Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.JapanSeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.SwedenHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.CaliforniaEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.ItalyMyocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.DenmarkFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.GermanyPregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Great BritainLinkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).WashingtonGenome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.New YorkLength of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.NorwaySensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.MassachusettsMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.TaiwanPesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.EuropeNorth CarolinaCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.San FranciscoPatient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.IndiaSexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).FinlandData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.MexicoHealth Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.EnglandSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.TexasHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.BostonIntensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Los AngelesWounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.PennsylvaniaSelf Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.New HampshireNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.PhiladelphiaModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.

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odds ratio. Ow-IR - overweight, insulin resistant. Ow-NIR - overweight, not insulin ... Unadjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the odds ratios (ORs) ... odds ratio [OR]: 1.514; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-3.9; P = .04) was associated ... Hyperproinsulinemia and proinsulin-to-insulin ratios in Swedish middle-aged men: ......
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odds ratio. OSA. Ontario Stroke Audit. RCSN. Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network. ......
*  Patent foramen ovale and the risk of stroke: smoking gun guilty by association?...
... odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 10).3 The statistical ... mean international normalised ratio (INR) 1.8) or aspirin (300 mg/day). PICSS included ......
*  Plus it
Raised GGT was a significant predictor of either IGT or diabetes (odds ratio 1.62 [95% CI ... results are expressed as the odds ratio (OR) with 95% CIs. For all these analyses, ......
*  Hematologic Safety of Radium-223 Dichloride : Baseline Prognostic Factors...
6 bone metastases; odds ratio [OR] = 2.76; P = .022) and elevated prostate-specific ......
*  Odds ratio
The 'risk ratio', RR, is just the ratio of the two,. Indeed, for a rare disease, we will have D {E}\ll H {E}, and so D {E}+H {E}\approx H {E}; but then D {E}/ D {E}+H {E} \approx D {E}/H {E}, in other words, for the exposed population, the risk of developing the disease is approximately equal to the odds. Often we may overcome this problem by employing random sampling of the population: namely, if neither the disease nor the exposure to the injury are too rare in our population, then we can pick say a hundred people at random, and find out these four numbers in that sample; assuming the sample is representative enough of the population, then the RR computed for this sample will be a good estimate for the RR for the whole population. The odds ratio is the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group. The odds ratio can also be defined in terms of the joint probability distribution of two binary random variable s. The log odds ratio shown here is based on the...
*  Odds & Ends - Mirrorless [CR1]
Re: Odds Ends - Mirrorless Reply #30 on: June 02, 2012, 06:02:54 PM. Re: Odds Ends - Mirrorless Reply #30 on: June 02, 2012, 06:02:54 PM. Re: Odds Ends - Mirrorless Reply #31 on: June 02, 2012, 07:10:24 PM. Why do you expect it to be included with the camera Nikon doesn t supply the $269.97 FT-1 F Mount Adapter with the Nikon 1. Sony doesn t supply the $399.99 LA-EA2 Alpha mount to E mount with NEX cameras. Re: Odds Ends - Mirrorless Reply #32 on: June 02, 2012, 09:12:33 PM. Quote from: Rocky on June 02, 2012, 01:28:12 PM. I for one don t care whether the view finder if optical or electronic. - A good Canon or Nikon mirrorless would benefit from access to a huge selection of lenses via an adapter, good flash equipment and other accessories, which Sony cannot. Re: Odds Ends - Mirrorless Reply #33 on: June 03, 2012, 05:26:38 AM. I for one don t care whether the view finder if optical or electronic. - A good Canon or Nikon mirrorless would benefit from access to a huge selection of lenses via an adapter, good fl...
*  A Population-Based Case–Control Study of Extreme Summer Temperature and Birth Defects - ResearchGa
A Population-Based Case Control Study of Extreme Summer Temperature and Birth Defects - ResearchGate. For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Article A Population-Based Case–Control Study of Extreme Summer Temperature and Birth Defects. Alissa R Van Zutphen. Alissa R Van Zutphen. Remove suggestion. Shao Lin. Shao Lin. Remove suggestion. Barbara A Fletcher. Barbara A Fletcher. Remove suggestion. Syni-An Hwang. Syni-An Hwang. Remove suggestion. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, Rensselaer, New York, USA. Environmental Health Perspectives. Impact Factor: 7.98. 10/2012; 120 10 :1443-9. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1104671 Source: PubMed. ABSTRACT Background: Although hyperthermia is a recognized animal teratogen and maternal fever has been associated with birth defects in humans, data on the relationship between high environmental temperatures and birth defects are limited. Objective:...
*  Genetic variation in CXCL12 and risk of cervical carcinoma: a population-based case-control study.
... We conducted a population-based case-control study to test the hypothesis that common genetic variation in CXCL12 individual single nucleotide polymorphism SNP alleles and haplotypes] is associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma. The minor allele of intronic SNP rs266085 was inversely associated with cervical cancer under a recessive genetic effects model OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.98. Among the ten common haplotypes inferred from the nine tagSNPs, one haplotype defined by minor alleles at 5'-flanking SNP rs17885289 and rs266085, and common alleles at the other seven SNPs occurred among 7.8% of cases and 10.6% of controls dominant model OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.93; recessive model OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.12-0.97; and log-additive model OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.57-0.90. A stepwise procedure identified rs17885289, rs266085 and 3'-untranslated region UTR SNP rs266093 as the most parsimonious subset of SNPs necessary to define the haplotype inversely associated with cervical cancer risk in our study. 3' Untran...
*  Nested case-control study
... A 'nested case control NCC study' is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest. In contrast, in a nested-case-control study, some number of controls are selected for each case from that case's matched risk set. By matching on factors such as age and selecting controls from relevant risk sets, the nested case control model is generally more efficient than a case-cohort design with the same number of selected controls. Usually, the exposure of interest is only measured among the cases and the selected controls. Thus the nested case control study is less efficient than the full cohort design. The NCC design is often used when the exposure of interest is difficult or expensive to obtain and when the outcome is rare. Example Efficiency of the NCC model Analysis of nested case-control ...
*  Genomics|Resources|Books|Genetic Epidemiology
Traditional Epidemiologic Studies Although cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies can all be used to assess genetic factors in disease, the case-control approach is particularly suited to genetic epidemiology. There are several reasons: 1 unlike biological markers of exposures e.g., occupational, nutritional, genetic markers are stable indicators of host susceptibility; 2 case-control studies can provide an opportunity to do a fishing expedition for the effects of several genes, along with other risk factors and to look for gene-environment interaction; 3 case-control studies are suitable for many uncommon disease endpoints such as birth defects and specific cancers. It should be noted that as in any case-control study, control subjects in admixture case-control studies should be chosen to reflect the population from which case subjects are derived. The odds ratio relating the exposure and the allele among case subjects only is a function of the odds ratios for the exposure alone, the genotype alon...
*  Case-control study
Case-control studies are often used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing subjects who have that condition/disease the "cases" with patients who do not have the condition/disease but are otherwise similar the "controls". An observational study is a study in which subjects are not randomized to the exposed or unexposed groups, rather the subjects are 'observed' in order to determine both their exposure and their outcome status and the exposure status is thus not determined by the researcher. Porta's 'Dictionary of Epidemiology' defines the case-control study as: an observational epidemiological study of persons with the disease or another outcome variable of interest and a suitable control group of persons without the disease comparison group, reference group. 3 The potential relationship of a suspected risk factor or an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing the diseased and nondiseased subjects with regard to how frequently the factor or attribute is present o...
*  What is a case-control study?
What is a case-control study. Note: This website makes extensive use of JavaScript, which is currently disabled in the browser you are using. Please ensure that JavaScript is enabled in your browser or use a different browser, like Internet Explorer 6+, Firefox, Safari, Chrome or Opera. Skip to: Content. Footer. Accessibility. Search:. California. EHIB. CDPH. DEODC. Environmental Health Investigations Branch. Learn. Topics. Projects. Resources. About EHIB. Quick Links Asthma. Autism. Biomonitoring. Community Health Studies. Drinking Water Systems Geographic Reporting Tool. Environmental Health Tracking. Fish. Site Assessment Section. What's New. Last Edited: 3/18/08. What is a case-control study. A case-control study is an analytical study which compares individuals who have a specific disease cases with a group of individuals without the disease controls. The proportion of each group having a history of a particular exposure or characteristic of interest is then compared. An association between the hypothesi...
*  SwePub - sökning: WFRF:(Krogh Vittorio)
SwePub - sökning: WFRF: Krogh Vittorio. Direkt till sidans innehåll. Direkt till sidans sekundära innehåll sidomenyn. Om SwePub. In English. Sökhistorik/mina poster. Rensa historik. Sök i SwePub databas. Utökad sökning. Träfflista för sökning "WFRF: Krogh Vittorio ;pers: Agudo Antonio ;pers: Olsen Anja ;pers: Khaw Kay Tee ". Sökning: WFRF: Krogh Vittorio. Agudo Antonio. Olsen Anja. Khaw Kay Tee. Resultat 1-4 av 4. Sortera/gruppera träfflistan. Sortering:. relevans alfabetiskt A-Ö alfabetiskt Ö-A nyast först äldst först. Träffar per sida:. 10 25 50. Numrering Referens Omslagsbild Hitta. 1 Fonseca-Nunes, Ana, et al. författare. Body iron status and gastric cancer risk in the EURGAST study. 2015. Ingår i: International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. - 1097-0215. ; :Jul 1. Tidskriftsartikel refereegranskat. abstract. Although it appears biologically plausible for iron to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, the evidence is insufficient to lead to any conclusions. To further investigate ...
http://swepub.kb.se/hitlist?q=WFRF:(Krogh Vittorio)&r=;pers:(Agudo Antonio);pers:(Olsen Anja);pers:(Khaw Kay Tee)&p=1&f=&g=&s=r&t=v&m=10&d=swepub
*  Myelodysplastic (MDS) Syndrome and Leukemia After Autotransplantation for Lymphoma: a Multicenter Ca
Myelodysplastic MDS Syndrome and Leukemia After Autotransplantation for Lymphoma: a Multicenter Case-Control Study. Oncolink - Cancer Resources. Tipos de Cancer. Tipos de Cancer. C nceres de la Piel. C nceres de la V a Urinaria. C nceres del Hueso. C nceres del Pulm n. C nceres del Sistema Endocrino. Tumores del Cerebro. Tratamiento del Cancer. Riesgo y Prevencion. El ejercicio, el peso corporal y el cancer. Medicamentos, Salud Historia y el riesgo de cancer. Distress Screening Response Tools DSRT. Profesionales de la salud. Profesionales de la salud. Distress Screening Response Tools DSRT. Profesionales de la salud. Myelodysplastic MDS Syndrome and Leukemia After Autotransplantation for Lymphoma: a Multicenter Case-Control Study Diana Stripp, MD University of Pennsylvania Cancer Ultima Vez Modificado: 12 e mayo el 2001. Increased survival has been seen in pateints with Hodgkin?s disease and Non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma who underwent autotransplantation, with a 40-50% long-term disease-free-survival rate. However, ...
*  CAREGEN: Genetic susceptibility and the risk of breast cancer
... Home. Labs / Projects. Public Health Sciences Division. Public Health Sciences Labs Projects. Epidemiology Program. Projects CAREGEN: Genetic susceptibility and the risk of breast cancer. Share. Epidemiology Program. CAREGEN: Genetic susceptibility and the risk of breast cancer. PI: Kathi Malone PhD This is an ancillary study of the NICHD Women’s CARE Study, a large population-based multi-center case-control study among Caucasian and African-American women that is designed primarily to evaluate the risk of breast cancer in women ages 35-64 in relation to oral contraceptive OC use and hormone replacement therapy HRT. Altogether, 4575 women with invasive breast cancer cases selected via population-based cancer registries and 4682 women without breast cancer selected via centralized random digit dialing from the general population controls in five field centers were interviewed as part of this study. Standardized in-person interviews elicited information similarly from cases and controls on factors potentia...
*  Epidemiology
Case-control studies. Cohort studies. Population-based health management Validity: precision and bias Random error. To resolve these issues and advance population health science in the era of molecular precision medicine, “ molecular pathology ” and “epidemiology” was integrated to create a new interdisciplinary field of “ molecular pathological epidemiology ” MPE,. A case control study would involve matching comparable controls without the disease to the cases in the series. The latter type, more formally described as self-controlled case-series studies, divide individual patient follow-up time into exposed and unexposed periods and use fixed-effects Poisson regression processes to compare the incidence rate of a given outcome between exposed and unexposed periods. The case-control study looks back through time at potential exposures that both groups cases and controls may have encountered. A 2×2 table is constructed, displaying exposed cases A, exposed controls B, unexposed cases C and unexposed controls D....
*  SwePub - sökning: swepub
Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. Objective: The objectives were to assess whether intakes of dietary fat, subtypes of fat, and fat from animal products were associated with prostate cancer risk. Conclusion: The results from this large multicenter study suggest that there is no association between dietary fat and prostate cancer risk. Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC. Polymorphisms of gen...
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*  Division of Cancer Control & Population Sciences - Grant Details
Funding Opportunities. Apply for Cancer Control Grants. About Cancer Control. Project Title: Genetic Susceptibility and Risk Model for Pancreatic Cancer. However, it remains unknown how environmental or host risk factors modify the association between genetic factors and the PanC risk, which knowledge is critical to better understanding of the etiology and developing a risk prediction model and early intervention strategies for PanC. The goal of this project is to identify gene-environment interactions and develop and validate a risk prediction model including both common and rare genetic variants using the PanScan GWAS data and the exposure information of over 2,200 case-control pairs and an ongoing ExomeChip-based study of PanC genotyping both common SNPs and >240,000 rare functional exonic variants in over 4,100 cases and 4,700 controls from six case-control studies in the Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium PanC4 and a nested case-control study from Europe EPIC. We will validate the absolute risk pr...
*  Waist Size and Body Mass Index Are Important Risk Factors for Sleep Disordered Breathing in Child
... ren - American Academy of Sleep Medicine AASM. SLEEP 2014. Waist Size and Body Mass Index Are Important Risk Factors for Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children. A study in the June 1 issue of the journal SLEEP found that waist circumference and body mass index BMI are consistent, independent risk factors for all severity levels of sleep disordered breathing SDB in children, suggesting that as with adult SDB, metabolic factors are important risk factors for childhood SDB. Results indicate that BMI and waist circumference, but not neck circumference, were significant and strong predictors of SDB at all severity levels primary snoring, mild SDB and moderate SDB. Nasal anatomic factors such as chronic sinusitis, rhinitis and nasal drain were significant predictors of mild SDB; minority status was associated with primary snoring and mild SDB. Overall, 1.2 percent of children had moderate SDB an apnea/hypopnea index of five or more breathing pauses per hour of sleep, 25 percent had mild SDB AHI of at least one ...
*  New Risk Factor for Dementia Discovered | dailyRx
New Risk Factor for Dementia Discovered. dailyRx. New Risk Factor for Dementia Discovered. Alzheimer's disease risk higher for people with high blood levels of ceramide. dailyRx News Looking for biomarkers of Alzheimer s disease AD may lead scientists to new treatments. Recent research discovered a new biomarker for AD ceramides in the blood. High levels of ceramides may mean higher risk of AD. The test looked at levels of ceramide in the blood. Researchers placed the women into categories based on the level of ceramide in their blood test low, middle and high levels of ceramide. Then they followed the women for up to nine years after the initial blood test and looked for how many women developed dementia or AD. Women with low levels of ceramide were eight times less likely to develop AD than those with the middle level of cermide. They were 10 times less likely to develop AD than women with the high level of ceramide. The researchers concluded that this easy, low-cost blood test could help in early detection...
*  JAMA Network | JAMA | Comparison of Novel Risk Markers for Improvement in Cardiovascular Risk Ass
Context Risk markers including coronary artery calcium, carotid intima–media thickness, ankle-brachial index, brachial flow–mediated dilation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein CRP , and family history of coronary heart disease CHD have been reported to improve on the Framingham Risk Score FRS for prediction of CHD, but there are no direct comparisons of these markers for risk prediction in a single cohort. Objective We compared improvement in prediction of incident CHD/cardiovascular disease CVD of these 6 risk markers within intermediate-risk participants FRS 5%- 20% in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis MESA. Conclusions Coronary artery calcium, ankle-brachial index, high-sensitivity CRP, and family history were independent predictors of incident CHD/CVD in intermediate-risk individuals. Risk markers that have shown promise in improving risk discrimination include carotid intima–media thickness CIMT , coronary artery calcium CAC scores, brachial flow–mediated dilation FMD , ankle-brachial index AB...
The STTR Program STTR Mission and Program Goals STTR Participating Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business STTR Policy Directive Tibbetts Awards and Hall of Fame. PROGRAM/PHASE AWARD AMOUNT $ NUMBER OF AWARDS SBIR Phase I $499,560.00 6 SBIR Phase II $1,325,815.00 2. SBIR Phase I 1999 Department of Health and Human Services N/A Amount: $99,930.00 N/A. SBIR Phase I 2000 Department of Health and Human Services Anti-obesity drug development using human preadipocytes Amount: $0.00 N/A. SBIR Phase I 2001 Department of Health and Human Services Anti-obesity drug development using human preadipocytes Amount: $602,471.00 N/A. SBIR Phase II 2001 Department of Health and Human Services SECRETED PROTEIN FROM ADIPOCYTES AND PREADIPOCYTES Amount: $99,820.00 DESCRIPTION provided by applicant : Obesity is a well-established risk factor for a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. SBIR Phase I 2002 Department of Health and Human Services New Agents That Inhibi...
*  WHO | Biological risk factors and hazards
WHO. Biological risk factors and hazards. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. Occupational health. Menu Occupational health. Topics. Activities. Collaborating centres network. Publications. Regions and partners. Links. . Biological risk factors and hazards Related sites Protecting health-care workers - preventing needlestick injuries tool kit. Joint WHO/ILO guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis PEP to prevent HIV infection. HIV/AIDS site. Stop TB. Tuberculosis and HIV. AIRBORNE - A journey into the challenges and solutions to stopping MDR-TB and XDR-TB. SARS site. Injection safety pdf, 81kb. Guiding principles to ensure injection device security pdf, 99kb. Injection safety - SIGN. ...
*  Determining the Role of Subclinical Disease Testing in Patients at Intermediate Risk - NHLBI, NIH
... NHLBI Trials At NIH Clinical Center. Determining the Role of Subclinical Disease Testing in Patients at Intermediate Risk. TABLE OF CONTENTS. Background Review of Previous Recommendations Subclinical CVD and the Framingham Risk Score Subclinical Disease Testing: Study Design Review of Subclinical Disease Measures Clinical Screening Algorithms Population Considerations Interventions Outcomes Recommendations and Remaining Issues References Working Group Roster Planning Group Roster. The objective of the Working Group was to provide advice to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute about research that is currently needed to inform clinical guidelines for the use of subclinical cardiovascular disease testing to identify persons at high risk for CVD and to target intervention. that is, a 10-year risk for coronary heart disease of 6-20%. Back to Table of Contents. Persons at intermediate risk have the greatest likelihood of having their estimated risk altered by subclinical disease testing. Coronary calc...
*  The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary hear
... t disease and stroke events - DRO. Home. Library. DRO home. . You are not logged in. Submit research. Contact DRO. DRO. The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary heart disease and stroke events Vartiainen, Erkki, Laatikainen, Tiina, Philpot, Benjamin, Janus, Edward, Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie and Dunbar, James 2011, The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary heart disease and stroke events, Medical journal of Australia, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 10-15. Attached Files. Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads. Title. The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary heart disease and stroke events. Author s. Vartiainen, Erkki Laatikainen, Tiina Philpot, Benjamin Janus, Edward Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie Dunbar, James. Journal name. Medical journal of Australia. Volume number. 194. Issue number. 1. Start page. 10. End page. 15. Publisher. Australasian Medical Publi...
*  .. .. Health Library .. Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases .. Primary risk factors for chronic dis
Health Care Home / Health Information / Library / Diseases Conditions / Adult Health Library /. At the top of the CDC's list of primary risk factors for all chronic diseases are: smoking, poor nutrition, and sedentary lifestyle. Sticking to a heart-healthy diet. Following an appropriate exercise program. Eliminate all tobacco products. As soon as you stop smoking, your body begins to heal itself from the devastating effects of tobacco. Adhere to a heart-healthy diet. One aspect of managing your heart attack risk factors includes eating a heart-healthy diet, including appropriate levels of the following:. The food plate can help you eat a variety of foods while encouraging the right amount of calories and fat. To find more information about the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 and to determine the appropriate dietary recommendations for your age, sex, and physical activity level, visit the Online Resources page for the links to the ChooseMyPlate.gov and 2010 Dietary Guidelines sites. M...
*  Other possible heart disease risk factors | womenshealth.gov
Other possible heart disease risk factors. womenshealth.gov. A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation. Skip top navigation Home. A-Z Health Topics. ePublications. News. About Us. Contact Us. Text size. Print. Skip left navigation Heart Health and Stroke. Heart disease and stroke prevention. Heart disease: Know your risk. Heart disease risk factors you can control. Heart disease risk factors you can't control. Other possible heart disease risk factors. Stroke: Know your risk. Signs of a heart attack. Signs of a stroke. Government in action on heart health and stroke. Heart Health and Stroke in Spanish en español. Subscribe to Heart Health and Stroke email updates. Enter email address. Submit. . Home. Heart Health and Stroke. Heart disease: Know your risk Heart Health and Stroke. Other possible heart disease risk factors. Related information Depression fact sheet. Stress and your health fact sheet. Depression, stress, and anxiety. Not enough sleep. L...
*  Psychological risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction
... redirect myocardial infarction risk factors...
*  What are risk factors for heart disease? | Healthy Heart - Home
What are risk factors for heart disease. Healthy Heart - Home. What are risk factors for heart disease. Learn what conditions and behaviors might put you at risk. The Heart Truth. Posted: 11:16 AM EST Dec 29, 2011. Updated: 11:46 AM EST Jan 13, 2010. Risk factors are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. They can also increase the chances that an existing disease will get worse. Important risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are:. High blood pressure. High blood cholesterol. Being physically inactive. Having a family history of early heart disease. Age 55 or older for women. Some risk factors, such as age and family history of early heart disease, can't be changed. For women, age becomes a risk factor at 55. After menopause, women are more apt to get heart disease, in part because their body's production of estrogen drops. Women who have gone through early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to d...
*  Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Prevalence Among Bayer's Employees in São Paulo, Brazil - Full
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Prevalence Among Bayer's Employees in S o Paulo, Brazil - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Find Studies Study Record Detail. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Prevalence Among Bayer's Employees in S o Paulo, Brazil This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02055651 First received: January 24, 2014 Last updated: July 1, 2015 Last verified: July 2015 History of Changes. Objective: Evaluate Bayer employees' cardiovascular health according to the AHA definition and the acceptance to engage in lifestyle change programs. If the employee accepts to participate, after providing a written informed consent, he will be evaluated according to the AHA cardiovascular health metrics. After medical evaluation, employees will receive a printed feedback with their cardiovascular health score and will be referred to indicated lifestyle change programs healthy weight, smoking cessation, diabetes control, high blood pressure control, dyslipi...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02055651?term="High Blood Pressure"&lup_s=01/29/2014&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14
*  Increases in heart disease risk factors may decrease brain function
... News and Press Release Distribution, Since 1995. Deliver Your News to the World. Sign In Create a Free Account. Home. News. How We Work. Compare Services. FAQ. All. WebPost. WebPost PPC. WebRelease. Targeted Media. Wire Service. Increases in heart disease risk factors may decrease brain function. WEBWIRE. Thursday, May 02, 2013 NewMediaWire via Webwire Study Highlights: Increases in heart disease risk factors may decrease brain function. The association between the two was noted in young and middle-age adults as well as the elderly. Smoking and diabetes were especially linked with reduced brain function. EMBARGOED UNTIL 3 p.m. CT/4 p.m. ET, Thursday, May 2, 2013 DALLAS, May 2, 2013 — Brain function in adults as young as 35 may decline as their heart disease risk factors increase, according to new research in the American Heart Association journal Stroke. “Young adults may think the consequences of smoking or being overweight are years down the road, but they aren’t,” said Hanneke Joosten, M.D., lead auth...
*  Heart disease risk factors - Heart - Body & Health
... Body Health Home. What is heart disease. Causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease. Heart attack: Know the symptoms. Heart disease risk factors. Heart disease risk factors There are several risk factors that increase the risk of developing heart disease or the risk that heart disease will worsen. Some risk factors are things you can change: they are called modifiable risk factors. Things you can change include: Smoking : Smoking, including exposure to second-hand smoke, plays a role in the buildup of plaque in the arteries, reduces the oxygen in the blood, increases blood pressure, and increases the risk of heart disease. Physical inactivity : Low levels of physical activity are associated with a higher risk of heart disease. High blood pressure : High blood pressure - over 140/90 mm Hg for most people or over 130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes - is associated with an increased risk for heart disease. High cholesterol : If you do not have cholesterol levels at target especially bad cholesterol...
*  Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: a Fres
... h Look at the Evidence - Springer. Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: a Fresh Look at the Evidence. Keywords Cardiovascular disease Diabetes mellitus Diet Nutrition Saturated fatty acids Fatty acids. CrossRef. PubMed. Am J Clin Nutr 77 5 :1146–1155. PubMed. Eur J Clin Nutr 63 Suppl 2 :S22–S33. CrossRef. PubMed. Micha R, Mozaffarian D 2009 Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. Diabetes Care 27 3 :813–823. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. CrossRef. PubMed. Rasmussen BM et al 2006 Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects. Christiansen E et al 1997 Intake of a diet high in trans monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids: effects on postprandial insulinemia and glycemia in obese patients with NIDDM. Salmeron J et al 2001 Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Hardin...
*  What are risk factors for heart disease? | Healthy Heart - Home
What are risk factors for heart disease. Healthy Heart - Home. View full site. Family. Weird News. Sports. SoFlo TASTE. Technology. Traffic. Travel. Submit a Tip. Email Sign-Up. Healthy Heart. What are risk factors for heart disease. Risk factors are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. Important risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are:. High blood cholesterol. Having a family history of early heart disease. Age 55 or older for women. Some risk factors, such as age and family history of early heart disease, can't be changed. For women, age becomes a risk factor at 55. After menopause, women are more apt to get heart disease, in part because their body's production of estrogen drops. Women who have gone through early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to develop heart disease as women of the same age who have not yet gone through menopause. Another reason for the increasing risk is that middle ...
*  .. What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease and Stroke in People with Diabetes?
Emilia.Cure. What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease and Stroke in People with Diabetes. stumble. 31. 23. 12. 10. Get New Treatments Alerts:. Sign Up. The risk factors for heart disease and stroke for diabetic people include smoking, hypertension etc. According to the scientific studies, the risk of getting heart disease and stroke is as high as twice for those with diabetes than those without non-diabetics. Statistically, the ratio has been recorded as 2 persons for getting affected with these two ailments in every 3 diabetic patients. So, you can see that the risk is really high. On top of this, there are several other risk factors which aggravate the situation and result into critical consequences. These risk factors can be categorized as modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors are the ones, which you can control to enjoy a better health condition, whereas the non-modifiable risk factors are normally out of your control. The non-modifiable risk factors will ...
*  What are the risk factors for thymus cancer?
What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Asian Pacific Languages. How can we help you. Learn About Cancer. Stay Healthy. Find Support & Treatment. Find Local ACS. Learn About Cancer. Thymus Cancer. What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Share this Page Close. Push escape to close share window. Share. Save Saved this Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles. My ACS. Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention TOPICS Document Topics What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Do we know what causes thymus cancer. Can thymus cancer be prevented. What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. Do we know what causes thymus cancer. Can thymus cancer be prevented. Previous Topic What are the key statistics about thymus cancers. Next Topic Do we know what causes thymus cancer. What are the risk factors for thymus cancer. A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing the s...
*  Heart Disease Risk Factors News, Photos and Videos - Livebetteramerica.com
Heart Disease Risk Factors News, Photos and Videos - Livebetteramerica.com. FITNESS. FOOD. RECIPES. RELATIONSHIPS. VIDEO. Heart Disease Risk Factors. 6 Good Reasons To Lose Weight That Most People Never Consider. Posted 02.20.2013. Read More: Preventing Diabetes, Dieting Tips, Weight Loss Success, Preventing Obesity, When to Go on a Diet, Dieting Success, Weight Loss Success Stories, Heart Disease Risk Factors, Diet Inspiration, Video, Dieting, Losing Weight After 50, Obesity Cancer Risks, Diabetes Risks, Weight Loss, Heart Disease, Diabetes, Cancer, Causes of Diabesity, Reasons to Lose Weight, Diabetes Prevention, Losing Weight, Weight Loss Inspiration, Cancer Prevention, Heart Disease Risks, Obesity, Breast Cancer Risks, Diabesity, Preventing Heart Disease, Livebetteramerica-Fitness, Cancer Risks, Diabetes Risk Factors, News. Oh, it feels so good to lose weight. Read Whole Story. Why I Still Smoke. Posted 03.25.2013. Read More: Quitting Smoking Genetics, Cigarette Health Effects, Smoking, Relapse, Heart...
*  Impact of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors on long-term cardiovascular outcome in adu
... lt survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Oncolink - Cancer Resources. Toggle navigation. Cancer Types. Cancer Types. Bone Cancers. Brain Tumors. Breast Cancer. Carcinoid & Neuroendocrine Tumors. Endocrine System Cancers. Gastrointestinal Cancers. Gynecologic Cancers. Head and Neck Cancers. Leukemia. Lung Cancers. Lymphomas. Metastatic Cancer. Multiple Myeloma. OncoLink Vet. Pediatric Cancers. Penile Cancer. Pheochromocytoma. Prostate Cancer. Sarcomas. Skin Cancers. Testicular Cancer. Thyroid Cancer. Urinary Tract Cancers. Patients. Cancer Treatment. Biologic Therapy. Bone Marrow Transplants. Chemotherapy. Clinical Trials. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Gene Therapy. Getting Treatment. Start Here. Hormone Therapy. Hospital Helpers. Interventional Radiology. Procedures & Diagnostic Tests. Proton Therapy. Radiation. Surgery. Targeted Therapies. Vaccine Therapies. Risk and Prevention. Diet, Alcohol and Cancer. Environmental Factors UV Exposure, Radon, Radia...
*  What are risk factors for heart disease? | Healthy Heart - Home
What are risk factors for heart disease. Healthy Heart - Home. Back To Mobile Site. Back To Mobile Site. Back To Mobile Site. Sign Up for Email Newsletters. RSS. More Local News. Seen on Local 10. Call Christina. Family. Local. › Healthy Heart. What are risk factors for heart disease. Risk factors are conditions or habits that make a person more likely to develop a disease. Important risk factors for heart disease that you can do something about are:. Some risk factors, such as age and family history of early heart disease, can't be changed. After menopause, women are more apt to get heart disease, in part because their body's production of estrogen drops. Women who have gone through early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to develop heart disease as women of the same age who have not yet gone through menopause. Another reason for the increasing risk is that middle age is a time when women tend to develop risk factors for heart disease. Family history of ...
*  worried about high risk exposure
... ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. HIV Prevention and Testing. worried about high risk exposure. HIV Prevention and Testing Am I Infected. Stats Total Posts: 675714 Total Topics: 52424 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Welcome to the "Am I Infected?" POZ forum. Anyone who needs to post more than three messages in the "Am I Infected?" forum -- including past, present and future POZ Forums members -- will need to subscribe, with secure payments made via PayPal. NOTE: HIV testing questions will still need to be posted in the "Am I Infected?" forum; attempts to post HIV symptoms or testing questions in any other forums will be considered violations of our rules of membership and subject to time-outs and permanent bans. so with that and me having zero symptoms i am aware symptoms or lack there of don t mean much what is the likely i got hiv from the exposure 2 years ago. Re: worried about high risk exposure Reply #1 on: July 04, 2013, 05:41:31 PM. Here s wh...
... STUDY | World Heart Federation. Press contacts REASONS FOR INDIA’S GROWING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE EPIDEMIC PINPOINTED IN LARGEST-EVER RISK FACTOR STUDY 19.04.2012 22:55 REASONS FOR INDIA’S GROWING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE EPIDEMIC PINPOINTED IN LARGEST-EVER RISK FACTOR STUDY. Dubai 20 April 2012 : The Indian Heart Watch IHW study has revealed the truth behind the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of key risk factors that are driving the country’s growing cardiovascular disease CVD epidemic, in a first-of-a-kind presentation of data at the World Congress of Cardiology today. Seventy-nine per cent of men and 83 per cent of women were found to be physically inactive, while 51 per cent of men and 48 per cent of women were found to have high fat diets. Some 60 per cent of men and 57 per cent of women were found to have a low intake of fruit and vegetables, while 12 per cent of men and 0.5 per cent of women smoke. Overweight and obesity was reported in 41 per cent of men and 45 per cent of women....
*  Moffitt Cancer Center: Risk Factors
... Cancers We Treat. Find a Doctor. Clinical Trials Research. Patient Family. Cancers. Lung Cancer. Risk Factors. Risk Factors. Clinical Trials. Radiation Therapy. Lung Cancer Screening and Surveillance Program. Insurance Financial Information. Lung Cancer Risk Factors Through dedicated research, scientists have identified several risk factors for lung cancer. While some of these factors, like a patent’s genetics, can’t be changed, others can be diminished through lifestyle adjustments. Smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Cigarettes contain a number of carcinogens, and smoking introduces those toxins into the lungs. Inhaling another person’s smoke secondhand smoke exposure is also a known risk factor. While a person’s lung cancer risk goes up with the number of cigarettes they smoke per day and the number of years they have smoked, their risk can go down if they are able to stop smoking. Other lung cancer risk factors include: Exposure to radon, air pollution or other environmental hazard...
*  .. Breast Cancer: Who Is at Risk?
← Join Our 2012 Denton Heart Walk Team. How Diabetes Affects Heart Health →. Breast Cancer: Who Is at Risk. October 8, 2012. Posted by. laicos. Some women are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than others. Anyone can get cancer, but some people have risk factors that may increase their chances. Certain risk factors, such as gender, are out of your control, and they do not necessarily mean you will get the disease. Even so, it is important to understand if you are at risk. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Some of the women had several risk factors but it’s still hard to know just how much they contributed. Risk Factors that are Out of Your Control. Breast cancer risk factors that women cannot change include:. Gender. Women are more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Age. The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age. Race / ethnicity. Family history of breast cancer. Age of first period and onset of menopaus...
*  Phys.org - risk factors(... continued page 15)
Phys.org - risk factors ... Home risk factors. News tagged with risk factors. heart disease · patients · women · heart attack · cardiovascular disease. Patients at risk for complications after coronary artery fistula closure. Mar 23, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Infertile men have an increased risk of developing high grade prostate cancer, which is more likely to grow and spread quickly. Mar 22, 2010 in Cancer. Mar 16, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Mar 15, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Mar 03, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Individuals who were identified as being at increased risk of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events based on screening for low ankle brachial index, a type of pressure measurement used in the diagnosis of peripheral artery ... Mar 01, 2010 in Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Nearly 40 different inherited risk factors which predispose to the disease have now been identified. Blacks more likely to have undiagnosed key stroke risk factor, have hi...
http://phys.org/tags/risk factors/page15.html
*  Go Red in February — Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camd
Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camdenton, MO. Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. By Jennifer Bethurem. The Lake News Online. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM Lake area. Go Red in February Part 7: Know your family history. Go Red in February Part 5: Controlling blood pressure... Lake Regional forum will address heart attacks, risk factors. There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. Using tobacco increases your risk of heart disease, and the likelihood that you would not survive a heart attack. Stay active, eat hea...
*  Go Red in February — Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camd
Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors - Lifestyle - The Lake News Online - Camdenton, MO. newsletter. Go Red in February Part 2: Heart disease risk factors There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. By Jennifer Bethurem. The Lake News Online. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM. By Jennifer Bethurem. 4, 2013 at 1:44 PM Updated Feb 4, 2013 at 1:53 PM Lake area. Go Red in February Part 7: Know your family history. Go Red in February Part 5: Controlling blood pressure... Lake Regional forum will address heart attacks, risk factors. There are some risk factors for heart disease you can't control, such as age, gender and genetics. Having a family history of heart disease is another factor that increases risk. Using tobacco increases your risk of heart disease, and the likelihood that you would not survive a heart attack. Stay act...
*  socioeconomic risk factors: Topics by WorldWideScience.org
Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after controlling for standard behavioral risk factors. Science.gov United States Goulden, R; Ibrahim, T; Wolfson, C 2015-06-01 High socioeconomic status SES is generally associated with better health outcomes, but some research has linked it with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis MS. 2015-01-01 Background Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality can be explained by different groups of risk factors. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with l...
http://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/s/socioeconomic risk factors.html
*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Heart Disease Prevention - Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease
... Heart Center Heart Disease Prevention - Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease According to the American Heart Association AHA, diseases caused by smoking kill more than 440,000 people in the United States each year; of that number, more than 135,000 deaths are cardiovascular related. Smokers not only have increased risk for lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk for heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer. In posing health risks on the body's cardiovascular system, smoking: Causes immediate and long-term increases in blood pressure Causes immediate and long-term increases in heart rate Reduces cardiac output and coronary blood flow Reduces the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues Changes the properties of blood vessels and blood cells allowing cholesterol and other fatty substances to build up Contributes to higher blood pressure and increased risk for blood clot formation Damages blood vessels Doubles the risk for ischemic stroke reduced blood flow to the...
*  Study: 2 in 5 adults at risk for diabetes | WNOR FM99
Study: 2 in 5 adults at risk for diabetes. WNOR FM99. Listen Live. Search. Facebook. Twitter. Instagram. YouTube. RSS. Email. SMS. Tunein. Menu Home Media Photos. Stream FM99. Listen Live. Babe of the Day. Rumble Rumble on Demand. Stupid News. Videos. The Reach Around. Shelley s Puppies. On Air Rumble in the Morning. Shelley s Lunch Box. Eric Afternoons. Nikki Sixx. News Military. Music. Sports. Weird. Viral Videos. National. Entertainment. Events All Events. Helping Hand. Contests See All Contests. Football Challenge. Military Hero. Contest Rules. Connect Contact Us. Facebook. YouTube. Twitter. Text Club. FM99 Emails. Signup. Preferences. About Advertise with us. Contact Us. Jobs at FM99. Christmas Wish. Helping Hand. Home. News. Story. News Study: 2 in 5 adults at risk for diabetes. in National. DIABETES: Heidi Elbarky draws blood from a finger of her son, Omar, 8, to test his sugar level using OneTouch Ping that transfers the sugar level to Omar's insulin pump. More than 29 million people in the United Sta...
*  Novel Risk Factors and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
Diabetes care. Page 1 Novel Risk Factors and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ARIC Study L.A. For prediction analyses, we started with a simple or basic prediction model,previouslyvalidatedinARIC 25, that includes age, parental history of di- abetes, race/ethnicity, fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides, systolic blood Table 1dBaseline characteristics mean or percentage of the total ARIC cohort by incident type 2 diabetes status Type 2 diabetes N = 1,457 No type 2 diabetes N = 10,820 P value Basic risk factors Age years Parental history of diabetes % Race African American, % Systolic blood pressure mmHg Waist circumference cm Height cm Fasting triglycerides mg/dL HDL-C mg/dL Fasting glucose mg/dL Novel risk factors WBC count 1,000/mm3 Fibrinogen mg/dL Albumin g/dL vWF % aPTT s Factor VIII % Magnesium mg/dL FEV1 L FVC L Hematocrit % Heart rate bpm Low-frequency-power heart rate variability ms Leg length cm Hip circumference cm Blood viscosity centipoise Genetic risk...
*  .. What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease? .. Stay Informed! .. Learn Reflexology Free! .. He
What are the Risk Factors for Heart Disease. By. Dee Braun. on February 8, 2013 in. Heart, Blood, Circulatory. There are two types of risk factors for heart disease, those that are controllable and those that you cannot control. The main risk factors for heart disease are being male, becoming older, a family history of heart disease, being a post-menopausal woman, and being African American, American Indian, or being Mexican American. These risk factors are the ones that you cannot control. The risk factors for heart disease that you can control are smoking, having high LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol, whether you are physically active or not, obesity, and having uncontrolled diabetes, or a high C-reactive protein, and also having uncontrolled stress or anger. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control. You can lower your risk for heart disease by making lifestyle changes that will lower those risks that you can control. You can make lifestyle changes that will improve your eating habits or you can bec...
*  .. Diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease .. Interesting Times .. About me/this blog .. Rece
“OBJECTIVE—To compare the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD death and the impact of hyperglycemia on the risk of CVD mortality associated with type 1 diabetes to that associated with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS—During an 18-year follow-up, 86 participants with type 1 diabetes, 567 participants with type 2 diabetes, and 252 nondiabetic participants died. CVD mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were 23.1 95% CI 16.9–31.9 in type 1 diabetic, 35.3 30.8–40.4 in type 2 diabetic, and 4.6 3.8–5.7 in nondiabetic participants. CONCLUSIONS—The impact of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on CVD mortality was similar. The effect of increasing hyperglycemia on the risk of CVD mortality was more profound in type 1 than in type 2 diabetic subjects.”. “At baseline type 1 diabetic participants, when compared with nondiabetic participants, were leaner and had higher HDL cholesterol and lower diastolic blood pressure, but they had a slightly higher prevalence of hypertension, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher cont...
*  Your Health Information Library: Adults & Kids Health Topics
Browse all Community health services and other services. Awards and honors. Community Heart and Vascular Hospital. Health Services. Community Home Health. Health Information Library. Sports Medicine. Programs. Emergency Medical Services. Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases Primary risk factors for chronic disease: At the top of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC list of primary risk factors for all chronic diseases are: smoking, poor nutrition, and sedentary lifestyle. This includes the following: eliminating all tobacco products adhering to a heart-healthy diet following an appropriate exercise program. Eliminate all tobacco products: You should be aware that all tobacco products are included as risk factors for chronic illness, not just cigarettes. One aspect of managing your heart attack risk factors includes eating a heart-healthy diet, including appropriate levels of the following: calories cholesterol fat fiber sodium. To find more information about the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 20...
*  Risk Factors Influencing Antibody Responses to Kaposi's Sarc... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
Text sizing: A. Analysis of HIV-related factors and coinfections based on ANY serostatus revealed a higher seropositivity rate in patients with CD4 T cells/mm 3 less than 200 than greater than 200 53% versus 33%; OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.37-4.02; P = 0.002, HIV copies/mL greater than 400 than less than 400 42% versus 32%; OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.09-2.65; P = 0.019, with than without syphilis 56% versus 34%; OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.28-4.79; P = 0.007, and with than without hepatitis 47% versus 33%; OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07-2.90; P = 0.027 Table 1. The results thus far indicated an association of CD4 T cell count, HIV load, or duration of HIV infection with ORF65 but not LANA serostatus. However, detection rate of latent antibodies was lower in those with CD4 T cells/mm 3 less than 200 than greater than 200 35% versus 67%; OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.61; P = 0.002, CD8 T cells/mm 3 less than 400 than greater than 400 28% versus 64%; OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.67; P = 0.007, and duration of HIV infection greater than 15 years than ...
*  Heart Attack Prevention Overview: Follow These Tips
Pill Identifier. Kulick received his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Southern California, School of Medicine. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease. What are the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease. Well-known risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and heart attacks are: Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol the "bad" cholesterol in the blood; Family history of early coronary heart disease, including a heart attack or sudden death before age 55 in the father or other male first-degree relative, or before age 65 in the mother or other female first-degree relative; Cigarette smoking; Diabetes mellitus; High blood pressure; Low levels of HDL the "good" cholesterol in the blood; and Sedentary lifestyle. Less recognized but just as important risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis ...
*  .. Women, Blacks Hit Harder by Heart Disease Risk Factors .. RELATED CONDITIONS .. WEEKLY NEWSLETT
Type 2 Diabetes Home Type 2 Diabetes Journey Risks, Symptoms, and Tests After Your Diagnosis Doctors and Other Health-Care Support Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Eating Healthy Weight Loss and Exercise Living With Diabetes Non-Insulin Drugs If You Need Insulin Complications of Diabetes. News Headlines. RELATED CONDITIONS. Heart Disease Depression High Cholesterol Men's Sexual Dysfunction Heart Attack. WEEKLY NEWSLETTER Free Healthy Living Email Newsletter Get the latest health, fitness, anti-aging, and nutrition news, plus special offers, insights and updates from Health.com. Women, Blacks Hit Harder by Heart Disease Risk Factors August 11, 2014. By Dennis Thompson HealthDay Reporter. MONDAY, Aug. 11, 2014 HealthDay News — Chronic diseases that can increase a person’s risk of heart attack or stroke appear to hit women and blacks the hardest, a new population-based study found. Diabetes and high blood pressure in particular, contribute to an ongoing gender and race gap in heart disease risk, researchers report on...
*  Risk Factors for Heart Attack - Kendall Regional Medical Center | Miami, FL
Risk Factors for Heart Attack - Kendall Regional Medical Center. Lawnwood Medical Center & Heart Institute. Women's Health. H2U - health to you. Health Library. It is possible to have a heart attack with or without the risk factors listed below. People who continue to smoke in the presence of established cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for repeated heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest. It also helps reduce the chance of other heart attack risk factors such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Drinking too much alcohol can increase blood pressure and lead to other heart problems. Testosterone Therapy Men aged 65 years and older who are taking testosterone therapy are more likely to have a heart attack. Talk to your doctor about your risk of heart attack if you are taking testosterone therapy medications. If you have hypertension and are not keeping your blood pressure in a specific target range, you have an increased risk of having a heart attack. It also adds to your chances of dev...
*  What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relati
... on to India. What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relation to India. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol. In this review, we discuss the evidence for public health interventions in reducing NCD burden from both developed and developing countries and describe how such interventions can be contextualised to the Indian perspective. 4, 5 Since risk factors exert a steadily rising effect on the risk of disease and interact with each other to increase the overall risk, strategies for prevention must attempt...
*  Primary care practice structure affects control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among pat
... ients with diabetes. Primary care practice structure affects control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes Research Activities, September 2009. Primary care practices that have teams with well-defined leadership and effective teamwork, where the appointment and visit systems are well structured, and where followup and coordination of care after the visit are well planned, seemed to be better at controlling risk factors for cardiovascular CV disease among patients with diabetes, concludes a new study. Kaissi, Ph.D., of Trinity University, found that a primary care practice's community connections and its actual delivery of care during a patient's visit were linked to good control of three CV risk factors among patients with diabetes: glycosylated hemoglobin or A1C a measure of blood-sugar level, blood pressure BP, and low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol. Clinicians in each clinic completed the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care survey about use of the six Chron...
*  Belly Fat Is Culprit in Stroke Gender Gap
... Symptoms. Health A-Z. See what your medical symptoms could mean, and learn about possible conditions. WebMD Pain Coach Track your pain levels, triggers, and treatments. FDA Approves Diet Pill Belviq. FDA Delays Decision on Blood Thinner Eliquis WebMD Mobile Drug Information App Drug, supplement, and vitamin information on the go. Living Healthy. Diet, Food Fitness Diet Weight Management. Oral Care Living Well Women's Health. Men's Health. Your Birth Control Options. Food Fitness Planner: Personalize Your Weight Loss Plan WebMD Allergy App for iPhone Fight allergies with daily forecasts, local alerts, and personalized tips. Family Pregnancy. Family and Pregnancy Centers Pregnancy. Featured Topics Know the Signs of Early Pregnancy. WebMD Vaccine Tracker: Manage Vaccinations for Your Entire Family WebMD Pregnancy App for iPhone The big day is coming. News Experts. Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox. WebMD Health Experts and Community. WebMD Communities Connect with peop...
*  The ageing brain | OUPblog
The Oxford Comment. Do vascular risk factors such as high blood pressure and smoking make us forgetful. Cognitive ageing, such as symptoms of forgetfulness, is increasingly seen as the result of the joint effect of several vascular disease risk factors, including high blood pressure, BMI, cholesterol levels, and smoking. However, the combined influence of these on cognitive decline is less commonly explored among older adults at increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In a recent paper, we looked at Framingham stroke and cardiovascular risk scores a measure used to assess an individual’s probability of developing stroke or cardiovascular disease over a 10-years period and investigated their association with cognitive decline in older adults. Participants with the highest risk of future stroke or cardiovascular events, based on their risk factors values, were found to perform more poorly on tests of memory and executive functioning after a four year period. This adds weight to the ...
*  DCCPS: BRP: BBPSB: Key Initiatives
... Key Initiatives. Basic Biobehavioral and Psychological Sciences Branch. Basic Biobehavioral and Psychological Sciences Branch BBPSB Key Initiatives: The Complex Patient and Co-Morbid Conditions. Strategy Text-only description appears below Many risk factors that contribute to disease: biological risks e.g. obesity , behavioral risks e.g. smoking, sedentary lifestyle , psychological risks e.g. These include Sympathetic Nervous System SNS activity, Parasympathetic Nervous System PNS activity, the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal HPA axis, Inflammation and the Immune response. The "complex patient" has a "co-morbid condition," meaning they have two or more physical diseases or they have one chronic disorder and develops another due to common risk factors or iatrogenic effects of treatment for the first. The combination of cancer and cardiovascular disease CVD is a common co-morbid condition. The shared risk factors of Cancer and CVD include smoking, obesity and sedentary lifestyle. There are a...
*  Study identifies 10 risk factors linked to 90% of strokes | News | Nursing Times
Study identifies 10 risk factors linked to 90% of strokes. News. Nursing Times. Skip to main content. Skip to navigation. FAQs. Contact. About. Marketing & Advertising. Events. Group Access. Recruitment. Subscribe. Register. Sign in. By continuing to use the site you agree to our Privacy Cookies policy. Your browser seems to have cookies disabled. For the best experience of this website, please enable cookies in your browser. Close. Accept. 'Nurses key to success of new care models'. Steve Ford, news editor. SPEAK OUT SAFELY CAMPAIGN. Search the site. Home. Nursing Practice. Nursing Times Learning. Opinion. Student Nursing Times. Jobs. Subscribe. Your browser is no longer supported For the best possible experience using our website we recommend you upgrade to a newer version or another browser. Close. Study identifies 10 risk factors linked to 90% of strokes 7 May, 2014. By The Press Association. Ten risk factors are associated with 90% of strokes, according to preliminary findings from a study presented for ...
*  Multilevel modeling versus cross-sectional analysis for assessing the longitudinal tracking of cardi
... ovascular risk factors over time. Article Multilevel modeling versus cross-sectional analysis for assessing the longitudinal tracking of cardiovascular risk factors over time. We focus on cardiovascular epidemiological research where investigators are often interested in quantifying the relations between clinical risk factors and outcome measures X and Y, respectively, where X and Y are measured repeatedly over time, for example, using serial observations on participants attending multiple examinations in a longitudinal cohort study. In this tutorial, we describe the application of multilevel modeling to cardiovascular risk factors and outcome data using serial echocardiographic data as an example of an outcome. ABSTRACT: To elucidate the hospital characteristics associated with hospital performance and time trends in acute myocardial infarction AMI care using multilevel multivariable analysis of longitudinal data. The following factors were significantly associated with time trends of improvement in perf...
*  Low risk for heart attack? Could an ultrasound hold the answer?
Low risk for heart attack. Could an ultrasound hold the answer. Home. Medicine Health. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. November 11, 2008 Low risk for heart attack. Could an ultrasound hold the answer. November 11, 2008 By adding the results of an imaging technique to the traditional risk factors for coronary heart disease, doctors at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston found they were able to improve prediction of heart attacks in people previously considered low risk. The findings are being presented today at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions in New Orleans. Researchers used ultrasound imaging to view the carotid intima media thickness C-IMT, or thickness of the artery walls. "The ultrasound added another dimension to the risk factor score and showed us that those with thick arteries in the higher end of low risk group actually are at intermediate risk for coronary heart disease," said Dr. Vijay Nambi, assistant professor of medicine - atherosclerosis and vascular medicine at BCM and le...
*  Protein May Be Heart Risk Factor - NYTimes.com
... campaign: nyt2014 bar1 digihd regi BAU -- 268632, creative: nyt2015 bar1 digihd BAU 4JQ88 4JQ8F 4JQ8J 4JQ8L -- 399712, page: www.nytimes.com/archive/article/us, targetedPage: www.nytimes.com/archive/article/us, position: Bar1. The protein appears to mark a particular risk for white men and women under 65. It is also not known what can or should be done to reduce elevated blood levels of Lp a. However, the association between Lp a and heart disease may help to explain why heart attacks occur in some people who have otherwise low cholesterol levels and who have no other major coronary risk factors. The study, published in the current issue of Circulation, a journal of the American Heart Association, found an increased coronary risk associated with high blood levels of Lp a in women both before and after menopause. Among the 292 women who had heart attacks or angina, blood levels of Lp a averaged 38 percent higher than among 292 healthy women who were otherwise comparable in age and other coronary risk fact...
*  Incredible Discoveries - Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime with Iampur - Incredible Discoveries
... Oceans 2003 Navigating the Ocean we call business -. Home. About Us. Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime with Iampur. On 03.07.12, In Health, Health and Wellness, Marketing, Media, by IncredibleDiscoveries The following segment aired on Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime Television. Joining Incredible Discoveries was Iampur. to discuss Iampur Relief. Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime Television Guest: Phil Hudson. Incredible Discoveries on Lifetime Television: One out of every three adults has arthritis or joint pain, and it can ruin your daily life. There is a smart, natural solution to deal with this on-going pain problem Iampur- relief. As seen on Incredible Discoveries, Iampur-relief was professionally formulated to provide fast-acting and long-lasting pain relief, so you can enjoy life to the fullest. It s that simple. To relieve your aches, you simply apply Iampur-relief directly to the site of pain, and the natural ingredients will produce an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. Iampur-relief s...
*  .. .. Health Library .. Understanding Cancer Statistics .. Cancer facts and figures .. Centers, P
Statistics are often used in cancer to help guide decision-making about identifying people at risk for getting cancer and identifying the best test or treatment. Relative risk. The relative risk compares the risk of people getting a cancer with certain risk factors family history or certain behaviors like smoking with a similar group of people without those risk factors. For example, it was estimated that 604 men and 456 women per 100,000 people in Massachusetts had cancer between 2001 and 2005. For example, 238 men and 166 women per 100,000 people in Massachusetts and 206 men and 151 women per 100,000 in California were estimated to have died of cancer between 2001 and 2005. All of this information can help people make decisions about changing behaviors, taking tests or treatments, and overall outlook. Breast Cancer Overview. Study Refutes Notion That Diabetes Drug Actos Raises Bladder Cancer Risk. Family History of Breast Cancer Doesn't Worsen Patient's Prognosis: Study. Genes Linked to Breast, Ovarian Canc...
*  New study challenges current thinking on risk factors for contrast induced nephrotoxicity
... May 1, 2012 New study challenges current thinking on risk factors for contrast induced nephrotoxicity May 1, 2012 Contrary to current belief, a new study finds that patients with a history of diabetes are not one of the most at risk for contrast induced nephrotoxicity. Instead, the study found that patients with a history of renal disease, hypertension and/or heart disease are more likely to suffer from renal insufficiency, putting them at greater risk for contrast induced nephrotoxicity. The study, done at Northwestern Memorial Hospital-Northwestern University in Chicago, included 2,404 patients. "Since all patients underwent the eGFR test, we had an unusual opportunity to see if the traditional risk factors truly predict reduced renal function, said Vahid Yaghmai, MD, one of the authors of the study. The study found that "patients with history of renal disease, hypertension and heart disease had significantly higher odds of having abnormal eGFR," said Dr. Many facilities ask patients to fill out a surv...
*  Logos - VCU Massey Cancer Center
VCU Massey Cancer Center. Anatomy Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment. Types of brain tumors Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Long-term outlook. Anatomy of the brain Types of brain tumors Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Long-term outlook. Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment. Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment. Causes, risk factors and prevention Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Long-term outlook. Causes and risk factors Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment Long-term outlook. Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment Other types of liver cancer. Causes, risk factors and prevention Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment. Causes and risk factors Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and staging Treatment Long-term-outlook. Causes and risk factors Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and ...
*  SMW - Swiss Medical Weekly - 21293981
BACKGROUND: The burden of abdominal obesity AO and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors is not known in coronary artery disease CAD patients attending cardiac rehabilitation CR. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the prevalence of AO and differences in cardiovascular risk factors between AO and non-AO patients. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the prevalence of AO in a large cohort of CAD patients attending CR and to evaluate differences in cardiovascular risk factors in AO and non-AO patients, thus sensitising physicians to this medical entity. The SF-36 is a health survey designed to assess health-related quality of life that is not disease-, treatment- or age-specific. The association of AO with other cardiovascular risk factors is shown in table 2. AO was associated significantly with diabetes p = 0.003 and hypertension p 0.001, whereas BMI equal or higher than 30 kg/m 2 was only associated with diabetes p = 0.036, not shown in the table. In contrast...
*  Women, Blacks Hit Harder by Heart Disease Risk Factors | Newsday
Newsday. Subscribe to Newsday. Newsday Fun Book. Top Stories. Top Stories. Top Stories. Top Stories. Top Stories. Get unlimited digital access $14.99 A MONTH Join Now To continue reading, Newsday subscribers log in To continue reading, Newsday subscribers log in or register. The study evaluated the combined and individual impact of five major risk factors for heart disease -- high cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. The combined risk from all five factors remained the same in blacks over a 10-year period, causing a steady 67 percent increased risk of heart disease. Combined heart disease risk fell for women during the same 10 years, decreasing from 68 percent increased risk to 58 percent. But their risk still remained higher than that of men, whose combined risk decreased from 51 percent to 48 percent during the study period. Diabetes and high blood pressure emerged as the two factors that continue to drive up the risk of heart attack and stroke, particularly in women and blacks. ...
*  291 diseases and injuries + 67 risk factors + 1,160 non-fatal complications = 650 million estimates
... of how we age, sicken, and die. 291 diseases and injuries + 67 risk factors + 1,160 non-fatal complications = 650 million estimates of how we age, sicken, and die December 14, 2012 11:08 AM. From the team for the massive Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010. In addition to the data visualizations, the IHME provides GBD 2010 publication summaries : Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Healthy life expectancy for 187 countries, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Age‐specific and sex‐specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global ...
*  JAMA Network | JAMA Internal Medicine | "Successful Aging": Effect of Subclinical Cardiovascul
"Successful Aging": Effect of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease. Previous Article Next Article. The authors have no relevent financial interest in this article. Article. COMMENT. ARTICLE INFORMATION. Figures in this Article. To determine whether subclinical vascular disease and CVD risk factors were associated with more years free of physical and cognitive disability when not combined with the incident CVD outcome, we modeled separately ADL difficulty and a combined physical and cognitive disability, using the predictors identified in the successful aging models, with and without adjustment for intervening CVD. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. Proportion of Men and Women With Successful Aging by Age, Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease CVD, and Selected Risk Factors. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. Within each age group, the participants with subclinical dis...
*  MO Arthritis: Self-Management
... MO Arthritis. Home. About Arthritis. Find a Class. Course Registration. Arthritis Links. Leader Resources. Partner Resources. Self-Management Toolkit. Sustainability Project. Find a RAC. Contact Us. Self-Management. Did you know that February is American Heart Month. Did you know that February is American Heart Month. Million Hearts ® and The Heart Truth ® are two campaigns that help support American Heart Month here in the United States. Million Hearts® is a national initiative that works to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, while The Heart Truth® is a 28-day challenge during the month of February that encourages women to take action to lower their risk for heart disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC states that there are three key risk factors tied to heart disease: high blood pressure, high cholesterol LDL, and smoking. 49% of Americans have one or more key risk factors linked back to heart disease. It’s not too late to make the decision to change. If you would...
*  Risk Factors for Heart Attack | Blake Medical Center | Bradenton, FL
Risk Factors for Heart Attack. Blake Medical Center. Find A Doctor. Find A Doctor Find A Doctor. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Patients & Visitors. H2U - health to you. Health Info. Health Info Health Info. Health Library. Hospital Affiliation Letters for Medical Center Staff. Find A Doctor. Find A Doctor Doctor of the Year Ballot. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Classes & Events. H2U - health to you. Blake Medical Center @BlakeMedCenter October is #BreastCancerAwareness Month. It is possible to have a heart attack with or without the risk factors listed below. It also helps reduce the chance of other heart attack risk factors such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Talk to your doctor about your risk of heart attack if you are taking testosterone therapy medications. If you have hypertension and are not keeping your blood pressure in a specific target range, you have an increased risk of having a heart attack. It also adds to your chances of developing high blood pressure, h...
*  CDC - Podcasts
Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. Cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure, is the leading cause of death in the U.S. The audio file can be found at Audio Download. Save This File 6MB. A CUP OF HEALTH WITH CDC Heart Health American Heart Month – February 2014 Recorded: February 25, 2013; posted: February 27, 2013. is caused by cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure; it’s the leading cause of death. Fleetwood Loustalot is a researcher with CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. He’s joining us today to discuss ways to prevent cardiovascular disease. Leading risk factors include high blood pressure and cholesterol, diabetes, being overweight or obese, smoking, lack of physical activity, and an unhealthy diet, including consuming too much sodium in your diet. Fleetwood, what lifes...
*  USMLE Step 2 - Cardiovascular Flashcards - Cram.com
Shuffle Toggle On Toggle Off Alphabetize Toggle On Toggle Off Front First Toggle On Toggle Off Both Sides Toggle On Toggle Off Read Toggle On Toggle Off. Leading cause of M M in US Clinically - SOB DOE arrhythmias stable unstable angina MI heart failure sudden death risk factors - age gender hypercholesterolemia DM HTN smoking family Hx. RF = risk factor 0-1 RF - treat: by diet if LDL 160 by meds if LDL 190 2 RFs - treat: by diet if LDL 130 by meds if LDL 160 CHD or MI or angina or DM - treat: by diet if LDL 100 by meds if LDL 130. ■ Admit monitor by EKG/telemetry ■ acute Sxs - O2 sublingual nitroglycerin ASA IV B-blockers Ca2+ channel blockers - if can't tolerate B-blockers ticlopidine or clopidogrel - if allergic to ASA ■ chronic Sxs - nitrates B-blockers ASA risk factors' reduction stress test lipid panel statins ■ pain inc. Vasospasm of coronary vessels happens at rest early morning young women Dx - angiography clean coronary arteries Tx - Ca2+ channel blockers. ■ Lifestyle mod - init Tx for stages 1 2 ■ ...
*  Avoiding risk factors ensures longer survival in men - Nutrition Express Articles
... Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Newsletters > 2007 Newsletters > November 2007 Avoiding risk factors ensures longer survival in men by Newsletter Editor Avoiding midlife risk factors ensures longer survival in men. For men, healthy survival has been linked to lifestyle choices. In a 40-year-long study of 5,820 Japanese men, overall survival rates compared to exceptional survival rates were shown to be linked to healthy lifestyle factors and higher education. Out of all the subjects, 58% died before the age of 85, 31% survived to 85 with disease or disability and 11% survived to 85 without 6 major chronic diseases and without cognitive or physical impairment. The probability of exceptional survival was 60% with no risk factors and less than 10% with 6 or more risk factors. Therefore, aiming to reduce multiple risk factors such as being overweight, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, smoking and excessive drinking while maintaining healthy body weight may improve the pro...
http://nutritionexpress.com/article index/newsletters/2007 newsletters/november 2007/showarticle.aspx?articleid=876
*  Browsing Epidemiology by Title
... → Browsing Epidemiology by Title. Browsing Epidemiology by Title. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism, such as impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, have been associated with increased risk of multiple types of cancers. Alcohol intake, viral hepatitis B infection, viral hepatitis C infection, and the risk of primary liver cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis . Accurate estimation of the contribution of major risk factors of liver cancer namely, alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infection, is essential ... Background: Pediatric HIV is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental deficits. In serodiscordant couples, provision of antiretroviral therapy ART to the HIV-infected partner significantly decreases risk of sexual HIV transmission of HIV. Background: Aortic sclerosis is associated with increased ... Area-level socioeconomic status and cancer outcomes: Is there an association and can it be explained by behavior. Increasingly, area-level socioeconomic status SES is recognized as...
*  Vytorin Bad, Statins Good? : Disease Proof:
Vytorin Bad, Statins Good. : Disease Proof:. Disease Proof Posted at 8:40 AM on April 1, 2008 by Gerald Pugliese Vytorin Bad, Statins Good. Vytorin is a bust, so, doctors are urging people to turn back to statins. Yeah, great idea. More from the Associated Press : Millions of Americans already take the drug or one of its components, Zetia. But doctors were stunned to learn Vytorin failed to improve heart disease, even though it worked as intended to reduce three key risk factors. People need to turn back to statins, said Yale University cardiologist Dr. We know that statins are good drugs. The study tested whether Vytorin was better than Zocor alone at limiting plaque buildup in the arteries of 720 people with super high cholesterol because of a gene disorder. Fuhrman explains: The known side effects for various statins the most popular and effective medications to lower cholesterol include hepatitis, jaundice, other liver problems, gastrointestinal upsets, muscle problems and a variety of blood complications...
*  Human Resources News
Obesity Alone Raises Risk of Fatal Heart Attack, Study Finds. Obese men face a dramatically higher risk of dying from a heart attack, regardless of whether or not they have other known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, a new study reveals. The finding stems from an analysis involving roughly 6,000 middle-aged men, and it suggests that there is something about carrying around excess weight that contributes to heart disease independent of risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol and arterial disease. "Obese, middle-aged men have a 60 percent increased risk of dying from a heart attack than non-obese middle-aged men, even after we cancel out any of the effects of cholesterol, blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors," noted study author Jennifer Logue, a clinical lecturer of metabolic medicine with the British Heart Foundation's Cardiovascular Research Centre at the University of Glasgow, in Scotland. What's more, even after also accounting for risk factors such as ...
*  Info Center - EMC.org
Guleria : There are certain risk factors that we know are greater than others: total cholesterol that is higher than 240; systolic blood pressure greater than 160 or diastolic pressure greater than 100; if a person smokes or has diabetes, or has a close relative with history of heart attack or cardiovascular disease. There are also established risk scores that patients and doctors can use to help determine their likely risk for a heart attack, including the Reynolds Risk Score for women, and the Framingham Risk Score. Shaver: Another risk factor is the metabolic syndrome. Guleria, tell us about metabolic syndrome. These are the people who have abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, triglycerides greater than 150, low HDL high-density lipoprotein, good cholesterol, fasting blood glucose greater than 100. Shaver: In terms of body fat, is all fat the same when it comes to risk factors. If there is less LDL cholesterol formed in the liver, then the LDL receptor in the liver attracts cholesterol circulating in th...
*  .. Know Your Risk
know your risk as a woman the single most important thing you can do to safeguard your heart health is to educate yourself about your unique risk factors studies show that most women in canada donâ t realize that heart disease and stroke is a leading cause of death for women in canada in fact heart disease and stroke kills seven times more women than breast cancer becoming aware of your health profile and learning how to recognize the warning signs of heart disease and stroke will allow you to take preventive action and control your risk factors learn more about heart disease and your risk profile and find your path to heart health by exploring this section of the website what is heart disease and stroke evaluate your risk women heart health warning signs prevention treatment for heart disease stroke living with heart disease stroke questions to ask your doctor...
*  Whole Health Source: August 2008
... Posted by. Stephan Guyenet. at 1:19 PM. 8 comments:. Email This. BlogThis. Share to Twitter. Share to Facebook. Share to Pinterest. Labels: diabetes, overweight, Pima. Posted by. Stephan Guyenet. 11 comments:. Email This. BlogThis. Share to Twitter. Share to Facebook. Share to Pinterest. Tuesday, August 26, 2008. 69% of their calories come from carbohydrate, 21% from fat and 10% from protein. There are examples of cultures that were/are healthy eating high-fat diets, high-carbohydrate diets and everything in between. Leptin is secreted by adipose fat tissue, and its blood levels are proportional to fat mass. This isn't surprising, since leptin levels track with fat mass and the Kitavans are very lean average male BMI = 20, female BMI = 18. These data show that exercise can not explain Kitavans' low insulin levels. We can guess that total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate do not cause hyperinsulinemia, based on data from the Inuit, the Masai and the Kitavans, respectively. Judging by these numbers, Kita...
*  .. Booster Shots .. Researchers find a way to subtract 12 years from your life .. Oddities, musings
Business. Sports. Entertainment. Health. Travel. Opinion. Booster Shots Oddities, musings and news from the health world. Previous Post. Booster Shots Home. Next Post. Researchers find a way to subtract 12 years from your life April 26, 2010. 1:01 pm You know that smoking is bad for your health. Ditto heavy drinking, a slovenly lifestyle or a preference for chili cheese fries over fruits and vegetables. Epidemiologists have linked each of these behaviors to increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. Giske Ursin – studied the effect of all four bad behaviors at once. Smokers fill that bill, while nonsmokers and former smokers did not. Men who consumed more than 21 8-gram servings of alcohol and women who drank more than 14 servings of alcohol were considered to have poor drinking behavior. Anyone who got less than 120 minutes of exercise each week was defined as having poor physical activity, and bad diets were those that contained fewer than 3 fruits or vegetables each day. After tracking nearly 5,...
*  The Mermaid's Tale: Who, me? I don't believe in single-gene causation! (or do I?). Part I. What
I don't believe in single-gene causation. I don't believe in single-gene causation. Ken Weiss. genes 'for' a trait is still on. Single gene causation does exist, at least sometimes doesn't it. There are well-documented single risk factors, genetic and otherwise, that everyone accepts 'cause' some disease in a very meaningful sense. Examples are some alleles variant states of the CFTR gene and Cystic Fibrosis CF , BRCA1 and 2 variants and breast cancer, or smoking and lung cancer. Gene X doesn't cause the disease after all. Or disease and none of the known causal mutations. If you have a dysfunctional BRCA1 genotype, you are at risk of some one breast cell acquiring a set of mutations that don't get detected and repaired. Gene X plus time plus environmental risk factors cause the disease. Though, we all believe it's a single gene, BRCA1 or 2, that causes cancer. The obvious non-genetic instance, smoking and lung cancer, is similar but not exactly the same. The reason the risk is probabilistic -- that is, a smo...
*  Popular Blogs for heart disease | SparkPeople
Join Now for Free. Healthy Cooking. Healthy Heart. Healthy Home. Posted 1/23/2014 12:00:00 AM By: Jen Mueller : 2 comments 15,276 views Read More. Posted 8/5/2013 12:00:00 PM By: SparkPeople Guest Blogger : 7 comments 15,649 views Read More. DailySpark: What are the top lifestyle changes women can make to ensure their hearts stay healthy. Desvigne-Nickens: Most heart disease risk factors are preventable or controllable by making healthy lifestyle changes, including: stopping smoking, being physically active, following a healthy diet, and maintaining a healthy weight. Additional risk factors that you can prevent and control include: high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high blood sugar or diabetes. High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and high blood sugar are often treatable with healthy lifestyle but may require medical prescriptions. You can reduce your risk for heart disease by over 80% by controlling risk factors and a healthy lifestyle. Posted 2/22/2013 12:00:00 PM By: Stepfanie Romine ...
*  Family history (medicine)
Family history medicine. Family history medicine. In medicine, a 'family history' consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered. Genealogy typically includes very little of the medical history of the family, but the medical history could be considered a specific subset of the total history of a family. 1 Accurate knowledge of a patient's family history may identify a predisposition to developing certain illnesses, which can inform clinical decisions and allow effective management or even prevention of conditions. Uses Consequences Definitions References. cardiovascular disease s, autoimmune disorder s, mental disorders, diabetes, cancer to assess whether a person is at risk of developing similar problems. Some medical conditions are carried only by the female line such as X-linked conditions and some Mitochondrial diseases. Tracing female ancestors can be difficult in societies that change the woman's family name when she marries. Death records of...
*  Rate ratio
... a rate ratio sometimes called an incidence density ratio in epidemiology is a relative difference measure used to compare the incidence rate s of events occurring at any given point in time a common application for this measure in analytic epidemiologic studies is in the search for a causal association between a certain risk factor and an outcome text rate ratio frac text incidence rate text incidence rate http www ctspedia org do view ctspedia rateratio where incidence rate is the occurrence of an event over person time for example person years text incidence rate frac text events text person time note the same time intervals must be used for both incidence rates see also ratio risk ratio odds ratio references category biostatistics category epidemiology category rates...
*  .. Can You Be Fat and Healthy? Depends Where You Are Fat .. RELATED CONDITIONS .. WEEKLY NEWSLETTE
Heart Disease Home Heart Disease Journey Perspectives On Heart Disease Risks and Symptoms Heart Tests Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease Arrhythmia Diet and Exercise Depression and Heart Disease Statins and Other Drugs Heart Surgery. Diabetes Type 2 Obesity Cholesterol Heart Failure Depression Stress Management. Can You Be Fat and Healthy. Just like force-fed geese develop fatty livers that are used to make foie gras, excess calories may lead to fat infiltration of the human liver, says Wylie-Rosett, who is a coauthor of the second study in the journal. “We don’t yet know what the longer term risks are, but we assume that it may then lead to scarring, and what we are now talking about is nonalcoholic liver disease,” says Wylie-Rosett. “It’s an area of tremendous concern particularly as younger people are becoming heavier and heavier and appear to be getting some of these fatty infiltrations in the liver.”. They found a cluster of high-risk symptoms—elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, and b...
... Cardiovascular disease clinical DSS Identifying and definitional attributes. Metadata item type: Data Set Specification. METeOR identifier: 273052. Registration status: Health, Superseded 15/02/2006. DSS type: Data Set Specification DSS. Scope: The collection of cardiovascular data CV-Data in this metadata set is voluntary. The definitions used in CV-Data are designed to underpin the data collected by health professionals in their day-to-day practice. They relate to the realities of a clinical consultation and the ongoing nature of care and relationships that are formed between doctors and patients in clinical practice. The data elements specified in this metadata set provide a framework for: promoting the delivery of high quality cardiovascular disease preventive and management care to patients, facilitating ongoing improvement in the quality of cardiovascular and chronic disease care predominantly in primary care and other community settings in Australia, and supporting general practice and other prima...
*  risk - What approaches are there for stress testing a portfolio? - Quantitative Finance Stack Exchan
risk - What approaches are there for stress testing a portfolio. - Quantitative Finance Stack Exchange. Quantitative Finance. Quantitative Finance Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Quantitative Finance beta. Questions. Quantitative Finance Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for finance professionals and academics. Extreme event : hypothesize the portfolio's return given the recurrence of a historical event. Current positions and risk exposures are combined with the historical factor returns. Risk factor shock : shock any factor in the chosen risk model by a user-specified amount. The factor exposures remain unchanged, while the covariance matrix is used to adjust the factor returns based on their correlation with the shocked factor. External factor shock : instead of a risk factor, shock any index, macro-economic series e.g., oil prices, or custom series e.g., exchange rates. risk var stress share...
*  Shows A-Z - to be fat like me on lifetime | TheFutonCritic.com
shows a z to be fat like me on lifetime thefutoncritic com or titles people articles view all related dvds view all related news view all related listings date day time network episode title mo pm lifetime n a to be fat like me lifetime broadcast history status telefilm mini series in the can visit the official web site missed an episode been wanting to catch up this series is also available on description from lifetime s web site everyone knows high school can be tough but when you re an overweight teen it can be the longest few years of your life fortunately for aly a popular and athletic junior she s never had that problem but the teen gets a taste of the flip side when she dons a fat suit and goes undercover at a rival high school you ll be shocked by what her hidden camera reveals in this movie based on a true story principal cast information caroline rhea kaley cuoco crew information allan krasnick as ep doug barr as dir michael givens as ep michael jacobs jr as ep michael shepard as prod michelle lovre...

Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Gene polymorphismGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingInfinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Niigata UniversityDisease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.HypertensionTriangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Electrocardiography in myocardial infarctionManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.PanitumumabNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Genetic variation: right|thumbSwiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Environmental issues in Puget Sound: Puget Sound is a deep inlet of the Pacific Ocean in Washington, extending south from the Strait of Juan de Fuca through Admiralty Inlet. It was explored and named by Captain George Vancouver for his aide, Peter Puget, in 1792.Population stratification: Population stratification is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies. Population stratification is also referred to as population structure, in this context.Rainbow (South Korean band)

(1/18160) Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

(2/18160) Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

(3/18160) Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions.

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working conditions, job control, job demands, social support at work), perceived general health (very good or good versus less than good) and demographic confounders. Data were analysed with logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: For both men and women we observed a higher odds ratio for a less than good perceived general health in the lower occupational classes (adjusted for confounders). The odds of a less than good perceived general health was larger among people reporting more hazardous physical working conditions, lower job control, lower social support at work and among those in the highest category of job demands. Results were similar for men and women. Men and women in the lower occupational classes reported more hazardous physical working conditions and lower job control as compared to those in higher occupational classes. High job demands were more often reported in the higher occupational classes, while social support at work was not clearly related to occupational class. When physical working conditions and job control were added simultaneously to a model with occupational class and confounders, the odds ratios for occupational classes were reduced substantially. For men, the per cent change in the odds ratios for the occupational classes ranged between 35% and 83%, and for women between 35% and 46%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial part of the association between occupational class and a less than good perceived general health in the working population could be attributed to a differential distribution of hazardous physical working conditions and a low job control across occupational classes. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving these working conditions might result in a reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population.  (+info)

(4/18160) Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women.

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

(5/18160) Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

(6/18160) Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE.  (+info)

(7/18160) Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease.

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

(8/18160) Cytomegalovirus seropositivity and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly prospective heart disease study.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in primary ischaemic heart disease. METHODS: Plasma specimens collected during 1979-83 from men in Caerphilly, south Wales, were analysed for IgG antibodies to CMV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and latex tests. Incident ischaemic heart disease events were ascertained after five and 10 years from death certificates, hospital records, and ECG changes; 195 incident ischaemic heart disease cases were compared with 216 controls of a similar age drawn from the rest of the cohort. RESULTS: 164 cases (84%) and 180 controls (83%) were seropositive for CMV. Optical density, an indicator of CMV antibody titre, was similar for cases and controls. Among controls, seropositivity was not associated with age, socioeconomic status currently or in childhood, smoking, height, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, or leucocyte count. The unadjusted odds ratio relating CMV seropositivity to incident ischaemic heart disease was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.79) and was little changed (1.11, 0.63 to 1.97) after adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and socioeconomic status currently and in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection is unlikely to be a strong risk factor for development of myocardial infarction in middle aged men.  (+info)

What are the odds of miscarriage after 12 wks in a patient with PCOS?

Can anyone tell me the miscarriage rate/odds of miscarriage ratio for a woman with PCOS who makes it to 12 weeks?  It would be good to know with met (at least 1500 mg) versus not taking met also.

Please know that I am only interested in the rates for women with PCOS, not the general population.

I've read the rates can be as high as 45-50%.

I find the 45-50% hard to believe though, I think it's dependent on how PCOS effects each individual. Not every Woman with PCOS has insulin resistance issues. Insulin resistance is what increases the chance of miscarriage. 

Currently, there is not enough data on the use of metformin prior to and during pregnancy to give any conclusive answer as to how it impacts your risk of miscarriage. Although, I have found a site which states that the risk can be lowered to 12% with metformin. (bottom link).

What is a normal ratio of messages left to total calls for an answering service?

What is a normal ratio of messages left to total calls for an answering service?
Some people call the service but choose not to leave any message or hang up. I'm trying to figure out if I am losing an unusual amount of business by using a service.

In particular if you have an idea of how this relates to an orthodontic practice that would be extremely helpful.

I have no idea what the ratio is, but we use an answering machine, As do many dental practices in this day and age. We have an emergency number that is announced in the outgoing greeting for patients to call when they have an emergency. The answering service charges a small monthly fee, but does charge more when there is an emergency, (which is rare).

The answering machine has been working for us for well over 25 years. Patients will leave a message if they are so inclined, be it on an answering machine or with a live person. I think that they leave more with the machine though, because they can talk as long as they want and leave a more detailed message.

What are the odds of my husband being able to get me pregnant with a 17 million sperm count? Its been 12 years?

What are the odds of my husband being able to get me pregnant with a 17 million sperm count? Its been 12 years. I just want an honest oppinion. My family keeps telling me that it will happen eventually, but after a while, thats sounding ridiculous to me. I really want children, but at the same time, I can't keep living in a fantasy world. I don't have money for fertility doctors. No sarcasm, please. This is very important to me.

The World Health Organization considers 20 million as an average so your husband is not that far away from the norm.. the following gives info on how to improve his sperm count. Make sure your having sex 18 days before your period is due every 2nd day for 6 days, very best of luck to you both.


Eat right- This is where it all starts. Your body is the perfect reflection of what you eat and the same applies to your sexual life and sperm count. Due to fast life everyone out there is into fast food. In order to increase sperm count you need to increase the intake of vitamin rich foods and consume as much natural foods as possible.

Water- Water is one of the best solutions to all health problems and does help in increasing sperm count as well. Make it a point to drink at least 8 glasses of water a day if not more.

Cut back on caffeine- Foods such as coffee, soft drinks etc are known to harm sperm production in the long period. Make it a point to stay away from such drinks and drink as much water as possible in order to increase sperm count.

Cut back on alcohol- Alcohol is known to be the worst of them all when it comes to human health and the same applies to sperm count. Alcohol is known to have adverse affects on your body and sperm count. Therefore avoidance of alcohol at all costs is very important in order to increase sperm count.

Emotional stress- Other than what you eat and do there are some emotional aspects as well which affect sperm count in your body. If you are mentally stressed or are suffering from depression than low sperm count is very normal. Remember you would always remain healthy if you have a healthy mind. Therefore learn to keep your mind healthy and your body would be healthy automatically. The same applies to your sperm count.

What are the odds of me getting genital herpes when my boyfriend has cold sores?

My boyfriend performed oral sex on me last night, and today he found he has 2 cold sores. I want to know what the odds are of me getting genital herpes or if it's even possible. He doesn't have genital herpes by the way.

There is no way to accurately give you the odds or chances of you contracting genital herpes from your boyfriend giving you oral sex. There are too many factors and variables. If your boyfriend did have cold sores when he gave you oral sex though, there is a chance you will contract genital herpes. 

Herpes can be spread from the mouth to the genital area and vice versa through oral sex. 

BOTH genital herpes and cold sores can be caused by either herpes simplex virus 1 or herpes simplex virus 2. 

Using condoms and dental dams when you are having oral sex can HELP prevent the spread of herpes, but condoms/dental dams are not 100% effective. Abstinence is the only thing that is truly 100% effective. 

If you are concerned you have contracted herpes you can always go to your doctor and get tested. Good luck to you!

What are the odds of getting pregnant while on birth control?

What are the odds of getting pregnant if you are on birth control pills and using the withdrawal method? Also is pulling out necessary, what if he nuts inside can I get pregnant?

Well its only 99% effective so there's still a chance. People get pregnant on pill all the time.

What is the proper ratio of bleach to water in order to make an effective disinfecting solution?

I can't remember the ratio used to make an effective solution to use as a rinse after something has been thoroughly cleaned with soap and water. I am cleaning a pvc tank that has been used for water only but allowed to accumulate mud.  The tank will be used for drinking water if I can disinfect it.

Before bleach, hydrogen peroxide was used.

(Safer and Healthier than Bleach) 
This was written by Becky Ransey of Indiana (a doctor's  wife), and I want to share it with you. She was over recently for coffee and smelled the bleach I was using to clean my toilet and countertops. This is what she told me...  
I would like to tell you of the benefits of that plain little ole bottle of 3% peroxide you can get for under $1.00 at any drug store. What does bleach cost?  

My husband has been in the medical field for over 36 years, and most doctors don't tell you about peroxide. Have you ever smelled bleach in a doctor's office? NO!!! Why?   Because it smells, and it is not healthy! Ask the nurses who work in the doctor's offices, and ask them if they use bleach at home. They are wiser and know better!  

Did you also know bleach was invented in the late 40's? It's chlorine, Folks! And it was used to kill our troops. Peroxide was invented during WWI in the 20's. It was used to save and help cleanse the needs of our troops and hospitals. Please think about this.  

1. Take one capful (the little white cap that comes with the bottle) and hold in your mouth for 10 minutes daily, then spit it out. (I do it when I bathe.) No more canker sores, and your teeth will be whiter without expensive pastes. Use it instead of mouthwash.  

2. Let your toothbrushes soak in a cup of peroxide to keep them free of germs.  

3. Clean your counters and table tops with peroxide to kill germs and leave a fresh smell. Simply put a little on your dishrag when you wipe, or spray it on the counters.  

4. After rinsing off your wooden cutting board, pour peroxide on it to kill salmonella and other bacteria.  

5. I had fungus on my feet for years until I sprayed a 50/50 mixture of peroxide and water on them (especially the toes) every night and let dry.  

6. Soak any infections or cuts in 3% peroxide for five to ten minutes several times a day. My husband has seen gangrene that would not heal with any medicine but was healed by soaking in peroxide.  

7. Fill a spray bottle with a 50/50 mixture of peroxide and water and keep it in every bathroom to disinfect without harming your septic system like bleach or most other disinfectants will.  

8. Tilt your head back and spray into nostrils with your 50/50 mixture whenever you have a cold, plugged sinus. It  will bubble and help t o kill the bacteria. Hold for a few minutes, and then blow your nose into a tissue.  

9 If you have a terrible toothache and cannot get to a dentist right away, put a capful of 3% peroxide into your mouth and hold it for ten minutes several times a day. The pain will lessen greatly.  

10. And of course, if you like a natural look to your hair, spray the 50/50 solution on your wet hair after a shower and comb it through You will not have the peroxide-burnt blonde hair like the hair dye packages but more natural highlights if your hair is a light brown, faddish, or dirty blonde. It also lightens gradually, so it's not a drastic change.  

11. Put half a bottle of peroxide in your bath to help rid boils, fungus, or other skin infections.  

12. You can also add a cup of peroxide instead o f bleach to a load of whites in your laundry to whiten them. If there is blood on clothing, pour it directly on the soiled spot. Let it sit for a minute, then rub it and rinse with cold water. Repeat if necessary.  

13. I use peroxide to clean my mirrors. There is no smearing, which is why I love it so much for this.

What is the ratio of carnivores to vegetarians?

what is the ratio of carnivores to vegetarians, first in the USA and then the whole world??? Please and thank you!

10-15% of the world population is vegetarian.

How to improve the odds of having a baby girl?

Hi, i was just wondering if there we're ways to improve the odds of a pregnancy being a girl? Either before,during or after the sex?

my husband had a pep talk with his "boys" to have a boy. we both wanted a boy, we had sex on the days that were most likely to give us a boy but now were very excited about the arrival of our daughter. I don't think you can improve the odds of anything. you just get whatever God blesses you with