Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.TritiumMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.

*  NONISOTOPIC DETECTION OF NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION | SBIR.gov
DETECTION OF NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION. SBIR.gov. SBIR. The ... DETECTION OF NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION NONISOTOPIC ... DETECTION OF NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION Printer-friendly...
https://sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/255892
*  Patent US5594118 - Modified N-4 nucleotides for use in amplified nucleic acid hybridization assays -
a solution sandwich nucleic acid hybridization assay for detecting ... a first nucleic acid sequence that is part of a nucleic acid ... includes a second nucleic acid sequence in a sample that contains...
http://google.com/patents/US5594118?dq=ininventor:oliver ininventor:steele
*  Nucleic acid double helix
... ... molecules of nucleic acid s such as DNA. 2 In B-DNA, the ... groove. 4 History Nucleic acid hybridization Base pair geometry ... Nucleic acid double helix Nucleic acid double helix. "Double helix". Double helix??. 1 refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acid s such as DNA. 2 In B-DNA, the most common double helical structure, the double helix is right-handed with about 10 10.5 base pairs per turn. The double helix structure of DNA contains a 'major groove' and 'minor groove'. In B-DNA the major groove is wider than the minor groove. 4 History Nucleic acid hybridization Base pair geometry Helix geometries Grooves. Non-double helical forms. Bending Persistence length/axial stiffness. The double helix makes one complete turn about its axis every 10.4-10.5 base pairs in solution. The narrowness of the minor groove means that the edges of the bases are more accessible in the major groove. Single-stranded nucleic acids do not adopt a helical formation, and are described...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid_double_helix
*  Brevet US5200313 - Nucleic acid hybridization assay employing detectable anti-hybrid antibodies - G
A nucleic acid hybridization method for determining a polynucleotide ... single stranded nucleic acids, comprising the steps of: a ... probe under hybridization conditions, said immobilized probe...
http://google.fr/patents/US5200313
*  Flashcards - Exam 5
DNA Fingerprintin. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. DNA Chips. Same as Nucleic acid hybridization but probe is...
https://freezingblue.com/flashcards/print_preview.cgi?cardsetID=160162
*  Patent US5594118 - Modified N-4 nucleotides for use in amplified nucleic acid hybridization assays -
a solution sandwich nucleic acid hybridization assay for detecting ... a first nucleic acid sequence that is part of a nucleic acid ... includes a second nucleic acid sequence in a sample that contains...
http://google.com/patents/US5594118?dq=7,013,345/
*  Fluorescence in situ hybridization
... thumb|Multiplex RNA visualization in cells using ViewRNA FISH Assays Image:Bcrablmet.jpg 'Fluorescence in situ hybridization ' 'FISH' is a cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity. 2 FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in cells, circulating tumor cells, and tissue samples. Probes – RNA and DNA Preparation and hybridization process – RNA. Preparation and hybridization process – DNA. Probes – RNA and DNA. thumb|ViewRNA detection of miR-133 green and myogenin mRNA red in C2C12 differentiating cells RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA,. For miRNA detection, the probes use proprietary chemistry for specific detection of miRNA and cover the entire miRNA sequence. Preparation and hybridization process – RNA. Preparation and hybridization process – DNA. The probe must be large enough to hybridize s...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence_in_situ_hybridization
*  Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid hybridization test
Health, Conditions Treatments. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Cervical cells/tissue: Written consent may be required for a Pap smear or colposcopy with cervical biopsy. Tell the healthcare worker if you have a medical condition or are using a medication or supplement that causes excessive bleeding. This will make it easier for the healthcare worker to see your cervix during the procedure, and may make the procedure more comfortable for you. Urethral cells/discharge: Before collection of urethral cells and/or urethral discharge for this test, you should not urinate during the hour prior to the test. An endocervical or urethral sample may be collected for this test. Cervical cells/tissue: For both a Pap smear and colposcopy with cervical biopsy, you will be asked to lie on your back with your legs spread and feet placed in stirrups. Urethral cells/discharge: A urethral culture procedure is used to collect cells samples and/or ureth...
http://allinahealth.org/CCS/doc/Consumer_Lab/49/150346.htm
*  PCR primers and hybridization probes
... linda j carter ljc at cas org mon sep est previous message flexibility sleep next message pcr primers and hybridization probes messages sorted by for those of you interested in pcr primers and hybridization probes i would really appreciate your opinions about their inclusion in biosequence databases some of my specific concerns are as follows do you feel primers and probes tend to clutter up a nucleic acid database and cause unnecessary retrievals when searching for sequences of much longer length because primers and probes are usually designed from known sequence information often already in the database is it still justifiable to include them as additional entries what applications of primers and probes should justify their inclusion in a biosequence database e g clinical diagnosis taxonomy evolution gene mapping or methods if you were to search for primers and probes in a biosequence database what would be most efficient for you would some type of descriptive information be helpful e g their applicati...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/bioforum/1993-September/005951.html
*  Sequencing by hybridization
... 'Sequencing by hybridization' is a class of methods for determining the order in which nucleotides occur on a strand of DNA. Typically used for looking for small changes relative to a known DNA sequence. The binding of one strand of DNA to its complementary strand in the DNA double-helix aka hybridization is sensitive to even single-base mismatches when the hybrid region is short or if specialized mismatch detection proteins are present. This is exploited in a variety of ways, most notable via DNA chips or microarrays with thousands to billions of synthetic oligonucleotides found in a genome of interest plus many known variations or even all possible single-base variations. The type of sequencing by hybridization described above has largely been displaced by other methods, including sequencing by synthesis, and sequencing by ligation as well as pore-based methods. However hybridization of oligonucleotides is still used in some sequencing schemes, including hybridization-assisted pore-based sequencing, an...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequencing_by_hybridization
*  My dot blot hybridization doesn't work! - Molecular Biology
my dot blot hybridization doesn t work molecular biology biojob bioblog pubalert biotool bioproduct bioforum protocol home forum index home live discussion top forum archives molecular biology my dot blot hybridization doesn t work sep pages previous bacterial growth in these solutions would be bad because bacteria produce proteases which will break down your antibodies milk is a pretty good medium for any number of microorganisms phage quote phage oct am bacterial growth in these solutions would be bad because bacteria produce proteases which will break down your antibodies milk is a pretty good medium for any number of microorganisms ooo now i know about that thanks for the information on the other hand i would like to do direct spotting on membrane using non extracted sample which is suspended sample the protocol given is spot or microlitre of the suspended sample onto the membrane let it completely air dried and then incubate in blotting buffer x ssc m formaldehyde for minute in degree celcius after minut...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/30450more2.html
*  PCR primers and hybridization probes
... linda j carter ljc at cas org mon sep est previous message sequence data submissions next message hmmmmmm messages sorted by for those of you interested in pcr primers and hybridization probes i would really appreciate your opinions about their inclusion in biosequence databases some of my specific concerns are as follows do you feel primers and probes tend to clutter up a nucleic acid database and cause unnecessary retrievals when searching for sequences of much longer length because primers and probes are usually designed from known sequence information often already in the database is it still justifiable to include them as additional entries what applications of primers and probes should justify their inclusion in a biosequence database e g clinical diagnosis taxonomy evolution gene mapping or methods if you were to search for primers and probes in a biosequence database what would be most efficient for you would some type of descriptive information be helpful e g their application or their origin th...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/embl-db/1993-September/000224.html
*  RNAi
... jayanta tarafdar via methods net bio net by jayanta tcbckv from gmail com fri dec est previous message race sequencing problem next message a follow up question regarding dissolving h o insoluable compounds in dmso messages sorted by dear subscribers methods digest we have been working on the backcross breeding of rice with transgenic rice carrying rnai gene against virus would anybody help me regarding use of non radioactive probe for analysis of the transcript i would appreciate if anybody can give short cut method in this regard and urgently waiting for the answer jayanta india previous message race sequencing problem next message a follow up question regarding dissolving h o insoluable compounds in dmso messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2008-December/103735.html
*  PT100 RTD Probes with M12 Molded Connectors
... Temperature Probes. The PR-22 Molded M12 RTD sensor can be used in a wide variety of applications as-is, or with one or more of Omega's In-Stock complimentary products such as: Extension Cables with silicone, polyurethane or PVC cables and straight or right angled connectors. Miniature Programmable Temperature Transmitter 4 to 20mA Output with M12 Connections Qty. Miniature Programmable Temperature Transmitter 0 to 10VDC Output with M12 Connections Qty. PVC Extension Cable, 5 Meters Long with Straight Female M12 Connector One End Qty. Polyurethane Extension Cable, 2 Meters Long with Straight Female M12 Connector One End Qty. Polyurethane Extension Cable, 5 Meters Long with Straight Female M12 Connector One End Qty. Silicone Extension Cable, 3 Meters Long with Straight Female M12 Connector One End Qty. Silicone Extension Cable, 5 Meters Long with Straight Female M12 Connector One End Qty. 1 Element Specification select from: 100-A for Pt100 Class A 1000-A for Pt1000 Class A 100-B for Pt100 Class B 2 Probe...
http://omega.com/pptst/PR-22.html
*  SS DNA probe length
... from johnson teri hello again i have a researcher who has made a digoxygenin labeled single stranded dna probe that is bp i am having trouble getting it to work on tissue sections negative results we have done a dot blot test so we know that the dig biotinylated anti dig streptavidin ap and substrate are working could it be this is just too big to penetrate into the tissue sections we digested the tissue with proteinase k acetylated with acetic anhydride in tea buffer hybridized overnight at degrees c and used the innogenex universal ish kit for dig labeled probes for detection thanks in advance teri johnson managing director histology facility stowers institute for medical research e th st kansas city missouri tjj stowers institute org previous message next message...
http://histosearch.com/histonet/Apr03/SSDNAprobelength.html
*  Gram-Specific DNA probes
gram specific dna probes gram specific dna probes mark fuller mark fuller at qmgate anl gov fri jan est previous message u cell line next message gram specific dna probes messages sorted by dear colleagues is anyone aware of any oligonucleotide probes that are specific for gram negative and gram positive eubacteria respectively any suggestions would be much appreciated mark fuller ph d environmental research division er j argonne national laboratory argonne il phone fax email mark fuller at qmgate anl gov previous message u cell line next message gram specific dna probes messages sorted by more information about the microbio mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/microbio/1996-January/004227.html
*  GeneChip Hybridization Oven 645 from Affymetrix : Get Quote, RFQ, Price or Buy
... News A-Z. Health A-Z. Clinical Diagnostics. Life Science Laboratory. Consumer Products. Medical News 'Tweets'. Health. News. Life Science Laboratory. Laboratory. Hybridization Ovens. GeneChip Hybridization Oven 645 from Affymetrix. The GeneChip Hybridization Oven 645 provides precise temperature and rotation control to ensure the successful hybridization of as many as 64 GeneChip -brand cartridges at one time. An ergonomic front-panel display contains system status indicators and buttons for adjusting the set point temperature and the rotisserie speed. This panel, in addition to a highly visible display and large window, provides immediate feedback of proper operation when using the oven. Array Capacity: The oven holds up to eight removable probe array carriers. Each carrier holds up to eight arrays, enabling up to 64 arrays to be processed at one time. Removable Probe Array Carriers: The removable probe array carriers allow for the addition or removal of sets of probe arrays with minimal disruption to t...
http://news-medical.net/GeneChip-Hybridization-Oven-645-from-Affymetrix
*  Angle Beam / Wedge Transducer Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Probes Datasheets | IHS Engineering360
Angle Beam / Wedge Transducer Nondestructive Testing NDT Probes Datasheets. IHS Engineering360. News & Analysis. Products & Suppliers. Standards Library. Reference Library. Engineering Community. Stay Informed. Free Registration. Products & Suppliers. News & Analysis. Products & Suppliers. Standards Library. Reference Library. Community. PRODUCTS SUPPLIERS. DATASHEETS. NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING NDT PROBES. ANGLE BEAM / WEDGE TRANSDUCER. Other Nondestructive Testing NDT Probes. Application: Coating Thickness. Conductivity. Flaw / Crack Detection. Wall / Material Thickness. Weld Inspection. NDT Probe Technology: Eddy Current. Remote Field Testing. Ultrasonic. Array. Contact Transducer. Protected Element. Style / Type: Angled / Curved Tip. Dual Element. Pencil Probe. Surface Probe. TOFD / Diffracted Wave. Angle Beam / Wedge Transducer Nondestructive Testing NDT Probes Datasheets. View Datasheet. Angle Beam Probes -- 1.5L16-A4. from Olympus Scientific Solutions America Angle beam probes are used with a wedge to tran...
http://globalspec.com/ds/3074/areaspec/style_angle_beam
*  Putting DNA to Work - DNA Sequence - Probe the Sequence
... DNA Sequence. Inherited Diseases. DNA/Criminal Justice. DNA SEQUENCE. Probe The Sequence - Text Only Version The more letters in a probe, the fewer matches it will find in the genome. The goal in forensics, disease detection, and selecting desirable traits in crops is often to probe for the DNA sequences that make an organism, a specific trait, or an individual person unique. A variety of different techniques are used, but the goal is always the same: probe for specific DNA sequences. Finding a single, unique sequence of A's, T's, G's, and C's within an organism's genome often reveals something new about that organism. How can a unique sequence be found in a genome that is three billion letters long. Searching and comparing sequences is the answer. The more letters in a probe, the fewer matches it will find in the genome. In this activity the user is asked to enter a combination of 3 letters in a black box at the top of the screen and click Probe. The computer shows the number of matches. For example the...
http://koshland-science-museum.org/sites/all/exhibits/exhibitdna/seq03text.jsp
*  Putting DNA to Work - DNA Sequence - Probe the Sequence
... DNA Home. Introduction. DNA Sequence. Inherited Diseases. DNA/Criminal Justice. Improving Crops. Infectious Disease. DNA SEQUENCE. Probe The Sequence - Text Only Version The more letters in a probe, the fewer matches it will find in the genome. The goal in forensics, disease detection, and selecting desirable traits in crops is often to probe for the DNA sequences that make an organism, a specific trait, or an individual person unique. A variety of different techniques are used, but the goal is always the same: probe for specific DNA sequences. Finding a single, unique sequence of A's, T's, G's, and C's within an organism's genome often reveals something new about that organism. How can a unique sequence be found in a genome that is three billion letters long. Searching and comparing sequences is the answer. The more letters in a probe, the fewer matches it will find in the genome. In this activity the user is asked to enter a combination of 3 letters in a black box at the top of the screen and click Pro...
https://koshland-science-museum.org/sites/all/exhibits/exhibitdna/seq03text.jsp
*  Quintessence Publishing
... NEW Sign Up to Receive Quintessence Updates by Email. Quintessence Publishing : Journals : OBM. Oral Biosciences & Medicine. Edited by Birgitte Nauntofte, Jesper Reibel. Peter A. Reichart, Jim Sciubba, and Joanna M. Zakrzewska Official publication of the European Society for Oral Laser Applications ISSN 1742-3287. Publication: Oral Biosciences & Medicine Year 2005 Volume 2, Issue 2. Back. Pages: 209 - 213. Etiology of Oral Disease in View of Microbial Complexity. Tanner, Anne C. R./Izard, Jacques. The number of different microorganisms recognized in the oral cavity using molecular methods has more than doubled compared with the number isolated using cultural techniques. This finding necessitates a reevaluation of which species may be pathogens in dental infections. . These molecular methods have clarified and expanded the taxonomy of oral microbial species. Discrepancies between comprehensive molecular and cultural methods suggest that neither method alone can adequately evaluate associations of specific...
http://quintpub.com/journals/obm/archive_display_abstract.php3?journalArt=7471
*  cwg probe Exclusive: Latest News on cwg probe Exclusive, Read Breaking News on IBNLive.com
... . Read. Watch. movies. Cricket. Tech. Follow Us. News. cj. compare india. property. states. Updated 8:29 pm Oct 6, 2015. English hindi marathi. Read. Watch. movies. Cricket. Tech. Latest Bihar Elections Politics India Sports Football Lifestyle Live TV Buzz. Menu. politics. india. blogs. photos. movies. tech. videos. Cricket. World. footballnext. Auto. Business. Books. Buzz. Lifestyle. Shows. cwg probe. ALL. NEWS. PHOTOS. VIDEOS. Anytime. Last 24 Hours. Past 4 Days. Past Week. Past Month. Sort by :. Date. . October 12, 2011, 4:55 pm. UK pushes for speedy conclusion of CWG probe. July 26, 2011, 2:58 pm. Is Kalmadi faking dementia to duck CWG probe. May 29, 2011, 9:06 am. London businessman not helping in CWG probe. April 11, 2011, 11:01 am. Shunglu report: PMO seeks Home Min's response. March 31, 2011, 6:03 pm. Shunglu report: BJP wants Dikshit to resign. March 29, 2011, 9:21 am. Shunglu panel conducted CWG probe, blames Kalmadi. March 15, 2011, 8:54 pm. New leads in CWG probe; CBI questions Kalmadi. March...
http://ibnlive.com/newstopics/CWG-probe.html
*  [alsa-devel] [PATCHv2 1/3] ASoC: codec: Simplify ASoC probe code.
ASoC: codec: Simplify ASoC probe code. ASoC: codec: Simplify ASoC probe code. Li.Xiubo at freescale.com Li.Xiubo at freescale.com. Mon Mar 3 04:01:52 CET 2014. Previous message: ASoC: codec: Simplify ASoC probe code. Next message: ASoC: codec: Simplify ASoC probe code. Messages sorted by:. Just removing the set cache io call will not work for all drivers. There are some MFD child devices which use regmap from the parent device. So dev get regmap will return NULL for those. This is the sort of thing that I was referring to when talking about doing the non-boring drivers separately. As well as the warnings Lars mentioned there's a bisection issue here: - codec- control data = da7213- regmap; - ret = snd soc codec set cache io codec, 8, 8, SND SOC REGMAP ; - if ret 0 { - dev err codec- dev, Failed to set cache I/O: %d\n, ret ; - return ret; - } - /* Default to using ALC auto offset calibration mode. */ snd soc update bits codec, DA7213 ALC CTRL1, DA7213 ALC CALIB MODE MAN, 0 ; Unless the core sets up the I/O bef...
http://mailman.alsa-project.org/pipermail/alsa-devel/2014-March/073679.html
*  Tomographic atom probe
... redirect atom probe atom probe tomography apt...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomographic_atom_probe
*  Biology help: Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a(n)?
Biology help: Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a n. Biology help: Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a n. 2.Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a n a.capsid. 3.Which of the following statements about plant viruses is false. a.To infect a plant, a virus must first get past the plant s epidermis. 4.A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. 6.How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with thymine. 1.Consider the following sentence: The dog did not eat. 2.Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a n d. 3.Which of the following statements about plant viruses is false. a.To infect a plant, a virus must first get past the plant s epidermis. 4.A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you ...
http://superbhostingnow.com/biology-help-viral-dna-incorporated-into-host-cell-dna-is-known-as-an/
*  Virus
... es can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. The range of host cells that a virus can infect is called its " host range". Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral nucleic acid is called a nucleocapsid. Property Parameters Nucleic acid DNA RNA Both DNA and RNA at different stages in the life cycle. A virus has either DNA or RNA genes and is called a DNA virus or a RNA virus, respectively. Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA genomes and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA genomes. A viral genome, irrespective of nucleic acid type, is almost always either single-stranded or double-stranded. For most viruses with RNA genomes and some with single-stranded DNA genomes, the single strands are said to be either positive-sense called the plus-strand or negative-sense called the minus-strand , depending on whether or not they are complementary to the viral messenger RNA ...
http://schools-wikipedia.org/wp/v/Virus.htm
*  Differential Diagnosis For HIV/Viral RNA/Plasma copies/quantitative (Lab) - Increased
Differential Diagnosis For HIV/Viral RNA/Plasma copies/quantitative Lab - Increased. English. Fran ais. Espa ol. Sign-in. Register. Differential Diagnosis. Diseases. Drugs. Tips. Try building your search one term at a time, and be as specific as you can. Search term example: "chronic cough". Do not enter multiple findings such as "anemia, chronic cough, weight loss, vomiting" all at the same time. After selecting your term from the search results a list of possible diagnoses will be generated. If the list is too long, you will be able to narrow it down by entering additional terms. Clinical. Sign Symptoms. Lab Results. CT-Scan. Sign-in or register to check out the new features we've just launched. Differential Diagnosis For HIV/Viral RNA/Plasma copies/quantitative Lab - Increased. Ads. List of current finding s :. HIV/Viral RNA/Plasma copies/quantitative Lab - Increased. Add Another Finding. Suggest a Better Translation. Suggest a Reference or External Link. How Can We Make It Better. Print 9 possible diagnos...
http://en.diagnosispro.com/differential_diagnosis-for/hiv-viral-rna-plasma-copies-quantitative-lab-increased/12519-154.html
*  DNA condensation
... Many features of the DNA double helix contribute to its large stiffness, including the mechanical properties of the sugar-phosphate backbone, electrostatic repulsion between phosphate s DNA bears on average one elementary negative charge per each 0.17 nm of the double helix, stacking interactions between the bases of each individual strand, and strand-strand interactions. DNA condensation in viruses DNA condensation in bacteria DNA condensation in eukaryotes DNA condensation 'in vitro' Physics of DNA condensation DNA condensation and gene regulation References Further reading. DNA condensation in viruses. Double-stranded DNA is stored inside the capsid in the form of a spool, which can have different types of coiling leading to different types of liquid-crystalline packing. Bacterial DNA is packed with the help of polyamines and proteins. Protein-associated DNA occupies about 1/4 of the intracellular volume forming a concentrated viscous phase with liquid crystalline properties, called the nucleoid. Bact...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_condensation
*  Psych Central - HIV inserts into human genome using a DNA-associated protein
... Quizzes News Experts Ask the Therapist Blogs Experts Daily News Research Updates World of Psychology Research Resources Find a clinical Trial Resources Forums Support Groups Find Help Ask the Therapist Drugs Medications Find a Therapist Psychotherapy 101 Forums Support Groups Take a Quiz Mood Tracker Pro. Home Conditions Quizzes Ask the Therapist Drugs Blogs News Research Resources Find Help Psychotherapy 101 Forums Support Groups Pro. HIV inserts into human genome using a DNA-associated protein. LEDGF, a human DNA-associated protein, is the first example of a cellular protein controlling the location of HIV integration in human cells. A human DNA-associated protein called LEDGF is the first such molecule found to control the location of HIV integration in human cells, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. This study, published in this week's early online edition of Nature Medicine, describes the first clear target for modulating where viruses ins...
http://psychcentral.com/news/archives/2005-11/uops-hii112305.html
*  First Living Organism with ‘Artificial’ DNA | JD Journal
First Living Organism with Artificial DNA. JD Journal. JDJournal. Stay Connected. Newsletter Subscription. Enter your email address and start getting breaking law firm and legal news right now. Every Alert Alert once a day. Free Market Evaluation - Send us your resume and we will give you free feedback. Home. Breaking News Business News Crime Law School News Tech Science News World News. Suit Claims Man Fired for ‘Flatulence,’ Foul Stench. Peeple: The App No One Was Waiting For. Hillary Worker Violates Election Law with Trump Meme. Anti-Paparazzi Law Upheld In Justin Bieber Case. Jobs. Post Jobs. Career Know-How Career Resources Celebrity News Humor Lists World News. Home. Breaking News. Tech Science News. First Living Organism with Artificial DNA Legal Job Listings. Keyword:. Location:. See Job Result. First Living Organism with Artificial DNA View Count: 302. Scientists have created the first living organism containing artificial DNA. According to Fox News, the advance one day could lead to new antibiotics,...
http://jdjournal.com/2014/05/08/first-living-organism-with-artificial-dna/
*  Protein-DNA binding specificity predictions with structural models | The Baker Laboratory
Protein-DNA binding specificity predictions with structural models. The Baker Laboratory. Skip to Main Content Area. news research Members Past Members publications employment contact info Links. Protein-DNA binding specificity predictions with structural models. Title. Protein-DNA binding specificity predictions with structural models. Publication Type. Journal Article. Year of Publication. 2005. Authors. Morozov, A. V, Havranek J. J, Baker D., & Siggia E. D Journal. Nucleic acids research. Volume. 33. Issue. 18. Pagination. 5781-98. Date Published. 2005. ISSN. 1362-4962. Keywords. Base Sequence, Binding Sites, Collaborative Publication, Computational Biology, Consensus Sequence, DNA, DNA-Binding Proteins, Models, Chemical, Nucleic Acid Conformation, Protein Binding, Transcription Factors. Abstract. Protein-DNA interactions play a central role in transcriptional regulation and other biological processes. Investigating the mechanism of binding affinity and specificity in protein-DNA complexes is thus an impor...
http://bakerlab.org/static/node/97/
*  New life engineered with artificial DNA - CNN.com
... Breaking News. Watch Live TV. Edition. News. Health. Living. Travel. Watch Live TV. CNNgo. Must Watch Videos. Watch Live TV. TV. CNNgo. Faces of CNN Worldwide. Watch Live TV. Social Commentary. Watch Live TV. Investigations. CNN profiles A-Z. CNN Leadership. Watch Live TV. Investigations. CNN profiles A-Z. CNN Leadership. New life engineered with artificial DNA. Scientists put X-Y base pair in DNA They got bacteria to replicate with unnatural genetics This is a brand new way of storing genetic information. Now, for the first time, scientists have shown it is possible to alter that alphabet and still have a living organism that passes on the genetic information. The findings also suggest that DNA as we know it on Earth may not be the only solution to coding for life, Romesberg said. FDA considers three-parent DNA procedure. MUST WATCH. FDA considers three-parent DNA procedure 03:29. MUST WATCH. Artist creates faces from human DNA. MUST WATCH. Artist creates faces from human DNA 01:33. For their genetic ex...
http://cnn.com/2014/05/09/health/artificial-dna-life/index.html
*  dna size
... richard p grant r grant at see sig for address tue sep est previous message dna size next message dna size messages sorted by in article s aq nuq at journal concentric net akb abansal at concentric net wrote why should i use the average aa weight do most proteins have a somewhat even distribution of light and heavy aa becuase it s an average what if this protein were made of nothing but gly besides the beginning met that could change the calculation yah and it d never fold and if it did it sure as heck wouldn t be soluble what if the protein were made of nothing but a heavy aa like trp i used ditto this method because since i want the minimum dna size then why not assume it is some weird protein with massive aa however i am not sure if this is the correct approach to take should i use method richard s or to be honest it depends what you want you could always assume that they re all huge and then that they re all tiny and get a range why are you doing this r sig removed for cleaning we apologize for any i...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/1999-September/011499.html
*  Gibson assembly
... is a dna assembly method which allows for the joining of multiple dna fragments in a single isothermal reaction it was invented in by daniel gibson while he was at the j craig venter institute jcvi process thumb upright gibson assembly overview the entire gibson assembly reaction requires a small number of components with very few manipulations the method can simultaneously combine numerous dna fragments based on sequence identity it requires that the dna fragments contain base pair overlap with adjacent dna fragments these dna fragments are mixed with a cocktail of three enzymes along with other buffer components the three required enzyme activities are exonuclease dna polymerase and dna ligase the exonuclease chews back dna from the end the resulting single stranded regions on adjacent dna fragments can anneal the dna polymerase incorporates nucleotides to fill in any gaps the dna ligase covalently joins the dna of adjacent segments thereby removing any nicks in the dna the entire mixture is incubated ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibson_assembly
*  Now® Grapeseed Oil - NNF - GNC
Now Grapeseed Oil - NNF - GNC. Save 15% Now. My Lists. Store Locator. Help. Order Status. Shipping Info. Return Policy. My Account. Customer Service. Log In or Register 0 Shopping Cart. There are no products in your Shopping Cart. *Please enter keyword or item # to search. Vitamins. Shop By Category. All Multivitamins. . Vitamins A-Z. Fish Oil & Omegas. Minerals. Whole Food Supplements. Specialty Supplements. Amino Acids. Antioxidants. Children and Teens. Men's Health. Women's Health. Promotions. Buy One, Get One 50% Off Vitapak Programs. Buy One, Get One 50% Off Select GNC Fish Oil. Popular Brands. GNC Womens Multivitamins. GNC Triflex. GNC Mens Multivitamins. GNC milestones. Tools & Resources. Get A Customized Vitamin Plan. Find Your Multivitamin. Find Your Vitapak Program. See All Resources. See All Videos. Sports Nutrition. Browse Categories. New Arrivals. Protein. Bars. Drinks/Hydration. Pre-Workout. During Workout. Post-Workout. Hardcore Products. Mass Gainers. Nitric Oxide. Creatine. Recovery. Amino Ac...
http://gnc.com/Now-Grapeseed-Oil/product.jsp?productId=2446691&lmdn=Ingredient&cp=11516182.12953620.10901447.3593193
*  Method of DNA base sequence determination - Hitachi, Ltd.
... Login. Sign up. Search. Expert Search. Quick Search. Patents/Apps. Non-Patent Literature. Blogs/Groups. MPEP. Case Law. . SEARCH. BLOGS. MPEP 2.0. TOOLS RESOURCES. PRODUCT SERVICES. HELP. Title: Method of DNA base sequence determination. United States Patent 5935794. Abstract: The method of base sequence determination according to the present invention ensures an effective determination of a long DNA base sequence, by providing simultaneous determination of base sequences of two or more positions of the long DNA or base sequences of two or more DNAs, using the DNA probe chip which classifies and retains the DNA oligomers having various sequences, and using fluorophorelabeled primers which have the same sequencies as the oligomers in the chip and are labeled by various fluorophores, then followed by the extension of the determined base length by re-selection of the primers complementary to the sequence thus determined. Inventors: Kambara, Hideki Hachiouji, JP Okano, Kazunori Shiki, JP Nasu, Hisanori Yokoh...
http://freepatentsonline.com/5935794.html
*  Patent US7635771 - siRNA targeting amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) - Google Patents
U 2 =1 if U is the base at position 2 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 3 =1 if U is the base at position 3 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 4 =1 if U is the base at position 4 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 7 =1 if U is the base at position 7 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 9 =1 if U is the base at position 9 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 10 =1 if U is the base at position 10 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 15 =1 if U is the base at position 15 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 16 =1 if U is the base at position 16 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 17 =1 if U is the base at position 17 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 18 =1 if U is the base at position 18 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0. U 2 =1 if U is the base at position 2 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 3 =1 if U is the base at position 3 on the sense strand, otherwise its value ...
http://google.com/patents/US7635771?dq=6188988
*  Direct DNA Sequencing of PCR Products - Current Protocols
... Direct DNA Sequencing of PCR Products. PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Basic Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Products for Dideoxy Sequencing by Asymmetric PCR Alternate Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Template for Dideoxy Sequencing by Single Primer Reamplification Alternate Protocol 2: Preparing Double Stranded PCR Products for Dideoxy Sequencing Alternate Protocol 3: Generating Single Stranded Template for Dideoxy Sequencing by Exonuclease Digestion of Double Stranded PCR Products Alternate Protocol 4: One Step Enzymatic Purification of PCR Products for Direct Sequencing Basic Protocol 2: Labeling PCR Products for Chemical Sequencing Alternate Protocol 5: Genomic Sequencing of PCR Products Reagents and Solutions Commentary. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Basic Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Products for Dideoxy Sequencing by Asymmetric PCR. 6.4, ethanol precipitation unit 2.1, and did...
http://currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-mb1502.html
*  Symmetry element
... a symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operation s can take place in particular symmetry elements can be centers of inversion axes of rotation and mirror planes see also symmetry group theory crystallography hermann mauguin notation schoenflies notation references category symmetry...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry_element
*  Protein–DNA interaction
... thumb|The lambda repressor protein interacting with the lambda operator DNA.|250px. 'Protein–DNA interactions' are when a protein binds a molecule of DNA, often to regulate the biological function of DNA, usually the expression of a gene. Among the proteins that bind to DNA are transcription factors that activate or repress gene expression by binding to DNA motifs and histones that form part of the structure of DNA and bind to it less specifically. Also proteins that repair DNA such as uracil-DNA glycosylase interact closely with it. In general, proteins bind to DNA in the major groove ; however, there are exceptions. 1 Protein–DNA interaction are of mainly two types, either specific interaction, or non-specific interaction. Design Detection methods See also References. Designing DNA-binding proteins that have a specified DNA-binding site has been an important goal for biotechnology. Zinc finger proteins have been designed to bind to specific DNA sequences and this is the basis of zinc finger nucleases. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein–DNA_interaction
*  Patent US20030203382 - Methods for analysis of molecular events - Google Patents
In one embodiment, wild-type and variant nucleotides are the only nucleotides added to the primer extension reaction. Further methods of the invention include providing a target nucleic acid; contacting the target nucleic acid sequence with a nucleic acid primer substantially complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence to form a nucleic acid complex; extending the nucleic acid primer in the presence of an unlabeled extension nucleotide complementary to a variant nucleotide base at a position downstream from the nucleic acid primer in the target nucleic acid sequence to form an unlabeled primer extension product, wherein the extending step is performed in the essential absence of an unlabeled extension nucleotide complementary to a wild-type nucleotide base at a position downstream from the nucleic acid primer; and extending the unlabeled primer extension product in the presence of a labeled extension nucleotide complementary to a corresponding wild-type nucleotide downstream from the position of the var...
http://google.com/patents/US20030203382?ie=ISO-8859-1
*  Cis-Regulatory element
... 'cis-regulatory elements CREs ' are regions of non-coding DNA which regulate the transcription of nearby gene s. CREs typically regulate gene transcription by functioning as binding sites for transcription factor s. Overview Promoters Evolutionary role Examples Examples in RNA. Both of these sequence elements are structural regions of DNA that serve as transcriptional regulators. 2 In order to initiate transcription of the downstream gene, a host of DNA-binding proteins called transcription factors TFs must bind sequentially to this region. Contrastingly, enhancers influence transcription of genes on the same molecule of DNA and can be found upstream, downstream, within the intron s, or even relatively far away from the gene they regulate. An example of a cis-acting regulatory sequence is the operator in the lac operon. This DNA sequence is bound by the lac repressor, which, in turn, prevents transcription of the adjacent genes on the same DNA molecule. The lac operator is, thus, considered to "act in ci...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-Regulatory_element
*  Nucleotide sequence analysis of the unusually long terminal inverted repeats of a giant linear plasm
... id, SCP1. BioMedSearch. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Document Detail. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the unusually long terminal inverted repeats of a giant linear plasmid, SCP1. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 1749818 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. SCP1 is a giant linear plasmid of 350 kb coding for the methylenomycin biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. The unusually long terminal inverted repeats present on both ends of SCP1 were analyzed on the nucleotide sequence level. Analysis of six clones containing the terminal 0.35-kb XbaI fragment revealed a slight heterogeneity in the nucleotide sequences of the SCP1 ends. Moreover, it was indicated that this fragment contained seven palindromic inverted repeats and a GT-rich region in the 5'-end strand. The size of the terminal inverted repeats was determined to be 81 kb by the cloning and sequencing of their end-points. An insertion sequence, IS466 was shown to be present just at the end of the right terminal inv...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Nucleotide-sequence-analysis-unusually-long/1749818.html
*  A DNA template having the base sequence -U-C-U-A-C-U- what is the mRNA base sequence?I need answer b
... y tonight. - Homework Help - eNotes.com. Literature Guides. Literature Lesson Plans. A DNA template having the base sequence -U-C-U-A-C-U- what is the mRNA base sequence?I need answer by tonight. Please answer asap Topic: Science. Level 3 Senior Educator Posted on April 29, 2012 at 11:37 PM Answer #1. If there is the base A adenine in the DNA, it pairs with U uracil in the messenger RNA. Level 1 eNoter Posted on April 30, 2012 at 4:09 PM Answer #2. codons are tree base codes that determine the amino acid that is to be added to the protein that the DNA is making. DNA codes for RNA which codes for proteins. These bases are in three letter sequences called codons, for example a codon might be TAG it's anti codon is then ATC, because A bind with T and C binds with G. Let's say there is a big strand of DNA That is TAGTAGTAGTAGTAG, This is the codon TAG five times and the anti codon ATC five times. We're done with anti-codons for a little while. Lets say TAG codes for amino acid X there is no amino acid X, I'm ...
http://enotes.com/homework-help/dna-template-having-base-sequence-u-c-u-c-u-what-334492
*  Cis-acting Elements and Trans-acting Factors
... Regulatory Sequences Control Gene Expression Enhancer and Silencer Elements Role of 3' Sequences Role of Introns Conserved Sequences in Eukaryotic Promoters Trans-Acting Factors Control Gene Expression Cloning A Plant Trans-Acting Factor Regulatory Genes As Trans-Acting Factors Tissue-Specific Binding Of Trans-Acting Factors Course Topics Main Page Tissue-Specific Binding Of Trans-Acting Factors. One manner to study this question is to map the functional sequence domains of a gene and determine what sequences are bound by proteins presumably trans-acting factors during expression in different tissues. The five members of the rbc S gene family are rbc S1, rbc S2, rbc S3A, rbc S3B, and rbc S3C. Analysis of the expression of each individual family member determined that only rbc S1 and rbc S2 were expressed in that tissue Table 2. Gene expression is of the rbc S gene family is turned off in non-photosynthetic tissues. Next, nuclear protein extracts were isolated from cotyledon, leaf, young fruit, and mature...
https://ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc731/cis-trans/cis-trans9.htm
*  Meaning of Endonuclease
endonuclease One of a large group of enzymes that cleave nucleic acids at positions within the chain. Bacterial restriction endonucleases are crucial in recombinant DNA technology for their ability to cleave double-stranded DNA at highly specific sites. Endonuclease Nucleases are enzymes that break down nucleic acids into strands of DNA. An enzyme phosphodiesterase that cleaves the internal phosphodiester bonds in a DNA molecule, thus producing DNA fragments of varying size. endonuclease A nuclease which cleaves phosphodiester bonds within a nucleic acid strand. endonuclease - a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so produces fragments of various sizes. Endonuclease Endonuclease: An enzyme that cleaves a nucleic acid DNA or RNA at specific internal sites in the nucleotide base sequence. endonuclease enzyme One of a large group of enzymes that cleave nucleic acids at positions within the chain. endonuclease noun a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so produces fragm...
http://encyclo.co.uk/meaning-of-Endonuclease
*  WHO | Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A. Search Search the WHO .int site. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. Global Alert and Response GAR. Alert & Response Operations. Diseases. Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network. Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus HAV - Morphology and physicochemical properties - Genome and proteins - Antigenicity - Stability HAV, first identified in 1973, is a nonenveloped, spherical, positive stranded RNA virus , classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. 18 Click here for: Electron Microscopy EM picture of HAV. Genome and proteins The hepatitis A genome consists of a linear, single stranded, positive-sense RNA of approximately 7.5 kb containing a 5'-nontranslated region with complex secondary and tertiary structure. 18 , 21 , 22 , 40 The 5'-end represents a noncoding region NCR extending over 10% of the genome, it is uncapped and covalently linked to the viral protein VPg 2.5 kD. 18 , 21 , 22 , 40 A single large poly protein is expressed from a large open reading frame extending through most...
http://who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsredc2007/en/index2.html
*  MUC5B - Mucin-5B precursor - Homo sapiens (Human)
p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9HC84
*  Regulatory sequence
... A 'regulatory sequence' is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism. Regulation of gene expression is an essential feature of all living organisms and viruses. Description Examples Insulin gene See also References External links. In DNA, regulation of gene expression normally happens at the level of RNA biosynthesis transcription, and is accomplished through the sequence-specific binding of proteins transcription factors that activate or inhibit transcription. Transcription factors may act as activators, repressors, or both. Repressors often act by preventing RNA polymerase from forming a productive complex with the transcriptional initiation region promoter, while activators facilitate formation of a productive complex. Furthermore, DNA motifs have been shown to be predictive of epigenomic modifications, suggesting that transcription factors play a role in regulating the epigenome. In RNA, regulation may occur a...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulatory_sequence
*  Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™ - United States Biological
... Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™ Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™. PCR-ready First Strand cDNA is tissue specific and are ready-to-use for gene discovery or expression analysis. Over 350 cDNAs from human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, rat, mouse, monkey and plant tissues are included in this extensive collection. PCR Ready First Strand cDNAs is an excellent source of tissue specific, PCR-ready cDNA, and it can be immediately used for gene discovery or expression analysis. First-Strand cDNA is synthesized from RNA isolated from a wide variety of documented human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, mouse, rat, monkey and plant tissues. The 5' end of human clathrin cDNA a 6kb gene has been amplified by PCR from all of the cDNAs. 2 RNAs with high quality are used for cDNA synthesis The cDNA synthesis will not be successful using degraded or contaminated RNA, because degraded RN...
http://usbio.net/item/T5595-0137?highlight
*  1. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a
1 How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a. Tuesday October 6, 2015 School Subjects Art. Business. Computers. English. Foreign Languages. Health. Home Economics. Math. Music. Physical Education. Science. Social Studies. Grade Levels Preschool. Kindergarten. Elementary School. 1st Grade. 2nd Grade. 3rd Grade. 4th Grade. 5th Grade. 6th Grade. 7th Grade. 8th Grade. High School. 9th Grade. 10th Grade. 11th Grade. 12th Grade. College. Adult Education. Post a New Question. Current Questions. Homework Help : Biology Posted by Becky on Tuesday, January 9, 2007 at 3:41pm. 1 How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule. 2 Name the complementary base pairs on DNA. A-T; G-C are the pairs, you name them. there are 10 1/2 base pairs for a full twist in DNA. How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule. Hello. 10 1/2. 12. The model of DNA is known as a b...
http://jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1168375297
*  RAIN-X on sequencing gels
rain x on sequencing gels rain x on sequencing gels the end jgraham at bronze ucs indiana edu thu apr est previous message rain x on sequencing gels next message sequencing gel combs leakage messages sorted by yes a definite must however only coat the short plate too much on both plates and your gel will not lie flat on the long plate nor will the acrylamide flow under the glass we ve used rain x for three years now without a hitch i don t find any problem with shelf life jim j graham previous message rain x on sequencing gels next message sequencing gel combs leakage messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1994-April/013112.html
*  Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Rat Adult Normal, Pancreas, BioGenomics™ - United States Biological
... Molecular Biology. Serum, Tissues. Molecular Biology. Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Rat Adult Normal, Pancreas, BioGenomics™ Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Rat Adult Normal, Pancreas, BioGenomics™. Pricing For pricing information, USA customers sign in. Please contact your distributor for pricing. BioGenomics™ Tissue cDNA cDNA is supplied as First Strand, Multiple Tissue Panels, and Matched Pairs. PCR-ready First Strand cDNA is tissue specific and are ready-to-use for gene discovery or expression analysis. Over 350 cDNAs from human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, rat, mouse, monkey and plant tissues are included in this extensive collection. PCR Ready First Strand cDNAs is an excellent source of tissue specific, PCR-ready cDNA, and it can be immediately used for gene discovery or expression analysis. First-Strand cDNA is synthesized from RNA isolated from a wide variety of documented human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, mouse, rat, monkey and ...
http://usbio.net/item/T5595-0718
*  Nucleic acid sequence
... For DNA, the sense strand is used. Sequences can be read from the biological raw material through DNA sequencing methods. Sequence analysis Genetic testing. Nucleic acids consist of a chain of linked units called nucleotides. The possible letters are 'A', 'C', 'G', and 'T', representing the four nucleotide bases of a DNA strand — adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine — covalent ly linked to a phosphodiester backbone. If one strand of the double-stranded DNA is considered the sense strand, then the other strand, considered the antisense strand, will have the complementary sequence to the sense strand. Apart from adenine A, cytosine C, guanine G, thymine T and uracil U, DNA and RNA also contain bases that have been modified after the nucleic acid chain has been formed. In biological systems, nucleic acids contain information which is used by a living cell to construct specific protein s. The sequence of nucleobase s on a nucleic acid strand is translated by cell machinery into a sequence of amino acid s maki...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid_sequence
*  FastPCR
latest release version = 6.5.04 latest release date = 2014 latest preview version = latest preview date = operating system = Windows, Linux Wine. 'FastPCR' is an integrated tool for PCR primers or probes design, 'in silico' PCR, oligonucleotide assembly and analyses, alignment and repeat searching. The FastPCR software is an integrated tools environment that provides comprehensive facilities for designing any kind of PCR primers for standard, long-distance, inverse, quantitative PCR LUX and self-reporting, multiplex PCR, group-specific PCR common primers for phylogenetically related DNA sequences and unique PCR unique primers for each from phylogenetically related DNA sequences ; overlap extension PCR OE-PCR multi-fragments assembling cloning; single primer PCR design of PCR primers from close located inverted repeat, automatically detecting SSR loci and direct PCR primer design, amino acid sequence degenerate PCR, polymerase chain assembly PCA or oligos assembly and much more. The 'in silico' oligonucleotide...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FastPCR
*  Patente US6225529 - Seed-preferred promoters - Google Patentes
A plant stably transformed with an expression cassette comprising a promoter and a first nucleotide sequence operably linked to the promoter, wherein the promoter is capable of initiating seed-preferred transcription of the first nucleotide sequence in a plant cell, wherein the promoter comprises a second nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: a the nucleotide sequences set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOS 1,4, or 7; b nucleotide sequences having at least 60% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO 1, at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO 4, or at least 60% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO 7, wherein the % sequence identity is based on the entire sequence and is determined by GAP version 10 analysis using default parameters; and c a nucleotide sequence that hybridizes to any one of SEQ ID NOS: 1 or 7, under highly stringent conditions. A plant cell stably transformed with an expression cassette comprising a promoter and a first nucleotide sequence operably linked to the promoter, wherein the prom...
http://google.es/patents/US6225529?dq=flatulence
*  Recognition sequence
... the recognition sequence sometimes also referred to as recognition site of any dna binding protein motif that exhibits binding specificity refers to the dna sequence or subset thereof to which the domain is specific recognition sequences are palindromes the transcription factor sp for example binds the sequences g t gggcgg g a g a c t where g t indicates that the domain will bind a guanine or thymine at this position the restriction endonuclease psti recognizes binds and cleaves the sequence ctgcag however a recognition sequence refers to a different aspect from that of recognition site a given recognition sequence can occur one or more times or not at all on a specific dna fragment a recognition site is specified by the position of the site for example there are two psti recognition site in the following dna sequence fragment start at base and respectively a recognition sequence is a specific sequence usually very short less than bases depending on the degree of specificity of the protein a dna binding ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recognition_sequence
*  Alternative splicing
The production of alternatively spliced mRNAs is regulated by a system of trans-acting proteins that bind to cis-acting sites on the primary transcript itself. The primary transcript from this gene contains 6 exons; the calcitonin mRNA contains exons 1–4, and terminates after a polyadenylation site in exon 4. Another mRNA is produced from this pre-mRNA by skipping exon 4, and includes exons 1–3, 5, and 6. In addition to these primary modes of alternative splicing, there are two other main mechanisms by which different mRNAs may be generated from the same gene; multiple promoter s and multiple polyadenylation sites. The regulation and selection of splice sites are done by trans-acting splicing activator and splicing repressor proteins as well as cis-acting elements within the pre-mRNA itself such as exonic splicing enhancers and exonic splicing silencers. thumb|left|Splicing repression Splicing is regulated by trans-acting proteins repressors and activators and corresponding cis-acting regulatory sites silence...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_splicing
*  Coding strand
When referring to DNA transcription, the 'coding strand' is the DNA strand which has the 'same' base sequence as the RNA transcript produced although with thymine replaced by uracil. It is this strand which contains codons, while the non-coding strand contains anti-codons. During transcription, RNA Pol II binds the non-coding strand, reads the anti-codons, and transcribes their sequence to synthesize an RNA transcript with complementary bases. By convention, the coding strand is the strand used when displaying a DNA sequence. It is presented in the 5' to 3' direction. Alternative terms for strands Strands in transcription bubble RNA-DNA hybrid References Bibliography. Alternative terms for strands. Wherever a gene exists on a DNA molecule, one strand is the coding strand or 'sense strand' or 'non-template strand', and the other is the 'noncoding strand' also called the antisense strand,. 1 anticoding strand, template strand, or transcribed strand. Strands in transcription bubble. During transcription, RNA pol...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coding_strand
*  Primer extension
Image:Primer Extension Assay.jpg. 'Primer extension' is a technique whereby the 5' end s of RNA can be mapped. Primer extension can be used to determine the start site of transcription the end site cannot be determined by this method by which its sequence is known. This technique requires a radiolabelled primer usually 20 - 50 nucleotides in length which is complementary to a region near the 3' end of the mRNA. The primer is allowed to anneal to the RNA and reverse transcriptase is used to synthesize cDNA from the RNA until it reaches the 5' end of the RNA. By denaturing the hybrid and using the extended primer cDNA as a marker on an electrophoretic gel, it is possible to determine the transcriptional start site. It is usually done so by comparing its location on the gel with the DNA sequence e.g. Sanger sequencing, preferably by using the same primer on the DNA template strand. The exact nucleotide by which the transcription starts at can be pinpointed by matching the labelled extended primer with the marker...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primer_extension
*  Palindromic sequence
thumb|400px|right|Palindrome of DNA structure A: Palindrome, B: Loop, C: Stem A 'palindromic sequence' is a nucleic acid sequence on double-stranded DNA or RNA wherein reading 5' five-prime to 3' three prime forward on one strand matches the sequence reading backward 5' to 3' on the complementary strand with which it forms a double helix. This definition of palindrome thus depends on complementary strands being palindromic of each other. Since a double helix is formed by two paired strands of nucleotides that run in opposite directions in the 5'-to-3' sense, and the nucleotides always pair in the same way Adenine A with Thymine T for DNA, with Uracil U for RNA; Cytosine C with Guanine G, a single-stranded nucleotide sequence is said to be a 'palindrome' if it is equal to its reverse complement. suggested that the prevalence existence of palindromes in peptides might be related to the prevalence of low-complexity regions in proteins, as palindromes are frequently associated with low-complexity sequences. Restr...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palindromic_sequence
*  Help with sequencing of a 120bp PCR product. - Molecular Biology - BioForum
... Remember me This is not recommended for shared computers Sign in anonymously Don't add me to the active users list Privacy Policy. This topic. Members. Help with sequencing of a 120bp PCR product. Wek, Sep 21 2012 05:10 PM. Wek. Wek. Enthusiast Active Members. 59 posts. However, the PCR fragments are very small, 120bp and 121bp respectively. I have tried looking for gels but haven't been able to find a company that sells gels able to show a 1bp difference. Back to top. 2,698 posts. Posted 21 September 2012 - 05:46 PM Easiest would be to clone them into a vector and then sequence the vector. Back to top. 6,113 posts. Back to top. Wek. Wek. Enthusiast Active Members. 59 posts. Posted 22 September 2012 - 11:53 AM Easiest would be to clone them into a vector and then sequence the vector. Back to top. 1,300 posts. Posted 25 September 2012 - 08:22 AM you should be able to separate 1bp difference for 120 and 121bp with a sequencing gel 6 or 8% acrylamide with urea and long. if you don't have an old sequ...
http://protocol-online.org/forums/topic/27029-help-with-sequencing-of-a-120bp-pcr-product/
*  Where did DNA sequencing begin? | Facts | yourgenome.org
Where did DNA sequencing begin. In: Facts Methods and Technology Where did DNA sequencing begin. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the order of bases in a length of DNA. 1970s: Sanger sequencing method The Sanger sequencing method enabled scientists to read the genetic code for the first time. It is based on the natural process of DNA replication. DNA replication The DNA double helix is ‘unzipped’ by enzymes. Once unzipped, the two separated strands act as templates for creating two more strands of DNA. An enzyme called DNA polymerase binds to the primer. Sanger sequencing The DNA double helix is ‘denatured’ broken down with heat or chemicals to separate the two strands. These will then act as templates for DNA synthesis. A primer, DNA polymerase and nucleotide bases A, C, G and T are added. Terminators stop DNA synthesis. So, the 'A' terminator will stop DNA synthesis when an 'A' base is added the 'C' terminator will stop DNA synthesis when a 'C' base is added and so on… This results in a mixture ...
http://yourgenome.org/facts/where-did-dna-sequencing-begin
*  OriGene - ADAMTS12 (BC058841) cDNA Clone
OriGene - ADAMTS12 BC058841 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone ADAMTS12 Clone. ADAMTS12 BC058841 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC126126 ADAMTS12 untagged -Human cDNA clone MGC:61868 IMAGE:6701691, complete cds, BC058841.1, 10ug $185 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns for 24-well plates, 0.5ml $90 In Stock. Cl...
http://origene.com/cdna/trueclone/accession/BC058841/SC126126.aspx
*  Sequencing by ligation
'Sequencing by ligation' is a DNA sequencing method that uses the enzyme DNA ligase to identify the nucleotide present at a given position in a DNA sequence. Unlike most currently popular DNA sequencing methods, this method does not use a DNA polymerase to create a second strand. Instead, the mismatch sensitivity of a DNA ligase enzyme is used to determine the underlying sequence of the target DNA molecule. Process Issue See also References. DNA ligase is an enzyme that joins together ends of DNA molecules. Although commonly represented as joining two pairs of ends at once, as in the ligation of restriction enzyme fragments, ligase can also join the ends on only one of the two strands for example, when the other strand is already continuous or lacks a terminal phosphate necessary for ligation. DNA ligase is sensitive to the structure of DNA and has very low efficiency when there are mismatches between the bases of the two strands. The target molecule to be sequenced is a single strand of unknown DNA sequence,...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequencing_by_ligation
*  pouring sequencing gels
... jim hartley jhartley at access2.digex.net. Fri Nov 17 06:23:53 EST 1995. Previous message: pouring sequencing gels Next message: pouring sequencing gels Messages sorted by:. I too vote for pouring gels flat, no tape, both ends open. It's really easy, nothing to leak, you can tap on the glass if the liquid encounters a dirty spot. On Wed, 15 Nov 1995 futers at biovax.leeds.ac.uk wrote: In article 1995Nov15.110758 at molbiol.ox.ac.uk, nsaunders at molbiol.ox.ac.uk writes: Yes, what is the usual way to pour a sequencing gel. We have the simplest. method of all, judging by what I've read so far; tape the sides and bottom,. clamp the sides with bulldog clips, mix the gel in a conical flask and just. tip it in. Well, not quite 'just tip'; you hold the plates by the bottom. corner with one hand and tuck the opposite corner into your armpit, hold it at. about 45 degrees and sloping away from you and pour slowly into one corner. The mix flows down one edge, across the bottom and rises up to fill the gel,. any bub...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1995-November/036486.html
*  Submit a Revision
Genes are sequences of DNA nucleotides that carry and transmit the information specifying amino acid sequences for protein synthesis. Each DNA molecule contains many genes. DNA - mRNA - Protein. A triplet code is a sequence of three bases along a single strand of DNA. Each triplet code is ‘read’ and calls for a specific amino acid. The 4 bases can be arranged into 64 different triplet codes sequence of three bases. Sixty-one 61 of the codes are matched up to one of the 20 amino acids, a given amino acid can be specified by more than one triplet code, while the remaining three triplet codes act as stop signals and end the protein chain rather than adding an amino acid. The genetic code is universal in all cells. One of the strands will act as a template and will determine the sequence of RNA nucleotides. In DNA the three base sequences are called triplet codes, while in RNA the three bases sequences that specify one amino acid are called codons. An enzyme called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase there are 20 of these,...
http://biology-online.org/kb/revision.php?p_id=91&a_id=18
*  OriGene - (BC018558) cDNA Clone
OriGene - BC018558 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Home TrueClone. BC018558 Mouse cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. MC200963 untagged - Mouse mRNA similar to fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte cDNA clone MGC:18548 IMAGE:3670866, 10ug, BC018558, 10ug $165 In Stock. Click here for the corresponding wild type clone. Click here for the corresponding kinase deficient mutant clone. Also for BC018558 cDNA Clone shRNA/siRNA CRISPR KO Kit Protein Request Antibody Service. Sequence Data: Fully Sequenced ORF. OTI Disclaimer: Our molecular clone sequence data has been matched to the reference identifier above as a point of reference. Note that the complete sequence...
http://origene.com/Mouse_cDNA/MC200963.aspx
*  Pribnow box
... the pribnow box also known as the pribnow schaller box is the sequence tataat of six nucleotide s thymine adenine thymine etc that is an essential part of a promoter site on dna for transcription to occur in bacteria it is an idealized or consensus sequence that is it shows the most frequently occurring base at each position in a large number of promoters analyzed individual promoters often vary from the consensus at one or more positions it is also commonly called the sequence because it is centered roughly base pairs upstream from the site of initiation of transcription the pribnow box has a function similar to the tata box that occurs in promoters in eukaryote s and archaea it is recognized and bound by a subunit of rna polymerase during initiation of transcription this region of the dna is also the first place where base pairs separate during prokaryotic transcription to allow access to the template strand the at richness is important to allow this separation since adenine and thymine are easier to b...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pribnow_box
*  Nuclease
Working with Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, this group isolated an enzyme, called 'Hind'II, that always cut DNA molecules at a particular point within a specific sequence of six base pairs. Wherever this particular sequence of six base pairs occurs unmodified in a DNA molecule, 'Hind'II will cleave both DNA strands between the 3rd and 4th base pairs of the sequence. For this reason, this specific base sequence is known as the " recognition sequence " for 'Hind'II. 'Hind'II is only one example of the class of enzymes known as restriction nucleases. Endonucleases and DNA fragments. Once it encounters its particular specific recognition sequence, it will bind to the DNA molecule and makes one cut in each of the two sugar-phosphate backbones. Different endonucleases yield different sets of cuts, but one endonuclease will always cut a particular base sequence the same way, no matter what DNA molecule it is acting on. Once the cuts have been made, the DNA molecule will break into fragments. Endonucleases and stic...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclease
*  Patent US6551784 - Method of comparing nucleic acid sequences - Google Patents
Method of comparing nucleic acid sequences US 6551784 B2 Abstract The present invention provides methods for comparing and identifying differences in nucleic acid sequences using a plurality of sequence specific recognition reagents i.e., probes comprising a nucleic acid complementary to a nucleic acid sequence in collections to be compared bound to a solid surface. 5 The method as recited in claim 3 wherein said probes are provided by synthesis of RNA or DNA on the solid surface. Finally, in a preferred embodiment, the n probes where n is the number of probes desired for each target gene that pass both selection criteria and have the highest hybridization intensity for each target gene are selected for incorporation into the array, or where already present in the array, for subsequent data analysis. If necessary, all or part of the surface of the substrate in all or a part of the selected regions is activated for binding by, for example, flowing appropriate reagents through all or some of the channels, or by...
http://google.com/patents/US6551784?dq=6,921,985
*  help: primer restriction sites
help primer restriction sites help primer restriction sites rebecca schall rebeccas at panvera com wed aug est previous message non radioactive sequencing next message help primer restriction sites messages sorted by frank chen yatsen at wam umd edu wrote dear colleagues i designed a pair of primers which have restriction sites at their ends i did not add additional bp since i intended to clone that into a pcr vector first i am wondering if i can directly digest them with the enzymes for cloning into an expression vector i would appreciate your help if you have done that for these two enzymes the enzymes are bam hi and hind iii frank chen frank the neb catalog is an excellent resource for enzyme activities no affiliation with neb on page of the catalog there is table of cutting efficiencies of a variety of enzymes close to the ends of dna fragments this is useful information when designing pcr primers as one can decide how many additional nucleotides to tack on to the ends outside of the restriction site in y...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1995-August/032860.html
*  Bio.SeqLoc.Transcript
Index seqloc-0.5: Handle sequence locations for bioinformatics. Type for splice junctions Representation of transcript. newtype Junction = Junction { intron :: ContigLoc } fromDonorAcceptor :: Pos - Pos - Junction. donor :: Junction - Pos. acceptor :: Junction - Pos. junctions :: SpliceLoc -. data Transcript = Transcript { geneId ::. Maybe ContigLoc } utr5 :: Transcript - Maybe ContigLoc. utr3 :: Transcript - Maybe ContigLoc. cdsLocation :: Transcript - Maybe SpliceSeqLoc. Type for splice junctions. newtype Junction Source. intron :: ContigLoc. fromDonorAcceptor :: Pos - Pos - Junction Source. Create a splice junction from a donor position the last position in the 5' exon and the acceptor position the first position in the 3' exon. donor :: Junction - Pos Source. Donor position, i.e., the last position in the 5' exon around a junction. acceptor :: Junction - Pos Source. Acceptor position, i.e., the first position in the 3' exon around a junction. junctions :: SpliceLoc - Source. Representation of transcript. ...
http://hackage.haskell.org/package/seqloc-0.5/docs/Bio-SeqLoc-Transcript.html
*  Molecular Genetics [Archive] - Pashtun Community | Pashtuns | Pashto |
Molecular Genetics. Admin Khan 08-14-2010, 03:58 PM. The methods used by molecular geneticists to obtain and study DNA have been developed through keen observation and adaptation of the chemical reactions and biological processes that occur naturally in all cells. As science advances, so do the number of tools available that are applicable to the study of molecular genetics. Another method, called cloning, uses DNA manipulation procedures to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA. The polymerase chain reaction PCR is a third method whereby a specific sequence within a double-stranded DNA is copied, or amplified. Isolating DNA and mRNA from Cells. To make a clone, a target DNA sequence is inserted into what is called a cloning vector. A restriction enzyme is a protein that binds to a DNA molecule at a specific sequence and makes a double-stranded cut at, or near, that sequence. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR The polymerase chain reaction PCR is an amazingly simple technique that results in t...
http://pashtunforums.com/archive/index.php/t-5236.html
*  KIAA1797
... 'KIAA1797' is a protein that in humans is encoded by the 'KIAA1797' gene. 1 A specific single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7875153 in KIAA1797 is associated with heart rate. 2 Gene Expression. mRNA Protein sequence Homology Gene Neighborhood Function References Further reading. Gene. KIAA1797 is a protein-coding gene in Homo sapiens. Alternate names for the gene are FLJ20375, OTTHUMP00000069845, and hypothetical protein LOC54914. Located on chromosome 9 at area q21.3, AceView NCBI Gene Information the entire gene including introns and exon s is 375,010 base pairs on the plus strand. There are 19 alternative splice variants. Longest variant yields a mRNA of 6117 base pairs. Expression. KIAA1797 was determined to express ubiquitously at varying levels throughout the human body. Based on the EST profile of Unigene, KIAA1797 expression have been observed in tissues ranging from reproductive to secretory. 3 Kiaa1797 expression pic. mRNA. Predicted secondary mRNA structures in the 5'UTR and the 3'UTR are “ugagaug...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KIAA1797
*  OriGene - TP53 (NM 001126112) cDNA Clone
OriGene - TP53 NM 001126112 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone TP53 Clone. TP53 NM 001126112 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC323020 TP53 untagged -Human tumor protein p53 TP53, transcript variant 2, NM 001126112.1, 10ug $680 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns for 24-well plates, 0.5ml $90 In Stock. Click here...
http://origene.com/human_cdna/NM_001126112/SC323020.aspx
*  Genomic organization
... The genome of all organisms except some viruses and prions is composed of one to multiple number of these DNA molecules. To draw an analogy it can be said that genome when seen from viewpoint of sequences of these nucleotides alone, is like a book which doesn't have any chapters or paragraphs or even sentences. Genomic organisation of an organism is this background layer of information which unassumingly provides multiple layer of information to structure genome from the array of nucleotide sequences. Organism s have a vast array of ways in which their respective genome s are organized. A comparison of the genomic organization of six major model organisms shows size expansion with the increase of complexity of the organism. There is a more than 300-fold difference between the genome sizes of yeast and mammal s, but only a modest 4- to 5-fold increase in overall gene number see the figure on the right. However, the ratio of coding to noncoding and repetitive sequences is indicative of the complexity of th...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genomic_organization
*  OriGene - ADNP (NM 015339) cDNA Clone
OriGene - ADNP NM 015339 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone ADNP Clone. ADNP NM 015339 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC112644 ADNP untagged -Human activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox ADNP, transcript variant 1, NM 015339.2, 10ug $185 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TA315245 Rabbit polyclonal anti-ADNP antibody, 100ul $325 In Stock. Clic...
http://origene.com/human_cdna/NM_015339/SC112644.aspx
*  Transcription
Messenger RNA mRNA. Transfer RNA tRNA. Why split genes. messenger RNA mRNA. transfer RNA tRNA. These are tiny ~22 nucleotides RNA molecules that regulate the expression of messenger RNA mRNA molecules. Messenger RNA mRNA. Most cells produce small amounts of thousands of different mRNA molecules, each to be translated into a peptide needed by the cell. Transfer RNA tRNA. Small Nuclear RNA snRNA DNA transcription of the genes for mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA produces large precursor molecules "primary transcripts" that must be processed within the nucleus to produce the functional molecules for export to the cytosol. For example, several snRNAs are part of the spliceosomes that participate in converting pre-mRNA into mRNA by excising the introns and splicing the exons. It transcribes the rRNA genes for the precursor of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S molecules and is the busiest of the RNA polymerases. It transcribes protein-encoding genes into mRNA and also the snRNA genes. Those stretches of DNA that do code for amino acids i...
http://users.erols.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Transcription.html
*  Patent US7635690 - HIV-1 mutations selected for by β-2′,3′-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxy-5 ... -
iv A method for treating a patient infected with a strain of HIV virus that is resistant to AZT, comprising administering an effective amount of -D-D4FC or its pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug or salt to the patient optionally in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Advantageously, primers are chosen such that they will simplify the nucleic acid sequence for RT or a selected sequence which incorporates nucleotides corresponding to the region of RNA corresponding to the wild-type DNA sequence or to the region of the mutant DNA sequence corresponding to the 70th K to N, 90th or 172th codon of the reverse transcriptase region. The next stage of the methodology is to hybridize to the nucleic acid an oligonucleotide which is complementary to a region of the wild-type DNA sequence or its corresponding RNA or to a region of the mutant DNA sequence or its corresponding RNA. i isolating the nucleic acid from the sample; ii hybridizing the nucleic acid with an oligonucleotide being complementary to a region of the...
http://google.com/patents/US7635690?dq=6,373,753
*  OriGene - ADRBK2 (NM 005160) cDNA Clone
OriGene - ADRBK2 NM 005160 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone ADRBK2 Clone. ADRBK2 NM 005160 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC116916 ADRBK2 untagged -Human adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2 ADRBK2, NM 005160.2, 10ug $1240 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns for 24-well plates, 0.5ml $90 In Stock. Click here f...
http://origene.com/cdna/trueclone/accession/NM_005160/SC116916.aspx
*  Base/Ring for Savage - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine
... Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. Long Range Hunting Shooting. Base/Ring for Savage. Long Range Hunting Shooting. Base/Ring for Savage. LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes. I want one with 20-30 MOA. # 2 05-30-2009, 06:46 PM. Platinum Member. Re: Base/Ring for Savage If you can't find exactly what your looking for, you might want to check into a set of Burris Signature Rings with the plastic inserts. You can set them up with whatever MOA you actually need. # 3 05-30-2009, 07:21 PM. Platinum Member. Get the Burris Extreme bases and the Burris Signature Zee's. You'll only be out less than $60 and you'll be able to put anywhere from 0 MOA and 40 MOA. If you're dead set on a pictinny type rail, the EGW rail and Burris XTR rings are a tough combo to beat for the money. Re: Base/Ring for Savage I've got a left-handed Model 12 Savage I put the 2-piece, Burris, picatinny base on with their XTR rings. I also recently replaced a standard base on my Rem 700 in .308 Win with a 20 moa Seekins base and rings. Farrel...
http://longrangehunting.com/forums/f17/base-ring-savage-42946/
*  OriGene - LIPT2 (NM 001144869) cDNA Clone
OriGene - LIPT2 NM 001144869 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone LIPT2 Clone. LIPT2 NM 001144869 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC325636 LIPT2 untagged -Human lipoyl octanoyl transferase 2 putative LIPT2, nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, NM 001144869.1, 10ug $380 3 weeks. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns fo...
http://origene.com/cdna/trueclone/accession/NM_001144869/SC325636.aspx
*  unique human dna sequence
... john ladasky jladasky at pmgm stanford edu thu aug est previous message unique human dna sequence next message ligation blunt vs single base overhang messages sorted by in article ca c a db d b c f dba f at server adrian ishkanian aishkani at bccancer bc ca wrote i m looking for a unique stretch of human dna that i can use as an internal control for my pcr reactions does anyone have any ideas what do you mean by unique understanding the exact nature of your assays will help to suggest an appropriate dna sequence are you working with say chimps alongside some human samples and you want to make sure that you haven t contaminated your chimp dna with human dna rainforest laid low wake up and smell the ozone says man with chainsaw john ladasky previous message unique human dna sequence next message ligation blunt vs single base overhang messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1998-August/069638.html
*  Complementary DNA
In genetics , '''complementary DNA''' '''cDNA''' is double-stranded DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA mRNA template in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. When scientists want to express a specific protein in a cell that does not normally express that protein i.e., heterologous expression , they will transfer the cDNA that codes for the protein to the recipient cell. A eukaryotic cell transcribes the DNA from genes into RNA pre-mRNA. The same cell processes the pre-mRNA strands by removing introns, and adding a poly-A tail and 5’ Methyl-Guanine cap this is known as post-transcriptional modification This mixture of mature mRNA strands is extracted from the cell. A poly- T oligonucleotide primer is hybridized onto the poly-A tail of the mature mRNA template, or random hexamer primers can be added which contain every possible 6 base single strand of DNA and can therefore hybridize anywhere on the RNA Reverse transcriptase requires this double-stranded segment as a primer to start its ope...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complementary_DNA
*  DNA, the Genetic Material ( Read ) | Life Science | CK-12 Foundation
There are only four possible bases that make up each DNA nucleotide: adenine A, guanine G, thymine T, and cytosine C. Together with the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, they determined that DNA is made of two strands of nucleotides formed into a double helix, or a two-stranded spiral, with the sugar and phosphate groups on the outside, and the paired bases connecting the two strands on the inside of the helix Figure below. DNA’s three-dimensional structure is a double helix. The hydrogen bonds between the bases at the center of the helix hold the helix together. Base-Pairing. When Erwin Chargaff looked closely at the bases in DNA, he noticed that the percentage of adenine A in the DNA always equaled the percentage of thymine T, and the percentage of guanine G always equaled the percentage of cytosine C. Hydrogen bonds hold the complementary bases together, with two bonds forming between an A and a T, and three bonds between a G and a C. The chemical structure of DNA includes a chain of nucleotid...
http://ck12.org/life-science/DNA-the-Genetic-Material-in-Life-Science/lesson/DNA-the-Genetic-Material---Basic/
*  Serial analysis of gene expression
... 'Serial analysis of gene expression SAGE ' is a technique used by molecular biologist s to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population in a sample of interest in the form of small tags that correspond to fragments of those transcripts. The location of the cleavage site and thus the length of the remaining cDNA bound to the bead will vary for each individual cDNA mRNA. The cleaved cDNA downstream from the cleavage site is then discarded, and the remaining immobile cDNA fragments upstream from cleavage sites are divided in half and exposed to one of two adapter oligonucleotides A or B containing several components in the following order upstream from the attachment site: 1 Sticky ends with the AE cut site to allow for attachment to cleaved cDNA; 2 A recognition site for a restriction endonuclease known as the tagging enzyme TE, which cuts about 15 nucleotides downstream of its recognition site within the original cDNA/mRNA sequence ; 3 A short primer sequence unique to either adapter A or B, which w...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_analysis_of_gene_expression
*  BME103:W930 Group6 - OpenWetWare
' Bayes' Rule'. ' Bayes' Rule'. Lab Write-Up 1. Lab Write-Up 2. Lab Write-Up 3. William Research and Development. LAB 1 WRITE-UP. Polymerase Chain Reaction. 1 A Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR is used to amplify a single piece of DNA. 2 The amplification of a patient’s DNA can be separated into three different steps. a The first cycle is described as denaturation of the DNA, which is a double strand, into two single strands. This step is done at a colder temperature than the denaturation in order to allow the DNA and primers to bond by hydrogen bonds to form a double stranded nucleotide. Fluorometer Setup 1. 3 Position camera setup parallel to the LED box so that the camera is shooting along the channel of the LED box. Fluorometer Setup Part I. While leaving the camera setup side of the container unsnapped, place container around Fluorometer Setup Part I. 9 Place new slide into LED box, and do steps 4 through 6 again. This experiment heavily employs the use of PCR, or polymerase chain reaction. The process star...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=BME103:W930_Group6&diff=prev&oldid=654373
*  Inserting cDNA into promoter constructs???
Inserting cDNA into promoter constructs??. Inserting cDNA into promoter constructs??. Obaid Y. Khan 9321531k at clinmed.gla.ac.uk. Mon Aug 19 13:03:21 EST 1996. Previous message: Problems with ligation after GeneCleaning Next message: Custom BAC libraries. Messages sorted by:. I am trying to clone a cDNA into a CMV promoter construct. I have a cDNA which has got the polyA tail reverse transcribed from the mRNA. I was wondering if I insert the whole cDNA with the polyA tail, would it not interfere with the expression of the cDNA. Also the my cDNA would have its own polyadenylation signal sequence and I have one SV40 polyA signal already in the vector I am using. Could someone help me out with these questions, please, Thanks. Previous message: Problems with ligation after GeneCleaning Next message: Custom BAC libraries. Messages sorted by:. More information about the Methods mailing list....
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1996-August/048092.html
*  Bio::Tools::SeqStats - Object holding statistics for one particular sequence - metacpan.org
amino or nucleic acid print \nMonomer counts using statistics object\n ; $seq stats = Bio::Tools::SeqStats- new -seq= $seqobj ; $hash ref = $seq stats- count monomers ; # e.g. for DNA sequence foreach $base sort keys %$hash ref { print Number of bases of type, $base, =, %$hash ref- {$base}, \n ; } # obtain the count directly without creating a new statistics object print \nMonomer counts without statistics object\n ; $hash ref = Bio::Tools::SeqStats- count monomers $seqobj ; foreach $base sort keys %$hash ref { print Number of bases of type, $base, =, %$hash ref- {$base}, \n ; } # obtain hash of counts of each type of codon in a nucleic acid sequence print \nCodon counts using statistics object\n ; $hash ref = $seq stats- count codons ; # for nucleic acid sequence foreach $base sort keys %$hash ref { print Number of codons of type, $base, =, %$hash ref- {$base}, \n ; } # or print \nCodon counts without statistics object\n ; $hash ref = Bio::Tools::SeqStats- count codons $seqobj ; foreach $base sort keys %$has...
https://metacpan.org/pod/Bio::Tools::SeqStats
*  Do you have to sequence both strands?
do you have to sequence both strands do you have to sequence both strands zhongguo xiong zxiong at arizvm ccit arizona edu sat apr est previous message do you have to sequence both strands next message do you have to sequence both strands messages sorted by in article gosink at microb biostat washington edu gosink at u washington edu john gosink writes hi i was having a discussion with a person down the hall they claim that there is no regulation that says you have to sequence both strands of a length of dna they are working with cloned pcr products for submission to genbank and or a referreed paper do you have any references on this subject john p s they read a single strand but make it a point to read each gel on two different occasions and or by two different people any sequence that was determined only from one strand is grabage purely grabage anyone who has worked on sequencing projects would agree we are doing a lot of sequencing in the lab and find regions of compression that can not be resolved with k...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1994-April/012995.html
*  www.biomedcentral.com - Figure
www biomedcentral com figure resolution standard high figure search for promoter fragment of the hspa b gene responsible for la inducibility left panel schematic representation of the plasmids used for transfections different fragments of the promoter and further upstream region of the rat hspa b gene were cloned in pbl cat vector upper part structure of analyzed dna region restriction sites used for subcloning are shown e ecor i p pst i d dra ii m maeiii n nco i k kpn i a ava i hse heat shock element region between and containing important regulatory elements is shown in details right panel data from transfection experiments plasmids were transiently transfected to the mouse b f cells using lipofectin cat activity was determined hours after lipofection in cell extracts cat activity is shown as percentage of acetylated chloramphenicol each value is expressed as a mean with the standard deviation of four transfections brackets a b and c were used to visualise the comparisons that are discussed in the text fisz...
http://biomedcentral.com/1471-2199/12/27/figure/F4
*  Class: Bio::Sequence::NA Documentation for bioruby/bioruby (master)
Class: Bio::Sequence::NA Documentation for bioruby/bioruby master. Libraries. bioruby/bioruby master. Index N. Bio. Sequence. NA. Class: Bio::Sequence::NA. Inherits:. String. Object. String. Bio::Sequence::NA. show all. Includes:. Common. Defined in: lib/bio/sequence/na.rb, lib/bio/sequence/compat.rb, lib/bio/shell/plugin/midi.rb. Overview – TODO - add Ohno style - add a accessor to drum pattern - add a new feature to select music style pop, trans, ryukyu, ... - what is the base. ++. Direct Known Subclasses RestrictionEnzyme::SingleStrand. Defined Under Namespace. Classes:. MidiTrack Class Method Summary collapse. randomize *arg, block ⇒ Object. Generate a new random sequence with the given frequency of bases. Instance Method Summary collapse # at content ⇒ Object. Calculate the ratio of AT / ATGC bases. # at skew ⇒ Object. Calculate the ratio of A - T / A + T bases. # codon usage ⇒ Object. Returns counts of each codon in the sequence in a hash. # cut with enzyme *args ⇒ Obj...
http://rubydoc.info/github/bioruby/bioruby/Bio/Sequence/NA
*  [TowerTalk] re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g?
re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. Towertalk. prev. next. prev. next. re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. from [ Bill Hider ]. [ Permanent Link ] [ Original ]. To :. towertalk@contesting.com. Subject : re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. From :. n3rr@erols.com Bill Hider. Date :. Fri, 30 Mar 2001 18:03:50 +0100. Be sure to check out my Website so you don't forget any design details. http://www.erols.com/n3rr Bill, N3RR ----- Original Message ----- From: Michael Pfeuffer wq5c@texas.net To: rthorne@tcac.net Cc: towertalk@contesting.com Sent: Friday, March 30, 2001 6:53 PM Subject: re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. Hi Richard,. Not sure if I'm going to go with 45g or 25g. I have two options for a base:. I was considering the same predicament, and came to the conclusion that the pier-pin was better. Then it occurred to me that upgrading a system from 25G to 45G would be: a expensive b a *lot* of work c take me off the air during the upgrade. I'm now looking at designing a two tower system: 25G first, 45G later, bu...
http://lists.contesting.com/_towertalk/2001-03/msg00675.html?contestingsid=36rp07p9prcgdav7k9a8m9i6d0
*  Patente US7732143 - Method for the diagnosis of genetic diseases by molecular combing and ... - Goog
The length of the probes used is between for example 5 kb and 40-50 kb, but it may also consist of the entire combed genome. a a certain quantity of said genome is attached to and combed on a combing surface, b the combing product is hybridized with one or more labeled specific probes corresponding to the genomic sequence for which the abnormality is sought, c the size of the fragments corresponding to the hybridization signals and optionally their repetition are measured, and d the presence of a break is deduced therefrom either by direct measurement or by comparison with a standard corresponding to a control length. In case ii, on the other hand, the probe being systematically hybridized to two separate pieces or more in the combed genomic DNA by definition of the existence of a break point, the measurement of the lengths of the hybridized fluorescent probes is different from the result obtained by hybridization to a non pathological genomic DNA. a a certain quantity of said genome is attached to and combed...
http://google.es/patents/US7732143?dq=flatulence
*  Random shRNA Selection | NIH Common Fund
. Random shRNA Selection. NIH Common Fund. Submitted by Chrissy on Mon, 11/18/2013 - 18:15. Transformative R01 Program. RANDOM SHRNA SELECTION. ​To encode a random shRNA requires a random DNA sequence – of 29 nucleotides in our case – and its reverse complement in the same DNA strand, separated by a non-complementary loop sequence; a library of such sequences can be used in pooled, cell-based screens for small RNA therapeutics, biological tools, and/or biological probes....
http://commonfund.nih.gov/TRA/figure_Robert_Wilson
*  Alpha-1 (gene)
alpha gene alpha gene redirect list of a genes proteins or receptors...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-1_(gene)
*  Alpha-1 genes
alpha genes alpha genes redirect list of a genes proteins or receptors...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-1_genes
*  Hyperchromicity
... thumb|right|250px|Nucleic acid melting curve showing hyperchromicity as a function of temperature 'Hyperchromicity' is the increase of absorbance 'optical density' of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured. The UV absorption is increased when the two single DNA strands are being separated, either by heat or by addition of denaturant or by increasing the pH level. Heat denaturation of DNA, also called melting, causes the double helix structure to unwind to form single stranded DNA. When DNA in solution is heated above its melting temperature usually more than 80 °C, the double-stranded DNA unwinds to form single-stranded DNA. The bases become unstacked and can thus absorb more light. In their native state, the bases of DNA absorb light in the 260-nm wavelength region. When the bases become unstacked, the wavelength of maximum absorbance does not change, but the amount absorbed increases by 37%. A double strand DNA dissociating to sing...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperchromicity
*  Retrovirus XMRV Is Inhibited by Host Proteins and Anti-HIV Drugs AZT, Tenofovir, and Raltegravir
... E-mail this summary. A newly discovered retrovirus, XMRV, isolated from prostate cancer tissues for the first time in 2006, has recently been reported in patients with this cancer, as well as in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome CFS. Since XMRV was isolated from the T and B cells of CFS patients, Vinay Pathak and his colleagues in the HIV Drug Resistance Program sought to determine how XMRV was countering intracellular defense mechanisms that inhibit retroviral replication in human cells. Studies of interactions between HIV-1 and human host proteins have revealed intracellular defense mechanisms that inhibit the replication of a variety of viruses. For example, the proteins APOBEC3G A3G and APOBEC3F A3F are members of a family of cytidine deaminases that potently inhibit the replication of HIV-1 in the absence of the virally encoded Vif protein, in part by inducing massive amounts of G-to-A mutations in the viral genome. In view of the potential of gammaretroviruses to infect human cells and cause d...
http://home.ccr.cancer.gov/inthejournals/pathak.asp

DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Hyperchromicity: Hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured.Nucleic acid secondary structure: The secondary structure of a nucleic acid molecule refers to the basepairing interactions within a single molecule or set of interacting molecules, and can be represented as a list of bases which are paired in a nucleic acid molecule.Q-FISH: Quantitative Fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) is a cytogenetic technique based on the traditional FISH methodology. In Q-FISH, the technique uses labelled (Cy3 or FITC) synthetic DNA mimics called peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotides to quantify target sequences in chromosomal DNA using fluorescent microscopy and analysis software.Allele-specific oligonucleotide: An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) is a short piece of synthetic DNA complementary to the sequence of a variable target DNA. It acts as a probe for the presence of the target in a Southern blot assay or, more commonly, in the simpler Dot blot assay.Biotin sulfoxideTransfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Fluorescent tag: In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule known as a fluorophore.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Coles PhillipsLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Thermal cyclerRestriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Lewis H. Brown: Lewis Brown}}Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.YjdF RNA motifPolymethine: Polymethines are compounds made up from an odd number of methine groups (CH) bound together by alternating single and double bonds.Kachovski and Dekhtyar, Dyes and Pigments, 22 (1983) 83-97 Compounds made up from an even number of methine groups are known as polyenes.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction: Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR) is a DNA amplification technology for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI) cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Abscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.Fishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Michael A. EpsteinRiboprobe: Riboprobes are RNA probes that can be produced by in vitro transcription of cloned DNA inserted in a suitable plasmid downstream of a viral promoter. Some bacterial viruses code for their own RNA polymerases, which are highly specific for the viral promoters.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.

(1/18626) Identification and characterization of the human orthologue of yeast Pex14p.

Pex14p is a central component of the peroxisomal protein import machinery, which has been suggested to provide the point of convergence for PTS1- and PTS2-dependent protein import in yeast cells. Here we describe the identification of a human peroxisome-associated protein (HsPex14p) which shows significant similarity to the yeast Pex14p. HsPex14p is a carbonate-resistant peroxisomal membrane protein with its C terminus exposed to the cytosol. The N terminus of the protein is not accessible to exogenously added antibodies or protease and thus might protrude into the peroxisomal lumen. HsPex14p overexpression leads to the decoration of tubular structures and mislocalization of peroxisomal catalase to the cytosol. HsPex14p binds the cytosolic receptor for the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), a result consistent with a function as a membrane receptor in peroxisomal protein import. Homo-oligomerization of HsPex14p or interaction of the protein with the PTS2-receptor or HsPex13p was not observed. This distinguishes the human Pex14p from its counterpart in yeast cells and thus supports recent data suggesting that not all aspects of peroxisomal protein import are conserved between yeasts and humans. The role of HsPex14p in mammalian peroxisome biogenesis makes HsPEX14 a candidate PBD gene for being responsible for an unrecognized complementation group of human peroxisome biogenesis disorders.  (+info)

(2/18626) The LIM-only protein PINCH directly interacts with integrin-linked kinase and is recruited to integrin-rich sites in spreading cells.

PINCH is a widely expressed and evolutionarily conserved protein comprising primarily five LIM domains, which are cysteine-rich consensus sequences implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. We report here that PINCH is a binding protein for integrin-linked kinase (ILK), an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important roles in the cell adhesion, growth factor, and Wnt signaling pathways. The interaction between ILK and PINCH has been consistently observed under a variety of experimental conditions. They have interacted in yeast two-hybrid assays, in solution, and in solid-phase-based binding assays. Furthermore, ILK, but not vinculin or focal adhesion kinase, has been coisolated with PINCH from mammalian cells by immunoaffinity chromatography, indicating that PINCH and ILK associate with each other in vivo. The PINCH-ILK interaction is mediated by the N-terminal-most LIM domain (LIM1, residues 1 to 70) of PINCH and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats located within the N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 163) of ILK. Additionally, biochemical studies indicate that ILK, through the interaction with PINCH, is capable of forming a ternary complex with Nck-2, an SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein implicated in growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways. Finally, we have found that PINCH is concentrated in peripheral ruffles of cells spreading on fibronectin and have detected clusters of PINCH that are colocalized with the alpha5beta1 integrins. These results demonstrate a specific protein recognition mechanism utilizing a specific LIM domain and multiple ANK repeats and suggest that PINCH functions as an adapter protein connecting ILK and the integrins with components of growth factor receptor kinase and small GTPase signaling pathways.  (+info)

(3/18626) Isolation of human transcripts expressed in hamster cells from YACs by cDNA representational difference analysis.

Gene isolation methods used during positional cloning rely on physical contigs consisting of bacterial artificial chromosomes, P1, or cosmid clones. However, in most instances, the initial framework for physical mapping consists of contigs of yeast artificial chromosome (YACs), large vectors that are suboptimal substrates for gene isolation. Here we report a strategy to identify gene sequences contained within a YAC by using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) to directly isolate transcripts expressed from the YAC in mammalian cells. The RDA tester cDNAs were generated from a previously reported hamster cell line derived by stable transfer of a 590-kb YAC (911D5) that expressed NPC1, the human gene responsible for Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). The driver cDNAs were generated from a control hamster cell line that did not contain the YAC that expressed NPC1. Among the gene fragments obtained by RDA, NPC1 was the most abundant product. In addition, two non-NPC1 fragments were isolated that were mapped to and expressed from 911D5. One of these RDA gene fragments (7-R) spans more than one exon and has 98% sequence identity with a human cDNA clone reported previously as an expressed sequence tag (EST), but not mapped to a chromosomal region. The other fragment (2-R) that had no significant sequence similarities with known mammalian genes or ESTs, was further localized to the region of overlap between YACs 911D5 and 844E3. The latter YAC is part of a contig across the NP-C candidate region, but does not contain NPC1. This two-part approach in which stable YAC transfer is followed by cDNA RDA should be a useful adjunct strategy to expedite the cloning of human genes when a YAC contig is available across a candidate interval.  (+info)

(4/18626) Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding.

Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA.  (+info)

(5/18626) Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells.

Accumulation of mesangial matrix is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The molecular triggers for matrix production are still being defined. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization identified 15 genes differentially induced when primary human mesangial cells are exposed to high glucose (30 mM versus 5 mM) in vitro. These genes included (a) known regulators of mesangial cell activation in diabetic nephropathy (fibronectin, caldesmon, thrombospondin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), (b) novel genes, and (c) known genes whose induction by high glucose has not been reported. Prominent among the latter were genes encoding cytoskeleton-associated proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a modulator of fibroblast matrix production. In parallel experiments, elevated CTGF mRNA levels were demonstrated in glomeruli of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Mannitol provoked less mesangial cell CTGF expression in vitro than high glucose, excluding hyperosmolality as the key stimulus. The addition of recombinant CTGF to cultured mesangial cells enhanced expression of extracellular matrix proteins. High glucose stimulated expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and addition of TGF-beta1 to mesangial cells triggered CTGF expression. CTGF expression induced by high glucose was partially suppressed by anti-TGF-beta1 antibody and by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. Together, these data suggest that 1) high glucose stimulates mesangial CTGF expression by TGFbeta1-dependent and protein kinase C dependent pathways, and 2) CTGF may be a mediator of TGFbeta1-driven matrix production within a diabetic milieu.  (+info)

(6/18626) Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. cDNA cloning and expression.

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase (GGPPSase) catalyzes the synthesis of GGPP, which is an important molecule responsible for the C20-prenylated protein biosynthesis and for the regulation of a nuclear hormone receptor (LXR.RXR). The human GGPPSase cDNA encodes a protein of 300 amino acids which shows 16% sequence identity with the known human farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (FPPSase). The GGPPSase expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzes the GGPP formation (240 nmol/min/mg) from FPP and isopentenyl diphosphate. The human GGPPSase behaves as an oligomeric molecule with 280 kDa on a gel filtration column and cross-reacts with an antibody directed against bovine brain GGPPSase, which differs immunochemically from bovine brain FPPSase. Northern blot analysis indicates the presence of two forms of the mRNA.  (+info)

(7/18626) The biosynthesis of transfer RNA in insects. II. Isolation of transfer RNA precursors from the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori.

The occurrence of precursors to tRNA in the post-polysomal fraction of the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori was demonstrated by pulse-chase labeling and DNA-RNA hybridization competition experiments. These precursors had molecular sizes ranging from 4S to 5S on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the incorporation of the methyl group from [methyl-14C]methionine revealed that a radioactive peak on polyacrylamide gel appeared in the 4.5S region during brief labeling. This suggested that some methylation occurred at the 4.5S precursor step.  (+info)

(8/18626) Burkholderia cocovenenans (van Damme et al. 1960) Gillis et al. 1995 and Burkholderia vandii Urakami et al. 1994 are junior synonyms of Burkholderia gladioli (Severini 1913) Yabuuchi et al. 1993 and Burkholderia plantarii (Azegami et al. 1987) Urakami et al. 1994, respectively.

Reference strains of Burkholderia cocovenenans and Burkholderia vandii were compared with strains of other Burkholderia species using SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, DNA-DNA hybridization and extensive biochemical characterization. Burkholderia gladioli and B. cocovenenans were indistinguishable in the chemotaxonomic and biochemical analyses. Burkholderia plantarii and B. vandii had indistinguishable whole-cell protein patterns but the B. vandii type strain differed from B. plantarii strains in several biochemical tests. The DNA-DNA binding levels (higher than 70%) indicated that (i) B. gladioli and B. cocovenenans, and (ii) B. plantarii and B. vandii each represent a single species. It is concluded that B. cocovenenans and B. vandii are junior synonyms of B. gladioli and B. plantarii, respectively.  (+info)


The lac regulatory system is important to bacteria because the sugar lactose?


(continue)
The lac regulatory system is important to bacteria because the sugar lactose

a. cannot be made by bacteria unless the genes are turned on. 
b. is the most common source of food; enzymes are needed all the time. 
c. is only rarely available; producing enzymes all the time is costly. 
d. is incorporated into the nucleic acid of the bacteria. 
e. switches the system off and on whether lactose is present or not.
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b. is the most common source of food; enzymes are needed all the time.


How does the immune system remember specific pathogens ?


Do they recognise them by their protein coat or capsid or do they remember their nucleic acid material ie DNA or RNA ? Once they are broken down ?
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It's all in the antigens, my friend.


Why does the body catabolize fats and carbs before proteins?


It's a question for my bio assignment: 

"When an organism is deprived of food for a long time, it catabolizzes its bodily stores of fats, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids for energy. Why are fats and carbohydrates used for this purpose before proteins and nucleic acids?"
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Energy; deprived of food, needs energy; gram of fat = 9 cal; carb and protein: 4.


What is low-acid coffee, how do they make it, and what are the best brands?


I've heard of low-acid coffee and I think it might help with my stomach problems. I'm wondering what it is exactly, how they make it, and which brands are considered to be the best. Thanks!
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When coffee beans are roasted, acid is extraced due to the heat inside the roasters themselves. One of the most popular ways to take the acid down, is to put the beans through a steaming process that eliminates most of the acid or by roasting the beans to be as dark as humanly possible without buring them (darker roasts tend to have less acid, believe it or not). Recently, there was a company that said it had the lowest acididity rate on the market called Puroast. I haven't hear any of their cupping reviews, however. 

Finding a good, low-acid coffee might be harder to find on the normal market, I fear. Roasters are just now starting to look at the growing numbers of people who need this kind of brew. From everything I have read, Brazilian and Sumatrian beans look like they are going to be able to deliver low-acid with great taste. You do have to realise, however, that this is still a work in progress for the coffee industry. You are going to need to give us some time. I do, however have a process you can do at home to lower the acidity in your coffee. The downside is that it is for iced coffee, and I only know how to make it in kind of a large dose (but it keeps for quite a while). Let me know if you want it!


How do I prepare Salicylic Acid in powder form to use as an acne cure?


I have purchased Salicylic Acid, but unfortunately has come with health warning and no instructions for how to use or what mix is necessary.  Please does anyone know what the spell/recipe is for acne?
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Salicylic acid is essentially aspirin. I have taken an aspirin, crushed it into the powder, added a little water to make a not too thick or not too thin paste, then put it on a blemish, top it with a "spot" bandage and let it work over night. It works fine and I have had no reactions, however some people with sensitive skin may react...it is on the acidic side of the pH scale, although not as strong as hydrochloric acid, I imagine it could cause some irritation. If you get irritation, try it during the day for only a few hours. Good luck!


How long does it take for acid reflux in babies to go away?


My 2 month old baby has acid reflux. He is on Prevacid and Mylanta. I burp him and hold him upright for 30 mins after each meal. Question for all parents whose babies have had acid reflux: How long did it take for your babies to get rid off their acid reflux ?
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My son has acid reflux.... He also has tracheomalacia (weakened trachea) He was on hypoallergenic formula... I didnt put him on zantac or prevacid or anything like that... the dr did suggest putting some cereal in the bottles, but I didnt want to do that either..

He is 6 months old now and is pretty much done with the whole acid reflux thing... He spits up sometimes, but not like he used to. We switched him back over to milk based formula when he started solids (around 5 months) and he has been good ever since.

I think it is really a baby by baby thing... each baby just has to grow out of it on their own.

Good luck.


What can sulfuric acid do to your skin after prolonged exposure?


I have a friend who spilled sulfuric acid on his arm at work and he won't go to the hospital. He now has a hole in his arm.
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Sulfuric acid is a strong Acid if undiluted (0 on ph scale) and would not just, "leave a pale spot" because it is extremely corrosive. I've learned from a man who worked in some plants It eats through the tissue until it loses surface tension of your appendage and falls to further eat through most floors until in safe containment, IE Metals that cannot be corroded away.


How does adding an acid to vegetable cooking water affect the vegetable?


I want to know what will happen when you add acid to different types of vegetables -- green, red, orange, white. Also, how can you artificially enhance or diminish the acid-pigment interaction in an aqueous (that's water) environment. Explain the science involved in detail.
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the only thing i can think of is an acid would help keep certain vegetables from oxidizing or changing color like eggplant. it also acts as a preservative for many vegetables depending on how much acid you use or mix with water u can go as far as pickling a vegetable.
it also keeps a veggey like fresh artichokes from turning brown in a solution of water and a little acid