue-Specific Binding Of Trans-Acting Factors Course Topics Main Page Tissue-Specific Binding Of Trans-Acting Factors. One manner to study this question is to map the functional sequence domains of a gene and determine what sequences are bound by proteins presumably trans-acting factors during expression in different tissues. The five members of the rbc S gene family are rbc S1, rbc S2, rbc S3A, rbc S3B, and rbc S3C. Analysis of the expression of each individual family member determined that only rbc S1 and rbc S2 were expressed in that tissue Table 2. Gene expression is of the rbc S gene family is turned off in non-photosynthetic tissues. Next, nuclear protein extracts were isolated from cotyledon, leaf, young fruit, and mature...
https://ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc731/cis-trans/cis-trans9.htm
*  Meaning of Endonuclease
endonuclease One of a large group of enzymes that cleave nucleic acids at positions within the chain. Bacterial restriction endonucleases are crucial in recombinant DNA technology for their ability to cleave double-stranded DNA at highly specific sites. Endonuclease Nucleases are enzymes that break down nucleic acids into strands of DNA. An enzyme phosphodiesterase that cleaves the internal phosphodiester bonds in a DNA molecule, thus producing DNA fragments of varying size. endonuclease A nuclease which cleaves phosphodiester bonds within a nucleic acid strand. endonuclease - a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so produces fragments of various sizes. Endonuclease Endonuclease: An enzyme that cleaves a nucleic acid DNA or RNA at specific internal sites in the nucleotide base sequence. endonuclease enzyme One of a large group of enzymes that cleave nucleic acids at positions within the chain. endonuclease noun a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so produces fragm...
http://encyclo.co.uk/meaning-of-Endonuclease
*  WHO | Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A. Search Search the WHO .int site. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. Global Alert and Response GAR. Alert & Response Operations. Diseases. Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network. Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus HAV - Morphology and physicochemical properties - Genome and proteins - Antigenicity - Stability HAV, first identified in 1973, is a nonenveloped, spherical, positive stranded RNA virus , classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. 18 Click here for: Electron Microscopy EM picture of HAV. Genome and proteins The hepatitis A genome consists of a linear, single stranded, positive-sense RNA of approximately 7.5 kb containing a 5'-nontranslated region with complex secondary and tertiary structure. 18 , 21 , 22 , 40 The 5'-end represents a noncoding region NCR extending over 10% of the genome, it is uncapped and covalently linked to the viral protein VPg 2.5 kD. 18 , 21 , 22 , 40 A single large poly protein is expressed from a large open reading frame extending through most...
http://who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsredc2007/en/index2.html
*  MUC5B - Mucin-5B precursor - Homo sapiens (Human)
p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9HC84
*  Regulatory sequence
... A 'regulatory sequence' is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism. Regulation of gene expression is an essential feature of all living organisms and viruses. Description Examples Insulin gene See also References External links. In DNA, regulation of gene expression normally happens at the level of RNA biosynthesis transcription, and is accomplished through the sequence-specific binding of proteins transcription factors that activate or inhibit transcription. Transcription factors may act as activators, repressors, or both. Repressors often act by preventing RNA polymerase from forming a productive complex with the transcriptional initiation region promoter, while activators facilitate formation of a productive complex. Furthermore, DNA motifs have been shown to be predictive of epigenomic modifications, suggesting that transcription factors play a role in regulating the epigenome. In RNA, regulation may occur a...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulatory_sequence
*  Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™ - United States Biological
... Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™ Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™. PCR-ready First Strand cDNA is tissue specific and are ready-to-use for gene discovery or expression analysis. Over 350 cDNAs from human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, rat, mouse, monkey and plant tissues are included in this extensive collection. PCR Ready First Strand cDNAs is an excellent source of tissue specific, PCR-ready cDNA, and it can be immediately used for gene discovery or expression analysis. First-Strand cDNA is synthesized from RNA isolated from a wide variety of documented human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, mouse, rat, monkey and plant tissues. The 5' end of human clathrin cDNA a 6kb gene has been amplified by PCR from all of the cDNAs. 2 RNAs with high quality are used for cDNA synthesis The cDNA synthesis will not be successful using degraded or contaminated RNA, because degraded RN...
http://usbio.net/item/T5595-0137?highlight
*  1. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a
1 How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a. Tuesday October 6, 2015 School Subjects Art. Business. Computers. English. Foreign Languages. Health. Home Economics. Math. Music. Physical Education. Science. Social Studies. Grade Levels Preschool. Kindergarten. Elementary School. 1st Grade. 2nd Grade. 3rd Grade. 4th Grade. 5th Grade. 6th Grade. 7th Grade. 8th Grade. High School. 9th Grade. 10th Grade. 11th Grade. 12th Grade. College. Adult Education. Post a New Question. Current Questions. Homework Help : Biology Posted by Becky on Tuesday, January 9, 2007 at 3:41pm. 1 How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule. 2 Name the complementary base pairs on DNA. A-T; G-C are the pairs, you name them. there are 10 1/2 base pairs for a full twist in DNA. How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule. Hello. 10 1/2. 12. The model of DNA is known as a b...
http://jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1168375297

Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Coles PhillipsRestriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experimentLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.DNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.CccDNA: cccDNA (covalently closed circular DNA) is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there. It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form that is ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring.Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionOrigin of replication: The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.Technical Glossary Edward K.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Beta-lactamaseRNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Operon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.BacitracinGC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.RhizobiaEscherichia coli (molecular biology): Escherichia coli (; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Colicin: A colicin is a type of bacteriocin produced by and toxic to some strains of Escherichia coli.* Feldgarden, M.PBR322: pBR322 is a plasmid and was one of the first widely used E. coli cloning vectors.Opine: Opine biosynthesis is catalyzed by specific enzymes encoded by genes contained in a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for 'transfer DNA'), which is part of the Ti plasmid, inserted by the bacterium into the plant genome. The opines are used by the bacterium as an important source of nitrogen and energy.Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Thermal cyclerNaked DNA: Naked DNA is histone-free DNA that is passed from cell to cell during a gene transfer process called transformation or transfection. In transformation, purified or naked DNA is taken up by the recipient cell which will give the recipient cell a new characteristic or phenotype.Chromosome regionsGene electrotransfer: Gene electrotransfer is a versatile biotechnology technique that enables the transfer of genetic material into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. It is based on a physical method named electroporation, where a transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when submitted to short and intense electric pulses, thus enabling the transport of large molecules (naked plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA) into cells that otherwise cannot permeate through the cell membrane.Bismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Pseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.StreptomycinKlebsiella pneumoniaOpen reading frame: In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the potential to code for a protein or peptide. An ORF is a continuous stretch of codons that do not contain a stop codon (usually UAA, UAG or UGA).Streptomyces kanamyceticus: Streptomyces kanamyceticus is a bacterial species in the genus Streptomyces. It is the species from which the antibiotic kanamycin is isolated.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Global microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Chloramphenicol acetyltransferasePulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.DNA-binding proteinPhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Enterococcus faecalis: Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.CTXφ Bacteriophage: The CTXφ bacteriophage is a filamentous bacteriophage that contains the genetic material needed by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium for the production of cholera toxin, or CT. CTXφ is a positive virus with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA).AmpicillinRestriction site: Restriction sites, or restriction recognition sites, are locations on a DNA molecule containing specific (4-8 base pairs in length) sequences of nucleotides, which are recognized by restriction enzymes. These are generally palindromic sequences (because restriction enzymes usually bind as homodimers), and a particular restriction enzyme may cut the sequence between two nucleotides within its recognition site, or somewhere nearby.Streptomyces peucetius: Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952Homing endonuclease: The homing endonucleases are a collection of endonucleases encoded either as freestanding genes within introns, as fusions with host proteins, or as self-splicing inteins. They catalyze the hydrolysis of genomic DNA within the cells that synthesize them, but do so at very few, or even singular, locations.Chromosome engineering: Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." For: By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion,and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.Trimethoprim

(1/43669) Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver.

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

(2/43669) Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B.

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

(3/43669) Co-expression of glutathione S-transferase with methionine aminopeptidase: a system of producing enriched N-terminal processed proteins in Escherichia coli.

We describe here an Escherichia coli expression system that produces recombinant proteins enriched in the N-terminal processed form, by using glutathione S-transferase cGSTM1-1 and rGSTT1-1 as models, where c and r refer to chick and rat respectively. Approximately 90% of the cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1 overexpressed in E. coli under the control of a phoA promoter retained the initiator methionine residue that was absent from the mature isoenzymes isolated from tissues. The amount of initiator methionine was decreased to 40% of the expressed cGSTM1-1 when the isoenzyme was co-expressed with an exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene under the control of a separate phoA promoter. The recombinant proteins expressed were mainly methionine aminopeptidase. The yield of cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 10% of that expressed in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene. By replacing the phoA with its natural promoter, the expression of methionine aminopeptidase decreased drastically. The yield of the co-expressed cGSTM1-1 was approx. 60% of that in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene; approx. 65% of the initiator methionine residues were removed from the enzyme. Under similar conditions, N-terminal processing was observed in approx. 70% of the recombinant rGSTT1-1 expressed. By increasing the concentration of phosphate in the growth medium, the amount of initiator methionine on cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 14% of the overexpressed isoenzymes, whereas no further improvement could be observed for rGSTT1-1. The initiator methionine residue does not affect the enzymic activities of either cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1. However, the epoxidase activity and the 4-nitrobenzyl chloride-conjugating activity of the purified recombinant rGSTT1-1 are markedly higher that those reported recently for the same isoenzyme isolated from rat livers.  (+info)

(4/43669) Expression of the plague plasminogen activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli.

Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared approximately 70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (alpha-Pla) and slightly smaller (beta-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only alpha-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble alpha and beta forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound alpha-Pla to beta-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice.  (+info)

(5/43669) The virulence plasmid-encoded impCAB operon enhances survival and induced mutagenesis in Shigella flexneri after exposure to UV radiation.

Upon exposure to UV radiation, Shigella flexneri SA100 displayed survival and mutation frequencies comparable to those of Escherichia coli AB1157, which contains a functional UmuDC error-prone DNA repair system. Survival of SA100 after UV irradiation was associated with the presence of the 220-kb virulence plasmid, pVP. This plasmid encodes homologues of ImpA and ImpB, which comprise an error-prone DNA repair system encoded on plasmid TP110 that was initially identified in Salmonella typhimurium, and ImpC, encoded upstream of ImpA and ImpB. Although the impB gene was present in representatives of all four species of Shigella, not all isolates tested contained the gene. Shigella isolates that lacked impB were more sensitive to UV radiation than isolates that contained impB. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.4-kb DNA fragment containing the imp operon from S. flexneri SA100 pVP was 96% identical to the imp operon from the plasmid TP110. An SA100 derivative with a mutation in the impB gene had reduced survival following UV irradiation and less UV-induced mutagenesis relative to the parental strain. We also found that S. flexneri contained a chromosomally encoded umuDC operon; however, the umuDC promoter was not induced by exposure to UV radiation. This suggests that the imp operon but not the umuDC operon contributes to survival and induced mutagenesis in S. flexneri following exposure to UV radiation.  (+info)

(6/43669) Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides.

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

(7/43669) Reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detecting p40 RNA of Borna disease virus, without risk of plasmid contamination.

Several methods for the detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA have been reported, one being the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) method. However, due to the possibility of contamination of the cloned DNA in a reaction tube, false-positive results might be obtained by RT-nested PCR. To detect only BDV RNA without anxiety of contamination, we developed an RT-nested PCR system using "mRNA selective PCR kit". Using this system, cDNA of BDV p40 in the plasmid (up to 5 x 10(7) molecules) was not amplified. BDV specific sequence was amplified from total RNA (more than 50 pg) of MDCK/BDV cells, which were persistently infected with BDV. These results indicate that this mRNA selective RT-nested PCR system can specifically amplify target RNA as distinguished from plasmid contaminated.  (+info)

(8/43669) Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov.

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)


Will conduct bacterial research on luminescence and alternative energy; any bacteria/plasmid suggestions?


I just talked to my science teacher today, and I think we will be doing bacterial research on either luminescence or energy production (ie: which ones are most luminescent for use in flashlights? etc.). He told me to look up which bacterial species and plasmids I wanted to work with and said he could help with the ordering. Do you have any bacteria/plasmid suggestions?
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Photobacterium phosphoreum
Photobacterium luciferum
Vibrio fischeri
Vibrio harveyi


Which is the HS tariff for a plasmid?


This plasmid is named pVax1, is non toxic, non pathogenic, and is not a biologic threat,  I need to know the HS tariff.
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The Bureau of Customs & Border Protection of the Dept. of Homeland Security is responsible for interpreting and enforcing the HTS (Harmonized Tariff Schedule).  That may what you're looking for -- the HTS, not HS tariff.

Either contact them or try this website:  http://www.usitc.gov/tata/hts/other/dataweb/

This isn't a question for the Infectious Disease category.


Can you get a urinary tract infection from working with E.coli bacteria in a lab?


About a week ago in my biology lab we were purifying plasmids from E.coli bacteria. Now since I woke up this morning, every time I pee I get a sharp pain in my bladder area that lasts for 10-15 mins after. Is it possible that I contracted an infection from the E.coli in my biology lab (since UTI is caused by E.coli)? During the lab I wore gloves but a bit of it dripped onto my papers which I touched afterwards.
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No.

There are many, many strains of E. coli.  The one that causes UTIs is UPEC, a very specific strain.  

Lab strains are all harmless.


In bacteria, antibiotic resistance and the ability to conjugate usually involve?


a. chromosomal dna
b. plasmid dna
c.ribosomal rna
d. viral dna
e. nuclear dna


I have looked everywhere in my book and can't seem to find this answer.
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d as viral dna codes the bacteria that antibiotics fail to kill or they have penetrates into the cell. look under bacterial coding or why antibiotics don't work on viruses


A little confused about recombinant dna and the human insulin gene?


I know the basics of how the human insulin gene is synthesized but I just have a few questions about how humans get and how it is administered. I know they extract the gene and basically insert into a bacterial plasmid which then is inserted back in the bacteria (ecoli). Then the ecoli replicates with the gene inside. I know it's a protein so does the cell undergo translation and transcription to produce the gene? And when insulin is produced is it gathered up and put into a solution or how do humans get the synthesized insulin?
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I think you would have a better chance of getting answers by asking this in the Biology section. I know it deals somewhat with diabetes because of insulin but I would HIGHLY suggest asking this in Biology because the people there know a lot about this kind of stuff. Good LUck!


What vectors and what host E.coli cell can be used for blue green screening ?


Blue green screening is used to identify the colonies that contain the recombinant DNA. What kind of plasmid vector and host E.coli cell can be used in blue green screening?
Does anyone have the ideas?
Any suggestion will be greatly appreciated.
Thank in advance.
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sharpshootermtz - E. coli : There is always the chance that an unusual strain of bacteria may be present and result in false negative or false positive readings. For example, the E. coli 0157:H7 does not produce the enzyme glucuronidase and so will appear as pink colonies indistinguishable from other general coliforms. But the majority (estimates range from 93-97%) of E. coli types fit the typical pattern so that makes Coliscan a very reliable test method. Also, certain strains of other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (some Salmonella and Shigella) may produce the enzyme glucuronidase, although they do not produce galactosidase and therefore appear as teal-green colonies. These teal-green colonies do appear different than the general blue/purple E. coli, and fortunately another easy test screen for these various unusual bacterial types is available and may be used for verification after the initial readings. This is a spot test for the presence of indole, which is produced by virtually all strains of E. coli, but very few general coliforms or other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Placing a small drop of Kovacs Reagent on the test colony will result in the formation of a cherry red zone around the colony within 5-10 seconds if indol is produced. Thus, all E. coli (including the non-purple O157:H7) will have the red zone, and non-E. coli (such as the teal-green Salmonella or Shigella) will not have the red zone. This simple additional test eliminates almost all possible false readings and adds further precision to the already excellent Coliscan MF method.


Heres kind of a silly questions its about bioshock 1 and 2 but its also about health?


ok i know this sounds silly but in the game bioshock 1&2 u can use plasmids..i asked if thats posible and my mom said yea but we dont have the technogligy, is that true..can some one explain it a little better? so the ? is! *is it possible to let humens use plasmids and genetonics
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As far as I can tell plasmids and genetonics are simply a product of the bioshock games. Such things do not actually exist. That's not to say they cannot exist but as your mom said the technology is not availible for it. Some games use "stim packs" to regenerate health. Others use potions or magic or some other mechanism. Its just the game's way of keeping your character alive, kill off opponents or to enhance them or whatever else.


How do you donate plasma?


I learned today in science class that plasma is a hot gas, but people donate it. How does the body keep from burning up or is it just spread out? I assume that's what keeps us warm and since they say we're warm blooded it must run through our veins or arteries or something. So when it's donated how do they keep it contained? It sounds dangerous. Is that what plasmids are for?
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