Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Adenine NucleotidesGuanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.UridineNucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Guanine NucleotidesOligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nucleoside Q: A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Deoxyribonucleosides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.GuanineNM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases: A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Nucleotides, CyclicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.ThymidineSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cytosine NucleotidesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Dilazep: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Arabinonucleosides: Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Deoxycytidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.UracilHypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thionucleosides: Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Pyrimidine Phosphorylases: Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Self-Sustained Sequence Replication: An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Acid Anhydride Hydrolases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Uridine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.PolynucleotidesDipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Inosine NucleotidesCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).TritiumDNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.DNA, Catalytic: Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Cytidine Monophosphate: Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.ThymineSpectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.

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*  Unmodified, Unprotected 2',3'-Dideoxy-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by ch
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*  Unmodified, Unprotected 2',3'-Dideoxy-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by ch
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*  Beta-L, Unprotected Ribo-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by chemical struct
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*  Other, Unprotected Ribo-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by chemical structu
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*  Beta-L, Unprotected 2'-Deoxy-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by chemical st
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*  Beta-L, Unprotected 2'-Deoxy-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by chemical st
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*  Non-modified Ribo-nucleosides, N-protected Ribo-nucleosides, N-protected Nucleosides, Nucleosides so
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*  5-Propynyl, Unprotected Ribo-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by chemical st
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*  Alpha, Unprotected 2'-Deoxy-nucleosides, Unprotected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sorted by chemical str
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*  Other Modified Ribo-nucleosides, N-protected Ribo-nucleosides, N-protected Nucleosides, Nucleosides
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*  Methylated Ribo-nucleosides, N-protected Ribo-nucleosides, N-protected Nucleosides, Nucleosides sort
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*  2'-O- and 3'-O-Propargyl Phosphoramidites, Nucleoside Phosphoramidites, Nucleosides, Nucleotides and
... their Analogs, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Products Ordering. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Nucleoside Phosphoramidites. Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Your are here: Products Ordering / Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs / Nucleoside Phosphoramidites / 2'-O- and 3'-O-Propargyl Phosphoramidites. Nucleoside Phosphoramidites - 2'-O- and 3'-O-Propargyl Phosphoramidites. A product was added to your basket. 2'-O- and 3'-O-Propargyl Phosphoramidites. Other Alkyn...
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*  Diphosphate-purine nucleoside kinase
diphosphate purine nucleoside kinase diphosphate purine nucleoside kinase in enzymology a diphosphate purine nucleoside kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction diphosphate a purine nucleoside rightleftharpoons phosphate a purine mononucleotide thus the two substrates of this enzyme are diphosphate and purine nucleoside whereas its two products are phosphate and purine mononucleotide this enzyme belongs to the family of transferase s specifically those transferring phosphorus containing groups phosphotransferase s with an alcohol group as acceptor the systematic name of this enzyme class is diphosphate purine nucleoside phosphotransferase this enzyme is also called pyrophosphate purine nucleoside kinase references category ec category enzymes of unknown structure...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diphosphate-purine_nucleoside_kinase
*  IS3NA: International Society of Nucleosides, Nucleotides, & Nucleic Acids
... International Round Tables XXII IRT Local Website New and Previous IRTs. Membership Member Benefit Become a Member Subscription Discounts. News Announcements Society & Member News. Related Scientific Societies Other Societies and Organizations Contact IS3NA Contact Society Members General Inquiry. XXII International Round Table on Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids MONDAY Jul 18 - Jul 22, 2016 Paris, France. Abstract Submission and Registration are available here: www.paris-irt2016.org. IS3NA Membership Benefits Membership does in fact have its provileges By becoming a member you will have access to a comprehensive database of scientists working in your field. Members will be able to register and submit their abstracts in a specific format for each of the Round Table meetings. Through our new website members can submit information for rapid access and dissemination to the membership at large; for example, the announcement of relevant meetings local or international, job openings and opportunities...
http://is3na.org/IS3NA_Member_Benefit.asp
*  Nucleoside-specific porin
nucleoside specific porin nucleoside specific porin pfam box symbol channel tsx name nucleoside specific channel forming protein tsx image tly opm png width caption pfam pf interpro ipr smart prosite scop tcdb b opm family opm protein tly pdb b nucleoside specific porin the tsx gene of escherichia coli is an outer membrane protein tsx which constitutes the receptor for colicin k and bacteriophage t and functions as a substrate specific channel for nucleosides and deoxy nucleosides the protein contains amino acids the first of which are characteristic of a bacterial signal sequence peptide tsx shows no significant similarities to general bacterial porins references category protein domains category protein families category outer membrane proteins...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleoside-specific_porin
*  Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products & Ordering, Jena Bioscience
Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. About us About us News Careers JBS Seminars JBS in the Press Imprint/Legal Notice. Search. Structure Search beta. Products Ordering. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Your are here: Products Ordering / Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Structure Search beta Search all our small molecule products including all nucleosides and nucleotides by sub-structure. Jena Bioscience is the leading supplier for nucleotides and their analogs. We have more than 2.000 of natural and modified nucleotides available on stock. You have interesting nucleotide analogs and want to commercialize them. Please contact us at info@jenabioscience.com for details. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Libraries of Nucleotide analogs for drug screening and nu...
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*  Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products & Ordering, Jena Bioscience
Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. About us About us News Careers JBS Seminars JBS in the Press Imprint/Legal Notice. Search. Structure Search beta. Products Ordering. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Your are here: Products Ordering / Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Structure Search beta Search all our small molecule products including all nucleosides and nucleotides by sub-structure. Jena Bioscience is the leading supplier for nucleotides and their analogs. We have more than 2.000 of natural and modified nucleotides available on stock. You have interesting nucleotide analogs and want to commercialize them. Please contact us at info@jenabioscience.com for details. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Libraries of Nucleotide analogs for drug screening and nu...
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*  Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products & Ordering, Jena Bioscience
Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. About us About us News Careers JBS Seminars JBS in the Press Imprint/Legal Notice. Search. Structure Search beta. Products Ordering. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Your are here: Products Ordering / Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Structure Search beta Search all our small molecule products including all nucleosides and nucleotides by sub-structure. Jena Bioscience is the leading supplier for nucleotides and their analogs. We have more than 2.000 of natural and modified nucleotides available on stock. You have interesting nucleotide analogs and want to commercialize them. Please contact us at info@jenabioscience.com for details. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Libraries of Nucleotide analogs for drug screening and nu...
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*  Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products & Ordering, Jena Bioscience
Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. About us About us News Careers JBS Seminars JBS in the Press Imprint/Legal Notice. Search. Structure Search beta. Products Ordering. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Your are here: Products Ordering / Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs. Structure Search beta Search all our small molecule products including all nucleosides and nucleotides by sub-structure. Jena Bioscience is the leading supplier for nucleotides and their analogs. We have more than 2.000 of natural and modified nucleotides available on stock. You have interesting nucleotide analogs and want to commercialize them. Please contact us at info@jenabioscience.com for details. Nucleotide Libraries Kits. Libraries of Nucleotide analogs for drug screening and nu...
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*  Mitochondrial Mayhem - TheBody.com
... Advertisement. 0 Email. Print-Friendly. Glossary. Mitochondrial Mayhem By Theo Smart From Gay Men's Health Crisis. Spring 2000 A note from TheBody.com: The field of medicine is constantly evolving. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information. With the passage of time and accumulation of more data, we are learning more about the nature of lipodystrophy and metabolic complications. Still, there were widely varying reports on their incidence at the Retrovirus Conference. Much depends on how the syndrome is defined, but now the question seems to be "Is it one syndrome, or many?" It appears to be much more complicated than initially thought. In one symposia at the Retrovirus Conference, Kathleen Mulligan of UCSF explained, "Because a number of these problems were initially appreciated around the time that protease inhibitors came into widespread use, it was initially assumed that these problems were the ...
http://thebody.com/content/art13202.html?nxtprv
*  Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
nucleosides nucleotides nucleic acids nucleosides nucleotides nucleic acids nucleosides nucleotides nucleic acids is a monthly academic journal published by taylor francis since continuing the earlier nucleosides and nucleotides in series it discusses topics relating to the biochemistry of molecules in these classes category biochemistry journals category publications established in category english language journals...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleosides,_Nucleotides_&_Nucleic_Acids
*  FV-100
fv fv chembox verifiedrevid imagefile cf png imagesize px iupacname pentylphenyl furo pyrimidin one othernames cf section chembox identifiers casno pubchem smiles cccccc cc c c c c cc cn c o n c o c o co o section chembox properties c h n o appearance density meltingpt boilingpt solubility section chembox hazards mainhazards flashpt autoignitionpt fv also known as cf is an orally available nucleoside analogue drug with antiviral activity it may be effective against shingles it was discovered in in the laboratories of prof chris mcguigan welsh school of pharmacy and prof jan balzarini rega institute leuven belgium shows structure of fv clinical trials fv was tested against valaciclovir in a phase ii trial in patients with herpes zoster the trial was sponsored by bristol myers squibb the drug is currently being developed by edison new jersey references category nucleosides category antivirals category imides...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FV-100
*  New HCV Drugs: R7128 nucleoside, PSI7977 nucleotide, PSI938 nucleotide, ANA598 nnrti (rash), dano
New HCV Drugs: R7128 nucleoside, PSI7977 nucleotide, PSI938 nucleotide, ANA598 nnrti rash, danoprevir protease, IMO-2125, a TLR agonist. New HCV Drugs: R7128 nucleoside, PSI7977 nucleotide, PSI938 nucleotide, ANA598 nnrti rash, danoprevir protease, IMO-2125, a TLR agonist. As I reported yesterday PSI-7977 a nucleotide from Pharmasset looks good, R7128, a nucleoside from Roche & Pharmasset looked good after 12 weeks treatment in naives with peg/rbv a high percent of patients achieved undetectable viral, of note no drug resistance was seen in R7128, this is an important benefit of nucleosides & nucleotides, Pharmasset also reported prior to conference data showing potency of PSI-938, a nucleotide & they will conduct a study of the 2 nucleotides in combination as oral therapy without peg/rbv. In yesterday's 2 oral sessions at 3pm doses of 200mg bid and 400mg bid of ANA598, a NNRTI for HCV, + peg/rbv study results were presented out to 12 weeks with 75% using 400mg, 73% with 200mg and 63% with peg/rbv alone achie...
http://natap.org/2010/AASLD/AASLD_40.htm
*  SNAP: Switching Nucleoside Analogues Protocol - Lipoatrophy and Mitochondrial Function - No Study Re
... sults Posted - ClinicalTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. RSS Feeds. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. History, Policies, and Laws. Media/Press Resources. Linking to This Site. Terms and Conditions. Disclaimer. Text Size. Find Studies Study Record Detail. SNAP: Switching Nucle...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00225082
*  Category:Nucleosides
category nucleosides category nucleosides nucleosides are glycosylamine s made by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose ring examples of these include cytidine uridine adenosine guanosine thymidine and inosine category glycosides by aglycone type category nitrogen heterocycles...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Nucleosides
*  Template:Nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides
template nucleobases nucleosides and nucleotides template nucleobases nucleosides and nucleotides...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Nucleobases,_nucleosides,_and_nucleotides
*  Angustmycin
... s are bio active nucleosides external links category nucleosides...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angustmycin
*  dna - Do individual (free) nucleotides base-pair with other free nucleotides? - Biology Stack Exchan
dna - Do individual free nucleotides base-pair with other free nucleotides. - Biology Stack Exchange. Biology. Biology Meta. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. Do individual free nucleotides base-pair with other free nucleotides. He asked if individual nucleotides not in a nucleic acid base-pair with their complementary nucleotides, essentially forming many dinucleotides. If it does, how does this impact the usage of nucleotides in nucleic acid synthesis. dna share. 2 Answers 2 active oldest votes. up vote 6 down vote. The base-pairing in solution only provides 2-3 hydrogen bonds, which the nucleotides could also form with water itself. There are no stacking interactions between bases in water like in a DNA helix. Base-pairing in nucleic acids shows characteristic signals i...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/7576/do-individual-free-nucleotides-base-pair-with-other-free-nucleotides/7580
*  NTP binding site
... an ntp binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate nmp kinase s n can be adenosine or guanosine a p loop is one of the structural motif s common for nucleoside triphosphate ntp binding sites it interacts with the bound nucleotide s phosphoryl groups for the binding site to be able to bind a nucleotide the nucleotide must be complex bound to mg or mn nucleotide binding will cause conformational changes in the protein because the p loop will bend category enzymes category nucleosides category nucleotides...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NTP_binding_site
*  Biobase.RNA
... Source. Contents. Index Biobase-0.0.2.0: Base library for bioinformatics. Biobase.RNA. Contents. single nucleotide encoding Represent nucleotide sequences using an unboxed vector. Encoding of Watson-Crick and Wobble Pairs in the Vienna RNA package style. convenience lists Transformations between Nucleotide and ViennaPair. Description. Encodings for nucleotides and pairs. Currently very ViennaRNA-centric. This might change over time. TODO do not export Nucleotide ctor. Synopsis. newtype Nucleotide = Nucleotide Int. nucCharList ::. charNucList ::. charToNucleotide :: Char - Nucleotide. nucleotideToChar :: Nucleotide - Char type Primary = PrimArray Int Nucleotide class MkPrimary a where. mkPrimary :: a - Primary. unPrimary :: Primary - a. newtype ViennaPair = ViennaPair Int. vpStrList ::. strVpList ::. toPair :: Nucleotide - Nucleotide - ViennaPair. pairs :: Nucleotide - Nucleotide - Bool. single nucleotide encoding. newtype Nucleotide Source. Constructors. Nucleotide Int. Instances. Bounded Nucleotide. Enu...
http://hackage.haskell.org/package/Biobase-0.0.2.0/docs/Biobase-RNA.html
*  nucleotides
Nitrogen bases. VBS Home page, VBS Course Navigator, Basic Chemistry, Biochemical Gallery, Nucleotides and Nucleic acids, Previous Page, Next Page, top of page. Previous Page, Next Page, Top of page. First the genetic material DNA is a polymer of four different nucleotides. Polymers of nucleotides such as DNA and the several types of RNA in the body are called nucleic acids. VBS Home page, VBS Course Navigator, Basic Chemistry, Biochemical Gallery, Nucleotides and Nucleic acids, Previous Page, Next Page, Top of page. Nitrogen bases. Previous Page, Next Page, Top of page. In nucleotides there may any one of a number of nitrogen bases. Nitrogen bases are functional groups consisting of one or two rings containing both carbon and nitrogen. Adenine monophosphate, AMP and cytosine monophosphate, CMP illustrate the two basic types of nucleotide nitrogen bases. Previous Page, Next Page, Top of page. Purines are nitrogen containing bases consisting of two rings. AMP's nitrogen base has two nitrogen bearing rings Nitr...
http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/biochemistry/nucleotides.html
*  www.genomebiology.com - Table 3
www genomebiology com table table overlap of cdna loci all loci and loci where all mers are unique with g mo r se models all cdna clusters cdnas clusters where all mers are unique percentage of cdna exonic nucleotides covered by models cdna clusters overlapped on nucleotide by models cdna clusters overlapped on nucleotides by models denoeud et al genome biology r doi gb r...
http://genomebiology.com/2008/9/12/R175/table/T3
*  Rodney Aller
... rodney goddard aller october march was an american lawyer naval officer and masters skier he won several medals in masters skiing including four gold medals in world championship masters skiing in in abetone italy he died of pneumonia in aller graduated from princeton university in earned a law degree from yale law school and served in the united states navy during world war ii references aller boasts four gold medals in world championship masters skiing by cynthia hochswender staff reporter lakeville journal ct may reproduced at category princeton university alumni category yale law school alumni category american lawyers category births category deaths category american male alpine skiers...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodney_Aller
*  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Chiral Peptide Nucleic Acids with a Substituent in the N-(2-Aminoethy)g
Chiral Peptide Nucleic Acids with a Substituent in the N- 2-Aminoethy glycine Backbone. Previous Article in Journal Unexpected Behavior of Enaminones: Interesting New Routes to 1,6-Naphthyridines, 2-Oxopyrrolidines and Pyrano naphthyridines Previous Article in Special Issue Oxime-Based Carbonates as Useful Reagents for Both N- Protection and Peptide Coupling. all Erratum Addendum Article Book Review Case Report Comment Commentary Communication Concept Paper Conference Report Correction Creative Data Descriptor Discussion Editorial Essay Interesting Images Letter New Book Received Obituary Opinion Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue. Molecules 2013, 18 1, 287-310; doi: 10.3390/molecules18010287 Review Chiral Peptide Nucleic Acids with a Substituent in the N - 2-Aminoethy glycine Backbone Toru Sugiyama 1, *. 1 Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan. Received: 14 December 2012 ...
http://mdpi.com/1420-3049/18/1/287
*  A rapid coupling protocol for the synthesis of peptide nucleic acids | Swinburne Research Bank
A rapid coupling protocol for the synthesis of peptide nucleic acids. Swinburne Research Bank. Please be patient while the object screen loads. Faculties TAFE. Current Students. My.Swinburne. Search. Study at Swinburne. Business Industry. Swinburne Research Bank. Copyright. Contact. Search Swinburne Research Bank. All items Advanced Search. 1101 Medical Biochemistry and Metabolomics. List of Titles A rapid coupling protocol for the synthesis of peptide nucleic acids. Title A rapid coupling protocol for the synthesis of peptide nucleic acids Author s. Abstract With the current interest in anti-sense and anti-gene technologies, an efficient, fast and less toxic synthesis protocol would be advantageous for the oligomerisation of Peptide Nucleic Acids PNA. In this work, a rapid synthesis protocol has been adapted from an earlier published peptide synthesis method allowing a reduction in cycle time from around 30 min down to 16 min. By utilising quantitative deprotection with 100% TFA, a coupling time of 10 min an...
http://researchbank.swinburne.edu.au/vital/access/manager/Repository/swin:15264?exact=subject.for:"0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology"&f0=subject:"1101 Medical Biochemistry and Metabolomics"
*  P E Nielsen
2007 Antisense peptide nucleic acids P E Nielsen Center for Biomolecular Recognition, Department for Biochemistry and Genetics, Laboratory B, The Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK 2200 N Copenhagen, Denmark Curr Opin Mol Ther 2:282-7. 2000 Targeting double stranded DNA with peptide nucleic acid PNA P E Nielsen Center for Biomolecular Recognition, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, The Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3, Copenhagen N, DK 2200, Denmark Curr Med Chem 8:545-50. Antisense peptide nucleic acids P E Nielsen Center for Biomolecular Recognition, Department for Biochemistry and Genetics, Laboratory B, The Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK 2200 N Copenhagen, Denmark Curr Opin Mol Ther 2:282-7. Targeting double stranded DNA with peptide nucleic acid PNA P E Nielsen Center for Biomolecular Recognition, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, The Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3, Copenhagen N, DK 2200, Denmark Curr Med Chem 8:545-50. Combined triplex/duplex invasion of double-stranded ...
http://labome.org/expert/denmark/university/nielsen/p-e-nielsen-174352.html
*  Peptide nucleic acid combinatorial libraries and improved methods of synthesis - Isis Pharmaceutical
A method of adding further random peptide nucleic acid units to an amine terminated peptide nucleic acid oligomer on a solid phase synthesis resin comprising the steps of: a treating said amine terminated oligomer on said solid phase synthesis resin with a bifunctional acetyl synthon to react a first reactive site of said bifunctional acetyl synthon with said terminal amine of said oligomer to form a resin bound oligomer having a monofunctional acetyl moiety thereon; b selecting an alkyldiamine synthon having the first of its amino functional groups in the form of a protected amino group and the other of its amino functions groups as a free amine; c treating said resin bound oligomer having said monofunctional acetyl moiety thereon with said alkyldiamine synthon to covalently bond said acetyl moiety and said free amine group of said alkyldiamine synthon forming a resin bound oligomer having an extension thereon where said extension includes a secondary amine and a protected amino group; d dividing said resin ...
http://freepatentsonline.com/5539083.html
*  Peptide nucleic acid
... 'Peptide nucleic acid' 'PNA' is an artificially synthesized polymer similar to DNA or RNA invented by Peter E. Due to their higher binding strength it is not necessary to design long PNA oligomers for use in these roles, which usually require oligonucleotide probes of 20–25 bases. PNA oligomers also show greater specificity in binding to complementary DNAs, with a PNA/DNA base mismatch being more destabilizing than a similar mismatch in a DNA/DNA duplex. Structure PNA binding Delivery PNA world hypothesis Applications See also References Further reading. DNA and RNA have a deoxyribose and ribose sugar backbone, respectively, whereas PNA's backbone is composed of repeating N- 2-aminoethyl -glycine units linked by peptide bond s. PNAs are depicted like peptide s, with the N -terminus at the first left position and the C -terminus at the last right position. 2 PNA binding. Since the backbone of PNA contains no charged phosphate groups, the binding between PNA/DNA strands is stronger than between DNA/DNA str...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptide_nucleic_acid
*  Peptide Nucleic Acids Modified Nano-Biosensor for Early Cancer Diagnosis
... Technical Conferences. Business Conferences. Nano Impact Workshop. Venue / Hotels. Nanotech 2007 Home Program. Sessions. Sunday. Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday. Index of Authors. Index of Keywords. Confirmed Speakers. Conferences Symposia. Expo / Sponsors. Sponsors. Media Sponsors. 2007 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show - Nanotech 2007 - 10 th Annual. Program At-a-Glance Sessions Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Index of Authors Index of Keywords Confirmed Speakers Conferences Symposia. Peptide Nucleic Acids Modified Nano-Biosensor for Early Cancer Diagnosis. Keywords: PNA synthesis, DNA methylation, nano-biosensor, cancer detection. DNA methylation is one of two epigenetic alterations. A distinct set of tumor types has a high level of hypermethylation in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes. The analysis of the promoter methylation status will be one of the promising strategies for cancer early diagnosis. In order to make robust biosensor surface, we synthesized PNA se...
http://nsti.org/Nanotech2007/showabstract.html?absno=177
*  Search Results
Journals Artificial DNA, PNA XNA 64 less. Sugiyama, Hiroshi Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA 2014;5:e28226. Rozners, Eriks Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA 2013;4 3 :69-76. doi:10.4161/adna.26599 PMCID: PMC3962516 PMID: 24104925 PNA backbone modification; PNA-RNA triple helix; isothermal titration calorimetry; peptide nucleic acid; recognition of double-stranded RNA Related Articles. Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA 2013;4 2 :35-36. doi:10.4161/adna.24680 PMCID: PMC3771995 PMID: 23603781. O’ Driscoll, Aisling Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA 2013;4 2 :37-38. doi:10.4161/adna.25489 PMCID: PMC3771996 PMID: 23912716 synthetic DNA; diagnostics; information; storage; identification Related Articles. Obika, Satoshi Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA 2013;4 2 :39-48. doi:10.4161/adna.25786 PMCID: PMC3771997 PMID: 24044051 2′,4′-BNA/LNA; KODDNA polymerase; Bridged locked nucleic acid aptamer; Capillary electrophoresis-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment CE-SELEX ; Xeno-nucleic acid XNA Related Articles. Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA 20...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/solr/reg?pageSize=25&term=issn:1949-0968&sortby=score desc
*  Patent US6469151 - PNA-DNA chimeric probe arrays and methods of use - Google Patents
... Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive. More. Sign in. Advanced Patent Search. Patents. The invention provides methods, kits, and compositions for ligation of PNA-DNA chimeric probes and oligonucleotides when they are hybridized adjacently to template nucleic acids using ligases and ligation reagents. Structural requirements of the chimeras for ligation include 5 to 15 contiguous PNA monomer... http://www.google.com.au/patents/US6469151?utm source=gb-gplus-share Patent US6469151 - PNA-DNA chimeric probe arrays and methods of use Advanced Patent Search Publication number US6469151 B1. Publication type Grant. Application number US 09/881,557. Publication date 22 Oct 2002. Filing date 14 Jun 2001. Priority date 8 Oct 1999. Fee status Paid. Also published as CA2353801A1,. DE60016947D1,. DE60016947T2,. EP1220953A2,. EP1220953B1,. US6297016,. US20020177133,. WO2001027326A2,. WO2001027326A3. Publication number 09881557, 881557, US 6469151 B1, US 6469151B1, US-B1-6469151, US6469151 B1, US6469151B1. Inv...
http://google.com.au/patents/US6469151?ie=ISO-8859-1
*  RNA targeting with peptide conjugates of oligonucleotides, siRNA and PNA.
... MedLine Citation:. Towards the development of oligonucleotide analogues and siRNA as drugs, one potential alternative to the use of liposomal transfection agents is the covalent conjugation of a cell-penetrating peptide CPP , with the intention of imparting on the oligonucleotide or siRNA an enhanced ability to enter mammalian cells and reach the appropriate RNA target. We have developed robust methods for the chemical synthesis of disulfide-linked conjugates of oligonucleotide analogues, siRNA and peptide nucleic acids PNA with a range of cationic and other CPPs. In a HeLa cell assay with integrated plasmid reporters of Tat-dependent trans-activation at the TAR RNA target in the cell nucleus, we were unable to obtain steric block inhibition of gene expression for conjugates of CPPs with a 12-mer oligonucleotide mixmer of 2'-O-methyl and locked nucleic acids units. By contrast, we were able to obtain some reductions in expression of P38alpha MAP kinase mRNA in HeLa cells using microM concentrations of Pe...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/RNA-targeting-with-peptide-conjugates/17113327.html
*  NIF | Searching in Literature
NIF. Searching in Literature. SciCrunch relies heavily on JavaScript. Many functions on the site will not work if you continue with JavaScript disabled. Login. Register. NIF LinkOut Portal. About. Add a Resource. Literature. Go. X. Sign In. Log In. X Forgot Password. If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email. Send. X. Leaving Community. Are you sure you want to leave this community. Leaving the community will revoke any permissions you have been granted in this community. No. Yes. Literature. Home Literature. Nanoparticle-based therapy in an in vivo microRNA-155 miR-155 -dependent mouse model of lymphoma. MicroRNA-155 miR-155 is an oncogenic microRNA that regulates several pathways involved in cell division and immunoregulation. It is overexpressed in numerous cancers, is often correlated with poor prognosis, and is thus a key target for future therapies. In this work we show that overexpression of miR-155 in lymphoid tissues results in d...
https://scicrunch.org/22685206/resource/nif-0000-34000
*  Synthese modifizierter Peptidnukleinsäuren und deren Anwendung zur DNA-Analyse - heiDOK
Boll, Iris English Title: Synthesis of modified peptide nucleic acids and their application for DNA analysis. In dieser Arbeit wurde die katalytische Hydrolyse einer Ester-PNA durch ein Cu2+-Komplex-PNA-Konjugat untersucht, die sowohl durch Einzelstrang-DNA als auch durch Doppelstrang-DNA gesteuert werden kann. Translation of abstract English Within this study metal complex functionalized peptide nucleic acids und internally modified peptide nucleic acids were synthesized and their reactions on DNA templates have been investigated. In this study a reaction of catalytic ester-PNA hydrolysis by Cu II complex-PNA conjugates, which is triggered by single-stranded DNA as well as double-stranded DNA as templates, has been investigated. The hydrolysis of an ester-PNA on a single-stranded DNA template catalysed by a copper complex of a catalyst-PNA provides 100 fold kinetic discrimination between DNAs, which are different from each other only at a single nucleotide position. In the presence of a double-stranded DNA t...
http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/5738/
*  publications-ttakahashi
18.Takahashi T, Ueno A, Mihara H.: Nucleobase amino acids incorporated into the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein increased the binding affinity and specificity for a hairpin RNA. 19.Takahashi T, Hamasaki K, Ueno A, Mihara H.: Construction of peptides with nucleobase amino acids: design and synthesis of the nucleobase-conjugated peptides derived from HIV-1 Rev and their binding properties to HIV-1 RRE RNA. 20.Balasundaram G, Takahashi T, Ueno A, Mihara H.: Construction of peptide conjugates with peptide nucleic acids containing an anthracene probe and their interactions with DNA. 21.Kumagai I, Takahashi T, Hamasaki K, Ueno A, Mihara H.: HIV-1 Rev peptides conjugated with peptide nucleic acids and their efficient binding to RRE RNA. 22.Takahashi T, Hamasaki K, Kumagai I, Ueno A, Mihara H.: Design of a nucleobase-conjugated peptide that recognizes HIV-1 RRE IIB RNA with high affinity and specificity. 24.Kumagai I, Takahashi T, Hamasaki K, Ueno A, Mihara H.: Construction of HIV Rev peptides containing peptide nucleic a...
http://asrldu.dept.med.gunma-u.ac.jp/ttakahashi/publications-ttakahashi.html
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | RNA Interference in Mammalia Cells by RNA-3’-PNA Chimeras | HTML
Keywords: modified siRNA; RNA interference; RNA-PNA chimeras; Peptide Nucleic Acids; RNA. Peptide Nucleic Acids PNAs are oligonucleotide mimics in which the sugar-phosphate backbone has been replaced by a pseudo-peptide backbone. In the present work, we report the synthesis of siRNAs composed of RNA-PNA chimeras, their chemical-physical characterization and the evaluation of their gene silencing activity in cultured mammalian cells, based on their ability to target the firefly luciferase mRNA. Then, the oligomers were combined to form siRNAs in the four possible combinations Table 1 : siRNA A, with unmodified sense and antisense strands; siRNA B, with modified sense strand and unmodified antisense strand; siRNA C, with unmodified sense strand and modified antisense strand; siRNA D, with modified sense and antisense strands. 2.2 Compatibility of RNA-3’-PNA chimeras with the siRNA machinery To verify the compatibility of PNA units into siRNA with the RNAi machinery, we have evaluated the different siRNAs for th...
http://mdpi.com/1422-0067/9/3/299/htm
*  Synthese modifizierter Oligonucleotid-Sonden für den DNA-Nachweis durch katalytische Signalamplif
... ikation - heiDOK. Synthese modifizierter Oligonucleotid-Sonden für den DNA-Nachweis durch katalytische Signalamplifikation. Graf, Nora Julie Charlotte English Title: Synthesis of Modified Oligonucleotide Probes for DNA Detection by Catalytic Signal Amplification. Abstract Die Arbeit behandelt die Synthese Metallkomplex-funktionalisierter Oligonucleotide und Peptidnucleinsäuren PNAs und deren Anwendung als Sonden für den sequenzspezifischen DNA-Nachweis. Für die Nachweisreaktionen, die auf Signalverstärkung beruhen, wurden Konjugate von DNA-Oligonucleotiden mit Metallkomplexen synthetisiert, die bei Hybridisierung mit komplementärer DNA das Metallion CuII, ZnII freisetzen. Das CuII-Ion bzw. Translation of abstract English The thesis covers the synthesis of metal complex functionalized oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids PNA and their application for DNA sequence detection, including both metal catalysis on DNA templates and signal cascades with chemical or enzymatic amplification. A nucleic acid tem...
http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/6945/
*  Research Resource
... Resource. Programmable self-assembled nanostructures based on sidechain-modified pna for the multivalent display of ligands U.S. Patent Number EP 2569328 A2. Share External Link Disclaimer. Acronym: Not Available. NIDDK Contact:. tao@niddk.nih.gov. Principal Investigator s :. Daniel Appella. Resource Link:. http://www.google.com/patents/EP2569328A2?cl=en. Description:. The invention concerns compositions comprising strands of polynucleotide and strands of PNA, each PNA strand comprising:. i from 2 to 50 nucleobase subunits and. ii one or more gamma substituents. The PNA strands are complementary to at least a portion of at least some of the polynucleotide strands, and the molar ratio of PNA strands to polynucleotide strands being at least 1:1. Certain gamma substituents are capable of effecting attachment of a PNA strand to a cell. The invention also concerns construction of nanostructure platforms and vaccines and use of the inventive compositions in inhibiting disease states in mammals. Click outside o...
http://niddk.nih.gov/pages/RRSplash.aspx?ID=355
*  Xeno nucleic acid
... 'Xeno nucleic acid XNA ' is a synthetic alternative to the natural nucleic acids DNA and RNA as information-storing biopolymer s that differs in the sugar backbone. 1 As of 2011, at least six types of synthetic sugars have been shown to form nucleic acid backbones that can store and retrieve genetic information. Thus the genetic information stored in XNA is “invisible” and therefore useless to natural DNA-based organisms. 2 Background Structure Implications Applications See also References. Now, two of the leading teams studying XNA, synthetic biology professors Philipp Holliger and Vitor Pinheiro, both from the University of Cambridge, managed to create the XNA equivalent of a Ribozyme, enzymes made of DNA or ribonucleic acid; This demonstrates that XNAs not only store hereditary information, but can also serve as enzymes, raising the possibility that life elsewhere could have began with something other than RNA or DNA. A nucleotide is made up of three chemical components: a phosphate, a five-carbon sug...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xeno_nucleic_acid
*  Publications - 1999 | Gellman Research Group
Publications - 1999. Gellman Research Group. Skip to main content. Home Research Publications Group Members. Alumni. Publications - 1999. All. 1989. 1990. 1991. 1992. 1993. 1994. 1995. 1996. 1997. 1998. 1999. 2000. 2001. 2002. 2003. 2004. 2005. 2006. 2007. 2008. 2009. 2010. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014. 2015. 76 "NMR-Based Quantification of β -Sheet Populations in Aqueous Solution Through Use of Reference Peptides for the Folded and Unfolded States," F. A Syud, J. F Espinosa and S. H Gellman J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 11577. . 75 "Non-Hydrogen Bonded Secondary Structures in β -Peptides: Evidence from Circular Dichroism of S -Pyrrolidine-3-Carboxylic Acid Oligomers and S -Nipecotic Acid Oligomers," B. R Huck, J. R Langenhan and S. H Gellman Org. Lett. 1999, 1, 1717. . 74 "Synthesis and Characterization of Helix-Forming β -Peptides: trans -2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid oligomers," D. H Appella, L. A Christianson, D. A Klein, M. R Richards, D. R Powell and S. H Gellman J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 7574. 73 "Syn...
http://gellman.chem.wisc.edu/publications/1999
*  Glycol nucleic acid
... ' Glycol nucleic acid' GNA is a polymer similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its "backbone". GNA is not known to occur naturally; they are synthesized chemically. The 2,3-dihydroxypropylnucleoside analogues were first prepared by Ueda et al. Soon thereafter it was shown that phosphate-linked oligomers of the analogues do in fact exhibit hypochromicity in the presence of RNA and DNA in solution Seita et al. The preparation of the polymers was later described by Cook et al. 1995, 1999 and Acevedo and Andrews 1996. The GNA-GNA self-pairing described by Zhang and Meggers is however novel, and the specificity of interaction well-demonstrated. DNA and RNA have a deoxyribose and ribose sugar backbone, respectively, whereas GNA's backbone is composed of repeating glycol units linked by phosphodiester bond s. The glycol unit has just three carbon atoms and still shows Watson-Crick base pairing. The Watson-Crick base pairing is much more stable in GNA than its natural counterparts DNA and RNA ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycol_nucleic_acid
*  Chemical Candidate to Carry Genetic Information in Earliest Life | Answers in Genesis
Chemical Candidate to Carry Genetic Information in Earliest Life. Answers in Genesis. Answers in Genesis. Science. Chemical Candidate to Carry Genetic Information in Earliest Life Forms. Chemical Candidate to Carry Genetic Information in Earliest Life Forms. Science Daily : “ Scientists Discover Possible Building Blocks of Ancient Genetic Systems in Earth's Most Primitive Organisms ” Evolutionary scientists suggest a simple chemical candidate to carry genetic information in the earliest life forms. Evolutionists hypothesize that before DNA evolved, RNA did the job of coding and duplicating information as well as directing construction of simple life forms. “Before RNA-based organisms arose, peptide nucleic acids may have been used to transmit genetic information by the earliest forms of life on earth,” 1 writes a team of American and Swedish scientists who have discovered a potential building block for PNAs in cyanobacteria. This simple molecular building block AEG could hypothetically polymerize to form a co...
https://answersingenesis.org/chemistry/chemical-candidate-carry-genetic-information/
*  Oligomer
2 Dimers, trimers, and tetramer s are, for instance, oligomers composed of two, three and four monomers, respectively. In the context of biochemistry, an oligomer usually refers to a macromolecular complex formed by non-covalent bonding of a few macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids. In this sense, a homo-oligomer would be formed by few identical molecules and by contrast, a hetero-oligomer would be made of more than one, different, macromolecules. Collagen is an example of a homo-oligomeric protein that is composed of three identical protein chains. In biochemistry, the term oligonucleotide – or, informally, "oligo" - is used for short, single-stranded nucleic acid fragments, such as DNA or RNA, or similar fragments of analogs of nucleic acids such as peptide nucleic acid or Morpholino s. 5 When an oligomer forms as a result of chain transfer the oligomer is called a ' telomer ' and the process telomerization. {{Quote box |title = IUPAC definition |quote = 'Oligomer molecule': A molecule of intermedi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligomer
*  Nucleic Acids ( Read ) | Biology | CK-12 Foundation
Nucleic Acids Read. Biology. CK-12 Foundation meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/". iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-WVB47G" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden" /iframe. Donate. Help. Join. Sign In. Library. Help. Donate. Join. Sign In. Nucleic Acids. Examples: DNA, RNA. Progress. Practice Nucleic Acids Practice. Progress. 0% Practice Now. Biology. Video. Web Links. Real World. Web Links. Real World. Share to Groups. Details. Resources. Published. Nucleic Acids. Nucleic acids. Deoxyribo nucleic acid, or DNA, is the unique blueprints to make the proteins that give you your traits. Half of these blueprints come from your mother, and half from your father. Therefore, every person that has ever lived - except for identical twins - has his or her own unique set of blueprints - or instructions - or DNA. Nucleic Acids A nucleic acid is an organic compound, such as DNA or RNA, that is built of small units called nucleotides. Structure of Nucleic Acids ...
http://ck12.org/biology/Nucleic-Acids/lesson/user:YmFzdGFwcGVyZmVubmVAd3NmY3MuazEyLm5jLnVz/Nucleic-Acids/r1/
*  Certis USA to Launch New Biofungicide Formulation Containing Polyoxin D Zinc Salt with Exemption of
... Tolerance on All Food Crops. Business Wire. Certis USA to Launch New Biofungicide Formulation Containing Polyoxin D Zinc Salt with Exemption of Tolerance on All Food Crops. BUSINESS WIRE -- Certis USA L.L.C. of Tokyo, Japan, to introduce a new polyoxin D zinc salt formulation to the U.S. market under two trade names: "TAVANO™ 5%SC Fungicide" for use on grapes and small fruits including strawberries, and "OSO™ 5%SC Fungicide" for use on citrus, cucurbits, fruiting and leafy vegetables, potatoes and numerous other crops. Polyoxin D zinc salt was first registered for food use in the U.S. EPA has recently expanded the tolerance exemption to include polyoxin D zinc salt residues in/on all food commodities. Polyoxin D zinc salt is a novel, broad spectrum fungicide with proven efficacy against Alternaria leaf blight and early blight, Botrytis , powdery mildew and other diseases on grapes, strawberries, cucurbits, fruiting and leafy vegetables, potatoes, citrus and other crops. This unique, non-toxic mode of act...
http://businesswire.com/news/home/20121204005578/en/Certis-USA-Launch-Biofungicide-Formulation-Polyoxin-Zinc
*  Polyoxins
... thumb polyoxin d polyoxins are a group of nucleoside antibiotics composed of heterocyclic moieties containing nitrogen an example is polyoxin b brock biology of microrganisms pearson education limited madigan et al pg polyoxins work by inhibiting the biosynthesis of chitin biology of microorganisms pearson education limited brock pg references category antibiotics...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyoxins
*  Ribosylpyrimidine nucleosidase
... in enzymology a ribosylpyrimidine nucleosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a pyrimidine nucleoside h o rightleftharpoons d ribose a pyrimidine base thus the two substrates of this enzyme are pyrimidine nucleoside and h o whereas its two products are d ribose and pyrimidine base this enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolase s specifically those glycosylases that hydrolyse n glycosyl compounds the systematic name of this enzyme class is pyrimidine nucleoside ribohydrolase other names in common use include n ribosylpyrimidine nucleosidase pyrimidine nucleosidase n ribosylpyrimidine ribohydrolase pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase rihb yeik and nucleoside ribohydrolase this enzyme participates in purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism structural studies as of late two structures have been solved for this class of enzymes with pdb accession codes and references category ec category enzymes of known structure...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribosylpyrimidine_nucleosidase
*  Concentrative nucleoside transporter
... human concentrative nucleoside transporters include slc a slc a and slc a proteins slc a is a purine specific na nucleoside cotransporter localised to the bile canalicular membrane slc a is a na dependent nucleoside transporter selective for pyrimidine nucleosides and adenosine it also transports the anti viral nucleoside analogues zidovudine and zalcitabine references category protein families category transmembrane transporters...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentrative_nucleoside_transporter
*  Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites.: Micro Four Thirds Talk Forum: Digital Photography
... Review. Reviews. Sample Images. Videos. Lenses. Forums. Forum index. Micro Four Thirds Talk Change forum Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Shop cameras lenses ▾. Forum Parent First Previous Next Next unread. jericho77. Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013. Reply to thread Reply with quote. Forum Parent First Previous Next Next unread. Posted by When Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013 3. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Aug 5, 2013. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. jericho77. Aug 5, 2013. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Aug 5, 2013 1. Re: Panasonic 14mm F2.5 review data at various sites. Alumna Gorp. Aug 5, 2013. ...
http://dpreview.com/forums/post/51930238
*  The genetic basis of a plant-insect coevolutionary key innovation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (PDF Downl
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA PDF Download Available. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. © 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA www.pnas.org?cgi?doi?10.1073?pnas.0706229104PNAS. fossil calibrated, Bayesian relaxed molecular clock estimation of the Pierinae–Coliadinae divergence. Fossil and molecular data agree that the Brassicales appeared by 90 to 85 Mya, which is much earlier than the parallel evolution of glucosinolates in the Euphorbiaceae 58 Mya 28. In this article, we directly address the timing of the appearance of the glucosinolate-feeding Pierinae, using several independent molecular datasets and various calibration methods to generate a robust estimate of when Pieridae evolved relative to their Brassicales host plants. Pieridae-specific temporal reconstruction used a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock method on EF-1. Current and expected diversity, and divergence estimates for the Coliadinae and Pierinae subfamilies of Pieridae. However, there are significantly more species of Pierinae than expected, eve...
http://researchgate.net/publication/5771953_The_genetic_basis_of_a_plant-insect_coevolutionary_key_innovation._Proc_Natl_Acad_Sci_USA
*  Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protecti
... ve biofilms -- ScienceDaily. Your source for the latest research news. Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protective biofilms. Date: April 26, 2012 Source: The Scripps Research Institute Summary: Scientists have unraveled a complex chemical pathway that enables bacteria to form clusters called biofilms. Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have unraveled a complex chemical pathway that enables bacteria to form clusters called biofilms. Past research had also revealed that nitric oxide is involved in influencing bacterial biofilm formation. Nitric Oxide Modulates Bacterial Biofilm Formation through a Multicomponent Cyclic-di-GMP Signaling Network. The Scripps Research Institute. "Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protective biofilms." ScienceDaily. The Scripps Research Institute. Mystery of bacterial growth and resistance solved: Findings shed light on how bacteria form protective biof...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120426135128.htm
*  Mankin Lab - Publications
Browse by year: 2014    2013    2012    2011    2010    2009    2008    2007    2006    2005    2004    2003    2002    2001    2000    1999    1998    1997    1996    1995   . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111, 9804-9809. 2014 The general mode of translation inhibition by macrolide antibiotics Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111, 15958–15963. Top. Top. Top. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 5931-5932. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 10496-10501. Vázquez-Laslop, N., Ramu, H., Mankin, A. 2011 Nascent peptide in the ribosome exit tunnel affects functional properties of the A-Site of the peptidyl transferase center Mol Cell 41, 321-330. Top. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 1983-1988. A., Xiong, L., Mankin, A. H D 2010 Structures of the Escherichia coli ribosome with antibiotics bound near the peptidyl transferase center explain spectra of drug action Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 17152-...
http://mankinlab.cpb.uic.edu/cgi-bin/publication.cgi
*  GO:1900911 regulation of olefin biosynthetic process
... Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. QuickGO A fast browser for Gene Ontology terms and annotations. EBI Databases QuickGO GO:1900911 regulation of olefin biosynthetic process. Search for terms by keyword or ID: apoptosis GO:0006915 Search for proteins by name or accession: tropomyosin P06727. Web Services. Dataset. Term Basket. Term Information ID GO:1900911. Name regulation of olefin biosynthetic process. Ontology Biological Process. Definition Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of olefin biosynthetic process. GONUTS GO:1900911 Wiki Page. Synonyms. Synonyms are alternative words or phrases closely related in meaning to the term name, with indication of the relationship between the name and synonym given by the synonym scope. Click on the icon for more details. Type Synonym. exact regulation of olefin synthesis. exact regulation of olefin biosynthesis. exact regulation of olefin formation. exact regulation of olefin anabolism. Ancestor Chart This chart is interactive; ...
http://ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/GTerm?id=GO:1900911
*  Albums by Smokey Robinson : Rhapsody
... JavaScript is disabled in your browser settings. rhapsody.com requires JavaScript. Cancel. Free trial. x Music. Apps Devices. Pricing. Sign up. Company Info. Careers. Press Media. Partners. Account. Customer Support. Redeem Coupon. Buy a Gift. 2015 Rhapsody International Inc. ×. Rhapsody App for. Rhapsody International, Inc. Get app. Have the app. Music Apps Devices Pricing Listen Now Try Rhapsody. Sign In. Home. / Music. / Soul/R B. / Motown. / Smokey Robinson. / Facebook. Twitter. Albums by Smokey Robinson. Main Releases. Play. Smokey & Friends. Smokey Robinson. Play. Be Near Me. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Motown Years Live. Smokey Robinson. Play. Ev'ry Man Should Know. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Solo Anthology. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Stripped Mixes. Smokey Robinson. Play. Time Flies When You're Having Fun. Smokey Robinson. Play. Love Songs. Smokey Robinson. Play. Timeless Love. Smokey Robinson. Play. The Definitive Collection. Smokey Robinson. Play. 20th Century Masters: The Millennium Collection....
http://rhapsody.com/artist/smokey-robinson/albums
*  Robinson News | News | News Releases | Robinson Memorial Hospital
-Any- Foundation News Robinson News. Foundation Awards Scholarships Benefitting Employees September 25, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the awarding of 9 scholarships to employees of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Rob... Robinson wins NorthCoast 99 Award 12 years in a row September 4, 2014 Robinson Memorial Hospital again has been named as one of the best 99 places to work in Northeast Ohio by the Employers Resource Council. Osteoporosis event to celebrate healthy aging month September 4, 2014 During Robinson Memorial Hospital’s celebration of healthy aging month, there will be a program on Osteoporosis on Wednesday, September 10 from 6 ... Foundation Awards Student Scholarships July 10, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the award of seven scholarships to children of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Robi... Robinson Wound Care Center Joins Healogics, Inc. to Raise Awareness of Chronic Wounds May 29, 2014 The Robinson Wound Care Center at ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/news-releases/451.aspx?email=1
*  Robinson News | News | News Releases | Robinson Memorial Hospital
-Any- Foundation News Robinson News. Foundation Awards Scholarships Benefitting Employees September 25, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the awarding of 9 scholarships to employees of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Rob... Robinson wins NorthCoast 99 Award 12 years in a row September 4, 2014 Robinson Memorial Hospital again has been named as one of the best 99 places to work in Northeast Ohio by the Employers Resource Council. Osteoporosis event to celebrate healthy aging month September 4, 2014 During Robinson Memorial Hospital’s celebration of healthy aging month, there will be a program on Osteoporosis on Wednesday, September 10 from 6 ... Foundation Awards Student Scholarships July 10, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the award of seven scholarships to children of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Robi... Robinson Wound Care Center Joins Healogics, Inc. to Raise Awareness of Chronic Wounds May 29, 2014 The Robinson Wound Care Center at ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/news-releases/fuchs_appointed_as_general_counsel_16.aspx
*  Robinson News | News | News Releases | Robinson Memorial Hospital
-Any- Foundation News Robinson News. Foundation Awards Scholarships Benefitting Employees September 25, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the awarding of 9 scholarships to employees of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Rob... Robinson wins NorthCoast 99 Award 12 years in a row September 4, 2014 Robinson Memorial Hospital again has been named as one of the best 99 places to work in Northeast Ohio by the Employers Resource Council. Osteoporosis event to celebrate healthy aging month September 4, 2014 During Robinson Memorial Hospital’s celebration of healthy aging month, there will be a program on Osteoporosis on Wednesday, September 10 from 6 ... Foundation Awards Student Scholarships July 10, 2014 The Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation is pleased to announce the award of seven scholarships to children of Robinson Memorial Hospital and Robi... Robinson Wound Care Center Joins Healogics, Inc. to Raise Awareness of Chronic Wounds May 29, 2014 The Robinson Wound Care Center at ...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/news-releases/robinson_memorial_presents_poster_at_the_apic_annu_494.aspx?email=1
*  Robinson Health Center at Aurora | Robinson Memorial Hospital
robinson health center at aurora robinson memorial hospital about us foundation volunteer speaker s bureau press room contact us patients visitors medical services nursing find a doctor locations careers patient portal home locations robinson health center at aurora robinson health center at aurora walden place aurora ohio the robinson health center at aurora offers expert physicians personalized care and the latest in medical technology in one convenient location services and physician practices aurora primary care diagnostic x ray and laboratory services northeast ohio ob gyn robinson rehab center and sport clinic directions view larger map your name your email recipient email your comments word verification visitors patient portal key phone numbers visiting hours wheelchair assistance wi fi at robinson memorial hospital locations robinson memorial hospital robinson medical arts building robinson professional center robinson health center at aurora robinson health center at brimfield robinson health center ...
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*  Home | Robinson Memorial Hospital
Robinson Memorial Hospital. ABOUT US FOUNDATION VOLUNTEER SPEAKER'S BUREAU PRESS ROOM CONTACT US. Patients Visitors. Medical Services. Nursing. Find a Doctor. Locations. Careers. Patient Portal. Classes Events. Holiday Journeys - Grief Support. Mon, Oct 5, 2015. 2:00 PM - 4:00 PM. Holiday Journeys - Grief Support. Mon, Oct 5, 2015. 6:30 PM - 8:30 PM. Ostomy Support Group. Mon, Oct 5, 2015. 7:00 PM - 9:00 PM. Diabetes Support Group. Tue, Oct 6, 2015. 5:00 PM - 6:00 PM. Tue, Oct 6, 2015. 5:00 PM - 6:30 PM. Robinson In The News Robinson Memorial Hospital is now UH Portage Medical Center. Robinson Health System becomes part of University Hospitals on June 1. Robinson Memorial hosts 21st Annual Nursing Research Day. Robinson Memorial Hospital Foundation Hosts 2015 Robinson Society and Heritage Society Distinguished Giving Recognition. Doctors Receiving Top Scores in Patient Satisfaction Congratulations to the following doctors who rank in the 90th percentile on the Press Ganey Patient Satisfaction Survey. Jessica ...
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*  Rehabilitation | Robinson Memorial Hospital
Rehabilitation. Robinson Memorial Hospital. ABOUT US FOUNDATION VOLUNTEER SPEAKER'S BUREAU PRESS ROOM CONTACT US. Patients Visitors. Medical Services. Locations. Patient Portal. Medical Services. Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation. The Robinson Rehab Center and Sport Clinic works to rehabilitate each patient to his or her maximum potential and works to provide the patient with the necessary skills to maintain his or her progress. Ongoing communication between the patient, therapist and referring physician is the foundation of the center's rehabilitation programs. View Aquatic Classes. Team of Professionals Each therapist strives to stay on top of the latest technology and treatments and passes this knowledge along to patients. All Robinson Rehab Center and Sport Clinic professionals are licensed or certified by the State of Ohio. The center provides:. Aquatic aerobics, aquatic exercise and water arthritis classes in Ravenna. Locations: Robinson Medical Arts Building. 6847 North Chestnut Street Ravenna, Ohio 44266...
http://robinsonmemorial.org/main/rehabilitation.aspx

Nucleoside analogue: Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar. Nucleotide analogs are nucleotides which contain a nucleic acid analogue, a sugar and one to three phosphate groups.NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.LodenosineQ-FISH: Quantitative Fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) is a cytogenetic technique based on the traditional FISH methodology. In Q-FISH, the technique uses labelled (Cy3 or FITC) synthetic DNA mimics called peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotides to quantify target sequences in chromosomal DNA using fluorescent microscopy and analysis software.Polyoxins: Polyoxins are a group of nucleoside antibiotics composed of heterocyclic moieties containing nitrogen. An example is Polyoxin B.Concentrative nucleoside transporter: Human concentrative nucleoside transporters include SLC28A1, SLC28A2 and SLC28A3 proteins. SLC28A2 is a purine-specific Na+-nucleoside cotransporter localised to the bile canalicular membrane.Coles PhillipsNucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Equilibrative nucleoside transporter: The equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family, also known as SLC29, is a group of plasmalemmal transport proteins which transport nucleoside substrates like adenosine into cells. There are four known ENTs, designated ENT1, ENT2, ENT3, and ENT4.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Energy charge: Energy charge is an index used to measure the energy status of biological cells. It is related to ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations.Archaeosine synthase: Archaeosine synthase (, ArcS, TgtA2, MJ1022 (gene), glutamine:preQ0-tRNA amidinotransferase) is an enzyme with system name L-glutamine:7-cyano-7-carbaguanine aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPurine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiencyPolymethine: Polymethines are compounds made up from an odd number of methine groups (CH) bound together by alternating single and double bonds.Kachovski and Dekhtyar, Dyes and Pigments, 22 (1983) 83-97 Compounds made up from an even number of methine groups are known as polyenes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.YjdF RNA motifPurine nucleotide cycle: The Purine Nucleotide Cycle is a metabolic pathway in which fumarate is generated from aspartate in order to increase the concentration of Krebs cycle intermediates.Salway, J.Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase: Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDPKs, also NDP Kinase, (poly)nucleotide kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of terminal phosphate between different nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP) in a reversible manner to produce nucleotide triphosphates. Many NDP serve as acceptor while NTP are donors of phosphate group.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction: Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR) is a DNA amplification technology for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI) cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides.Hyperchromicity: Hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured.Abscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".CytidineLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.MizoribineAdenosine receptor: The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.QueuineTRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.PurineArabinosyltransferase: In molecular biology, an arabinosyltransferase is a transferase enzyme acting upon arabinose."Reconstitution of functional mycobacterial arabinosyltransferase AftC proteoliposome and assessment of decaprenylphosphorylarabinose analogues as arabinofuranosyl donors.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Reaction coordinateThermal cyclerThymidine triphosphateDiscovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Depurination: Depurination is a chemical reaction of purine deoxyribonucleosides, deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine, and ribonucleosides, adenosine or guanosine, in which the β-N-glycosidic bond is hydrolytically cleaved releasing a nucleic base, adenine or guanine, respectively. The second product of depurination of deoxyribonucleosides and ribonucleosides is sugar, 2’-deoxyribose and ribose, respectively.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.LisH domain: In molecular biology, the LisH domain (lis homology domain) is a protein domain found in a large number of eukaryotic proteins, from metazoa, fungi and plants that have a wide range of functions. The recently solved structure of the LisH domain in the N-terminal region of LIS1 depicted it as a novel dimerisation motif, and that other structural elements are likely to play an important role in dimerisation.DeoxyadenosineCyclic nucleotideEukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.RNTP: A ribonucleoside tri-phosphate (rNTP) is a ribonucleoside with 3 phosphate groups. rNTPs are the building blocks of RNA synthesis as well as the synthesis of primers in DNA replication.CpG OligodeoxynucleotideTransfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Thymidine diphosphateTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.T-box leaderCS-BLASTBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Nucleotide exchange factor: Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins.Base pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Deoxyguanosine triphosphateProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Smoke DZA: New York, New York, United StatesEthyl groupSticky and blunt ends: DNA end or sticky end refers to the properties of the end of a molecule of DNA or a recombinant DNA molecule. The concept is important in molecular biology, especially in cloning or when subcloning inserts DNA into vector DNA.Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovirDeoxyuridineAbacavirDNA demethylation: DNA demethylation is the process of removal of a methyl group from nucleotides in DNA. DNA demethylation could be passive or active.Sapacitabine