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(1/14889) Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides.

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to preserve them in the cropping system. Sometimes, pesticide-resistant natural enemies are effective components of this resistance mitigation programme. Another name for this resistance mitigation model is integrated pest management (IPM). This complex model was outlined in some detail nearly 40 years ago by V. M. Stern and colleagues. To deploy the IPM resistance mitigation model, we must admit that pest management and resistance mitigation programmes are not sustainable if based on a single-tactic strategy. Delaying resistance, whether to traditional pesticides or to transgenic plants containing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, will require that we develop multi-tactic pest management programmes that incorporate all appropriate pest management approaches. Because pesticides are limited resources, and their loss can result in significant social and economic costs, they should be reserved for situations where they are truly needed--as tools to subdue an unexpected pest population outbreak. Effective multi-tactic IPM programmes delay resistance (= mitigation) because the number and rates of pesticide applications will be reduced.  (+info)

(2/14889) Referenceless interleaved echo-planar imaging.

Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is an ultrafast imaging technique important for applications that require high time resolution or short total acquisition times. Unfortunately, EPI is prone to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. In this work, it is shown mathematically and experimentally that system time delays are orientation dependent, resulting from anisotropic physical gradient delays. This analysis characterizes the behavior of time delays in oblique coordinates, and a new ghosting artifact caused by anisotropic delays is described. "Compensation blips" are proposed for time delay correction. These blips are shown to remove the effects of anisotropic gradient delays, eliminating the need for repeated reference scans and postprocessing corrections. Examples of phantom and in vivo images are shown.  (+info)

(3/14889) Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting.

This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters.  (+info)

(4/14889) The impact of a multidisciplinary approach on caring for ventilator-dependent patients.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and financial outcomes of a highly structured multidisciplinary care model for patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. The structured model outcomes (protocol group) are compared with the preprotocol outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study with financial analysis. SETTING: A twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a non-teaching tertiary referral center in Ogden, Utah. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: During a 54 month period, 469 consecutive intensive care patients requiring mechanical ventilation for longer than 72 hours who did not meet exclusion criteria were studied. INTERVENTIONS: A multidisciplinary team was formed to coordinate the care of ventilator-dependent patients. Care was integrated by daily collaborative bedside rounds, monthly meetings, and implementation of numerous guidelines and protocols. Patients were followed from the time of ICU admission until the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assigned APACHE II scores on admission to the ICU, and were divided into eight diagnostic categories. ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, costs, charges, reimbursement, and in-hospital mortality were measured. RESULTS: Mortality in the preprotocol and protocol group, after adjustment for APACHE II scores, remained statistically unchanged (21-23%). After we implemented the new care model, we demonstrated significant decreases in the mean survivor's ICU length of stay (19.8 days to 14.7 days, P= 0.001), hospital length of stay (34.6 days to 25.9 days, P=0.001), charges (US$102500 to US$78500, P=0.001), and costs (US$71900 to US$58000, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a structured multidisciplinary care model to care for a heterogeneous population of ventilator-dependent ICU patients was associated with significant reductions in ICU and hospital lengths of stay, charges, and costs. Mortality rates were unaffected.  (+info)

(5/14889) Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+.

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release.  (+info)

(6/14889) Resolution of fluorescence correlation measurements.

The resolution limit of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for two-component solutions is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The autocorrelation function for two different particles in solution were computed, statistical noise was added, and the resulting curve was fitted with a least squares fit. These simulations show that the ability to distinguish between two different molecular species in solution depends strongly on the number of photons detected from each particle, their difference in size, and the concentration of each component in solution. To distinguish two components, their diffusion times must differ by at least a factor of 1.6 for comparable quantum yields and a high fluorescence signal. Experiments were conducted with Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine-labeled bovine serum albumin. The experimental results support the simulations. In addition, they show that even with a high fluorescence signal but significantly different quantum yields, the diffusion times must differ by a factor much bigger than 1.6 to distinguish the two components. Depending on the quantum yields and the difference in size, there exists a concentration threshold for the less abundant component below which it is not possible to determine with statistical means alone that two particles are in solution.  (+info)

(7/14889) Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium.

1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response.  (+info)

(8/14889) Stretching lattice models of protein folding.

A new class of experiments that probe folding of individual protein domains uses mechanical stretching to cause the transition. We show how stretching forces can be incorporated in lattice models of folding. For fast folding proteins, the analysis suggests a complex relation between the force dependence and the reaction coordinate for folding.  (+info)

What kind of modeling agencies accept glamour models?

What I mean is, when I look at playboy models and video models, they don't look like fashion models.  What kind of agency accepts glamour models that are shorter than the high fashion model?

From what ive seen there isnt a particular big glam agency, you more so try to make direct contact with a publication and send them pics.  Glam models arent your usual fashion models like you said they are shorter then most models.  Start off by finding a photographer you are comfortable with and get a portofolio together.  Once you have a variety of poses you are willing to take use that to shop yourself around with any magazines in the area.

What is modeling,who is a model and how do models make money?What do modeling agents do?

What is modeling,who is a model and how do models make money?What do modeling agents do?

A model is a person who appears in magazines, ad campaigns, catalogues, fashion shows, billboards, etc often selling a product or representing a designer. The agent is the one who finds the work for models. Models get paid by the clients who book them and the agent takes a 10-15% commission

So Vogue magazine needs models to wear the clothes on the page, They call various agencies and have a bunch of models come to the office and decide which one they want for the shoot. Then they pay the agency, and the agency takes their commission and pays the model

Does anyone know which modeling agencies clothing companies go to for models used in print work?

I'm a male model looking to advance my career. Is there a list of agencies known for providing models to clothing companies?

The clothing companies usually announce their casting calls to the agencies within a radius of each clothing company`s headquarters. The major fashion houses will send casting calls out to the major agencies worldwide.

I`m not aware of a list of agencies that specifically provide models to clothing companies, but if you have a look on you can get a feel of which models have worked for what clothing companies and which agencies they are signed to.

If you have an agency, talk to your agent or booker and ask them to put you forward when the casting calls come in.

What is the link between atheletes/models/etc and binge-eating disorders?

I read somewhere that atheletes and models- or any other professionals whose bodies are on "public display on a frequent basis"- notably struggle with binge-eating disorders where they rapidly and excessively consume foods at certain periods of time, usually due to depression, anxiety, boredom, etc. 

It seems sort of odd to me that this is the case, considering atheletes and models are usually very slender. 

What do you guys think are some of the links?

You are asking about two very different groups of people. 

When it comes to elite level athletes, yes, there are certain sports where eating disorders are a big problem. It has less to do with "bodies on display" than with "if I lose 5 kg I'll shave 5 seconds off my time" or similar. You can, for example, look into ski jumping, where a minimum BMI has been set due to  jumpers losing as much weight as they can - to unhealthy low lovels - to be able to fly further on their jumps. 

Models are on public display, but they also have to maintain a certain body type as their role is a living hanger for the clothes. Unlike with (most) athletes, models can and do use illicit drugs to keep their weight down.

Now there will be binging and purging in both groups, but I do not know to what extent it exists.

What are the names of the abercrombie and fitch models in Hawaii?

Recently while shopping, I saw some male models at the front of both the womens and mens store at the Ala Moana Shopping centre in Hawaii. Are they workers or models?


What is the difference between centerfolds and fashion models?

Are centerfolds considered to be models? I say no because they model for lust, whereas fashion models are used to sell or market clothes through campaigns, runways, and magazines. Can anyone provide a clear explanation between these professions?

They are both considered models.

One models for the fashion industry to sell clothes. The other models for the adult entertainment industry to sell its products.They both model to sell some sort of product. Although the fashion model usually has clothes on, and the other models nude usually, but sometimes the roles are reversed and the fashion model can sometimes model nude, but they are still selling some sort of fashion item. 

I think the main different is the fashion model, models to sell a fashion item. While the centerfold model, models to sell nude images of themselves which is the actual product, and not usually an item outside of that (at least most of the time).

What kind of a diet do male models and actors have?

I'm talking about male movie stars, male models, and male adult film stars.  I know they spend a lot of time in the gym, but what about their diet?

Can they never eat any fatty foods or just limit the bad food they eat?

Or do they only work out a lot when they have an upcoming movie or photoshoot and just kind of let themselves go a little when they are not working?

Sex, Alchol and Parties. I have a male model friend - he's all about that. I keep annoying him with "stop, you are harming yourself" comments! ==>>Don't do it!

Whats the difference between Sonicare models?

For the Sonicare Flexicare toothbrush, i'm seeing models like R910, R940, R980, but the toothbrushes look the same. Only difference is the box they come in. Is there any differences between them or does the model number just signify when the item came out in stores? Which model is the newest?

They are constantly changing their model numbers.  Go to their web site for a comparison between models or call a customer service rep to answer your questions.  They make a great product.  Good luck.