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*  Full text of "Metallurgy Of Cast Iron"
... See other formats Ki-Tlvi'TS or \ AK'i A'l'H \S IN ......
http://archive.org/stream/MetallurgyOfCastIron/TXT/00000254.txt
*  China Guangzhou International Metal and Metallurgy Exhibition - Bvents.Com
Find information about China Guangzhou International Metal and Metallurgy Exhibition June ... China Guangzhou International Metal and Metallurgy Exhibition June 28 - 30, 2017 China ... China Guangzhou International Metal and Metallurgy Exhibition June 16 - 18, 2014 China ... China Guangzhou International Metal and Metallurgy Exhibition June 19 - 21, 2012 China( ......
http://bvents.com/event/419222-china-guangzhou-international-metal-and-metallurgy-exhibition
*  TIPTON & MILL STEELS, Import-export - steels and metals, Iron, steel and...
Iron, steel and metallurgy - import-export. Additional details. Edit my company's ......
http://europages.co.uk/TIPTON-MILL-STEELS/00000004450828-001.html
*  Metallurgy - Lib
Category: Metallurgy. B0518 Future developments of metals and ceramics (matsci). November ......
http://optimuscorporatehousing.com/lib/category/metallurgy
*  ZINC SMELTING/ METALLURGY - Introduction
With industrial development in India , use of zinc has increased considerably, however, specific consumption is much lower as compared to other developing countries. The most important raw material for the production of zinc is sulphide ore from which zinc is extracted either through pyro-metallurgical route or through hydro-metallurgical-electrowin route. At present nearly 80% of the worlds production of primary zinc is through hydrometallurgical route the balance is through pyro-metalurgical ......
http://prchandna.tripod.com/zinc.htm
*  Minerals Processing & Metallurgy - Flowrox
Home ● Industries ● Minerals Processing & Metallurgy Minerals Processing & Metallurgy. ... Advanced flow control technology for mining, minerals & metallurgy. Flowrox has provided ... metallurgy and mineral applications around the world. Key processes:. Calsium carbonate • ......
http://flowrox.us/industries/minerals_processing_metallurgy
*  METALLURGY MCN Worsted - Northbound Knitting
* MCN Worsted (80/10/10) - 181 yards/100 g skein * Dyed with professional grade light and colour fast acid dyes in a smoke and pet free environment. * Due to the nature of hand dyed yarn, each skein is unique and alternating skeins is recommended. * Handwash in lukewarm water, lay flat to dry....
http://northboundknitting.squarespace.com/ready-to-ship/metallurgy-mcn-worsted
*  Fundamentals of metallurgy :: E-book Collection
Metallurgy.. Steel -- Metallurgy. Identifier 9781439823613 (e-book) ; 9781845690946 (e- ......
http://beyond.library.tu.ac.th/cdm/ref/collection/ebook/id/2632/
*  MIT OpenCourseWare | Materials Science and Engineering | 3.40J Physical...
... in metallic alloys selected to illustrate some basic concepts of physical metallurgy and ... 3.40J / 22.71J Physical Metallurgy. Spring 2004. Magnetic nanostructures. (Images ......
http://mit.sustech.edu/OcwWeb/Materials-Science-and-Engineering/3-40JSpring2004/CourseHome/index.htm
*  MIT OpenCourseWare | Materials Science and Engineering | 3.40J Physical...
... in metallic alloys selected to illustrate some basic concepts of physical metallurgy and ... 3.40J / 22.71J Physical Metallurgy. Spring 2003. An example of calculated strain energies ... in metallic alloys selected to illustrate some basic concepts of physical metallurgy and ......
http://mit.sustech.edu/OcwWeb/Materials-Science-and-Engineering/3-40JPhysical-MetallurgySpring2003/CourseHome/index.htm

No data available that match "Metallurgy"



(1/621) Genotoxic exposures of potroom workers.

OBJECTIVES: Potroom workers in aluminum reduction plants have increased risks for bladder and lung cancer due to exposure from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study correlations between measures of the external, internal, and biological effective dose have been studied for PAH. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from 98 male potroom workers and 55 unexposed male blue-collar workers, for the analysis of aromatic adducts to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in lymphocytes, using the 32P-postlabeling technique. 1-Hydroxypyrene in urine was analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Personal sampling of both particulate and gas phase PAH was performed during a full workday for the potroom workers and for 5 referents. Individual PAH congeners were determined with liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques. RESULTS: The respiratory-zone airborne level of the sum of 22 particulate (median 13.2 micro/m3) and the 7 gas phase PAH-congeners (median 16.3 microg/m3) among the potroom workers was a hundred times higher than among the referents. The urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene before work was 30 times higher for the potroom workers (median 3.43 micromol/mol creatinine) than for the referents. Most airborne PAH congeners correlated with the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. The frequency of aromatic DNA adducts did not, however, differ between the potroom workers and the referents, and no correlation was found for 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an obvious occupational exposure to PAH, no increase in aromatic DNA adducts in lymphocytes was found among the potroom workers.  (+info)

(2/621) Effects of experimental exposure to triethylamine on vision and the eye.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of triethylamine (TEA) on the cornea and to evaluate the cause of blurred vision. To find the lowest observed effect concentration of exposure to TEA. METHODS: Four people were exposed to TEA for 4 hours at concentrations of 40.6, 6.5, and 3.0 mg/m3. Before and after every exposure, symptoms and ocular microscopy findings were recorded. Binocular visual acuity and contrast sensitivity at 2.5% contrast were also measured. Also, before and after the 40.6 mg/m3 exposure, corneal thickness was measured and ocular dimensions were recorded by ultrasonography, endothelial cells of the cornea were analysed, and serum and lacrimal specimens were collected for the analysis of TEA. RESULTS: After exposure to 40.6 mg/m3 TEA there was a marked oedema in the corneal epithelium and subepithelial microcysts. However, corneal thickness increased only minimally because of the epithelial oedema. The lacrimal concentrations of TEA were, on average (range) 41 (18-83) times higher than the serum TEA concentrations. The vision was blurred in all subjects and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. After exposure to TEA at 6.5 mg/m3 two subjects experienced symptoms, and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. There were no symptoms or decreases in contrast sensitivity after exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3. CONCLUSIONS: TEA caused a marked oedema and microcysts in corneal epithelium but only minor increases in corneal thickness. The effects may be mediated by the lacrimal fluid owing to its high TEA concentration. Four hour exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3 seemed to cause no effects, whereas exposure to 6.5 mg/m3 for the same period caused blurred vision and a decrease in contrast sensitivity.  (+info)

(3/621) Dose dependent reduction of erythroid progenitor cells and inappropriate erythropoietin response in exposure to lead: new aspects of anaemia induced by lead.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether haematopoietic progenitor cells and erythropoietin (EPO), which is an essential humoral stimulus for erythroid progenitor (BFU-E) cell differentiation, are affected by lead intoxication. METHODS: In male subjects chronically exposed to lead with and without anaemia, pluripotent (CFU-GEMM), BFU-E and granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitor cell counts in peripheral blood were measured with a modified clonal assay. Lead concentrations in blood (PbB) and urine (PbU) were measured by the atomic absorption technique, and EPO was measured with a modified radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: PbB in the subjects exposed to lead ranged from 0.796 to 4.4 mumol/l, and PbU varied between 0.033 and 0.522 mumol/l. In subjects exposed to lead with PbB > or = 2.896 mumol/l (n = 7), BFU-E cells were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) whereas the reduction in CFU-GM cells was only of borderline significance (p = 0.037) compared with the age matched controls (n = 20). The CFU-GEMM cells remained unchanged. Furthermore, BFU-E and CFU-GM cells were reduced in a dose dependent fashion, with increasing PbB or PbU, respectively. In the subjects exposed to lead EPO was in the normal range and did not increase in the presence of anaemia induced by lead. No correlations existed between EPO and PbB, PbU, or progenitor cells. CONCLUSION: The data suggest new aspects of lead induced anaemia besides the currently acknowledged shortened life span of erythrocytes and inhibition of haemoglobin synthesis. Two additional mechanisms should be considered: the reduction of BFU-E cells, and inappropriate renal EPO production in the presence of severe exposure to lead, which would lead to an inadequate maturation of BFU-E cells.  (+info)

(4/621) Historical cohort study of a New Zealand foundry and heavy engineering plant.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mortality of workers who had been exposed to asbestos, machining fluids and foundry work in a foundry and heavy engineering plant in the railway rolling stock manufacturing industry in New Zealand. METHODS: Historical cohort study design. RESULTS: For the total workforce of 3522 men employed between 1945 and 1991, follow up was 90% of person-years to 31 December 1991. Significantly increased standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were found for all causes of death combined (SMR 1.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01 to 1.14), all malignancies (SMR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.31), circulatory (SMR 1.16; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.27) and musculoskeletal diseases (SMR 3.06; 95% CI 1.39 to 5.84), all digestive cancers (SMR 1.29; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.59), all respiratory cancers (SMR 1.34; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.65), cancer of the oesophagus (SMR 1.97; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.45), and mesothelioma of the pleura (SMR 6.58; 95% CI 1.24 to 19.49). Three deaths from pleural mesothelioma were recorded, with latency times of 51, 53, and 57 years. There were no dose-response relations between exposure to asbestos, machining fluids or foundry work, or by duration of employment in the plant, and any cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: This study found small increases in risk for several causes of death among foundry and heavy engineering workers; however, these increases were small and the possible effects of smoking and other lifestyle factors could not be excluded. There was evidence of asbestos related disease in those involved in engineering work in the past.  (+info)

(5/621) Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers.

OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideoven workers. Liver function profiles including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), r-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (BIL) were examined in the morning after personal exposure measurements. The MspI polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). RESULTS: Five of 23 (22%) topside oven workers and seven of 65 (11%) sideoven workers had the CYP1A1 MspI homozygous variant genotype. With sideoven workers with the combined wild type and heterozygous variant as the reference group in multiple regression models, it was found that topside oven workers with the combined traits had mean AST and ALT activities that were 21% and 46% higher (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4% to 42% and 12% to 91%, respectively) than the reference group after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Also, topside oven workers with the homozygous variant trait had mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities that were 59%, 68%, and 157% higher (95% CI 21% to 109%, 6% to 168%, and 39% to 374%, respectively) than the reference group. The prevalence of an abnormal hepatocellular pattern (AST > 37 IU/l or ALT > 39 IU/l) was more common in the topside oven workers with the homozygous variant than in the sideoven workers with the other combined genotypes (adjusted odds ratio 9.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 82.3) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism may modify the biotransformation of coke oven emissions, which results in hepatocellular damage in coke oven workers.  (+info)

(6/621) 20 years of medical surveillance on exposure to allergenic and non-allergenic platinum compounds: the importance of chemical speciation.

OBJECTIVES: Chloroplatinates are potent allergens but other soluble platinum compounds such as tetraammine platinum dichloride (TPC) do not provoke reactions in subjects who are sensitive to chloroplatinates. TPC has been used in the manufacture of autocatalysts for 20 years. This study analyses 20 year data on exposure to soluble platinum compounds and medical surveillance to confirm that TPC is not allergenic. METHODS: Workers in three distinct operations were exposed to soluble platinum compounds as chloroplatinates, chloroplatinates with TPC, or to TPC alone. Results of personal air sampling for soluble platinum compounds were compared together with the results of medical surveillance. RESULTS: The levels of exposure to soluble platinum compounds in each operation were comparable but the incidence of allergy was significantly different. In a subgroup of workers consistently exposed to chemical processes in each operation, the cumulative chance of being sensitised after 5 years of exposure was estimated as 51% for chloroplatinate exposure, 33% for mixed exposure, and 0% for TPC alone. The differences in sensitisation rates could not be explained by age, sex, and atopy. Nor could they be explained by the increased frequency of smoking in the workers with chloroplatinate exposure, despite the markedly higher risk of sensitisation in smokers. The differences could only be explained by the chemical stability of TPC. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the soluble platinum compound TPC is not allergenic under normal industrial conditions. Characterisation of the chemical compound (speciation) is essential to prevent stringent exposure limits being imposed for all soluble compounds on a generic basis.  (+info)

(7/621) Point source sulphur dioxide peaks and hospital presentations for asthma.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect on hospital presentations for asthma of brief exposures to sulphur dioxide (SO2) (within the range 0-8700 micrograms/m3) emanating from two point sources in a remote rural city of 25,000 people. METHODS: A time series analysis of SO2 concentrations and hospital presentations for asthma was undertaken at Mount Isa where SO2 is released into the atmosphere by a copper smelter and a lead smelter. The study examined 5 minute block mean SO2 concentrations and daily hospital presentations for asthma, wheeze, or shortness of breath. Generalised linear models and generalised additive models based on a Poisson distribution were applied. RESULTS: There was no evidence of any positive relation between peak SO2 concentrations and hospital presentations or admissions for asthma, wheeze, or shortness of breath. CONCLUSION: Brief exposures to high concentrations of SO2 emanating from point sources at Mount Isa do not cause sufficiently serious symptoms in asthmatic people to require presentation to hospital.  (+info)

(8/621) Extremely low frequency magnetic fields and fertility: a follow up study of couples planning first pregnancies. The Danish First Pregnancy Planner Study Team.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on markers of human fertility. METHODS: A follow up study of time to pregnancy, semen quality, and reproductive hormones was conducted among couples planning first pregnancies (36 males were welders and 21 were non-welders). The male and the female partner were monitored for exposure to ELF magnetic field by personal exposure meters. As summary measures of exposure the median value was calculated together with the 75 percentile value and the proportion of measurements exceeding 0.2 and 1.0 microT, respectively. Each summary measure was divided in three categories: low, medium, and high. RESULTS: Couples in which the man had a medium or a high proportion of measurements > 1.0 microT had a reduced probability of conception per menstrual cycle compared with the men with low exposure, but the result was only significant for the men with medium exposure. This finding was partly attributable to a high probability of conception per menstrual cycle among the men with low exposure compared with non-welders in the original cohort of 430 couples. Other summary measures were not related to probability of conception or other markers of fertility. A possible negative association was found between high probability of conception and female exposure measures based on the median, the 75 percentile, and the proportion of measurements > 0.2 microT, but no association was found with the proportion of measurements > 1.0 microT. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide no consistent support for a hypothesis of a deleterious effect of low level ELF magnetic fields on markers of human fertility. However, due to the relatively small size of the studied population only large associations would be detected.  (+info)


what should the brew pot for homebrewing beer wort be made of?


the complete joy of homebrewing says to use stainless or enameled yet doesnt specify why.  but i can get aluminum for half the price as these suckers are expensive.is there a reason for not using aluminum?
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The absolute best pot should be made out of copper.  Copper distributes heat the best and it also lends ions to the wort that is good for the yeast.

But copper pots are prohibitively expensive.

Next up is aluminum or Stainless Steel. Both of which are fine to use in brewing.

Although, with Aluminum pots you will need to use more elbow grease to clean and use caustic sparingly. 
Rumors of alzheimer's from using aluminum cook ware is not true. Use a high quality aluminum pot and you will not get any metallic flavors. 

I would avoid enameled steel pots all together. If they chip they will rust and ruin your brew.

Here is a link to How To Brew and the metallurgy section. This is the best how to make beer book on the market. The author John Palmer is a metallurgist by trade and I feel is the last word on metals and beer production.
http://www.howtobrew.com/appendices/appendixB.html


sCan the term HEAT TREATMENT be used of food industry?


Can the term HEAT TREATMENT be used of food industry, such as changing the temperature of a product to make it good for consumption, and safe?
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Heat treatment is used mostly in alloy making, glass manufacturing an metallurgy.

However I would say theoretically yes, as long as the any chemical changes deems the end result as safe for consumption.


What's the difference between stainless steel and surgical steel...?


...particularly for jewelry?
Ah, very informative!  Thanks!  So for jewelry, particularly earrings that go in your skin, is either one fine, or is one better than the other? (stainless vs. surgical steel)
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Surgical stainless steel is a variation of steel usually consisting of an alloy of chromium (12–20%), molybdenum (0.2–3%), and sometimes nickel (8–12%).

The chromium gives the metal its scratch-resistance and corrosion resistance. The nickel provides a smooth and polished finish. The molybdenum gives greater hardness, and helps maintaining a cutting edge.

In metallurgy, stainless steel (inox) is defined as a ferrous alloy with a minimum of 10% chromium content.[1] The name originates from the fact that stainless steel does not stain, corrode or rust as easily as ordinary steel. This material is also called corrosion resistant steel when it is not detailed exactly to its alloy type and grade, particularly in the aviation industry


question about glass pots when cooking, details below?


i think when glass gets hot it breaks, don't glass pots ever break when boiling water is boiling in them?
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Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers commonly found in the kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. The terms cookware and bakeware are not exclusive, and it is possible for a single utensil to be used as both cookware and bakeware.

Contents [hide]
1 History 
2 Cookware materials 
2.1 Metal 
2.2 Coated and composite cookware 
2.3 Non-metallic cookware 
3 Types of cookware and bakeware 
3.1 Cookware 
3.2 Bakeware 
4 List of cookware and bakeware 
5 Footnotes 
6 References 
7 See also 
 


[edit] History
The history of cooking vessels before the development of pottery is minimal due to the limited archaeological evidence. It has been possible to extrapolate likely developments based on methods used by latter peoples. Among the first of the techniques believed to be used by stone age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. In addition to exposing food to direct heat from either an open fire or hot embers it is possible to cover the food with clay or large leaves before roasting to preserve moisture in the cooked result. Examples of similar techniques are still in use in many modern cuisines.[1]

Of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to natural heated water sources, such as hot springs, it was possible to prepare a small pit lined with stones and filled with water. Heated stones could then be placed in the water to raise its temperature. In many locations the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels. Bamboo tubes sealed at the end with clay would have provided a usable container in Asia, while the inhabitants of the Tehuacan Valley began carving large stone bowls that were permanently set into a hearth as early as 7000 BC. A final cooking vessel available to early civilizations were the stomachs from animals killed by hunters.[2]

 
Hand-crafted pots for sale in KenyaThe development of pottery allowed for the creation of fireproof cooking vessels in a variety of shapes and sizes. Coating the earthenware with some type of plant gum, and later ceramic glazes, converted the porous container into a waterproof vessel. The earthenware cookware could then be suspended over a fire through use of a tripod or other apparatus, or even be placed directly into a low fire or coal bed as in the case of the pipkin. Ceramics (including stoneware and glass) conduct poorly, however, so ceramic pots must cook over relatively low heats and over long periods of time (most modern ceramic pots will crack if used on the stovetop, and are only intended for the oven). Even after metal pots have come into widespread use, earthenware pots are still preferred among the less well-off, globally, due to their low production cost.

The development of bronze and iron metalworking skills allowed for cookware made from metal to be manufactured, although adoption of the new cookware was slow due to the much higher cost. After the development of metal cookware there was little new development in cookware, with the standard Medieval kitchen utilizing a cauldron and a shallow earthenware pan for most cooking tasks with a spit employed for roasting.[3] [4]

By the 17th century, it was common for a western kitchen to contain a number of skillets, baking pans, a kettle, and several pots along with a variety of pot hooks, and trivets. In the American colonies, these items would commonly be produced by a local blacksmith from iron while brass or copper vessels were common in Europe and Asia. Improvements in metallurgy during the 19th and 20th centuries allowed for pots and pans from metals such as steel, stainless steel and aluminum to be economically produced.[4]


[edit] Cookware materials

[edit] Metal
 
cast-iron 
stainless steel 
steelMetal pots are generally made from a narrow range of metals. This is because pots and pans need to conduct heat well, but also need to be chemically unreactive so that they do not alter the flavor of the food. Most materials that are conductive enough to heat evenly are too reactive to use in food preparation. In some cases (copper pots, for example), a pot may be made out of a more reactive metal, and then tinned or clad with another.

Aluminum 
Aluminum is a lightweight metal with very good thermal conductivity. It does not rust, and is resistant to many forms of corrosion. Aluminum can however react with some acidic foods to change the taste of the food. Sauces containing egg yolks, or vegetables such as asparagus or artichokes may cause oxidation of non-anodized aluminum. Since 1965 circumstantial evidence has linked Alzheimer's disease to aluminum, but to date there is no proof that the element is involved in causing the disease, and it is now considered unlikely. Aluminum is commonly available in sheet, cast, or anodized forms. [5][6] 
Sheet aluminum is spun or stamped into form. Due to the softness of the metal it is commonly alloyed with magnesium, copper, or bronze to increase its strength. Sheet aluminum is commonly used for baking sheets, pie plate, and cake or muffin pans. Stockpots, steamers, pasta pots, and even skillets are also available from sheet aluminum.[5] 
Cast aluminum produces a thicker product than sheet aluminum, making it suitable for saucepots, Dutch ovens, and heavyweight baking pans such as bundt pans. Due to the microscopic pores caused by the casting process cast aluminum has a lower thermal conductivity than sheet aluminum.[5] 
Anodized aluminum has had the naturally occurring layer of aluminium oxide thickened by an electrolytic process to create a surface that is hard and non-reactive. It is used for sauté pans, stockpots, roasters, and Dutch ovens.[5] 
Copper 
Classically in Western cooking, the best pots were made out of a thick layer of copper for good thermal conductivity and a thin layer of tin to prevent the copper from reacting with acidic foods. Copper pans provide the best conductivity, and therefore the most even heating. They tend, however, to be heavy, expensive, and to require occasional retinning. They are now available with stainless steel rather than tin linings which last much longer. They are best for such high-heat, fast-cooking techniques as sautéeing. 
Cast Iron 
Cast iron cookware is slow to heat, but once at temperature provides even heating. Cast iron can also withstand very high temperatures. Being a reactive material, cast iron can have chemical reactions with high acid foods such as wine or tomatoes. In addition, spinach cooked on bare cast iron will turn black. 
Cast iron is a porous material and requires seasoning before use. Seasoning creates a thin layer of fat and carbon over the iron that coats the surface and prevents sticking. Although cast iron cookware can be washed with soap, it should not be soaked or left wet because of rust concerns. After washing cast iron cookware it is a good idea to heat it upside down in a moderately hot oven for an hour or two just as in the seasoning process to insure that it is thoroughly dry. 
Cast iron cookware starts out silver in color but after seasoning and repeated use becomes the desired black nonstick surface. To season cast iron, rub a fat such as lard or vegetable shortening all over the surface of the cookware (including the non-cooking surfaces such as the underside and handles). To finish the seasoning process the cast iron cookware must be baked in the oven to seal the fat into the pores of the cookware. The process can be repeated if needed. While there is pre-seasoned cast iron cookware available it will also require re-seasoning at some point. 
Stainless Steel 
Stainless steel is an iron alloy containing a minimum of 11.5% chromium. Blends containing 18% chromium with either 8% nickel,called 18/8, or with 10% nickel, called 18/10, are commonly used for kitchen equipment. Stainless steel's virtues are a resistance to corrosion, it does not react with either alkaline or acidic foods, and it is not easily scratched or dented. Stainless steel's drawback for cooking use is that it is a relatively poor heat conductor. As a result, stainless steel cookware is generally made with a disk of copper or aluminium in or on the base to conduct the heat across the base. 
Carbon Steel 
Carbon steel cookware can be rolled or hammered into very thin sheets of material, while still maintaining high strength and heat resistance. This allows for rapid and high heating. Carbon steel does not conduct heat as well as other materials, but this may be an advantage for woks and paella pans, where one portion of the pan is intentionally kept at a different temperature than the rest. Like cast iron, carbon steel must be seasoned before use. Rub a fat, lard is recommended, on the cooking surface only and heat the cookware over the stovetop. The process can be repeated if needed. Over time the cooking surface will become dark and nonstick. Carbon steel is often used for woks and crepe pans. 

[edit] Coated and composite cookware
 
enamel 
teflonEnameled cast iron 
Enameled cast iron cooking vessels are made of cast iron covered with a porcelain surface. This creates a piece that has the heat distribution properties of cast iron combined with a non-reactive, non-stick surface. 
Clad aluminum or copper 
Cladding is a technique for fabricating pans with a layer of heat conducting material, such as copper or aluminium, sandwiched between a non-reactive material, such as stainless steel. Rather than just a heat-distributing disk on the base, the copper or aluminum extends over the entire pan. This provides much of the functionality of tinned-copper pots for a fraction of the price.[7] 
Non-stick 
Modern metal cooking pans are frequently coated with a substance such as Teflon in order to minimize the possibility of food sticking to the pan surface. This has advantages and disadvantages for flavor and ease of use. A small amount of sticking is needed to cause flavorful browning (called a glaze); adding liquid to lift the glaze from the pot is called deglazing. Additionally, nonstick pans cannot be used at high temperatures. On the other hand, they are easier to clean than other types of pots, and do not often result in burned food. When frying in pans without such a coating, it is usually necessary to use vegetable or animal fat to prevent sticking. 
Nonstick coatings tend to degrade over time, and require vigilant care and attention. In order to preserve the nonstick coating of a pan, it is important never to use metal implements in the pan while cooking, or harsh scouring pads or chemical abrasives when cleaning. There is currently some controversy surrounding the use of Teflon and Silverstone, as the decomposition products that they produce at high temperatures can be toxic.[8] 
For those who keep birds, most veterinarians will warn that keeping birds in proximity to areas where nonstick cookware is being used can be deathly to birds given their delicate breathing. Nonstick cookware is known to outgas. At least keep the birds in another part of the dwelling that is far away from nonstick cooking areas.


[edit] Non-metallic cookware
Non-metallic cookware can be used in both conventional and microwave ovens. Non-metallic cookware typically can't be used on the stovetop, but some kinds of ceramic cookware, for example Corningware, are an exception.

Ceramics 
Glazed ceramics, such as porcelain, provide a nonstick cooking surface. Unglazed ceramics, such as terra cotta, have a porous surface that can hold water or other liquids during the cooking process, adding moisture in the form of steam to the food. Historically some glazes used on ceramic articles have contained high levels of lead, which can posses health risks. 
Glass 
Borosilicate glass, such as Pyrex, is safe at oven temperatures. The clear glass also allows for the food to be seen during the cooking process. 
Glass-ceramic  
Glass ceramic is used to make products such as Corningware, which have many of the best properties of both glass and ceramic cookware. While Pyrex can shatter if taken between extremes of temperature too rapidly, glass-ceramics can be taken directly from deep freeze to the stovetop. Their near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion makes them almost entirely immune to thermal shock. 
Silicone 
Silicone bakeware is light, flexible, and able to withstand sustained temperatures of 675°F (360°C) [1]. It melts around 930°F (500°C), depending upon the fillers used. Its flexibility is advantageous in removing baked goods from the pan. This rubbery material is not to be confused with the silicone resin used to make hard, shatterproof children's dishware, which is not suitable for baking. 

[edit] Types of cookware and bakeware
The size and shape of a cooking vessel is typically determined by how it will be used. Cooking vessels are typically referred to as "pots" and "pans," but there is great variation in their actual shapes. Most cooking vessels are roughly cylindrical.


[edit] Cookware
 
A Pyrex chicken roasterBraising pans and roasting pans (also known as braisers and roasters) are large, wide and shallow, to provide space to cook a roast (chicken, beef, or pork). They typically have two loop or tab handles, and may have a cover. Roasters are usually made of heavy gauge metal so that they may be used safely on a cooktop following roasting in an oven. Unlike most other cooking vessels, roasters are usually oblong or oval. There is no sharp boundary between braisers and roasters - the same pan, with or without a cover, can be used for both functions. 
Casserole pans (for making casseroles) resemble roasters and dutch ovens, and many recipes can be used interchangeably between them. Depending on their material, casseroles can be used in the oven or on the stovetop. Casseroles are commonly made of glazed ceramics or pyrex. 
Dutch ovens are heavy, relatively deep, pots with a heavy lid, designed to re-create oven conditions on the stovetop (or campfire). They can be used for stews, braised meats, soups, and a large variety of other dishes that benefit from low heat, slow cooking. Dutch ovens are typically made from cast iron, and are measured by volume. 
 
Large and small skilletsFrying pans, frypans, or skillets provide a large flat heating surface and shallow sides, and are best for pan frying. Frypans with a gentle, rolling slope are sometimes called omelette pans. Grill pans are frypans that are ribbed, to let fat drain away from the food being cooked. Frypans and grill pans are generally measured by diameter (20–30 cm). 
 
Electric griddle with temperature controlGriddles are flat plates of metal used for frying, grilling, and making pan breads (such as pancakes, injera, tortillas, chapatis, and crepes). Traditional iron griddles are circular, with a semicircular hoop fixed to opposite edges of the plate and rising above it to form a central handle. Rectangular griddles that cover two stove burners are now also common, as are griddles that have a ribbed area that can be used like a grill pan. Some have multiple square metal grooves enabling the contents to have a defined pattern, similar to a waffle maker. Like frypans, round griddles are generally measured by diameter (20–30 cm). 
In Scotland, griddles are referred to as girdles. In some Spanish speaking countries, a similar pan is referred to as a comal. Crepe pans are similar to griddles, but are usually smaller, and made of a thinner metal. 
Both griddles and frypans can be found in electric versions. These may be permanently attached to a heat source, similar to a hot plate. 
 
A copper saucepot (stainless lined, with cast iron handles)Saucepans (or just "pots") are vessels with vertical sides about the same height as their diameter, used for simmering or boiling. Saucepans generally have one long handle. Larger pots of the same shape generally have two handles close to the sides of the pot (so they can be lifted with both hands), and are called sauce-pots or soup pots (3–12 liters). Saucepans and saucepots are measured by volume (usually 1–8 L). While saucepots often resemble dutch ovens in shape, they do not have the same heat capacity characteristics. 
Ironically, the saucepan is not the ideal vessel to use for making sauces. It is more efficient to use saucepans with sloping sides, called Windsor pans, or saucepans with rounded sides, called sauciers. These provide quicker evaporation than straight sided pans, and make it easier to stir a sauce while reducing. 
Saute pans, used for sauteing, have a large surface area, like a frypan, but with vertical sides, to prevent food from escaping during cooking. 
Stockpots are large pots with sides at least as tall as their diameter. This allows stock to simmer for extended periods of time without reducing too much. Stockpots are typically measured in volume (6-36 L). Stock pots come in a large variety of sizes to meet any need from cooking for a family to preparing food for a banquet. A specific type of stockpot exists for lobsters. 
Woks, are typically lens-shaped. This allows a small pool of cooking oil to be heated to a high heat using relatively little fuel, while the outer areas of the wok are used to keep food warm after it has been fried in the oil. In the Western world, woks are typically used only for stir-frying, but they can actually be used for anything from steaming to deep frying. 

[edit] Bakeware
 
Angel Food Cake PanBaking pans are designed for use in the oven (for baking) and encompass a variety of different styles of bakeware such as cake pans, pie pans, and loaf pans. These are often made from light or medium gauge metal. The longest lasting bakings sheets and pans are made with heavy-gauged steel aluminum. They are heavier in weight which helps in heat distribution and prevents the metal from warping.

Cake pans can include square pans, round pans, and specialty pans such as angel food cake pans and springform pans often used for baking cheesecake.

Sheet pans or cookie sheets are bakeware with large flat surfaces.

Glass pie pans work best for pies as you can check the crust through the glass


Metallurgy and Jewelry - Need a very durable ring?


I need a ring that can stand up to anything, chemical corrosion, abrasion and all of the abuses that a manly man can offer.  The gold band I've been wearing for 13 years is all beat up and not even round anymore (got squashed working on the car).  
I've looked at Stainless Steel, Cobalt, and Titanium.  I think Titanium is the strongest, but not sure since they make drill bits out of cobalt.  Any recommendations?
----------

You need someting people make rings out of.

Titanium is great and probably your best bet, if you want a precious metal platinum is tougher then gold.

Do you really want a cobalt ring? It has to look good too.


What Zwilling Knife model is the best or the most expensive?


What is the best for you is mostly defined by your taste and use habits.
E.g. people who are used to western style kitchen knives often simply break or badly damage Japanese style kitchen knives, even though Japanese knives are far better purely from knife performance standpoint.

As for the rest, the fanciest and most expensive Zwilling Henckels knives are their Damascus line knives. However, don't mistake modern pattern welded steel for old style damascus (wootz), which is also a source of many legends, but not all of them are true.

Next would be their Cronidur line(also sold in US as Henckels 1731 series). Mainly because of the steel - Cronidur 30 - http://zknives.com/knives/steels/cronidur_30.shtml
Contains 0.42% Nitrogen which positively affects its properties, but IMHO not worth the price. There are other steels with much more nitrogen, yet they don't perform 10 times better than other alloys.
E.g. Vanax 35 and Vanax 75. For reference, composition comparison of Cronidur 30, Vanax 35 and Vanax 75 - http://zknives.com/knives/steels/steelgraph.php?nm=Cronidur%2030%2CVanax%2035%2CVanax%2075&ni=437,2227,2218&hrn=1&gm=0
Worth noting, Cronidur knives are 60HRC on rockwell scale, vs. 54-56HRC on mainstream blades.

From western style knives their new Bob Kramer knives is the best. 52100 steel, 61HRC, which is a good one for kitchen knives, but if you have not used hard steel kitchen knives(i.e. Japanese) you might easily chip the edge. 

Henckels also have Miyabi line, which is in my opinion theirbest in terms of price/performance and very nice designs too.
It's  atypical Japanese kitchen knives line, and has very high quality as well.
Here, several Miyabi knives reviews - http://zknives.com/knives/kitchen/ktknv/makers/miyabi/index.shtml

Twin Cermax is also more of a Japanese style, ZDP-189 steel at 66HRC is an exotic stuff by any definition. Very high edge retention but for inexperienced user sharpening can be a problem and the knfie might be too fragile for those who are used to chopping bones with chef's knives, although that clearly constitutes knife abuse in my opinion.

So, there you have it. If you want western style, for reasonable price 5 star or pro S will do. If price is not an issue, Cronidur series or Kramer. Keep in mind, 52100 steel is not a stain resistant steel, so it'll rust very fast if proper care is not taken.

For Japanese style knives, Miyabi is probably the best. They have mid range knives out of VG-10 steel and high end stuff from ZDP-189 and SG2 powder metallurgy steels. 

You can forget the whole forged vs. stamped debate, at least when considering knives from mass makers. The whole "forging" process consists of single or at best two robotic hammer blows on the heated midsection of the blade to for the bolster. Nobody is pounding red hot steel for hours by hand. If you want that, get a custom knife.

Kitchen Knives steel FAQ will help with steels - http://zknives.com/knives/kitchen/misc/articles/kkchoser/kksteelp2.shtml


Kitchen tools native to Austria?


I am challenged here. I have nothing for this. Everything I have found is actualy from Germany.
Spaetzle maker
Still
----------

Austria is more known for it scientific inventions. I reasearched and did not find any kitchen gadget inventions from Austria. Here's what I did find.
Carlo Abarth, motorcycle racer and car designer 
Igo Etrich, aviation pioneer and pilot 1879-1967 
Anselm Franz, pioneer in jet engine engineering 
Gaston Glock, inventor, founder of GLOCK GmbH 
Eduard Haas, inventor of PEZ 
Hedy Lamarr, (known for research in frequencies, needed for mobile phones) 
Viktor Kaplan, inventor of turbines for river power plants 
Johann Korbuly, inventor of matador (special wooden toy) 
Wilhelm Kress, aviation pioneer, inventor of the stick control for airplanes 
Josef Madersberger, invented the sewing machine in 1818 
Siegfried Marcus, automobile pioneer (vehicles of 1870 and 1889), lived most of his life in Austria 
Peter Mitterhofer, inventor of typewriter 
Johann August Natterer, chemist and physician (inventions in photography) 
Alois Negrelli, engineer and railroad pioneer (created the plans for the Suez Canal) 
Ferdinand Porsche, automotive engineer, designed the Volkswagen (the "people's car"), born in Austria-Hungary 
Johann Puch, engineer and entrepreneur 
Josef Ressel, inventor of the marine screw propeller 
Edmund Rumpler, engineer, aviation pioneer 
Paul Schwarzkopf, inventor of powder metallurgy 
Alois Senefelder, inventor of the printing technique of Lithography 
Max Valier, rocketry pioneer 
Auer von Welsbach, inventor of gaslight 
Claire Gmachl, quantum cascade laser and mid-IR technologies pioneer


What does pickle really mean?


From a culinary point of view:

pickle
n.  Food that has been preserved in a seasoned brine or vinegar mixture. Among the more popular foods used for pickling are cucumbers, pearl onions, cauliflower, baby corn, watermelon rind, pig's feet and herring. Pickles can be sour, sweet, hot or variously flavored, such as with DILL for the popular dill pickle. pickle v.  To preserve food in a vinegar mixture or brine.

According to the dictionary:

pick·le
–noun
1.a cucumber that has been preserved in brine, vinegar, or the like.
2.Often, pickles. any other vegetable, as cauliflower, celery, etc., preserved in vinegar and eaten as a relish.
3.something preserved in a brine or marinade.
4.a liquid usually prepared with salt or vinegar for preserving or flavoring fish, meat, vegetables, etc.; brine or marinade.
5.Metallurgy. an acid or other chemical solution in which metal objects are dipped to remove oxide scale or other adhering substances.
6.Informal. a troublesome or awkward situation; predicament: I was in a pickle after the check bounced.
7.Informal. a sour, disagreeable person.
–verb (used with object)
8.to preserve or steep in brine or other liquid.
9.to treat with a chemical solution, as for the purpose of cleaning.
10.to give a pale, streaked finish to (wood) by applying and partly removing paint or by bleaching, as to give an appearance of age.
11.Slang. to store; prepare for long-range storage: Let's pickle these old cars for a few years.