Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

*  International Journal of Biological Sciences
Journal of Biological Sciences. ISSN 1449-2288. Manuscript ... in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics. Cited by 255 DP Siderovski ... International Journal of Biological Sciences. Journal of Genomics now in PubMed/PubMed Central. International Journal of Medical Sciences Journal of Cancer Theranostics Journal of Genomics Journal of Bone and Joint Infection JBJI. Most Cited Paper Award : Winners of this year are Guiqian Chen et al, for the paper TGF- and BMP Signaling in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation. The new Faculty of Health Sciences in University of Macau is recruiting Chair and Distinguished Professors, Full and Associate Professors, and Assistant Professors. ...full details. TGF- and BMP Signaling in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation. Cited by 241. Special issue Androgens and androgen receptor AR in prostate cancer provides an update on different biological and clinical aspects of adrenal androgens, androgen biosynthetic pathways, AR-signaling, inter-racial differences in AR m...
http://ijbs.com/
*  Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)
of Patient-Derived Models Coming Soon. Repository of Chemical ... Repository of Biologicals Monoclonal Antibodies, Cytokines and ... GCOB. Grants on Biological Agents and Immunological Concepts. Our ... Developmental Therapeutics Program DTP. Discovery Development Services. Services Available Through NExT. Repository of Chemical Agents Small Molecules and Pure Natural Products. Databases Tools. DTP Data Search Tools. Grants and Contracts Operations Branch GCOB. Grants and Contracts Operations Branch. Molecular Pharmacology Branch. Biological Testing Branch. Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch. Drug Synthesis and Chemistry Branch. Natural Products Branch. Biological Resources Branch. Pharmaceutical Resources Branch. Contact DTP. Welcome to the Developmental Therapeutics Program The NCI Development Therapeutics Program DTP provides services and resources to the academic and private-sector research communities worldwide to facilitate the discovery and development of new cancer therapeutic agents. Today, m...
https://dtp.cancer.gov/
*  SMT-based Analysis of Biological Computation - Microsoft Research
-based Analysis of Biological Computation - Microsoft Research. Our ... -based Analysis of Biological Computation Boyan Yordanov, Christoph M ... Abstract Synthetic biology focuses on the re-engineering of ... SMT-based Analysis of Biological Computation - Microsoft Research. Our research Connections Careers About us. Microsoft Translator. All Downloads Events Groups News People Projects Publications Videos. SMT-based Analysis of Biological Computation Boyan Yordanov, Christoph M. Wintersteiger, Youssef Hamadi, and Hillel Kugler May 2013. Abstract Synthetic biology focuses on the re-engineering of living organisms for useful purposes while DNA computing targets the construction of therapeutics and computational circuits directly from DNA strands. The complexity of biological systems is a major engineering challenge and their modeling relies on a number of diverse formalisms. as recognized by NASA's Synthetic Biology Initiative and require robustness which is difficult to obtain. The ability to formally spec...
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=187333
*  European Biological Control Laboratory : Research
European Biological Control Laboratory : Research. Page ... Scientific Software/Models. Databases & Datasets. Scientific ... Home / European Biological Control Laboratory / Research / ... European Biological Control Laboratory : Research. Page Banner. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. ARS Home. About ARS. Contact Us. Search for This. ARS Research. Research Home. National Programs. Research Projects. Scientific Manuscripts. International Programs. Trending Research Topics. Scientific Software/Models. Databases & Datasets. Scientific Collaborations. ARS People Locations. Find a person. Find a location. Find an office at headquarters. Organizational chart. Administrator’s Council. ARS Newsroom. News Home. Latest News. Magazine. Photos. Subscription Lists. Briefing Room. Podcasts. Events. Press Room. Video. ARS Careers. ARS Vacancies at USAJOBS. Careers at ARS Info. Post Doctoral Positions. . Site Map. A-Z Index. Help. . You are here: Office of National Programs Home / Eur...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/projectsByLocation.htm?modecode=02-12-00-00&soi_code=999
*  Home
of medical and biological image analysis, including:. ... CAMID Neurobiological and Behavioral Consequences of Cocaine ... Brain Lesion Modeling and Segmentation. 4D Analysis of...
http://ucnia.org/
*  Selkoe Laboratory Home
range of current biological methods to the elucidation of the ... molecular and cell biology of neuronal degeneration during aging ... dynamic cell biologically studies of the mechanism of A ... Selkoe Laboratory Home. Biography. Publications. Reaching Us. The Laboratory of Dennis J. Selkoe, M.D. Harvard Medical School Center for Neurologic Diseases Brigham Women s Hospital, Boston, MA. Welcome to the Selkoe Laboratory at Brigham and Women's hosptial and Harvard Medical School. Our laboratory is part of the Center for Neurologic Diseases: a group of multidisciplinary biomedical research laboratories which has its central objective in the application of a wide range of current biological methods to the elucidation of the pathogenesis and treatment of certain chronic, unsolved neurological diseases Our laboratory is interested in the biochemistry and molecular and cell biology of neuronal degeneration during aging of the mammalian brain, particularly in Alzheimer's AD and Parkinson's PD diseases. The labor...
http://selkoelab.bwh.harvard.edu/
*  Camera Lenses | All About Photographic Equipment
eye is a marvel of biological engineering. Human designers have used ... this biological model to develop the camera lens which now...
http://cameralensesnow.com/
*  .. Nicholas J. Mills .. Professor .. Education .. Research Interests .. Research Description .. Cu
Invasive species, Biological control, Population ecology, Entomology ... /Insect biology Research Description The focus of my ... group is the biological control of insect pests and the ecology ... Mills. Invasive species, Biological control, Population ecology, Entomology/Insect biology Research Description The focus of my research group is the biological control of insect pests and the ecology of insect parasitism and predation. Natural enemies, and in particular insect parasitoids, are known not only for their importance in biological control but also as model systems for the analysis of many exciting questions in biology. Biology of Insect Parasitoids and Predators. A., Mills, N. P., and Mills, N. J 2012. Ecologically relevant measures of the physiological tolerance of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, to high temperature extremes. Journal of Insect Physiology 58: 1184-1191. I., and Mills, N. M 2012. Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoi...
http://ourenvironment.berkeley.edu/people_profiles/nicholas-j-mills/
*  Therapists in San Anselmo, Psychologists Mill Valley | Dr. Steve Orma
of AA s Twelve-Step Model, Part One. Response to Criticism of ... of AA’s Twelve-Step Model, Part Two. Steve Orma. This was not the ... of AA’s 12-Step model. My point was despite the biological ... Therapists in San Anselmo, Psychologists Mill Valley. Dr. Steve Orma. Dr. Steve Orma Psychologist / Productivity Coach / Mental Health Expert. Home Anxiety Treatment Online Therapy Areas of Expertise About Testimonials. Fees Forms. In The Media. Blog Contact. Response to Criticism of Critique of AA s Twelve-Step Model, Part One. Response to Criticism of Critique of AA’s Twelve-Step Model, Part Three. Response to Criticism of Critique of AA’s Twelve-Step Model, Part Two. By. Dr. Steve Orma. Leave a Comment. Source: http://www.hdpicturesofanimals.com. The reader s comments are listed in quotes and italics, and my response follows. Comment 1: “I would like to point out that Mr. Orma is neglecting, probably unintentionally, the biological aspects of addiction and alcoholism…the brain and biochemical processes which...
http://drorma.com/2011/06/14/response-to-criticism-of-critique-of-aa’s-twelve-step-model-part-two/
*  The biological activity of serum IgE changes over the course of a primary response | QUT ePrints
The biological activity of serum IgE changes over the ... About. Login. The biological activity of serum IgE changes over the ... Andrew M. 2002 The biological activity of serum IgE changes over the ... The biological activity of serum IgE changes over the course of a primary response. QUT ePrints. QUT Home Contact. The biological activity of serum IgE changes over the course of a primary response., Moss, Nathan D. 2002 The biological activity of serum IgE changes over the course of a primary response. Mast-cell degranulation is triggered by the bridging of Fc receptor-bound antigen-specific immunoglobulin IgE on the cell surface. Investigations of the effects of these parameters on mast-cell sensitization were therefore carried out in a rat immunization model in which the IgE response is transient and peaks on days 10-15. Between these two timepoints, significant changes in the level of specific IgE were not observed, but the avidity of specific IgE increased P 0.05. Total serum IgE peaked on day 10 an...
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/7755/
*  Nonlinear system
In mathematics, a 'nonlinear system of equations' is a set of simultaneous equation s in which the unknown s or the unknown functions in the case of differential equation s appear as variables of a polynomial of degree higher than one or in the argument of a function which is not a polynomial of degree one. In other words, in a nonlinear system of equations, the equation s to be solved cannot be written as a linear combination of the unknown variables or functions that appear in them. Definition Nonlinear algebraic equations Nonlinear recurrence relations Nonlinear differential equations Ordinary differential equations. Partial differential equations. Nonlinear algebraic equations. Systems of polynomial equations. Nevertheless, in the case of the systems with a finite number of complex solutions, these systems of polynomial equations are now well understood and efficient methods exist for solving them. Nonlinear differential equations. A system of differential equation s is said to be nonlinear if it is not a...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonlinear_system
*  Institute for Mathematics and its Applications (IMA) - Tomography through the Transport Equation
institute for mathematics and its applications ima tomography through the transport equation by d s anikonov acad sci vladivostok russia main navigation main content go to the u of m home page onestop myu search u of m web sites college of science and engineering home programs activities annual thematic program programs activities annual thematic program postdoctoral fellowships hot topics and special abel conferences public lectures new directions pi programs industrial programs seminars be an organizer annual hot topics pi summer pi conference applying to participate talk abstract tomography through the transport equation d s anikonov acad sci vladivostok russia the transport equation is considered as a mathematical model of passage of the radiation through a medium the report deals with the inverse problems of the transport equation these problems consist in determination of the coefficients of the transport equation or their partial characterization provided the intensity of the radiation on the boundary ...
http://ima.umn.edu/hpc/wkshp_abstracts/anikonov1.html
*  Benjamin Gompertz
... {{Infobox scientist name = Benjamin Gompertz image = gompertz.png image size = 200px caption = |birth date = |birth place = London, England |death date = 'Benjamin Gompertz' 5 March 1779 – 14 July 1865 was a British self-educated mathematician and actuary, who became a Fellow of the Royal Society. Gompertz is now best known for his Gompertz law of mortality, a demographic model published in 1825. Life Works Family See also References Notes External links. Of the German Jewish family of Gompertz of Emmerich, he was born in London, where his father and grandfather had been successful diamond merchants. 1 In line with his father's wishes, he entered the London Stock Exchange. He became a member of the Mathematical Society of Spitalfields, and served as its president when it was merged with the Astronomical Society of London. In 1819 he was elected a F.R.S., and in 1832 became a member of the council. The Astronomical Society was founded in 1820, and he was elected a member of the council in 1821. On the dea...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Gompertz
*  Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations - Wiley Online Library
... Skip to Main Content. Log in / Register. Log In. Password. Forgotten Password. Register. Institutional Login. Mathematics. Differential Equations. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. JOURNAL TOOLS. Get New Content Alerts. Get RSS feed. JOURNAL MENU. Journal Home. FIND ISSUES. Current Issue. All Issues. FIND ARTICLES. OnlineOpen. Author Guidelines. Submit an Article. ABOUT THIS JOURNAL. Permissions. Contact. SPECIAL FEATURES. Wiley Job Network. Jobs. Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ISI Journal Citation Reports Ranking: 2014: 121/255 Mathematics Applied. Online ISSN: 1098-2426. Associated Title s : Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications. Recently Published Issues. Current Issue: November 2015. Volume 31, Issue 6. September 2015. Volume 31, Issue 5. Volume 31, Issue 4. Volume 31, Issue 3. Volume 31, Issue 2. Special Issue: Third Special Issue on The Mathemat... Author Guidelines. Recently Published Articles. Two unconditionally stable and c...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1098-2426
*  Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality
... parameters = \alpha > 0 real \beta > 0 real \lambda > 0 real. pdf = \alpha e {\beta x} + \lambda \cdot \exp -\lambda x-\frac{\alpha}{\beta} e {\beta x}-1. cdf = 1-\exp -\lambda x-\frac{\alpha}{\beta} e {\beta x}-1. The 'Gompertz–Makeham law' states that the human death rate is the sum of an age-independent component the Makeham term, named after William Makeham. and an age-dependent component the Gompertz function, named after Benjamin Gompertz,. The Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality describes the age dynamics of human mortality rather accurately in the age window from about 30 to 80 years of age. At more advanced ages, some studies have found that death rates increase more slowly – a phenomenon known as the late-life mortality deceleration – but more recent studies disagree. The decline in the human mortality rate before the 1950s was mostly due to a decrease in the age-independent Makeham mortality component, while the age-dependent Gompertz mortality component was surprisingly stable. 2011 Ageing and ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gompertz–Makeham_law_of_mortality
*  Matrix model
... mathematics and physics in theoretical physics a matrix model is a system usually a quantum mechanical system with matrix valued physical quantities see for example lax pair the old matrix models are relevant for string theory in two spacetime dimensions the new matrix model is a synonym for matrix theory a concept from algebraic logic biomedicine matrix population models are used to model wildlife and human population dynamics the matrix model of substance abuse treatment is a model developed by the matrix institute on addictions in the s to treat cocaine and methamphetamine addiction protein complexes a matrix model of protein complexes unrealistically predicts that all proteins in a complex interact with all other proteins mathematically a matrix model of a protein complex is a complete graph management and economics the term matrix model is used to describe matrix management where each worker in an organisation has two managers one functional managing their expertise the other executive managing thei...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_model
*  Ehrenpreis' fundamental principle
ehrenpreis fundamental principle ehrenpreis fundamental principle in mathematical analysis ehrenpreis fundamental principle introduced by leon ehrenpreis states http link springer com content pdf pdf every solution of a system in general overdetermined of homogeneous partial differential equation s with constant coefficient s can be represented as the integral with respect to an appropriate radon measure over the complex characteristic variety of the system references category mathematical analysis...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehrenpreis'_fundamental_principle
*  Nonlinear Elliptic and Parabolic Partial Differential Equations
... held at politecnico di milano dept of mathematics aula b edificio la nave milano via bonardi june the purpose of the workshop is to bring together specialists in the field of elliptic and parabolic nonlinear partial differential equations in order to emphasize future theoretical trends and their applications among other topics the workshop will focus on qualitative properties of solutions to elliptic equations regularity of solutions asymptotic behavior of solutions to parabolic equations new equations from mathematical physics and biology the workshop also aims to be a good state of art information for young researchers speakers program leaflet organization registration this conference is sponsored by gruppo nazionale per l analisi matematica la probabilitã e le sue applicazioni dipartimento di matematica politecnico di milano fondo di ricerca di ateneo analisi di problemi variazionali e differenziali prin aspetti geometrici delle equazioni alle derivate parziali e questioni connesse and prin metodi di ...
http://www2.mate.polimi.it/ocs/?cf=39
*  Proving a Probability Generating Function satisfies a partial differential Equation - Mathematics St
... ack Exchange. Proving a Probability Generating Function satisfies a partial differential Equation. If an animal is resting at time t, the probability it begins grazing in the interval between $t$ and $t+h$ is $\lambda h+o h $, and if it is grazing at time t, the probability it will begin resting between $t$ and $t+h$ is $\mu h+o h $. Let $X t $ denote the number of animals grazing at time $t\ge 0$ We need to show that the pgf $P\left t,s\right =E\left s \left Xt\right \right $ satisfies: $${\partial P\over \partial t}= \left 1-s\right \left \mu+\lambda s\right {\partial P\over \partial s}+N\lambda \left s-1\right P$$ The problem I have is in finding the forward Kolmogorov equations, since we need to adjust the birth and death coefficients, and I don't really know how to alter the baseline case. The transition intensities of the process $ X t _t$ are, for every $0\leqslant x\leqslant N$, $x\to x+1$ at rate $\lambda\cdot N-x $ this corresponds to the event that an animal resting at time $t$ begins to graze ...
http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/356622/proving-a-probability-generating-function-satisfies-a-partial-differential-equat
*  Modification of the simple mass balance equation for calculation of critical loads of acidity. - N
... ERC Open Research Archive. nerc.ac.uk. Modification of the simple mass balance equation for calculation of critical loads of acidity. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS Simple Metadata iShare HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote Dublin Core iShare OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. 1995 Modification of the simple mass balance equation for calculation of critical loads of acidity. Mapping and modelling of critical loads for nitrogen - a workshop report. Abstract/Summary Over the last few years, the simple mass balance equation for the calculation of critical loads of acidity has been gradually modified as the underlying critical load concepts have developed and as problems with particular forms of the equation have been identified, through application in particular countries. The workshop was held to discuss problems which had been identified when the then cur...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/7285/
*  BISSELL Stain Trapper Tool 160-0057 | Deep Cleaner Parts
Deep Cleaner Parts. Carpet Cleaners. Carpet Cleaners Upright. Carpet & Floor Cleaning Formulas. Carpet & Floor Cleaning Formulas Upright. Attach this tool to your BISSELL carpet cleaner to spray, scrub and suction extra-gross, extra-stinky messes Messes are collected and stored in a separate, removable container that twists off for easy emptying and disposal Self-contained tool keeps pet and other liquid messes inside the tool and out of your machine Tool is compatible with the following BISSELL models: 5207, 9749, 7786 series, 47A2, 17N4, 36Z9 series, 8852 series, 7901, 9200 series Watch the stain trapper tool in action. 8852 Model Shown: 8852 Similar Models: 1210, 88522, 88523, 88524, 8852T, 9585. AutoCare ProHeat® 1425-6 Model Shown: 14256 Similar Models: 14254, 14255, 1425D, 1425F, 1425T. 86T3 Model Shown: 86T3 Similar Models: 86T32, 86T38, 86T3F, 86T3Q, 86T3V. 47A2 Model Shown: 47A2 Similar Models: 47A21, 47A22, 47A24, 47A26, 47A2R, 47A2T, 80R4. 17N4 Model Shown: 17N4 Similar Models: 17N42, 17N43, 17N45,...
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*  pde - energy norm for transport equation - Computational Science Stack Exchange
... current community. chat blog. Computational Science. . Computational Science Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Computational Science beta. Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Sign up. Computational Science Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists using computers to solve scientific problems. It's 100% free, no registration required. energy norm for transport equation. up vote 1 down vote favorite. I asked this question before but did not have any luck with an answer. It might be a student level question but I need to understand that with possibly some help. I am considering the hyperbolic equation of the form $$u t+\frac{x}{T-t}u x=0$$ and some initial data $u x,...
http://scicomp.stackexchange.com/questions/4914/energy-norm-for-transport-equation
*  Stage 5 Mechanics mapping document :: Differential Equations in mechanics : nrich.maths.org
... nrich enriching mathematics Skip over navigation Main menu Search. accessibility contact Skip over navigation Terms and conditions. Home. Home Students. Guide and features Teachers. Guide and features. early years. Featured Early Years Foundation Stage; US Kindergarten Early years. primary. Featured UK Key Stage 1 2; US Grades 1-5 Primary teachers. secondary. Featured UK Key Stage 3-5; US Grades 6-12 Secondary teachers. primary lower. Featured UK Key Stage 1, US Grade 1 2 primary. primary. Featured UK Key Stage 2; US Grade 3-5. secondary lower. Featured UK Key Stages 3 4; US Grade 6-10 secondary. secondary upper. Featured UK Key Stage 4 5; US Grade 11 12. Topics. STEM. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Events. Events. translate. Search by Topic. Resources tagged with Differential Equations in mechanics similar to Phase Space :. Filter by: Content type: ALL Problems Articles Games Stage: All Stage 1 2 Stage 2 3 Stage 3 4 Stage 4 5. Challenge level:. Other tags that relate to Phase Space 1s...
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*  human biology - What biological systems are affected by Vitamin B6 (or B vitamins in general)? - Bio
human biology - What biological systems are affected by Vitamin B6 or B vitamins in general. - Biology Stack Exchange. current community. chat blog. Biology. . Biology Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Biology Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. It's 100% free, no registration required. What biological systems are affected by Vitamin B6 or B vitamins in general. up vote 5 down vote favorite. B vitamins and particularly the B6 vitamin appears to the one of the main ingredients in energy drinks. There has been anecdotal evidence from people interested in dreaming that ingestion ...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/2457/what-biological-systems-are-affected-by-vitamin-b6-or-b-vitamins-in-general/2514
*  JCI - Volume 117, Issue 12
... Clinical Medicine JCI This Month Current issue Past issues. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Issue published December 3, 2007. Published December 3, 2007. Citation Information: J Clin Invest. doi: 10.1172/JCI34323. View: Text PDF. Text PDF. Abstract. Authors. Published December 3, 2007. Citation Information: J Clin Invest. doi: 10.1172/JCI34430. View: Text PDF. Text PDF. Abstract. Authors. Published December 3, 2007. Citation Information: J Clin Invest. doi: 10.1172/JCI33677. View: Text PDF. Text PDF. Abstract. Authors. David B. David B. Published December 3, 2007. Citation Information: J Clin Invest. doi: 10.1172/JCI33611. View: Text PDF. Text PDF. Abstract. Authors. David B. Published December 3, 2007. Citation Information: J Clin Invest. doi: 10.1172/JCI34288. View: Text PDF. Text PDF. Abstract. Authors. The concept that injury to the endothelium may precede airway fibrosis suggests that interventions to maintain vascular integrity may be important, especially in the case of lung transplantation...
http://jci.org/117/12
*  .. Clustering RabbitMQ on Windows .. A Trip to CQRS – New Views ..
Clustering RabbitMQ on Windows. It may not exactly be the NancyFX Super-Duper-Happy-Path™, but it comes closer to it than any other ServiceBus/Broker I’ve come across. However, the first time I laid eyes on the RabbitMQ guidance for Distribution, High Availability, and Clustering I started thinking that ... read more →. Development. .NET MassTransit RabbitMQ. A Trip to CQRS – New Views. The entire series is here: Intro Commands Events Authoritative Events New Views We finally have a reasonably flexible architecture to play with. read more →. Code · Development. .NET Architecture CQRS. A Trip to CQRS – Authoritative Events. The entire series is here: Intro Commands Events Authoritative Events New Views I left you in the previous post with a bit of a cliff-hanger, didn’t I. read more →. Code · Development. .NET Architecture CQRS. A Trip to CQRS – Events. The entire series is here: Intro Commands Events Authoritative Events New Views In my last post, the system was introduced to Commands in order to structur...
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*  2009 Foals - How are they doing - post pics
... Horse Forums. Horses. The Horse Forum. Horse Breeding. 2009 Foals - How are they doing - post pics. User Name. Password. Register Horses FAQ Calendar Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. 2009 Foals - How are they doing - post pics This is a discussion on 2009 Foals - How are they doing - post pics within the Horse Breeding forums, part of the Horse Breeds, Breeding, and Genetics category Foal fur 6month old colt. LinkBack Thread Tools. 07-25-2009, 01:50 PM. User. Horses. 2009 Foals - How are they doing - post pics Okay, I will start it. Had to take shots for registration and thought I would post a link - no more baby fur at four months - Here is Prospect's Danika - Filly by ES Donavan Hano out of Prospect's Atheana - CSHA Approved Clyde/Hackney born March 29, 2009 - currently standing at 13.3hh How are everyone else's babies doing - lets see some pics. 07-25-2009, 01:55 PM. User. Horses. 07-25-2009, 02:01 PM. User. Horses. 07-25-2009, 02:11 PM. User. Horses. 07-25-2009, 02:36 PM. User. Horses. Both bab...
http://horseforum.com/horse-breeding/2009-foals-how-they-doing-post-32429/
*  JCI - Growing a tumor stroma: a role for granulin and the bone marrow
... Reviews. Reviews View all reviews... Article tools. View PDF. Share this article. Top Abstract Background: systemic tumor instigation GRN+Sca1+cKit–CD45+ cells mediate systemic instigation Progranulin in human breast cancers Context and questions Conclusions References. Find articles by Bateman, A. PubMed. Google Scholar. Commentary See the related article beginning on page 784. Figure 1 The role of GRN + Sca-1 + cKit – BMCs in systemic instigation and the formation of tumor stroma. The Sca1 + cKit – BMCs accumulate at the responder tumor and stimulate reactive stroma formation ref. 7 report for the first time the mechanism by which Sca1 + cKit – BMCs instigate the formation of a reactive stroma in indolent responder tumors in mice. GRN + Sca1 + cKit – CD45 + cells mediate systemic instigation. BMCs from mice with instigator tumors were sorted into Sca1 + cKit –, Sca1 + cKit +, and Sca1 – cells and comixed with responder cancer cells before transplantation into mice that did not bear contralateral instig...
http://jci.org/articles/view/46088?key=d7dca6a27fa8539cece0
*  Chapman–Enskog theory
... 'Chapman–Enskog' theory presents accurate formulas for a multicomponent gas mixture under thermal and chemical equilibrium. In elastic gases the deviation from the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution in the equilibrium is small and it can be treated as a perturbation. This method was aimed to obtain transport equations more general than the Euler equations. It is named for Sydney Chapman and David Enskog. Chapman–Enskog Expansion Mathematical Formulation See also Bibliography. Chapman–Enskog Expansion. Solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations can be used to describe many fluid-dynamical phenomena such as laminar flows, turbulence and solitons. Fundamentally, the Navier-Stokes equation is derived from the Boltzmann equation. If particular models of the microscopic collision process are applied, explicit formulas for the transport equations can be acquired. The term Chapman-Enskog Expansion denotes this derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation and its transport coefficients from the Boltzmann equation and certa...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chapman–Enskog_theory
*  KLUEDO | Fachbereich Mathematik
Axel Klar 19. kinetic equations 2. CFL type conditions 1. Particle Methods 1. 19 search hits. search hits 1 to 10. An asymptotic preserving numerical scheme with respect to diffusion scalings for a linear transport equation is investigated. A discrete velocity model with spatial and velocity discretization based on a lattice Boltzmann method is considered in the low Mach number limit. An adaptive domain decomposition procedure for Boltzmann and Euler equations 1998. In this paper we present a domain decomposition approach for the coupling of Boltzmann and Euler equations. Particle methods are used for both equations. An Asymptotic-Induced Scheme for Nonstationary Transport Equations in the Diffusive Limit 1997. Axel Klar. An asymptotic-induced scheme for nonstationary transport equations with thediffusion scaling is developed. It is based on the asymptotic analysis of the diffusion limit ofthe transport equation. Convergence of Alternating Domain Decomposition Schemes for Kinetic and Aerodynamic Equations 199...
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/solrsearch/index/search/searchtype/collection/id/15997/start/0/rows/10/has_fulltextfq/true/author_facetfq/Axel Klar
*  Browsing Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control by Title
... Site map. Browsing Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control by Title. Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control. Browsing Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control by Title. Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control. Browsing Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control by Title. Browsing Centre for Systems, Dynamics and Control by Title. Cycling chaotic attractors in two models for dynamics with invariant subspaces . Ashwin, Peter ; Rucklidge, Alastair M. American Institute of Physics , 2004. Ashwin, Peter ; Sturman, Rob. Elsevier , 2003. Ashwin, Peter ; Borresen, Jon. Elsevier , 2005. Dynamics on networks of cluster states for globally coupled phase oscillators . Ashwin, Peter ; Orosz, G bor ; Wordsworth, John ; Townley, Stuart. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics , 2007. Systems of globally coupled phase oscillators can have robust attractors that are heteroclinic networks. Ashwin, Peter. We study properties of the dynamics underlying slow cluster oscillations in two systems of five globally cou...
https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/handle/10036/19040/browse?order=ASC&rpp=20&sort_by=1&etal=-1&offset=8&type=title
*  Differential & Difference Equations | Mathematical Association of America
Differential & Difference Equations. Minicourses. You are here Home » Differential & Difference Equations Differential & Difference Equations. Paul s Online Math Notes: Modeling with Differential Equations Course Community COMAP Collection of ILAPs Course Community Epidemiology: Modeling Epidemics and Endemics Course Community Interactive Mathematics Course Community EqWorld Course Community Wolfram Alpha Course Community Interactive Math Programs Course Community Herd Immunity for Smallpox Course Community DESSolver v1.7 Course Community Wolfram Demonstrations: Search Runge-Kutta Course Community Phase Plotter Applet Course Community Six Portraits of a Linear System of ODEs Course Community Phase Plane of Two ODEs Course Community JOde: A Java Applet for Studying Ordinary Differential Equations Course Community Phase Protraits for ODEs and Autonomous Systems Course Community Diffusion, Fick s Law Course Community Laplace Transforms IDE Course Community Poles of the Laplace Transform and Behavior of Solutions...
http://maa.org/publications/periodicals/loci/differential-difference-equations-243?page=5
*  John's equation
... 'John's equation' is an ultrahyperbolic partial differential equation satisfied by the X-ray transform of a function. It is named after Fritz John. Given a function f\colon\mathbb{R} n \rightarrow \mathbb{R} with compact support the 'X-ray transform' is the integral over all lines in \mathbb{R} n. We will parameterise the lines by pairs of points x,y \in \mathbb{R} n, x \ne y on each line and define ' u ' as the ray transform where : u x,y = \int\limits {-\infty} {\infty} f x + t y-x dt. Such functions ' u ' are characterized by John's equations : \frac{\partial 2u}{\partial x i \partial y j} - \frac{\partial 2u}{\partial y i \partial x j}=0 which is proved by Fritz John for dimension three and by Kurusa for higher dimensions. In three-dimensional x-ray computerized tomography John's equation can be solved to fill in missing data, for example where the data is obtained from a point source traversing a curve, typically a helix. More generally an 'ultrahyperbolic' partial differential equation a term coine...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John's_equation
*  New insights into the surface / atmosphere exchange of particles based on recent advances in measur
... ement technology - NERC Open Research Archive. nerc.ac.uk. Help. Contact us. Home. About. Browse. Search. Statistics. NERC Staff Login. New insights into the surface / atmosphere exchange of particles based on recent advances in measurement technology. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS Simple Metadata iShare HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote Dublin Core iShare OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. Nemitz, E. ; Phillips, G. J ; Thomas, R. ; di Marco, C. F ; Fowler, D. 2009 New insights into the surface / atmosphere exchange of particles based on recent advances in measurement technology. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 90 52 Fall Meet. Su, Abstract A54D-02. Full text not available from this repository. Official URL: http://www.agu.org/meetings/fm09/waisfm09.html Abstract/Summary Dry deposition velocities of particles govern the deposition and a...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/9344/
*  How are internal models of unstable tasks formed? - CUED Publications database
how are internal models of unstable tasks formed cued publications database cued publications database home about browse by year browse by division login how are internal models of unstable tasks formed burdet e and franklin dw and osu r and tee kp and kawato m and milner te how are internal models of unstable tasks formed in unspecified pp full text not available from this repository abstract the results of recent studies suggest that humans can form internal models that they use in a feedforward manner to compensate for both stable and unstable dynamics to examine how internal models are formed we performed adaptation experiments in novel dynamics and measured the endpoint force trajectory and emg during learning analysis of reflex feedback and change of feedforward commands between consecutive trials suggested a unified model of motor learning which can coherently unify the learning processes observed in stable and unstable dynamics and reproduce available data on motor learning to our knowledge this algor...
http://publications.eng.cam.ac.uk/366409/
*  Series Solution to Ordinary Differential Equation Recurrence Relation - Who Posted?
series solution to ordinary differential equation recurrence relation who posted total posts who posted posts creebe show thread close window...
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*  How are these results on SD possible??? - AnabolicMinds.com
How are these results on SD possible??. News. Supplement News. Nutrition News. Weight Loss News. Training News. Men's Health News. Contest News. Research News. Forum. Supplement Forum. Nutrition Forum. Weight Loss Forum. Training Forum. Main Forum. Supplement Forum. Company Promotions. Nutrition Forum. Weight Loss Forum. Training Forum. Bodybuilding Forum. General Chat. 1RM Supplements. Island Supplements. Orbit Supplements. PHW Supplements. Strong Supplements. TF Supplements. TGB Supplements. Album Gallery. Member Gallery. Forum. How are these results on SD possible??. How are these results on SD possible??. How are these results on SD possible??. Being a former fat ****, I've always been one to be concerned about my weight... Whenever it goes up, even if I know I'm losing fat, I get worried, so when I stepped on the scale today on the last day of my superdrol cut I freaked out. I decided to go on a 1000 cal deficit with carbs less than 120g per day, and 10mg of superdrol. In 4 weeks, my waist dropped about ...
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*  Newest Unholy Dk Changes - How are you guys liking it ?? PVP
Newest Unholy Dk Changes - How are you guys liking it ?. PVP. Remember Me. Need an account. Register Now. Contact Us. Home. Forum. Rules. Forum Actions. Mark Forums Read. Videos. What's New. MMO-Champion. Forum. Class Discussions. Death Knight ». Newest Unholy Dk Changes - How are you guys liking it ?. PVP. . Thread: Newest Unholy Dk Changes - How are you guys liking it ?. PVP. Thread Tools. Show Printable Version. Email this Page. Subscribe to this Thread. 2013-01-31, 01:53 PM. #1. . a C e. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Private Message. View Started Threads. Mechagnome. Join Date Aug 2012 Location Dubai, Shiraz or Under The Trees of Mulgore Posts 601. Newest Unholy Dk Changes - How are you guys liking it ?. PVP. Will Dk be one of the top melee classes again after these changes and are they going to be competitive in 3v3 arenas. Reply With Quote. 2013-01-31, 03:11 PM. #2. . Bazookaberit. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Private Message. View Started Threads. High Overlord. Join Date May 2012 Posts 168. They ...
http://mmo-champion.com/threads/1257855-Newest-Unholy-Dk-Changes-How-are-you-guys-liking-it-PVP?p=20055122&viewfull=1
*  A Conventional Model of Process Mapping - NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement
... This tool will help you to map the whole patient journey or diagnostic pathway with a range of people who represent the different roles involved. Mapping the whole patient journey will help you to look for opportunities for improvement by visualising how the whole patient journey currently works and identifying points of inefficiency. It also sparks good ideas and helps a team to know where to start to make improvements that will have the biggest impact for patients and staff. It will help staff understand how complicated the systems can be for patients, showing how many times the patient has to wait often unnecessarily and how many different people a patient meets. To get you started, here are some things to think about when starting to plan a mapping session: What is the purpose of the session. Remember, the process map will only be as good as the list of people who attend, there will be gaps in it if some staff do not attend. This can be useful if people do not usually work together. 1 Start with a hi...
http://institute.nhs.uk/index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2222&pop=1&page=0&Itemid=5015
*  * UNANSWERED QUESTIONS: RESPONSE *
... Anthony J. anthonyp at scripps.edu. Previous message: * UNANSWERED QUESTIONS: RESPONSE * Next message: * UNANSWERED QUESTIONS: RESPONSE * Messages sorted by:. Each of these quest- ions highlights a contradiction *within* current views; for example, a everyone agrees that intracellular movements can be seen by low power light microscopy in living cells, yet most people also believe that there is a cytoskeleton, which would not permit such movements; I don't understand your conlusion. So it is in no way obvious that the presence of intracellular movement is inconsistent with a cytoskeleton. It is inconsistent if and only if the cytoskeleton is a rigid network whose effective pore size is smaller than the molecules that must diffuse through it. Biochemistry, immunofluorescence and genetic evidence all support the idea that these proteins have a portion outside the membrane and one inside, that the region inside assciates with proteins we consider part of the cytoskeleton, and that these associations are nec...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1996-June/024255.html
*  genetics - How are geneticists able to isolate gene functions? - Biology Stack Exchange
genetics - How are geneticists able to isolate gene functions. - Biology Stack Exchange. Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. How are geneticists able to isolate gene functions. genetics genomics dna-sequencing share. LanceLafontaine Mar 29 '13 at 3:36. @LanceLafontaine if you have a more detailed answer, please submit it as an answer rather than a comment. up vote 3 down vote. @LanceLafontaine suggested a few ways above, but I would recommend reading this section in Alberts' Molecular Biology of the Cell, which gives a more descriptive overview of some approaches, but even that is not exhaustive. observe mutants, see what processes are disrupted, and map these back to particular mutations mutate a gene and see what...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/7694/how-are-geneticists-able-to-isolate-gene-functions?answertab=active
*  We're so going to E-Hell... (3 new questions on post 15)
We're so going to E-Hell... 3 new questions on post 15. About. The Ehell Blog. Civilized Politics. Hells Bells. The Story Archives. "Where The Civil People Meet". News: All new forum theme. See Forum Announcements for more information. Home. Help. Search. Login. Register. October 06, 2015, 09:40:16 PM. 1 Hour 1 Day 1 Week 1 Month Forever. Login with username, password and session length. Etiquette Hell. Wedding Bliss and Blues. Gifts, Registries and Money. We're so going to E-Hell... 3 new questions on post 15. previous next Print. Pages: 1 2 4 5 6 7 8. Go Down. Author Topic: We're so going to E-Hell... 3 new questions on post 15 Read 15358 times. 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic. TurtleDove Super Hero. Posts: 6855. . Re: We're so going to E-Hell... 3 new questions on post 15 Reply #30 on: March 10, 2014, 04:09:05 PM. Quote from: Diane AKA Traska on March 10, 2014, 03:35:36 PM. Maybe it s just me, but I ve heard so many variations of We had a wonderful two weeks, Hawaii was great, I m sure the bea...
http://etiquettehell.com/smf/index.php?topic=132668.msg3117773
*  Engine tunes recommendation? - Page 2
03-28-2012, 04:29 PM # 23. 877 Rep. 12,155 Posts. Drives: BMW Join Date: Nov 2005 Location: Anaheim, CA. iTrader: 15. Quote: Originally Posted by M3PO. Appreciate 0. View Public Profile. Find More Posts by tom @ eas. 03-28-2012, 04:30 PM # 24. 40 Rep. 2,793 Posts. Drives: '08 IB E92 Join Date: Sep 2011 Location: OC. iTrader: 7. Quote: Originally Posted by Singletrack. Appreciate 0. View Public Profile. Find More Posts by M3PO. 03-28-2012, 04:37 PM # 25. 63 Rep. 5,278 Posts. iTrader: 3. The plausibility/ rationality check of the post – catalyst oxygen sensor covers four diagnostic strategies: -Diagnostic during fuel cut off, to verify if the signal is below a certain threshold while in fuel cut off P013E/ P014A -Diagnostic during fuel cut off, validation of the transition time P013A/ P013C -Diagnostic during re-injection after fuel cut off, validation of the signal gradient P013B/ P013D -Diagnostic during wide open throttle, to verify if the signal climbs above a certain threshold in WOT P0136/ P0156 Active Te...
http://m3post.com/forums/showthread.php?t=668354&page=2
*  Aiki Physical Model -- Structure & Dynamic - AikiWeb Aikido Forums
Aiki Physical Model -- Structure Dynamic - AikiWeb Aikido Forums. AikiWeb Aikido Forums. AikiWeb Aikido Forums. Aiki Physical Model -- Structure Dynamic. Erick Mead. Florida Aikikai Location: West Florida Join Date: Jun 2005 Posts: 2,553. Offline. Aiki Physical Model -- Structure Dynamic Two basic physical models seem appropriate for the human body. Cordially, Erick Mead 一隻狗可久里馬房但他也不是馬的. Erick Mead. View Public Profile. Find More Posts by Erick Mead. Visit Erick Mead's AikiBlog. 10-07-2009, 12:24 PM # 2. Dojo: Aozora Dojo Location: Birmingham, AL Join Date: Feb 2006 Posts: 1,508. I myself have lately been thinking of the dynamic as being like a basket of woven bamboo more or less a torsion tube with lots of flex, but also a lot of self-interference which acts to support the structure. Re: Aiki Physical Model -- Structure Dynamic With respect to the gyroscopics:. Quote: part quoted here http://www.aikiweb.c...
http://aikiweb.com/forums/showthread.php?t=14741
*  Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling
... 'Physiologically based pharmacokinetic PBPK modeling' is a mathematical modeling technique for predicting the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion ADME of synthetic or natural chemical substances in humans and other animal species. Modelling inputs. Modelling metabolism. Uses of PBPK modeling Limits and extensions of PBPK modelling References Forums Software. 9 Compartments are usually defined by grouping organs or tissues with similar blood perfusion rate and lipid content 'i.e.' organs for which chemicals' concentration 'vs.' time profiles will be similar. In that case; for a generic compartment 'i', the differential equation for the quantity 'Q i ' of substance, which defines the rate of change in this quantity, is:. {dQ i \over dt} = F i C {art} - {{Q i} \over {P i V i}}. {dQ g \over dt} = F g C {art} - {{Q g} \over {P g V g}}. {dQ k \over dt} = F k C {art} - {{Q k} \over {P k V k}}. {dQ p \over dt} = F p C {art} - {{Q p} \over {P p V p}}. {dQ b \over dt} = F b C {art} - {{Q b} \over {P...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiologically_based_pharmacokinetic_modelling
*  Road mapping could be key to curing TB
... February 5, 2010 Road mapping could be key to curing TB February 5, 2010 The complex chain of metabolic events in bacteria that lead to fatal diseases such as tuberculosis TB may be better understood using mathematical models, according to an article published in the February issue of Microbiology Today. The classic approach to understanding biological functions in mammals and microbes alike has been based on the assumption that a single gene is primarily responsible for a single function - which can be inhibited by simply blocking the gene. Professor Johnjoe McFadden who works on TB at the University of Surrey likens metabolic pathways in cells to Britain's road network. "For example, we may identify a particular road, say the A45, that takes goods from Birmingham to Coventry and call it the BtoC road - or BtoC gene," he said. In truth, the 'road' or gene from BtoC isn't just the A45, but includes all those other routes." A good starting point to study functional pathways is a mathematical model of the ...
http://phys.org/news/2010-02-road-key-tb.html
*  Greg, How Are You? - The Slow Inexorable Ascent
Greg, How Are You. Greg, How Are You. Caretakers Corner Extrania Mail Call Picture PPL PLCS THNGS The Days Uncategorized. Commemorating Greg’s life by Dave Gross on Aug.12, 2012, under Uncategorized. 8 Comments. No Cell by greg on Jul.21, 2012, under The Days Yes, I am most remiss in my duties. At at that, I get to my laptop last thing in day. Medical first, guests first, getting some time away from my room second if possiible. 7 Comments. Rise and Shine Festival, GO. by greg on Jul.19, 2012, under Caretakers Corner, The Days http://thedolab.com/blog/event/rise-shine-gathering-a-conscious-living-event/. 2 Comments. by greg on Jul.15, 2012, under Uncategorized Summary : Slow and steady is gonna win this race. Very slow. Very steady. Day Transplant+67, post infusion. I have a spreadsheet of the days here. Bowels : Angry, angry, angry. Diarrhea day 50. It doesn t need saying but, this is getting really old. But they say good most days. Steroids at 50 mg twice a day. I did not get a bike. So I choose group therap...
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*  Abiogenesis by Self-Organization (for the Origin of Life)
Abiogenesis by Self-Organization for the Origin of Life. Abiogenesis for the Origin of Life by Self-Organization. Is it possible that simple organic molecules could self-organize into a living, reproducing organism. Second, when enough of these molecules were concentrated together, they formed an interacting auto-catalytic system that jointly catalyzed their mutual reproduction. Life is a complex web of interactions where proteins are required for nucleic acid synthesis and nucleic acids are required for protein synthesis. Similarly, the metabolites that fuel it are the synthetic precursors for protein and nucleic acid synthesis, yet they require proteins for their own synthesis. The replicating closed auto-catalytic system described by Stuart A. Stuart Kaufmann The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution, p. 285 writes, ...this new view, which is based on the discovery of an expected phase transition from a collection of polymers which do not reproduce themselves to a slightly more com...
http://asa3.org/ASA/education/origins/cheme-lhtg.htm
*  Mixture theory
... is used to model multiphase systems using the principles of continuum mechanics generalised to several interpenetrable continua the basic assumption is that at any instant of time all phases are present at every material point and momentum and mass balance equations are postulated like other models mixture theory requires constitutive relations to close the system of equations krzysztof wilmanski extended the model by introducing a balance equation of porosity references category rheology category scientific modeling...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixture_theory
*  HPP model
... The 'HPP model' is a fundamental lattice gas automaton for the simulation of gases and liquids. It was a precursor to the lattice Boltzmann methods. From lattice gas automata, it is possible to derive the macroscopic Navier-Stokes equation s. Succi, section 2.3 describes the process Interest in lattice gas automaton methods levelled off in the early 1990s, due to rising interest in the lattice Boltzmann methods. Succi, section 2.6. History Model Collision Step. Transport Step. Shortcomings Notes References. The model can be used as a simple model for both the movement of gases and fluid. thumb|Visual examples of the four rules governing the HPP Model. In this model the lattice takes the form of a two-dimensional square grid, with particles capable of moving to any of the four adjacent grid points which share a common edge, and particles cannot move diagonally. Particles exist only on the grid points, never on the edges or surface of the lattice. Each particle has an associated direction from one grid poi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HPP_model
*  How can I sort all my questions by date or by time when they where asked? - Meta Stack Exchange
How can I sort all my questions by date or by time when they where asked. - Meta Stack Exchange. Stack Exchange. Meta Stack Exchange. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. What's Meta. Meta Stack Exchange Questions. What is meta. Meta Stack Exchange is where users like you discuss bugs, features, and support issues that affect the software powering all 150 Stack Exchange communities. How can I sort all my questions by date or by time when they where asked. This question already has an answer here: List of questions asked on account page 1 answer. How can I sort all my questions by date by time in that list that I get to after clicking on my user's name at the top of the screen right after the envelope icon. Update: I am sorry I forgot to mention that I want my questions to be sorted by the time they were asked, not by the time of their latest responds. And also, I would want to be able to see the oldest questions at the top of the li...
http://meta.stackexchange.com/questions/46703/how-can-i-sort-all-my-questions-by-date-or-by-time-when-they-where-asked
*  Characteristic equation
... may refer to characteristic equation calculus used to solve linear differential equations characteristic equation the equation obtained by equating to zero the characteristic polynomial of a matrix or of a linear mapping characteristic equation a polynomial used to solve a recurrence relation...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Characteristic_equation
*  Account Suspended
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*  Simple Tips that Make Moving Easier
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*  Ways To Give
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*  Red Yeast Rice Supplements | Red Yeast Rice Products | Puritan's Pride
Red Yeast Rice Supplements. Red Yeast Rice Products. Puritan's Pride. Order by Phone 1-800-645-1030 My Cart: 0 Item s. Vitamins Our Brands Sports & Diet Natural Living Aromatherapy Health and Beauty Puritan's Pantry Pet Products. Home Page Shop By Brand Top Sellers New Products On Sale Clearance Quick Order Help Center My Favorites. Lowest Prices, Buy Direct From The Manufacturer, Guaranteed Highest Quality. Red Yeast Rice Supplements. Red Yeast Rice Products. Puritan's Pride red yeast rice, red yeast rice and coq10, red yeast rice coq10, red yeast rice with coq10, coq10 red yeast rice, coq10 and red yeast rice, coq10 with red yeast rice, red yeast rice supplements, red yeast rice supplement, buy red yeast rice, red yeast rice buy, red yeast rice products, red yeast rice powder, red yeast rice vitamin, coq10 plus red yeast rice, red yeast rice plus coq10, red yeast rice vitamins Buy Red Yeast Rice. You've probably heard a lot of people talking about Red Yeast Rice. Red Yeast Rice has been a valued...
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*  Red Yeast Rice - Cholesterol - Best Heart Products - Buyer's Guides - Nutrition Express
Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Category > Buyer's Guides > Best Heart Products > Cholesterol > Red Yeast Rice Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice contains rice that has been naturally fermented with red yeast. It's a unique natural product native to China that has been used in Asian traditional medical systems for centuries. It contains contains key compounds, similar to statins. As with those taking statins, it is suggested that those who take red yeast rice also take CoQ10.* Alphabetical Product List Beyond Red Yeast Rice Red Yeast Rice 1,200 Mg Red Yeast Rice Red Yeast Rice 600 Mg Red Yeast Rice 600 Mg Red Yeast Rice 600 Mg Red Yeast Rice 600 Mg with CoQ10 30 Mg Red Yeast Rice Once Daily 1,200 Mg Red Yeast Rice plus CoQ10 Red yeast rice -- convenient once daily 1,200 mg serving Red Yeast Rice Once Daily 1,200 Mg by Kal Red Yeast Rice contains naturally-occurring beneficial unsaturated fatty acids including mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as amino acids and phytonutrients. All are elements of a healt...
http://nutritionexpress.com/buyers guides/best heart products/cholesterol/red yeast rice/doctors best best red yeast rice 600 mg 120 capsules.aspx
*  Source Naturals Red Yeast Rice 600 mg Reviews and Information
... 1 Click on the script below to highlight. 3 Right click to paste on your web site. !-- Nutritional Tree ratings widget version 1.0 -- div id='ratings container' div id='ratings header' style='color: #000000;' a href='http://www.nutritionaltree.com/reviews/natural-food/red-yeast-rice/source-naturals red-yeast-rice-600mg.aspx' img alt='Nutritional Tree Supplement Reviews' src='http://www.nutritionaltree.com/fetch/rating-widget/nt leaf.png' / /a Customer Rating /div script type='text/javascript' language='javascript' src='http://www.nutritionaltree.com/fetch/rating-widget/nt ratings loader.js' /script script type='text/javascript' language='javascript' loadNtRatingsWidget { pid : 1850, text color : '#0E5F85', background color : '#ffffff' } ; /script /div !-- End Nutritional Tree ratings widget --. 1 Click on the script below to highlight. Red Yeast Rice 600 mg. Manufacturer Info Specifications Send to a F...
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*  Red Yeast Rice | Page 2
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*  Buy Nordic Naturals - Omega LDL with Red Yeast Rice and CoQ10 1000 mg. - 60 Softgels at LuckyVita
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*  PhD Studentships in Natural Product Drug Discovery: Chemistry and Biology of Novel Trypanosoma bruce
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*  Red Yeast Rice
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*  Herbal PF Cholestene Red Yeast Rice 120 Capsules Healthy Origins - Compare Price and Reviews at Vi
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*  fill link item add link red rice yeast lower cholesterol
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*  Red Yeast Rice Supplements: Red Yeast Rice Capsules-Red Yeast Rice Powder-Red Yeast Rice Tablets | S
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*  Red Yeast Rice Supplements: Red Yeast Rice Capsules-Red Yeast Rice Powder-Red Yeast Rice Tablets | S
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*  Red Yeast Rice and Cholesterol « Science-Based Medicine
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*  Buy OptiChoice - Ultimate Red Yeast Rice with Cholesstrinol HP 700 mg. - 120 Capsules at LuckyVit
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*  Dr Oz: Statins, Cholesterol Drugs, Red Yeast Rice & Crestor - Well Buzz
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*  Red Yeast Rice Supplements: Red Yeast Rice Capsules-Red Yeast Rice Powder-Red Yeast Rice Tablets | S
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*  Red Yeast Rice Supplements: Red Yeast Rice Capsules-Red Yeast Rice Powder-Red Yeast Rice Tablets | S
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*  Walmart Spring Valley Spring Valley Red Yeast Rice Capsules, 600 mg, 60 count : Questions, Answers,
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*  Buy Vinco Inc. Red Yeast Rice and Save
... My Account. Favorites. Help. web vitamins. Live Healthy. Look Healthy. Free Shipping over $49.*. 1 800 919 9122 Live Chat. Since 1997 Brand Index :. A B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N O P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. All Products. Vitamins. Supplements. Targeted Formulas. Health & Personal Care. Diet, Nutritional Foods & Exercise. Teas & Accessories. Herbs. Children's Products. Baby Care. Homeopathy. Pet Products. More ... My Favorites. Sign up for health news and exclusive discounts. - View All Coupons -. Your cart is empty. - full-screen cart -. Customer Reviews. My Recent Items. Featured Brands Nature's Way. Country Life. Thorne. Ortho Molecular Products. Jarrow Formulas. Twinlab. Herbasway. Born Free. Nutramedix. NOW Foods. Dr. Montague's Brands. 739930275119 + Favorites. Targeted Formulas. Heart / Cardiovascular. Cholesterol Support. 5.00 1 review Red Yeast Rice by Vinco Inc. 30 servings. Retail $29.90 Regular $22.88 $18.23. . Subscribe Save. Save 5% details with delivery every Months Days. S...
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*  Red Yeast Rice decreases the risk of dying from a heart attack in patients being treated for high
... blood pressure with a history of heart attack. InviteHealth. Shop. Shop back. Core Program. InVite-multi. Specials/Radio Offers. Pressman Products. Radio. Radio back. Radio Shows. Radio Studies. Health Info. Health Info back. Assess Your Health. Radio Shows & Studies. Facebook. Twitter. Instagram. Categories. Categories back. New Products. Anti-Aging Supplements. Antioxidant Supplements. Baby Care Products. Blood Sugar Supplements. Bone Health. Brain Vitamins. Children's Health. Children's Vitamins. Cholesterol Supplements. Core Nutrition. Digestive Supplements. Discount Vitamins and Supplements. Skin Care Experts Specials. Dog Vitamins. Email Specials. Energy Supplements. Eye Health Vitamins. Gift Cards. Gift Ideas. Hair Vitamins. Heart Health Vitamins. Herbal Health Supplements. Herbal Tinctures. His and Her Multi-Vitamins. Immune System Vitamins. Joint Health Supplements. Kosher Vitamins. Men's Vitamins. Mineral Supplements. Multi Vitamins. Muscle Recovery Supplements. Home » Radio » March 2010 » Red ...
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*  Red Yeast Rice - Natural Option for Supporting Healthy Cholesterol
... The problem with these medications is that their potential side effects are significant and can in some cases be extremely dangerous. High Cholesterol and Lyme Disease High cholesterol may have particular significance for people with Lyme disease. 1 Studies Confirm Red Yeast Rice May Support Cholesterol Lowering The fact that red yeast rice is a source of naturally-occurring statins may explain why studies over the past 40 years have reported that consumption of red yeast rice can support lower blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. An Added Benefit of Red Yeast Rice Because of the potential side effects of statin drugs, many patients are afraid to take them – or have tried but were unable to continue owing to the negative side effects. People with fibromyalgia, ME/CFS, Lyme disease or other chronic pain illnesses may be particularly wary of statins, since muscle pain is one of the more common side effects. Concern for their patients led two cardiologists to undertake a st...
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*  Natural Product Biosynthesis - Home
... Home. Collaborators. Investigators. PSI MR. PSI Network. PSI SBKB. Results. Technology. The Natural Product Biosynthesis NatPro was established in July 2011 with the funding of a contract from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences NIH entitled Enzyme Discovery for Natural Product Biosynthesis. The goals of NatPro are to apply technologies developed by the Protein Structure Initiative PSI to problems of interest to the community of biologists and biochemists who investigate the role of natural products in human health and disease. The NatPro will play strong joint roles in both the identification of new natural product pathways and the subsequent discovery of new natural product-based pharmaceuticals by revealing the structures and active sites of novel enzymes, characterizing the enzymatic reactions of the gene products, identifying new natural products, and thus offering opportunities to identify and customize the pathways by altering specificities and/or identifying novel proteins or domai...
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*  Red Yeast Rice | Reston Hospital Center
Red Yeast Rice. Reston Hospital Center. RESTON HOSPITAL CENTER / STONESPRINGS HOSPITAL CENTER / DOMINION HOSPITAL / STONESPRING EMERGENCY CENTER. Services at Reston Hospital Center. Heart Vascular Care Reston Hospital Center provides leading-edge cardiovascular care and expertise with a personal touch. Women's Services While you're taking care of everyone else, be sure to take care of yourself. Reston Hospital Center. Medical Imaging Center of Reston. Women's Imaging Center. Cancer Care. Diabetes Care. Heart Vascular Care. Spine Care. Women's Care. Reston Hospital offers a number of tools and services to help you provide patients with the best possible medical care. Red Yeast Rice Home. In a carefully conducted review of 93 randomized trials involving almost 10,000 patients, researchers concluded that red yeast rice can significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides, and raise levels of HDL compared with placebo. 13 Similarly, in a subsequent review of 22 trials, researchers concluded...
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*  Red Yeast Rice - 120 Vegetarian Capsules
... Agape Health Products. Allera Health Products. Alta Health Products. American Health. = Doctor Trusted Brands See all Brands Featured Brands. Best Life Herbals. = Doctor Trusted Brands See all Brands Featured Brands. = Doctor Trusted Brands See all Brands Featured Brands. "My doctor said that after taking this for about 4 months that my cholesterol has..." Read All Reviews. Brand: Vinco Item Number: VI1051 Serving Size: 2 Vegetarian Capsules Servings per Container: 60 Quantity per Container: 120 Vegetarian Capsules Price per Serving: $0.38 Price per Unit*: $0.19 per Vegetarian Capsule * Price Per Unit may reflect product's price per capsule, tablet, ounce, fluid ounce, etc. Free Shipping included for all US addresses and territories View Details. Research has shown that red yeast rice may be effective in supporting cardiovascular health. Every bottle of Red Yeast Rice by Vinco contains 120 capsules which is enough to last you for up to three months if taken at the recommended dosage of four capsules per ...
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*  Studies in Natural Products Chemistry | 978-0-444-53836-9 | Elsevier
Studies in Natural Products Chemistry. Elsevier. Skip to content Feedback Menu. REST MAGIC. Products - Book. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry Bioactive Natural Products Part P Edited by. Atta-ur-Rahman, Professor Emeritus, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences H. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan Natural products present in the plant and animal kingdom offer a huge diversity of chemical structures which are the result of biosynthetic processes that have been modulated over the millennia through genetic effects. With the rapid developments in spectroscopic techniques and accompanying advances in high-throughput screening techniques, it has become possible to isolate, and then determine the structures and biological activity of natural products rapidly, thus opening up exciting new opportunities in the field of new drug development to the pharmaceutical industry. The series also covers the synthesis or testing and recordi...
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*  Red Yeast Rice - Extra Strength - 90 Capsules
... Agape Health Products. Allera Health Products. Alta Health Products. American Health. = Doctor Trusted Brands See all Brands Featured Brands. Bio Nutrition. = Doctor Trusted Brands See all Brands Featured Brands. = Doctor Trusted Brands See all Brands Featured Brands. Brand: NuMedica Item Number: NUM1171 Serving Size: 3 Vegetable Capsule Servings per Container: 30 Quantity per Container: 90 Vegetable Capsules Price per Serving: $1.33 Price per Unit*: $0.44 per Vegetable Capsule * Price Per Unit may reflect product's price per capsule, tablet, ounce, fluid ounce, etc. Free Shipping included for all US addresses and territories View Details. Red yeast rice is a preparation made from a yeast that is commercially grown on rice grains and is citrinin free. Red yeast rice has been found to naturally support healthy blood lipid levels. Please consult your doctor before starting any exercise or nutritional supplement program or before using these or any product during pregnancy or if you have a serious medical c...
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*  Optimal Nutrients Red Yeast Rice Reviews and Information
... Products. Merchants. Requests. Guides and Tools. Top Brands. Advertise. Contact. Free Samples. Login. Close Add this Product's Reviews to Your Site Instantly. 1 Click on the script below to highlight. 2 Right click and select copy. 3 Right click to paste on your web site. !-- Nutritional Tree ratings widget version 1.0 -- div id='ratings container' div id='ratings header' style='color: #000000;' a href='http://www.nutritionaltree.com/reviews/natural-food/red-yeast-rice/optimal-nutrients red-yeast-rice.aspx' img alt='Nutritional Tree Supplement Reviews' src='http://www.nutritionaltree.com/fetch/rating-widget/nt leaf.png' / /a Customer Rating /div script type='text/javascript' language='javascript' src='http://www.nutritionaltree.com/fetch/rating-widget/nt ratings loader.js' /script script type='text/javascript' language='javascript' loadNtRatingsWidget { pid : 1849, text color : '#0E5F85', background color : &#...
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*  Omega-3s, soy and red yeast rice help lower cholesterol and protect the heart - Nutrition Express Ar
... ticles. Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Newsletters > 2010 Newsletters > June 2010 Omega-3s, soy and red yeast rice help lower cholesterol and protect the heart by Newsletter Editor Omega-3s protect the heart, soy and prebiotics lowered LDL cholesterol, and red yeast rice cut LDL in several new studies. Doctors in an omega-3 study gave 12 healthy men, aged 53 to 65, increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid DHA over eight weeks. In two-week cycles, the men took 200 mg of DHA per day, 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1,600 mg per day. With the three lower doses, blood levels of vitamin E increased and signs of oxidative cell damage decreased. Doctors concluded that DHA in doses of 200 mg to 800 mg per day may have antioxidant effects and help prevent cardiovascular disease in healthy people. In a cholesterol study, 23 men and women, average age 58, with borderline high LDL cholesterol, ate soy or prebiotics separately or combined as part of a low-fat dairy or soy-based diet. After four weeks, while none of ...
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*  Omega-3s, soy and red yeast rice help lower cholesterol and protect the heart - Nutrition Express Ar
... ticles. Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Newsletters > 2010 Newsletters > June 2010 Omega-3s, soy and red yeast rice help lower cholesterol and protect the heart by Newsletter Editor Omega-3s protect the heart, soy and prebiotics lowered LDL cholesterol, and red yeast rice cut LDL in several new studies. Doctors in an omega-3 study gave 12 healthy men, aged 53 to 65, increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid DHA over eight weeks. In two-week cycles, the men took 200 mg of DHA per day, 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1,600 mg per day. With the three lower doses, blood levels of vitamin E increased and signs of oxidative cell damage decreased. Doctors concluded that DHA in doses of 200 mg to 800 mg per day may have antioxidant effects and help prevent cardiovascular disease in healthy people. In a cholesterol study, 23 men and women, average age 58, with borderline high LDL cholesterol, ate soy or prebiotics separately or combined as part of a low-fat dairy or soy-based diet. After four weeks, while none of ...
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*  IP-6 International, Organic Red Yeast Rice Gold, 120 Tablets - iHerb.com
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*  Red Yeast Rice Supplements - Buy Best Selling Red Yeast Rice Supplement, Products at the Vitamin Sho
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*  Herbal Actives Red Yeast Rice by Nature's Plus
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*  Omega-3s, soy and red yeast rice help lower cholesterol and protect the heart - Nutrition Express Ar
Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Newsletters > 2010 Newsletters > June 2010 Omega-3s, soy and red yeast rice help lower cholesterol and protect the heart by Newsletter Editor Omega-3s protect the heart, soy and prebiotics lowered LDL cholesterol, and red yeast rice cut LDL in several new studies. Doctors in an omega-3 study gave 12 healthy men, aged 53 to 65, increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) over eight weeks. In two-week cycles, the men took 200 mg of DHA per day, 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1,600 mg per day. With the three lower doses, blood levels of vitamin E increased and signs of oxidative cell damage decreased. Doctors concluded that DHA in doses of 200 mg to 800 mg per day may have antioxidant effects and help prevent cardiovascular disease in healthy people. In a cholesterol study, 23 men and women, average age 58, with borderline high LDL cholesterol, ate soy or prebiotics separately or combined as part of a low-fat dairy or soy-based diet. After four weeks, while none of the other ...
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*  Vitacost - Healthy Origins HPF Cholestene Red Yeast Rice -- 120 Capsules customer reviews - product
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*  Pure Fish Benefits Heart Health - Concentrated DHA+EPA Plus Heart Nutrients CoQ10, Red Yeast Rice
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*  Traditional Supplements Red Yeast Rice - SYLVAN - GNC
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*  Pure Fish Benefits Heart Health - Concentrated DHA+EPA Plus Heart Nutrients CoQ10, Red Yeast Rice
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*  Virtual screening for the discovery of bioactive natural products - ResearchGate
... Article Virtual screening for the discovery of bioactive natural products. Judith Maria Rollinger. Judith Maria Rollinger University of Vienna Message author. ABSTRACT In this survey the impact of the virtual screening concept is discussed in the field of drug discovery from nature. brucei infection. Phytochemical and antitrypanosomal investigation of the fractions and compounds isolated from Artemisia elegantissima. ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Trypanosoma brucei brucei T.b. brucei. Scopoletin isolated from A. brucei. The fractions D-F were found to be active at the concentration of 20 µg/ml and three compounds isolated from these fractions, scopoletin MIC ≤0.19 µg/ml, 3',4'-dihydroxy bonanzin MIC = 6.25 µg/ml and bonanzin MIC = 20 µg/ml, were found to be highly active. brucei. The compounds 3',4'-dihydroxy bonanzin and scopoletin with low MIC values, hold potential for use as antitrypanosomal drug leads. DOI:10.3109/13880209.2013.874534 1.24 Impact Factor Source Available from: Ming-Shen...
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*  Doctor's Best, Best Red Yeast Rice, 1200 mg, 60 Tablets - iHerb.com
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*  Health Notes - Health Notes
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http://nutritionexpress.com/hn/feature/red-yeast-rice-linked-to-improved-cholesterol-in-italian-study_16192_4

Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==China Biologic Products, Inc.Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseaseUnited States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories: The U.S.Coles PhillipsBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Ethyl groupMac OS X Server 1.0Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.List of systems biology conferences: Systems biology is a biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences.Reaction coordinateSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Electronic oscillator: An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. Oscillators convert direct current (DC) from a power supply to an alternating current signal.Biological network: A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems. A network is any system with sub-units that are linked into a whole, such as species units linked into a whole food web.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Protein–protein interactionOntario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Mediated transportGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.SEA Native Peptide LigationFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Christian Zheng Sheng College: Christian Zheng Sheng College () is a private school in Hong Kong established by the Christian Zheng Sheng Association (ZSA). Its founder and principal is Chan Siu Cheuk (Alman Chan).Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Immersive technologyCS-BLASTMBF BiosciencePlant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Flux (metabolism): Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway. Flux is regulated by the enzymes involved in a pathway.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Lactic acid fermentationBiodefense: Biodefense refers to short term, local, usually military measures to restore biosecurity to a given group of persons in a given area who are, or may be, subject to biological warfare— in the civilian terminology, it is a very robust biohazard response. It is technically possible to apply biodefense measures to protect animals or plants, but this is generally uneconomic.MinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Peter Riederer: Peter Riederer (born 1942) is a German neuroscientist with several thousands of citations and around 950 scientific writings. He has published more than 620 scientific papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are indexed in the most referent biomedical scientific database Medline.List of molecular graphics systems: This is a list of software systems that are used for visualizing macromolecules.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Human Proteinpedia: Human Proteinpedia is a portal for sharing and integration of human proteomic data,.Kandasamy et al.Monoclonal antibody therapyUK Biobank: UK Biobank is a large long-term biobank study in the United Kingdom (UK) which is investigating the respective contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental exposure (including nutrition, lifestyle, medications etc.) to the development of disease.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Ligand (biochemistry): In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a signal-triggering molecule binding to a site on a target protein.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation: Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (also called the Sharpless bishydroxylation) is the chemical reaction of an alkene with osmium tetroxide in the presence of a chiral quinine ligand to form a vicinal diol.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

(1/79074) Quantitative assessment of the morphology of the pig's head used as a model in surgical experimentation. Part 1: Methods of Measurements.

Thirty-two surface measurements were described for assessment of the effect of complex surgical operations on the skeleton of the face in pigs. The methods of measurements imitate those of anthropometry. The surface measurements can complement cephalometry with data about the changes in the soft tissue and thus improve the documentation of the effect of surgery. This paper can help in the evaluation of complicated osteotomy procedures using the pig as the animal model, for facial reconstruction research in humans.  (+info)

(2/79074) Investigation of the theory and mechanism of the origin of the second heart sound.

To investigate further the origin of the second heart sound we studied human subjects, dogs, and a model in vitro of the cardiovascular system. Intra-arterial sound, pressure, and, where possible, flow and high speed cine (2,000 frames/sec) were utilized. The closure sound of the semilunar valves was of higher amplitude in be ventricles than in their respective arterial cavities. The direction of inscription of the main components of intra-arterial sound were opposite in direction to the components of intraventricular sound. Notches, representative of pressure increments, were noted on the ventricular pressure tracings and were coincident with the components of sound. The amplitude of the closure sound varied with diastolic pressure, but remained unchanged with augmentation of forward and retrograde aortic flow. Cines showed second sound to begin after complete valvular closure, and average leaflet closure rate was constant regardless of pressure. Hence, the semilunar valves, when closed, act as an elastic membrane and, when set into motion, generate compression and expansion of the blood, producing transient pressure changes indicative of sound. The magnitude of the initial stretch is related to the differential pressure between the arterial and ventricular chambers. Sound transients which follow the major components of the second sound appear to be caused by the continuing stretch and recoil of the leaflets. Clinically unexplained findings such as the reduced or absent second sound in calcific aortic stenosis and its paradoxical presence in congenital aortic stenosis may be explained by those observations.  (+info)

(3/79074) Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles.

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

(4/79074) Hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations.

The amount of hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations is studied by using the infinite site model and stepwise mutation model simultaneously. A formula is developed for the bivariate probability generating function for the number of codon differences and the number of electromorph state differences between two randomly chosen cistrons. Using this formula, the distribution as well as the mean and variance of the number of codon differences between two identical or nonidentical electromorphs are studied. The distribution of the number of codon differences between two randomly chosen identical electromorphs is similar to the geometric distribution but more leptokurtic. Studies are also made on the number of codon differences between two electromorphs chosen at random one from each of two populations which have been separated for an arbitrary number of generations. It is shown that the amount of hidden genetic variability is very large if the product of effective population size and mutation rate is large.  (+info)

(5/79074) The Lewontin and Krakauer test on quantitative characters.

It is shown that LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER's test could also be applied to quantitative characters that do not show important dominance and epistatic genetic variances. The design of experiments for this purpose and the error of the estimation of F are discussed.  (+info)

(6/79074) Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms.

The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed.  (+info)

(7/79074) Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development.

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

(8/79074) Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family.

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)


What kind of modeling agencies accept glamour models?


What I mean is, when I look at playboy models and video models, they don't look like fashion models.  What kind of agency accepts glamour models that are shorter than the high fashion model?
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From what ive seen there isnt a particular big glam agency, you more so try to make direct contact with a publication and send them pics.  Glam models arent your usual fashion models like you said they are shorter then most models.  Start off by finding a photographer you are comfortable with and get a portofolio together.  Once you have a variety of poses you are willing to take use that to shop yourself around with any magazines in the area.


What is modeling,who is a model and how do models make money?What do modeling agents do?


What is modeling,who is a model and how do models make money?What do modeling agents do?
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A model is a person who appears in magazines, ad campaigns, catalogues, fashion shows, billboards, etc often selling a product or representing a designer. The agent is the one who finds the work for models. Models get paid by the clients who book them and the agent takes a 10-15% commission

So Vogue magazine needs models to wear the clothes on the page, They call various agencies and have a bunch of models come to the office and decide which one they want for the shoot. Then they pay the agency, and the agency takes their commission and pays the model


Does anyone know which modeling agencies clothing companies go to for models used in print work?


I'm a male model looking to advance my career. Is there a list of agencies known for providing models to clothing companies?
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The clothing companies usually announce their casting calls to the agencies within a radius of each clothing company`s headquarters. The major fashion houses will send casting calls out to the major agencies worldwide.

I`m not aware of a list of agencies that specifically provide models to clothing companies, but if you have a look on models.com you can get a feel of which models have worked for what clothing companies and which agencies they are signed to.

If you have an agency, talk to your agent or booker and ask them to put you forward when the casting calls come in.


What is the link between atheletes/models/etc and binge-eating disorders?


I read somewhere that atheletes and models- or any other professionals whose bodies are on "public display on a frequent basis"- notably struggle with binge-eating disorders where they rapidly and excessively consume foods at certain periods of time, usually due to depression, anxiety, boredom, etc. 

It seems sort of odd to me that this is the case, considering atheletes and models are usually very slender. 

What do you guys think are some of the links?
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You are asking about two very different groups of people. 

When it comes to elite level athletes, yes, there are certain sports where eating disorders are a big problem. It has less to do with "bodies on display" than with "if I lose 5 kg I'll shave 5 seconds off my time" or similar. You can, for example, look into ski jumping, where a minimum BMI has been set due to  jumpers losing as much weight as they can - to unhealthy low lovels - to be able to fly further on their jumps. 

Models are on public display, but they also have to maintain a certain body type as their role is a living hanger for the clothes. Unlike with (most) athletes, models can and do use illicit drugs to keep their weight down.

Now there will be binging and purging in both groups, but I do not know to what extent it exists.


What are the names of the abercrombie and fitch models in Hawaii?


Recently while shopping, I saw some male models at the front of both the womens and mens store at the Ala Moana Shopping centre in Hawaii. Are they workers or models?
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models


What do modeling agencies look at in models?


When a model applies to a modeling agency, do they care about the colour of the eyes and hair? I've noticed that the majority of models are either blonde with blue eyes or brown hair with blue or green eyes. Also, for runway models, is the body more important than the looks?
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No, however say an agency has mainly blonde/blue eyed models, then they will likely be looking for brown/black eyed/hair models to expand their selection. In general, the modeling industry doesn't really favor a specific eye or hair color. (Eastern Europeans are very popular, they have light eyes and hair but to balance that Brazilians are also very popular who mainly have dark eyes and hair)!


Do you think there are any biological or evolutionary benefits to spicing our food?


Why do humans need to season their food very much? Is there a biological or evolutionary reason for it?
Do you think it's strange that humans have to season their food with salt, pepper, spices, herbs, etc? I have never seen any other animals season their food before eating it. Do you think there are any biological or evolutionary benefits to spicing our food?
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There are several reasons to spicing up food.
1. In hot climates spice is added to make a person sweat.  As perspiration comes to the skin surface any breeze evaporates the moisture making the skin cool off.  Sort of like air conditioning for the body.

2. As people age the taste buds begin to dull.  Because of this we need more and more spice to taste the foods that we have grown used to.

So I guess the answer is both biological and evolutionary.


What is the difference between centerfolds and fashion models?


Are centerfolds considered to be models? I say no because they model for lust, whereas fashion models are used to sell or market clothes through campaigns, runways, and magazines. Can anyone provide a clear explanation between these professions?
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They are both considered models.

One models for the fashion industry to sell clothes. The other models for the adult entertainment industry to sell its products.They both model to sell some sort of product. Although the fashion model usually has clothes on, and the other models nude usually, but sometimes the roles are reversed and the fashion model can sometimes model nude, but they are still selling some sort of fashion item. 

I think the main different is the fashion model, models to sell a fashion item. While the centerfold model, models to sell nude images of themselves which is the actual product, and not usually an item outside of that (at least most of the time).