Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Mass Behavior: Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adnexal Diseases: Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including diseases involving the OVARY, the FALLOPIAN TUBES, and ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Cyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Adnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Blastocyst Inner Cell Mass: The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.PolysaccharidesBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.TriglyceridesComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)JapanDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.United StatesGlucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

*  .. Ideas that change the world .. Campaign .. The Nutrition Source .. Harvard Public Health Magazin
Cervical cancer screening practices inefficient, costly. A call ... RSS Feeds. Mass public shootings increasing in U.S. ... Prospective Students. From degree programs to online learning to executive education, the Harvard Chan School can prepare you to make a real impact in the world. Ideas that change the world. Experts from many disciplines are educating new generations of global health leaders and taking innovative ideas from the laboratory to people’s lives. Featured Stories. Popular Stories. Student Stories. Childhood stress linked with greater risk of heart disease, diabetes in adulthood. Daily sugary drink habit increases risk of type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke. Cervical cancer screening practices inefficient, costly. A call to action on food systems and climate change. Drink up: Health benefits of coffee are numerous. Exploring the health value of global fisheries. Investing in radiotherapy for cancer patients worldwide. VIEW MORE STORIES. RSS Feeds. Mass public shootings increasing in U....
https://hsph.harvard.edu/
*  Evaluating Two Mass Screening Methods for Tungro Disease Resistance | QUT ePrints
Evaluating Two Mass Screening Methods for Tungro Disease Resistance. ... Evaluating Two Mass Screening Methods for Tungro Disease ... 1998 Evaluating Two Mass Screening Methods for Tungro Disease...
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/39801/
*  Howard University Capstone November 2012
event provided free screenings, consultations with Howard University ... event featured free screenings, consultations with Hospital ... pressure, body mass index and glucose and cholesterol ... The event provided free screenings, consultations with Howard University Hospital physicians and information about the additional services that the Hospital offers. Nearly 500 employees attended last month s Health Fair on the Hill event. Part of the University s new health and wellness initiative Healthy Howard the inaugural event featured free screenings, consultations with Hospital physicians and prizes. I don t remember the Hospital ever offering such a program, said Caroline Dexter, Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Classics in the College of Arts and Sciences. In the Blackburn Center ballroom, medical students from the College of Medicine offered flu shots and checked employees blood pressure, body mass index and glucose and cholesterol levels, while physicians offered strategies on how to maintain a h...
http://howard.edu/capstone/nov2012/feature1.html
*  What Is a BMI Report Card?
Amy BMI, or body mass index , is a calculation that uses ... the annual health screening of their students. Though some parents ... What Is a BMI Report Card. Find a Doctor. Contact. Menu. Patients & Families. Ways to Give. Contact. Page Menu Education Children & Families. For Parents. For Kids. For Teens. Educational Resources. For Parents. For Kids. For Teens Home. Parents Home. Allergy Center. Asthma Center. Cancer Center. Diabetes Center. Flu Center. Food Allergy Center. Heart Health. Helping With Homework. Nutrition & Fitness Center. General Health. Infections. Recipes. Para padres. Kids Home. Asthma Center. Cancer Center. Diabetes Center. Flu Center. Homework Help. Nutrition & Fitness Center. How the Body Works. Staying Healthy. Recipes & Cooking. Staying Safe. Health Problems. Health Problems of Grown-Ups. Getting Help. Feelings. Kids' Medical Dictionary. Para ni os. Teens Home. Asthma Center. Cancer Center. Diabetes Center. Flu Center. Homework Help. Managing Your Medical Care. Nutrition & Fitness ...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=BlankChildrensHospital&lic=145&cat_id=20252&article_set=59712&ps=104
*  AFP Documents with MESH term: Mass Screening - American Family Physician
with MESH term: Mass Screening - American Family Physician ... AFP with MESH term: Mass Screening Pages: Previous 1 ... 17 18 19 20 Next. Screening for Hearing Loss in Older Adults - ... Iron Deficiency Anemia: Evaluation and Management - Article ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide and accounts for approximately one-half of anemia cases. Men and postmenopausal women should not be screened, but should be evaluated with gastrointestinal endoscopy if diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. Adolescent Health Screening and Counseling - Article ABSTRACT: Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Approximately 8 to 12 million Americans have PAD, including 15% to 20% of adults older than 70 years. To improve cardiovascular risk stratification and risk factor modification, the American Diabetes Association recommends ABI screening for patients older than 50 years who have diabetes mellitus, and the...
http://aafp.org/afp/viewRelatedDocumentsByMesh.htm?meshId=D008403&page=18
*  Improving Serological Mass Screening in Childhood Celiac Disease - Celiac.com
Serological Mass Screening in Childhood Celiac Disease - Celiac ... Show CD Symptoms CD Screening GF Recipes Gluten-Free Diet Safe List...
http://celiac.com/articles/22057/1/Improving-Serological-Mass-Screening-in-Childhood-Celiac-Disease/Page1.html
*  Greenwich Academic Literature Archive
disease. mass screening. Number of items: 1. chickpea. Pande ... Stevenson, P. 2010 Mass-screening techniques for the early ... , M.M. , eds. Mass Screening Techniques for Selecting...
http://gala.gre.ac.uk/view/creators/Miranda=3AM=2E=3A=3A.keywords.html
*  Neuroblastoma in infants aged less than 6 months: is more aggressive treatment necessary? A report f
In Japan in 1985, mass screening for neuroblastoma in infants ... disease detected by mass screening, but there is still little...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Neuroblastoma-in-infants-aged-less/7623237.html
*  Featured in NEJM Journal Watch: Attempted TB Control in South African Gold Miners — Physician’s
Watch Editors Mass screening, together with treatment for the miners ... Featured in NEJM Journal Watch: Attempted TB Control in South African Gold Miners — Physician’s First Watch. Create Account. Sign In. Create Account. Sign In. NEJM Journal Watch. Specialties Topics Specialties: Cardiology Dermatology Emergency Medicine Gastroenterology General Medicine HIV/AIDS Hospital Medicine Infectious Diseases Neurology Oncology and Hematology Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Psychiatry Women’s Health. Sign in to Your Account Get help with sign in. Create Account. Sign In. Featured in NEJM Journal Watch: Attempted TB Control in South African Gold Miners — Physician’s First Watch. Physician s First Watch. Featured in NEJM Journal Watch: Attempted TB Control in South African Gold Miners. By the NEJM Journal Watch Editors Mass screening, together with treatment for the miners with active disease and isoniazid prophylaxis for all others, failed to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, according to a study in the New E...
http://jwatch.org/fw108388/2014/01/23/featured-nejm-journal-watch-attempted-tb-control-south
*  Radiology Rounds - Radiology Rounds -
Physicians Massachusetts General Hospital Department of ... Detected Adnexal Masses. Incidental adnexal masses are ... of adnexal masses indeterminate on ultrasound increases ... Radiology Rounds - Radiology Rounds -. Archived Issues of Radiology Rounds MGH Department of Radiology Website. Incidental adnexal masses are common in both pre- and postmenopausal women; the vast majority are benign Ultrasound demonstrates high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting ovarian cancer. MRI evaluation of adnexal masses indeterminate on ultrasound increases specificity, decreasing resection of benign lesions An algorithm to evaluate adnexal masses with imaging is presented. Incidental Adnexal Lesion Seen in Imaging. Ultrasound Characterization of Adnexal Masses. MRI Characterization of Adnexal Masses. Natural History of Adnexal Masses Screening trials using imaging have proven unsuccessful because benign adnexal lesions are relatively common whereas ovarian cancer is rare. In the 10 women diagnosed with ovarian...
http://mghradrounds.org/index.php?src=gendocs&link=2007_march
*  Atomic mass unit | Define Atomic mass unit at Dictionary.com
Atomic mass unit. Define Atomic mass unit at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Word of the Day Translate Games Blog. Thesaurus.com Apps. follow Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Try Our Apps. Word of the Day. Blog. follow Dictionary.com. CITE. atomic mass unit. Word Origin. 1 Also called dalton. a unit of mass, equal to 1/12 0.0833 the mass of the carbon-12 atom and used to express the mass of atomic and subatomic particles. 2 formerly a unit of mass, equal to 1/16 0.0625 the mass of an oxygen atom having atomic mass 16. Origin of atomic mass unit Expand. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. Cite This Source. British Dictionary definitions for atomic mass unit Expand. atomic mass unit. a unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular weights that is equal to one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12. It is equivalent to 1.66 × 10 –27 kg amu Also called unified atomic mass unit, dalton. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007...
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/atomic mass unit?qsrc=2446
*  Atomic mass
When divided by unified atomic mass units or daltons to form a pure number ratio, the atomic mass of an atom becomes a dimensionless number called the 'relative isotopic mass' see section below. Relative isotopic mass is similar to atomic mass and has exactly the same numerical value as atomic mass, whenever atomic mass is expressed in unified atomic mass units. As in the case of atomic mass, no nuclides other than carbon-12 have exactly whole-number values of relative isotopic mass. As is the case for the related 'atomic mass' when expressed in unified atomic mass units or daltons, the relative isotopic mass numbers of nuclides other than carbon-12 are not whole numbers, but are always close to whole numbers. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass of each isotope and nuclide of a chemical element is therefore a number that can in principle be measured to a very great precision, since every specimen of such a nuclide is expected to be exactly identical to every other specimen, as all atoms of a given type ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass
*  If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it ha
... ve - If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. :: Xmms Answers. Health. Q If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. Atomic. Post to Facebook. Post to Twitter. Tweet. source : What is significance does carbon-12 have in the terms of atomic mass. Was this answer helpful. Comment. Add Your Answer If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. 64% - What is the amount of nickel which has an average atomic mass of 58 7 amu present in 525 g nickel. 17% - How many moles and grams of carbon are present in 7 1 g of aspirin c9h8o4 use th...
http://xmms.org/qna/If_it_has_an_average_atomic_mass_of_58_7_u__present_in_525_grams_of_nickel_how_many_moles_does_it_have-qna1018665.html
*  Calculating Atomic Mass ( Real World ) | Chemistry | CK-12 Foundation
Calculating Atomic Mass Real World. CK-12 Foundation meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/". iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-WVB47G" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden" /iframe. Help. Library. Help. Calculating Atomic Mass. Practice Calculating Atomic Mass Practice. 0% Practice Now. Real World. Resources. Published. Credit : William Lipscomb Source : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lipscomb-NMR-hexaborene-B6H10.png License : CC BY-NC 3.0. Use of atomic mass units permits calculation of the atomic weight, which can then be verified using experimental techniques. John Dalton’s atomic theory laid the groundwork for further investigation of atomic weights. Credit : Library of Congress Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John Dalton by Charles Turner.jpg License : CC BY-NC 3.0. Due to his earlier work on color blindness, "Daltonism" became a common term for color blindness and "Daltonien" is the actual French word for "colour blind". W...
http://ck12.org/chemistry/Calculating-Atomic-Mass/rwa/A-More-Specific-ID/r2/
*  Mass spectrometry
... Other ionization techniques. Detectors Tandem mass spectrometry Common mass spectrometer configurations and techniques Separation techniques combined with mass spectrometry Gas chromatography. Liquid chromatography. Data and analysis Data representations. Data analysis. The ions are then transported by magnetic or electric field s to the mass analyzer. Techniques for ionization have been key to determining what types of samples can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Electron ionization and chemical ionization are used for gas es and vapor s. Examples include fast atom bombardment FAB, chemical ionization CI, atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization APCI, electrospray ionization ESI, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MALDI. : \mathbf{F}=m\mathbf{a} Newton's second law of motion in non-relativistic case, i.e. Many mass spectrometers use two or more mass analyzers for tandem mass spectrometry MS/MS. The mass range is the range of 'm/z' amenable to analysis by a given analyzer. A linear quadrupo...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_spectrometry
*  Atomic mass constant
... in physics and chemistry the atomic mass constant m u is one twelfth of the mass of an unbound atom of carbon at rest and in its ground state it serves to define the atomic mass unit and is by definition equal to u the codata recommended value is in practice the atomic mass constant is determined as the ratio of the electron rest mass m e to the electron relative atomic mass a r e that is the mass of the electron on a scale where c the relative atomic mass of the electron can be measured in cyclotron experiments while the rest mass of the electron can be derived from other physical constants m rm u frac m rm e a rm r rm e frac r infty h a rm r rm e c alpha the current uncertainty in the value of the atomic mass constant one part in million is almost entirely due to the uncertainty in the value of the planck constant energy equivalents see also references external links energy equivalents the atomic mass constant can also be expressed as its energy equivalent that is m u c the codata recommended values ar...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass_constant
*  High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Instrumentation Analysis Resources - Preservation Science (Prese
High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Instrumentation Analysis Resources - Preservation Science Preservation, Library of Congress. skip navigation. Search. The Library of Congress. Preservation. Preservation Science. Instrumentation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Preservation Home. About Us. Collections Care. Conservation Highlights. Emergency Preparedness. Family Treasures. Outreach Opportunities. Preservation Science. Resources. Contact. Related Links Donate. Digital Preservation. Audio-Visual Preservation. Building Digital Collections: A Technical Overview. Preservation Metadata Maintenance Activity. National Film Preservation Board. . High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. { subscribe url: '/share/sites/Bapu4ruC/preservation.php' }. Back to Instrumentation Analysis Resources The JEOL JMS-GCMATE II is a high resolution mass spectrometer, coupled with gas chromatography GC, fast atom bombardment FAB, direct insertion probe DIP, and collision-induced decomposition CID. It provides a multitude of methods for pe...
http://loc.gov/preservation/scientists/instrumentation/high_resolution.html
*  Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over"
... conformation: evidence for positive cooperativity in binding - BIROn - Birkbeck Institutional Research Online. BIROn - Birkbeck Institutional Research Online. Browse by Year. Browse by School. Browse by Person. Browse by Journal. Browse by Types. Login. Create Account. Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over" conformation: evidence for positive cooperativity in binding. and Williams, Mark A. 2011 Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over" conformation: evidence for positive cooperativity in binding. Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi101691k. Here we present a mass spectrometry study of complexes formed between the A subunit of the topoisomerase DNA gyrase and the bifunctional inhibitor simocyclinone D8 SD8, an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces. These studies show that, in an alternative mode of interaction to that found by X-ray crystallography, each subunit binds a single bifun...
http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/5660/
*  Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry in Lipidomics | LCGC
Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Lipidomics. LCGC. LCGC North America Pre-2000 Issue Indexes LCGC Europe LCGC Asia Pacific The Column Special Issues Application Notebooks Newsletters E-Books. Liquid Chromatography LC/HPLC/UHPLC Gas Chromatography GC Mass Spectrometry Sample Prep. Editorial Staff Author Guidelines Editorial Advisory Board. LCGC North America EAB LCGC Europe LCGC Asia Pacific EAB. Liquid Chromatography. Mass Spectrometry. View the Issue. Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Lipidomics. An analytical method for the global profiling of molecular lipids in biological samples, with particular emphasis on the plasmalogen lipids, is described. The global profiling method is based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry UHPLC–QTOF-MS. The profiling approach is complemented by UHPLC–LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry in MS. Global characterization of lipids in biological samples — li...
http://chromatographyonline.com/ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry-lipidomics-0
*  Electron impact - Mass spectrometry - Centre for Chemical and Biochemical Analysis - University o
... f Birmingham. Browser does not support script. Browser does not support script. University of Birmingham. Alumni. Working here. Events. Visit. Menu. Study. Research. International. Business. News. About us. Alumni. Working here. Events. Visit. Search. Search for:. Search Popular pages Order a prospectus. Register for an open day. Search for vacancies. Contact us. Maps and directions. Browse our libraries. Buy from our online shop. Home > Facilities > Chemical analysis > Mass spectrometry > Electron impact. Electron impact. In 'Mass spectrometry' Mass spectrometry. Electron impact. Chemical ionisation. Fast atom bombardment. MALDI. Electrospray. Back to 'Chemical analysis'. Electron impact is the traditional and possibly the most common method of ionisation. The sample for analysis is introduced into the ion source, either through a solids inlet or through a gas chromatography column. It is essential that the sample enters the ion source in the gaseous state and the ability to heat the sour...
http://birmingham.ac.uk/facilities/chemical-analysis/mass-spec/electron-impact.aspx
*  Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Science Division Forum
Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry LC-MS Science Division Forum. Skip to content. Skip to navigation. Site Map. Accessibility. Contact Search Site. only in current section. Advanced Search. Sections Home. News Events. People. Teaching. Research. Facilities. Services. Administration. Contact. Personal tools Log in. You are here:. Home. Core Facilities. Mass Spectrometry. Navigation. LC-MS Request Form of The City College of New York. Mass Spectrometry User Fees. Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry LC-MS. Upcoming Events. Biochemistry seminar: Nina Papavasiliou, "Generators of diversity and the host-pathogen interface". Oct 07, 2015 12:00 PM - 01:00 PM CUNY-ASRC Auditorium. Physics Colloquium: Gregory D. Scholes, "Photosynthetic light harvesting and ultrafast energy transfer". Oct 07, 2015 04:00 PM - 05:00 PM MR418N. Women in Science. Oct 08, 2015 12:30 PM - 01:30 PM MR 502. Upcoming events. Info. Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry LC-MS. General information about the facility. Location: Mar...
http://forum.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/core_facilities/Mass-Spectrometry
*  Protein mass spectrometry
... Mass spectrometry is an important emerging method for the characterization of proteins. The two primary methods for ionization of whole proteins are electrospray ionization ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MALDI. Subsequently these peptides are introduced into the mass spectrometer and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting or tandem mass spectrometry. Mass analysis of proteolytic peptides is a much more popular method of protein characterization, as cheaper instrument designs can be used for characterization. 6 These ionization methods have made the study of protein applicable with mass spectrometry. In light of these problems, the methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography are widely used for separation of proteins. The peptide masses resulting from the digestion can be determined by mass spectrometry using peptide mass fingerprinting. If this information does not allow unequivocal identification of the protein, its peptides can be su...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_mass_spectrometry
*  Carbon Mitigation Initiative: Bibliography Search Results
Hamme, and Bronte Tilbrook, 2009: Continuous High-Frequency Dissolved O 2 /Ar Measurements by Equilibrator Inlet Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 81, doi: 10.1021/ac802300u 1855-1864 The oxygen O 2 concentration in the surface ocean is influenced by biological and physical processes. With concurrent measurements of argon Ar, which has similar solubility properties as oxygen, we can remove the physical contribution to O 2 supersaturation and determine the biological oxygen supersaturation. Biological O 2 supersaturation in the surface ocean reflects the net metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration, i.e., the net community productivity NCP. We present a new method for continuous shipboard measurements of O 2 /Ar by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry EIMS. Gases in the headspace of the cartridge equilibrate with dissolved gases in the flowing seawater. A fused-silica capillary continuously samples headspace gases, and the O 2 /Ar ratio is measured by mass spectrometry. The ion current m...
http://cmi.princeton.edu/bibliography/results.php?author=4039
*  Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
... 'Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry' 'LC-MS', or alternatively 'HPLC-MS' is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography or HPLC with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry MS. Liquid chromatography Flow splitting. Mass spectrometry Mass analyzer. Liquid chromatography. Present day liquid chromatography generally utilizes very small particles packed and operating at relatively high pressure, and is referred to as high performance liquid chromatography HPLC ; modern LC-MS methods use HPLC instrumentation, essentially exclusively, for sample introduction. Use of octadecylsilyl C18 and related organic-modified particles as stationary phase with pure or pH-adjusted water-organic mixtures such as water-acetonitrile and water-methanol are used in techniques termed reversed phase liquid chromatography RP-LC. Use of materials such as silica gel as stationary phase with neat or mixed organic mixtures are used in techniques termed n...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_chromatography–mass_spectrometry
*  Modeling Relative Atomic Mass - PhET Beiträge
... zur Hauptseite. Anmelden. Registrierung. Sign In Ein ungültiger Nutzername und/oder Passwort wurde eingegeben. Email Adresse: Passwort: Remember me Forgot password. No account. Resend email confirmation. Über 110 Millionen Simulationen abgerufen. Search the PhET Website. Support PhET:. Donate Today. HTML5 Sims. HTML. . Simulationen. Für Dozenten. Tips for Using PhET. Beiträge durchsuchen. Share your Activities. Meine Beiträge. Workshops. Anleitung zum Ausführen der Simulationen. Fehlerbehebung. Häufige Fragen. Für Übersetzer. Spenden Sie. Forschung. Licensing. Über PhET. Beiträge durchsuchen Modeling Relative Atomic Mass Modeling Relative Atomic Mass.doc - 39 kB. Download Sie können auch alle Dateien als komprimiertes ZIP Archiv downloaden Titel Modeling Relative Atomic Mass. Beschreibung The concept of average relative atomic mass is explored. Calculation of relative atomic masses from isotopic relative atomic mass and natural abundance percent composition is taught. Estimation of most abundant isotopes...
http://phet.colorado.edu/de/contributions/view/3419
*  Patent US6268144 - DNA diagnostics based on mass spectrometry - Google Patents
DNA diagnostics based on mass spectrometry US 6268144 B1 Abstract Fast and highly accurate mass spectrometry-based processes for detecting particular nucleic acid molecules and sequences in the molecules are provided. Tang et al., Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 8, 727-730 1994 ; and a double-stranded DNA of 28 base pairs Nelson et al., Time-of Flight Mass Spectrometry of Nucleic Acids by Laser Ablation and Ionization from a Frozen Aqueous Matrix, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 4, 348-351 1990. 36 shows the portion of the sequence of pRFc1 DNA, which was used as template for PCR amplification of unmodified and 7-deazapurine containing 99-mer and 200-mer nucleic acids as well as the sequences of the 19-primers and the two 18-mer reverse primers. 41B shows a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of the 7-deazapurine containing 99-mer PCR product sum of twelve single shot spectra. 42B shows a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of 7-deazapurine containing 200-mer PCR product sum of 30 single shot spectra. An anchor...
http://google.com/patents/US6268144?dq=7,003,515
*  Relative atomic mass
Image:Atomic number Atomic weight.jpg 'Relative atomic mass' symbol: 'A' is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the 'average' mass of atom s of an element from a single given sample or source to of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 known as the unified atomic mass unit. This isotope mix causes the standard atomic weight of ordinary Earthly boron samples to be expected to fall within the interval '10.806 to 10.821.' Boron samples from unusual sources, particularly non-terrestrial sources, might have measured atomic weights that fall outside this range. 'Standard' atomic weight' refers to the expected relative atomic mass or atomic weight of an element sample 'in the local environment of the Earth's crust and atmosphere as determined by the IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances.' Because these standard atomic weights are an average mean of relative isotopic masses for a given element from different sources places on Earth, standard atomic weights are subject to natural variation....
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_atomic_mass
*  Clarkson University: Facilities
About Clarkson. Early College Program: The Clarkson School. Clarkson in the News. The four major instruments are an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, an inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry system, a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometery system, and a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry A ThermoElectron LCQ Advantage Max LC-MS/MS Ion Trap System is available with a new high performance API source. We also have a Waters Xevo quadrupole time-of-flight QTof mass spectrometer MS. In addition, an Agilent 7890 can be attached to the QToF enabling Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography APGC mass spectrometry experiments. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Conventional We have two GC/MS systems including a BC-ion trap mass spectrometer ThermoElectron Polaris-Q mass spectrometer with TRACE GC and a GC- quadrupole mass spectrometer ThermoElectron DSQ II with TRACE GC. The Polaris-Q mass spectrometer system uses a quadrupole ion trap mass analyzer with ...
http://clarkson.edu/cares/facilities.html
*  Clarkson University: Facilities
About Clarkson. Early College Program: The Clarkson School. Clarkson in the News. The four major instruments are an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, an inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry system, a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometery system, and a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry A ThermoElectron LCQ Advantage Max LC-MS/MS Ion Trap System is available with a new high performance API source. We also have a Waters Xevo quadrupole time-of-flight QTof mass spectrometer MS. In addition, an Agilent 7890 can be attached to the QToF enabling Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography APGC mass spectrometry experiments. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Conventional We have two GC/MS systems including a BC-ion trap mass spectrometer ThermoElectron Polaris-Q mass spectrometer with TRACE GC and a GC- quadrupole mass spectrometer ThermoElectron DSQ II with TRACE GC. The Polaris-Q mass spectrometer system uses a quadrupole ion trap mass analyzer with ...
https://clarkson.edu/cares/facilities.html
*  Combination of Edman degradation of peptides with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry workflow f
... or peptide identification in bottom-up proteomics. BioMedSearch. Home. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Create Free Account. Document Detail. Combination of Edman degradation of peptides with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry workflow for peptide identification in bottom-up proteomics. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 23280970 Owner: NLM Status: In-Data-Review. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. RATIONALE: High-throughput methods of proteomics are essential for identification of proteins in a cell or tissue under certain conditions. Most of these methods require tandem mass spectrometry MS/MS. A multidimensional approach including predictive chromatography and partial chemical degradation could be a valuable alternative and/or addition to MS/MS. METHODS: In the proposed strategy peptides are identified in a three-dimensional 3D search space consisting of retention time RT, mass, and reduced mass after one-step partial Edman degradation. The strategy was evaluated in silico for two databases: baker's ye...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Combination-Edman-degradation-peptides-with/23280970.html
*  Atomic mass unit
units2 = MeV/''c'' 2 inunits2 = The '''unified atomic mass unit''' symbol: '''u''' or '''dalton''' symbol: '''Da''' is the standard unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic or molecular scale atomic mass. Atomic mass unit does ''not'' stand for the unit of mass in the atomic units system, which is rather ''m'' e. The relative atomic mass atomic weight scale has traditionally been a relative scale, that is without an explicit unit, with the first relative atomic mass basis suggested by John Dalton in 1803 as 1 H. The discovery of isotopic oxygen in 1929 led to a divergence in relative atomic mass representation, with isotopically weighted oxygen i.e., naturally occurring oxygen relative atomic mass given a value of exactly 16 atomic mass units amu in chemistry, while pure 16 O oxygen-16 was given the mass value of exactly 16 amu in physics. The chemistry amu, based on the relative atomic mass atomic weight of natural oxygen including the heavy naturally-occurring isotopes 17 O and 18 O , was about as...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass_unit
*  Mass Spectrometry Technology
... Advertisement. Research Development. Topics. General Sciences. Materials. Manufacturing. Life Sciences. Information Technologies. Policy/Regulations. Lab Operations. Business of Innovation. All Topics. Products. Product Directory. Chemicals and Biochemicals. Chromatography Systems. Lab Equipment. Laboratory Building/Design. Manufacturing Systems. Awards. R D 100 Awards. Laboratory of the Year. Resources. Company Directory. R D Magazine Archive. Laboratory Design News. Blogs. News. Events. White Papers. R D 100 AWARDS. Company Profile Search. Advertisement. Advertisement. Mass Spectrometry Technology. Tue, 02/26/2013 - 2:51pm. GC/MS. Other Mass. Get today's R D headlines and news - Sign up now. ALMSCO International has announced it will showcase its latest suite of products for trace-level organic chemical analysis at Pittcon 2013. At Pittcon ALMSCO with showcase its high-performance time-of-flight TOF mass spectrometer, the Bench TOF-dx, which provides analysts the capability to capture reference-quality...
http://rdmag.com/product-releases/2013/02/mass-spectrometry-technology
*  Gram atomic mass
... is the mass in gram s of one mole of atom s in a monoatomic chemical element it is numerically equal to the relative atomic mass or atomic weight in grams the atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is called gram atomic mass for example oxygen is grams the quantity of the element which weighs equal to its gram atomic mass is called one gram atom of that element the atomic mass of oxygen atom is a m u therefore its gram atomic mass is g and a g sample of oxygen is equal to one atomic weight of oxygen category stoichiometry category mass...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_atomic_mass
*  Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry
... Introduction Gas source 'stable isotope' mass spectrometry Static gas 'noble gas' mass spectrometry Thermal ionization 'radiogenic isotope' mass spectrometry Secondary-ion mass spectrometry SIMS Multiple collector - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry MC-ICP-MS Accelerator mass spectrometry AMS Moving wire IRMS MW-irMS See also References Bibliography. 5 Gas source 'stable isotope' mass spectrometry. Static gas 'noble gas' mass spectrometry. This method can be used for 'stable isotope' analysis of light gases as above, but it is particularly used in the isotopic analysis of noble gases = rare or inert gases for radiometric dating or isotope geochemistry. Thermal ionization 'radiogenic isotope' mass spectrometry. Several of the isotope systems involved in radiometric dating depend on IRMS using thermal ionization of a solid sample loaded into the source of the mass spectrometer hence thermal ionization mass spectrometry, TIMS. This type of ion-microprobe analysis normally works by focusing a pr...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotope-ratio_mass_spectrometry
*  RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric
... assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry /. Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Volume 398 - Issue 1 p. We validated two new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assays to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations in whole blood and in plasma from HIV-1-infected children. Whole blood was blotted onto dried blood spot DBS collecting cards, and plasma was collected simultaneously. The application of DBS made it possible to measure lopinavir and ritonavir in whole blood in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS plasma assay was successfully cross-validated with a commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC -ultraviolet UV assay for the th...
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/28627/
*  A Novel Mass Spectrometry–Based Assay for the Accurate Measu... : Journal of Investigative Medi
... cine. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. Journal of Investigative Medicine Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. A Novel Mass Spectrometry–Based Assay for the Accurate Measu... A A You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you... If you have access to this article through your institution, you can view this article in. Journal of Investigative Medicine: December 2012 - Volume 60 - Issue 8 - p 1157–1163 doi: 10.231/JIM.0b013e318276deb4 Original Articles. A Novel Mass Spectrometry–Based Assay for the Accurate Measurement of Thyroglobulin From Patient Samples Containing Antithyroglobulin Autoantibodies Clarke, Nigel J. Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. This article describes a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS method for the measurement of serum Tg after tryptic digestion of ser...
http://journals.lww.com/jinvestigativemed/Abstract/2012/12000/A_Novel_Mass_Spectrometry_Based_Assay_for_the.9.aspx
*  Ion-mobility spectrometry
... Though heavily employed for military or security purposes, such as detecting drugs and explosives, the technique also has many laboratory analytical applications, recently being coupled with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Drift gas. Trapped ion mobility spectrometry. Combined IMS methods GC-IMS : gas chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry. IMS-MS : ion mobility spectrometry - mass spectrometry. LC-IMS : liquid chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry. LC-IMS-MS : liquid chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry - mass spectrometry. In the traditional method of drift-time IMS, commonly referred to as just IMS, produced ions travel through a drift tube which has an applied electric field and a carrier buffer gas that opposes the ion motion. Ion mobilities are commonly reported as a 'reduced mobilities', correcting to standard gas density 'n 0 ', which can be expressed in standard temperature 'T 0 ' = 273 K and standard pressure 'p 0 ' = 1013 mbar:. K 0 = K \frac{n}{n 0...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion-mobility_spectrometry
*  Mass spectrometry tackles big problem
... Doctors may one day diagnose viral diseases with mass spectrometers, according to a US chemist who has measured the mass spectrum of large viral protein shells and blood-clotting glycoproteins with unprecedented quality. Mark Bier, of Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, US, explained to the meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston that his team used a MALDI-TOF cryodetector to analyse the capsid head of the Hong Kong 97 virus, weighing 13 MDa, to within one percent mass accuracy. As he explained, mass spectrometers usually analyse protein composition by identifying their digested fragments - but this process takes too long for an instant clinical diagnosis. Yet soft ionisation techniques such as MALDI or electrospray mass spectrometry can produce a spectrum - identifying molecules in just a few minutes. If larger molecules could be fingerprinted accurately enough by being fragmented inside a spectrometer, doctors could hope to use mass spectrometry to diagnose a viral infection or a blood d...
http://rsc.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2007/October/MassSpectrometryTacklesBigProblem.asp
*  Resolution (mass spectrometry)
Resolution mass spectrometry. Resolution mass spectrometry. In mass spectrometry, 'resolution' measures of the ability to distinguish two peak s of slightly different mass-to-charge ratio s 'ΔM', in a mass spectrum. Resolution and resolving power IUPAC definition. Resolving power definition. Measuring peak separation Peak width definition. Valley definition. Resolution and resolving power. There are two different definitions of resolution and resolving power in mass spectrometry. The IUPAC definition for resolution in mass spectrometry is : R = \cfrac{M}{\Delta M} = resolution : \Delta M = resolving power : M = mass of the second peak. Where a larger resolution indicates a better separation of peaks. This definition is used in a number of mass spectrometry texts. This use is also implied by the term "high-resolution mass spectrometry.". A high value for resolution corresponding to good separation of peaks is similar to the convention used with chromatography separations, although it is important to note tha...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resolution_(mass_spectrometry)
*  HILIC 2009 09 |authorSTREAM
Featured Presentations. Today’s Focus : Today’s Focus Defining the problem HILIC retention mechanisms and characteristics Impact on mass spectrometry sensitivity Impact on sample handling steps The promise of smaller particles. Reversed-phase options for retaining polar analytes Reversed-phase low coverage C18 designed for the retention of polar analytes ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 or Atlantis T3 High aqueous conditions Manipulate pH to make compound neutral ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 or XBridgeTM C18 Low pH for acids, High pH for bases STILL have inadequate retention or insufficient MS Response??. Today’s Focus : Today’s Focus Defining the problem HILIC retention mechanisms and characteristics Multimodal HILIC retention mechanisms Retention comparison between hybrid and silica particles Solvent selectivity Influence of pH on retention Chemical stability Impact on mass spectrometry sensitivity Impact on sample handling steps The promise of smaller particles. Today’s Focus : Today’s Focus Defining the problem HILIC retentio...
http://authorstream.com/Presentation/cwigmore-257118-hilic-2009-09-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/
*  NOAA ESRL CSD: Tropospheric Chemistry: Instruments
... NOAA Research Earth System Research Laboratory Chemical Sciences Division. Search CSD:. Publications. Skip navigation. Site navigation: Group Home Research Groups Cloud & Aerosol Processes. Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Regional Chemical Modeling. Chemical Processes Instrument Development. Atmospheric Composition Chemical Processes. Tropospheric Chemistry. Chemistry & Climate Processes. Office of the Director. Administrative Office. Instruments Aircraft. Ship/Ground-based. Ground Sites. Tropospheric Chemistry: Instruments Aircraft Instruments. Abbreviation Instrument Species Measured Method Contacts. Airborne Cavity Enhanced Spectrometer. glyoxal CHOCHO , nitrous acid HONO , nitrogen dioxide NO2. Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. Bill Dub , Steve Brown. Atmospheric Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector. Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. Steve Brown , Bill Dub. Carbon Monoxide. Vacuum UV resonance fluorescence. John Holloway. Carbon Dioxide. Absorption of infrared light. Jeff Peischl , Tom Ryerson. Ca...
http://esrl.noaa.gov/csd/groups/csd7/instruments/
*  Dissolved Species Analysis from Hiden Analytical
... HIDEN ANALYTICAL. DISSOLVED SPECIES ANALYSIS. Get the IHS Engineering360 Lab Equipment Newsletter. Compact bench top analysis system. Other Products from Hiden Analytical in Mass Spectrometers. Dissolved Species Analysis Product Announcement from Hiden Analytical. Dissolved Species Analysis Dissolved species analysis employing Hiden's high sensitivity membrane sampling technology for analysis of respiratory gases, hydrocarbons and sulphides is applied to a wide range of application areas including: Ecolological studies in sea water Bio fuel production from algae Pollution monitoring in river, estuary and reservoir waters Soil core analyses Fermentation. Products: HPR-40 Dissolved species analysis system. The HPR-40 dissolved species gas analysis system is a compact bench-top gas analysis system for monitoring of dissolved / evolved gases, featuring: Compact bench-top / mobile cart / console rack construction. Brochures: Hiden HPR-40 Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer System 1.68MB QIC Series Gas Analysers ...
http://globalspec.com/FeaturedProducts/Detail/HidenAnalytical/Dissolved_Species_Analysis/207266/0
*  Concept - Chemistry Video by Brightstorm
/ Atomic Mass. Atomic Mass - Concept. 29,035 views. So we're going to focus mainly on the protons and neutrons within an element which gives it its mass. The first thing we have is potassium which is obviously is a chemical name, then we have the number 19 and that atomic mass, sorry our atomic number which means that it has 19 protons for every potassium atom. Well that is the atomic mass of all the potassium atoms that exist. Well protons and neutrons all have round numbers of 1amu however they have varying numbers of neutrons within every different number of different potassium atoms in the world. So when you average them all together you can get this funny number of 39.098 it's the average atomic mass in atomic mass unit. In my banana and in your banana and everybody's banana in the whole world if we pull out all potassium atoms and analyze them we find that 93.90% of potassium atoms in any banana has a mass number of 39. 5.81% of potassium atoms that are in analyzed has a mass number of 41, i...
http://brightstorm.com/science/chemistry/the-atom/atomic-mass/
*  EDTA, WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE OF EDTA TITRATION N?, Chemistry
... EDTA, Chemistry. WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE OF EDTA TITRATION N. Related Discussions:- EDTA, Assignment Help, Ask Question on EDTA, Get Answer, Expert's Help, EDTA Discussions Write discussion on EDTA Your posts are moderated. Leibermann nitro test, Leibermann nitro test why we add concentrated acid. Leibermann nitro test why we add concentrated acid. Define atomic mass units, Q. Define atomic mass units. Atomic mass Scie... Q Define atomic mass units. Atomic mass Scientists have set up a standard for the measurement of atomic mass by assigning the carbon-12 atom a mass of 12 atomic mass units a. Discuss the ion exchange process of water softening, Discuss the ion exchan... Discuss the ion exchange process of water softening. Physical chemistry, Conductometric titration. Borazine, define borazine. define borazine. Calculate the flow rate of nitrogen, 1. The feed to an ammonia synthesis re... 1 The feed to an ammonia synthesis reactor is 25% lbmole nitrogen with the balance hydrogen. The flow rate is 3000 kg/h...
http://expertsmind.com/questions/edta-301100119.aspx
*  Links to miniature mass spectrometer and mobile GC/MS
... Mobile GC/MS. mobile and miniature mass spectrometer -. HAPSITE the field-portable GC/MS from Inficon, Inc. Field-Portable Analytical Inc. CT-1128 Portable GC-MS from Constellation Technology. Laser Mass Spectrometer for the European Space Agency Highly miniaturised mass spectrometers to be deployed on an airless planetary surface pdf tiny TOF from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory APL. FieldMate a field portable Quadrupole Ion Trap, Time-Of-Flight mass analyzer from Syagen. Monolithic Electrostatic Sector for Miniature Mass Spectrometers Jet Propulsion Laboratory - JPL. Field-portable GC/MS, Forensic Science in the Field Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security, LLNL Mobile GC/MS at the Environmental Measurement Technology EMT which is part of the Department of Measurement Engineering TUHH. channel electron multipliers LIGA fabricated quadrupole for mass spectrometers by the Sandia National Laboratories for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Micromachined Ultra-Miniatu...
http://gcms.de/
*  Kendrick mass
It is different from the IUPAC definition, which is based on setting the mass of 12 C isotope to exactly 12 u. This definition of mass was first suggested in 1963 by chemist Edward Kendrick, and it has been adopted by scientists working in the area of high-resolution mass spectrometry, environmental analysis, proteomics, petroleomics, metabolomics, etc. Definition Kendrick mass defect Kendrick mass analysis See also Notes. According to the procedure outlined by Kendrick, the mass of CH 2 is defined as exactly 14 Da, instead of the IUPAC mass of 14.01565 Da. \textrm{Kendrick~mass} = \textrm{IUPAC~mass} \times \frac{14.00000}{14.01565}. : \textrm{Kendrick~mass~ F } = \textrm{ observed~mass } \times \frac{\textrm{nominal~mass~F}}{\textrm{exact~mass~F}}. The Kendrick mass defect is defined as the exact Kendrick mass subtracted from the nominal integer Kendrick mass:. : \textrm{Kendrick~mass~defect}= \textrm{nominal~Kendrick~mass} - \textrm{Kendrick~mass}. : \textrm{Kendrick~mass~defect}= \textrm{nominal~mass} - \...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kendrick_mass
*  Historical Standards for D4128
historical standards for d products and services standards publications d historical versions view historical versions of d document designation and title year select item s d standard guide for identification and quantitation of organic compounds in water by combined gas chromatography and electron impact mass spectrometry d standard guide for identification and quantitation of organic compounds in water by combined gas chromatography and electron impact mass spectrometry d standard practice for identification and quantitation of organic compounds in water by combined gas chromatography and electron impact mass spectrometry add to cart...
http://astm.org/DATABASE.CART/filtrexx40.cgi?-P DESIGNATIO D4128 historicalpick.frm
*  Mass number
The 'mass number' 'A', also called 'atomic mass number' or 'nucleon number', is the total number of proton s and neutron s together known as nucleon s in an atomic nucleus. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons 'N' in a given nucleus: 'N=A−Z'. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. Mass number changes in radioactive decay Mass number and isotopic mass Relative Atomic Mass of an element References Further reading. Mass number changes in radioactive decay. For example, uranium-238 usually decays by alpha decay, where the nucleus loses two neutrons and two protons in the form of an alpha particle. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12 C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons. A nucleus with greater binding energy has a lower total ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_number
*  Exploring Average Atomic Mass - PhET 貢献
... メインコンテンツへスキップ. ログイン. 登録. Sign In 入力されたユーザー名および/またはパスワードは無効です. メールアドレス: パスワード: Remember me Forgot password. No account. Register. Resend email confirmation. . 9千万を超えるシミュレーションを提供. Search the PhET Website. . Support PhET:. Donate Today. HTML5 Sims. HTML. . シミュレーション. インストラクターの皆様へ. Tips for Using PhET. アクティビティ一覧. Share your Activities. マイ アクティビティ. ワークショップ. シミュレーションの実行方法. トラブルシューティング. よくある質問集. 翻訳者の皆様へ. 寄付する. 研究. Licensing. PhETについて. アクティビティ一覧 Exploring Average Atomic Mass. Exploring Average Atomic Mass.docx - 319 kB. Download または、すべてのファイルをzip形式で圧縮したアーカイブとして ダウンロード できます. 題名 Exploring Average Atomic Mass. 内容. 課題 化学. レベル 高等学校. タイプ 実験教室. 解答を含む いいえ. 言語 英語. キーワード average atomic mass, isotopes, percent abundance. シミュレーション 同位体と原子の質量. 著者 Stephanie Davis. メールアドレス sldavi5@ilstu.edu. 学校 / 団体 University High School. 送信日 11/09/28. 更新日 11/09/28. コメント Comment on this activity. コメント. What do you think about this activity. How did you use it or change it for your class. Professionally constructive comments welcome. English. . ا...
http://phet.colorado.edu/ja/contributions/view/3470
*  DROPS - Document
License When quoting this document, please refer to the following URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-5431 URL: http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2006/543/. Glycosylation Patterns of Proteins Studied by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatic Tools. Despite the extremely high number of possible combinations of the glycans identified in the tryptic peptides by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 1000 for CG-alpha and 10.000 for CG-beta, the mass spectra of intact CG-alpha and CG-beta revealed only a limited number of glycoforms present in CG preparations from pools of pregnancy urines. For CG-beta, however, the relatively high mass accuracy of ± 2 Da was still insufficient to unambiguously assign the possible combinations of posttranslational modifications. BibTeX - Entry @InProceedings{toll et al:DSP:2006:543, author = {Hansj{\ o}rg Toll and Peter Berger and Andreas Hofmann and Andreas Hildebrandt and Herbert Oberacher and Hans Peter Lenhof and Christian G. Huber}, title =...
http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/frontdoor.php?source_opus=543
*  Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) | UCL Eastman Dental Institute
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS. UCL Eastman Dental Institute. UCL Eastman Dental Institute. ICP-MS. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS Introduction The ICP-MS is an analytical technique that determines the elemental content of samples. Most samples analyzed by ICP-MS are liquid. sample introduction system – consist of the peristaltic pump, nebulizer, and spray chamber that introduces sample to the instrument, ICP torch – generates the plasma which serves as the ion source of the ICP-MS, converting the atoms to be analysed to ions, interface – the sample ions are extracted from the central plasma channel and separated from the bulk ions by cooled conical aperture plates with apertureopenings of 1/0.8 mm in the vacuum interface vacuum 2mbar, vacuum system – provides high vacuum for ion optics, quadrupole and detector, quadrupole – the high frequency quadrupole acts as a mass filter to sort ions by their mass-to-charge ratio m/e. This enables the analysis technique known as ...
http://ucl.ac.uk/eastman/research/departments/biomaterials-and-tissue-engineering/facilities/inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
*  Isobaric labeling
... right|thumb|500px|'A schematic of isobaric labeling'. Proteins are extracted from different conditions or cell types, digested into peptides, and labeled with isobaric stable isotope tags. These tags consist of reporter, balance, and reactive regions. Lighter reporter regions are paired with heavier balance regions, such that the entire tag attached to the peptide adds the same mass shift. Therefore, after mixing, in MS 1, the peptides appear as a single precursor. However, when fragmented during MS 2, in addition to the normal fragment ions, the reporter regions dissociate to produce ion signals which provide quantitative information regarding the relative amount of the peptide in the samples. 'Isobaric labeling' is a mass spectrometry strategy used in quantitative proteomics. Peptides or proteins are labeled with various chemical groups that are at least nominally isobaric, or the same in mass, but which fragment during tandem mass spectrometry to yield reporter ions of different mass. In a typical bot...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isobaric_labeling
*  Mass Spectrometry Quantitation
... IonSource Home Page. Introduction to MS Quantitation and Modes of LC/MS Monitoring. Introduction. This tutorial applies to the quantitation of small molecules using mass spectrometry in pharmacokinetic analysis. In addition these very same principles can be applied to the quantitation of peptides and proteins in biological matrices. Traditionally before the advent of modern-day mass spectrometry quantitation was accomplished using HPLC and UV detection. HPLC PK analysis relied on: retention time, peak area and UV spectral character. Unfortunately the HPLC assay suffered from lack of sensitivity and specificity. We have seen examples where a molecule was extensively metabolized and yet the retention time and UV spectral character remained the same as the parent compound. This lack of specificity will from time to time mislead the investigator. MS characterization is now a vital new tool in pharmacokinetic analysis. The accepted way of performing mass spec quantitation is by using a mass spectrometer capab...
http://ionsource.com/tutorial/msquan/intro.htm
*  Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS - Penn State College of Medicine
... Core Research Facilities. 800-243-1455 Penn State Hershey Health Information Physicians Clinic Locations Faculty Profiles College Faculty/Staff. Basic Sciences. Faculty Profiles. Penn State Hershey. Proteins and Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS. Oligonucleotide and Peptide Synthesis. Flow Cytometry. Proteins and Mass Spectrometry. Core Facilities List. Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS. Flow Cytometry. Macromolecular Synthesis Core Overview. Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS. Instrumentation and Services Available An ABSciex TripleTOF 5600+, an ABSciex 5800 Proteomics Analyzer MALDI TOF-TOF, a Waters Synapt HDMS with Ion Mobility capacities, an MDS-Sciex 4000 QTrap, and a Voyager DE-PRO Perseptive Biosystems are available for analyses of protein, peptide, lipid, small. Analysis of digests of highly complex mixtures, such as whole cell lysates or serum proteins, commonly yield identification of 600-6000 proteins from single samples, identification of proteins purified by column chro...
http://med.psu.edu/web/core/proteinsmassspectometry/proteins-tandem
*  Protein Mass Spectrometry Analysis | Thermo Fisher Scientific
Protein Mass Spectrometry Analysis. Thermo Fisher Scientific. Order Support. Custom Products & Projects. Quick Order. Ship To Lab Supply Center Order Supply Centre Order. Life Sciences Most Popular Products. Cell Analysis. Protein Biology. Thermo Scientific. Thermo Scientific. Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry. Services. New Products. CaptureSelect™ Products & Services. Custom Gibco® Cell Culture. Diagnostic Products & Services. Thermo Scientific. Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry. Clinical. Pre-clinical to Companion Diagnostic Development. Use our optimized kits, reagents, and devices for a variety of mass spectrometry workflows and applications, including protein peptide quantitation, sample preparation, instrument calibration and QC, and plasma protein binding assays. Reagents and kits that enable multiplex discovery research, utilizing SILAC technology or isobaric labeling; targeted research is enabled by isotopically labeled peptide standards using HeavyPeptide technology. Reagents, kits and devices th...
http://thermofisher.com/us/en/home/life-science/protein-biology/protein-mass-spectrometry-analysis.html
*  Molecular mass
It is calculated as the sum of the mass of each constituent atom multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available. Definitions Determination of molecular mass Mass spectrometry. Hydrodynamic methods. Static light scattering. Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12 C carbon 12, which by definition. Relative atomic and molecular mass values are dimensionless but are given the "unit" Dalton formerly atomic mass unit to indicate that the number is equal to the mass of one molecule divided by of the mass of one atom of 12 C. This is because naturally occurring carbon is a mixture of the isotope s 12 C, 13 C and 14 C which have relative atomic masses of 12, 13...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_mass
*  UCR Newsroom: UCR Facilty, Chemist Aid Discovery
... University of California, Riverside. UCR Facilty, Chemist Aid Discovery. UCR Facilty, Chemist Aid Discovery Main Navigation Home Newsroom. UCR Chemist Part of Team Identifying New Areas of Gene Regulation Discovery of new location in a key protein that activates genetic activity aided with use of mass spectrometry at UCR. NEWS MEDIA CONTACT Name: Kris Lovekin Tel: 951 827-2495 E-mail: kris.lovekin@ucr.edu. www.ucr.edu Researcher Kangling Zhang at the University of California, Riverside is part of a team that has discovered a new way that yeast governs genetic expression and repression, a finding that could be repeated in cells of other organisms. Zhang, an academic coordinator at the Mass Spectrometry Facility of the Department of Chemistry at UCR, worked with Feng Xu and Michael Grunstein of the Department of Biological Chemistry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA on a paper titled Acetylation in Histone H3 Globular Domain Regulates Gene Expression in Yeast, which was published today in the ...
http://newsroom.ucr.edu/1065
*  mass spectrometry | Britannica.com
mass spectrometry. Britannica.com. Mass spectrometry. Ion-velocity spectrometers. Ion-beam analysis. ions in electric and magnetic fields according to their. mass spectrometers and. Ion-velocity spectrometers The energy of an ion is proportional to the square of its velocity, so ions of constant energy can be separated through the use of fields that vary with time. Sources with magnetic fields parallel to the electric fields can yield beams greater than one milliampere. impact has remained the most widely used method of ionization in mass spectrometry. Negative ions Discussions of the above methods have assumed that the ionization process removes one or more electrons from the atom or molecule to produce a positive ion. Negative ions are formed by many of these same methods as well and can be useful in mass spectrometry. Negative ions can be formed in a two-stage process wherein positive ions are accelerated into a gas from which they capture two electrons, a technique infrequently used in mass spectrometry. ...
http://britannica.com/science/mass-spectrometry
*  Videos for atomic mass - Homework Help Videos - Brightstorm
... Toggle navigation. Browse Subjects. Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Geometry. Algebra 2. Trigonometry. Precalculus. Calculus. Science. Biology. Chemistry. Physics. English. Grammar. Writing. Literature. Test Prep. SAT. ACT. ACT Red Book. PSAT. AP US Gov. AP US History. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. College. Get Better Grades. College Application. College Essay. Financial Aid. Search. or Find by textbook. Study. Math. Science. English. Test Prep. Sign in. Teacher membership. School membership. Start Your Free Trial. 5 Videos for "atomic mass" Concept Science › Chemistry › The Atom Using atomic mass to understand isotopes. Tags: atomic mass isotopes average amu. Problem 3 Science › Chemistry › The Atom. Tags:. Problem 2 Science › Chemistry › The Atom. Tags:. Problem 1 Science › Chemistry › The Atom. Tags:. Atomic Number - Isotopes Science › Chemistry › The Atom The meaning and uses of atomic numbers. Tags: atomic number mass number isotopes ions. 1 About How to use. About Us. Our Teachers. Jobs. Press. Webinars....
http://brightstorm.com/tag/atomic-mass/
*  US Patent # 5,808,300. Method and apparatus for imaging biological samples with MALDI MS - Patents.c
The method of analyzing a test sample, comprising: a obtaining a sample solution including test sample molecules of interest; b passing the sample solution through a capillary tube and depositing the sample solution in a linear track on an electrically-conductive target plate by capillary electrophoresis; c drying the sample solution while in the linear track on the target plate; d striking the dried linear track with a laser beam such that the linear track releases molecules of interest; e measuring the molecular atomic mass of the released molecules of interest over a range of atomic masses; and f analyzing the molecular atomic masses as a function of time indicative of the position of the molecules of interest along the linear track to analyze the test sample. Apparatus for analyzing a test sample containing molecules of interest, comprising: a test specimen containing sample molecules of interest and an energy-absorbant matrix; a laser source for sequentially striking the test specimen with a laser beam a...
http://patents.com/us-5808300.html
*  PNNL: Now It's Molecular: New Understanding of Radiation Effects on Cells
... Results: In recent proteomics studies on radiation effects on cells, new molecular data indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria cause elevated reactive oxygen species in the offspring of cells that survived radiation exposure. However, environmental stress, such as radiation exposure, can cause ROS levels to increase through a mechanism that can be passed on to the daughters of cells that survive radiation exposure. Seventy-four mitochondria were identified using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and 12 were identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in at least one unstable cell line. Scientists do not yet understand the mechanisms of radiation-induced genome instability; however, in the case of cell lines with persistently elevated oxidative stress it could result from ROS-induced DNA changes. Methods: Previous work at the University of Maryland on radiation-induced genome instability in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines showed that some of these unstable cells had persistently elevated level...
http://pnl.gov/science/highlights/highlight.asp?id=469
*  Patent US7560689 - High-sensitivity mass spectrometer and method - Google Patents
A mass spectrometer comprising: a slice preparing section for preparing a slice of a sample for analysis; and a mass spectrometry section for performing time-of-flight mass spectrometry on the slice of the sample prepared in the slice preparing section, wherein the slice preparing section comprises: a sample holding mechanism for holding a sample; a blade having a metal thin film on a blade surface at least in part; and a blade position control mechanism for controlling the position of the blade and thereby performing both sample cutting and mounting of the slice of the sample obtained by cutting onto the blade surface, and. Specifically, the present invention provides a mass spectrometer including: a slice preparing section for preparing a slice of a sample for analysis; and a mass spectrometry section for performing time-of-flight mass spectrometry on the slice of the sample prepared in the slice preparing section, wherein the slice preparing section includes: a sample holding mechanism for holding a sample...
http://google.com/patents/US7560689?ie=ISO-8859-1&dq=6,123,819
*  Mass (mass spectrometry)
mass mass spectrometry mass mass spectrometry image discovery of neon isotopes jpg the mass recorded by a mass spectrometer can refer to different physical quantities depending on the characteristics of the instrument and the manner in which the mass spectrum is displayed units molecular mass mass number average mass nominal mass monoisotopic mass most abundant mass accurate mass exact mass isotopomer and isotopologue kendrick mass nitrogen rule prout s hypothesis and the whole number rule image francis william aston jpg the whole number rule states that the masses of the isotopes are integer multiples of the mass of the hydrogen atom the rule is a modified version of prout s hypothesis proposed in to the effect that atomic weight s are multiples of the weight of the hydrogen atom see also list of elements by atomic mass references external links category mass category mass spectrometry...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_(mass_spectrometry)
*  SIRCAMS
... The 'Scottish Instrumentation and Research Centre for Advanced Mass Spectrometry SIRCAMS ' is a facility for ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry of biomolecule s, based at the University of Edinburgh. SIRCAMS is part of the RCUK Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Proteomic Technologies RASOR; Radical Solutions for Researching the Proteome, a consortium of the Universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee. Much of its research activity is focused toward the development and application of mass spectrometry for the analysis of intact peptide s, protein s, protein–protein and protein– RNA / DNA complexes. Recent studies have included: identification of platination sites in peptides bombesin, substance P, angiotensin, bradykinin using Infrared multiphoton dissociation IRMPD, Collision-induced dissociation CID and Electron-capture dissociation ECD, accurate mass measurements on intact proteins YdaE 6.5kDa, ubiquitin 8.6kDa, trypsinogen 24kDa, carbonic anhydrase 28kDa, beSOD 31kDa, FbpA 33kDa, BSA ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIRCAMS
*  Stoichiometry
... Definition of Terms. Atomic Mass. Isotopes. Atomic Weight. The Mole. Molecular Weight. Avogadro's Constant. Converting Grams Into Moles. Atomic Mass. The units in which the mass of an atom are expressed are atomic mass units. At one time, the lightest atom was assigned a mass of 1 amu and the mass of any other atom was expressed in terms of this standard. Today atomic mass units are defined in terms of the 12 C isotope, which is assigned a mass of exactly 12.000... amu. Isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons, such as the 20 Ne and 22 Ne isotopes of neon or the 35 Cl and 37 Cl isotopes of chlorine. Atomic Weight. The atomic weight of an element is the weighted average of the atomic masses of the different isotopes of an element. Naturally occurring carbon, for example, is a mixture of two isotopes, 12 C 98.89% and 13 C 1.11 %. Individual carbon atoms therefore have a mass of either 12.000 or 13.03354 amu. But the average mass of the different isotopes of carbon...
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch3/massmolframe.html
*  New mass spectrometer, analysis of contaminants from Campden BRI
... site map. contact us. sign in. Menu News channels. Blogs. Case studies. Newsletter items. In the press. Media enquiries. News archive. Opt in to newsfeeds. Other news. Our experts at events. Podcasts. Press releases. Vacancies. Videos. Technical services. Sector specific. Analysis and testing. Food chemistry. Food hygiene. Legislation services. Packaging. Technical information. UKAS, 17025, 9001, ORETO. Sector activities. Baking and cereals technology. Packaging. Project summaries. Project websites. Food law services. Training and events. Members. Campden BRI Day. news new mass spectrometer. From June 2010 newsletter New mass spectrometer. The acquisition of a new mass spectrometer through a collaborative agreement with Agilent Technologies will enable us to further improve our services in the analysis of a range of contaminants, as Julian South, Head of Chemistry, explains:. This state of the art machine will allow us to perform a range of analyses, which were originally carried out using HPLC, with imp...
http://campdenbri.co.uk/news/june10c.php
*  Multi-site assessment of the precision and reproducibility of multiple reaction monitoring-based mea
... surements of proteins in plasma. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. News & Publications:Scientific Publications Multi-site assessment of the precision and reproducibility of multiple reaction monitoring-based measurements of proteins in plasma. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental and transcriptional history. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Linking RNA biology to lncRNAs. Read More / View Supplemental Materials. Scientific Publications Back to Publications Multi-site assessment of the precision and reproducibility of multiple reaction monitoring-based meas...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3384
*  Short Course - Highly Successful Strategies for LC/MS Quantitation: Current Applications and Emergin
... g Technologies. Course Title: Highly Successful Strategies for LC/MS Quantitation: Current Applications and Emerging Technologies. Categories: 1 - Liquid Chromatography 2 - Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry 3 - Mass Spectrometry 4 - Pharmaceutical Sciences 5 - Sample Preparation. Instructor s : Richard King Course Number: 84. This course will provide a comprehensive survey of the current, state-of-the-art LC/MS-based approaches for quantitation. Instrumentation, strategies, and methods will be presented with specific focus on: sample preparation, chromatography, ionization, and mass spectrometry. The practical advantages of specific analytical platforms will be openly discussed for both regulated and non-regulated laboratory environments. Useful fundamentals of the integrated LC/MS and LC/MS/MS method will be delineated with particular focus on issues that deal with chemistry. Emerging trends for high performance quantitation that involve the use ultra high performance liquid chromatography, nanospr...
https://ca.pittcon.org/Technical Program/tpabstra12.nsf/SCoursesByCat/D59CBA4CFF2593A0852578BD0023E469?opendocument
*  ISOLTRAP
... 'ISOLTRAP' is a tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator at CERN, very similar to SMILETRAP. The facility plays a leading role in the field of high precision mass spectrometry of radioactive ions. The masses of more than 200 short-lived nuclides have been measured with a relative uncertainty of typically dm/m ~ 1x10 −7 and even almost up to one order of magnitude lower in some special cases. Recently, the performance of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP has been considerably enhanced. Major technical improvements were implemented to increase the range of accessible nuclei to those that are produced in minute quantities of only 100 ions/s and to nuclei with half-lives down to ~50 ms as well as to decrease the typical relative uncertainty down to ~1x10 −8. In particular, a linear radiofrequency quadrupole RFQ trap and more recently a multi-reflection time-of-flight MRTOF mass spectrometer were added to the ISOLTRAP spectrometer. Since the unified atomic mass uni...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISOLTRAP
*  Lab Tools Articles - microscopy, cancer and mass spectrometry | The Scientist Magazine®
Lab Tools Articles - microscopy, cancer and mass spectrometry. The Scientist Magazine. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. TwistDx. The Scientist. Magazine. Lab Tools. tags: microscopy x. cancer x. mass spectrometry x. Lab Tools microscopy, cancer and mass spectrometry. Most Recent In Custody By Wudan Yan. April 1, 2015. Expert tips for isolating and culturing cancer stem cells 1 Comment. Picturing Infection By Kelly Rae Chi. January 1, 2015. Whole-animal, light-based imaging of infected small mammals 4 Comments. Tailoring Your Proteome View By Nicholette Zeliadt. August 1, 2014. Computational tools can streamline the development of targeted proteomics experiments. 0 Comments. Bird’s-Eye Proteomics By Asher Mullard. July 1, 2014. A guide to mass spectrometers that can handle the top-down-proteomics challenge 1 Comment. Moving Target By Nicholette Zeliadt. June 1, 2014. New mass spectrometry based techniques are blurring the lines between discovery and targeted proteomics. 0 Comments. Capturing...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/categoryNo/2921/category/Lab-Tools/tagNo/1045,20,915/tags/microscopy,cancer,mass-spectrometry/
*  Lab Tools Articles - biomarkers, mass spectrometry and microscopy | The Scientist Magazine®
Lab Tools Articles - biomarkers, mass spectrometry and microscopy. The Scientist Magazine. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. Magazine. Lab Tools. tags: biomarkers x. mass spectrometry x. microscopy x. Lab Tools biomarkers, mass spectrometry and microscopy. Most Recent Picturing Infection By Kelly Rae Chi. Tailoring Your Proteome View By Nicholette Zeliadt. Computational tools can streamline the development of targeted proteomics experiments. 0 Comments. A guide to mass spectrometers that can handle the top-down-proteomics challenge 1 Comment. Moving Target By Nicholette Zeliadt. New mass spectrometry based techniques are blurring the lines between discovery and targeted proteomics. 0 Comments. Capturing Cancer Cells on the Move By Nicholette Zeliadt. Three approaches for isolating and characterizing rare tumor cells circulating in the bloodstream 2 Comments. A guide for doing in vivo microscopy on neurons in the mammalian brain 0 Comments. Seeing Double By Nicholette Zeliadt. Co...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/categoryNo/2921/category/Lab-Tools/tagNo/458,915,1045/tags/biomarkers,mass-spectrometry,microscopy/
*  periodic classification of elements
... ≡. CONTENT. NCERT Solution. Exemplar Solution. Quiz. Physics. Biology. Home. Chemical Reaction. Chemical Reaction. Chemical Reaction. Types of Reaction. Chemical Reaction. Acid Base. Acid. Base. CommonInAcid:Base. Strength:Acid:Base. Salt. Common salt. Metal Nonmetal. Metals. Properties:Metals-I. Properties:Metals-II. Reactivity Series. Non-metals. Reac:Metals Non metal. Ionic bonds. Extraction:Metals. Metals of low reactivity. Metals of high reactivity. Carbon Compound. Carbon:Intro. Hydrocarbon:Alkane. Alkene:Alkyne. Nomenclature. Nomenclature 2. ChemicalProperties. Periodic Table. Early attempts. Mendeleev's PT. Modern PT. SignIn. Class 10 Chemistry Periodic Classification Early attempts of classification of elements: Dobereiners’s Triads Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner was a German chemist. His effort is considered as one of the earliest attempts to classify the elements into groups. He found that when elements are arranged into groups of three in the order of their increasing atomic mass, the atom...
http://excellup.com/classten/scienceten/periodicten.aspx
*  Mass Spectrometry - The Online Scientific Community - Events
... Mass Spectrometry. Scientific Community. Mass Spectrometry. Newly Identified Biochemical Pathway Could Be Target for Insulin Control Researchers at Duke Medicine and the University of Alberta are reporting the identification of a new biochemical pathway to control insulin secretion from islet beta cells in the pancreas, establishing a potential target for insulin control. First Complete Structural Study Of A Pegylated Protein Significant data obtained at NUI Galway reports first crystal structure of a protein modified with a single PEG chain. Potential Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Isolated Researchers from North Carolina State University utilized a highly sensitive mass spectrometry analysis to identify and measure difficult-to-detect N-glycan biomarkers associated with ovarian cancers in stages I – IV. Protein Aggregation After Heat Shock Is An Organized, Reversible Response New study finds protein aggregation after heat exposure is a reversible cellular process, not unrecoverable damage from misfolding. Wo...
http://technologynetworks.com/MassSpec/events.aspx?date=2013-08&page=1
*  Prout's hypothesis
On the relation between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the weights of their atoms. 1 Prout's hypothesis was an influence on Ernest Rutherford when he succeeded in "knocking" hydrogen nuclei out of nitrogen atoms with alpha particles in 1917, and thus concluded that perhaps the nuclei of all elements were made of such particles the hydrogen nucleus, which in 1920 he suggested be named proton s, from the suffix "-on" for particles, added to the stem of Prout's word "protyle." In a footnote to a 1921 paper by O. Mag.' '41,' 281, 1921 Rutherford describes how the British Association for the Advancement of Science at its Cardiff meeting beginning August 24, 1920 see and accepted Rutherford's suggestion that the hydrogen nucleus be named the "proton," following Prout's word "protyle." Also cf. According to the whole number rule of Francis Aston, Prout's hypothesis is correct for atomic mass es of individual isotopes, with an error of at most 1%. Nevertheless, the rule was not found to p...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prout's_hypothesis
*  Mass Spectrometry - The Online Scientific Community - Products
... Mass Spectrometry. Scientific Community. Mass Spectrometry. Featured Products. Featured Products. Home > Products > This Product. Products. The Q-Col range of HPLC columns are manufactured using silica of exceptional purity. Q-Col GenSphere™ HPLC Columns offer many advanced features including: • Exceptional batch-to-batch reproducibility • Extremely low metals content • Meticulously controlled materials • Ultra-pure silica • Perfect spherical particles • Maximum pH range between 1.5 and 11.0 • 3, 5 and 10 µm particle sizes • Easily scaled-up, from microbore to preparative HPLC. • Exceptionally long column lifetimes • Wide range of packings • Fully deactivated after functional bonding To view Greyhound Chromatography's full range of HPLC columns please visit www.greyhound.com. Company Greyhound Chromatography - Products. More Information View company product page. Newly Identified Biochemical Pathway Could Be Target for Insulin Control Researchers at Duke Medicine and the University of Alberta are reporti...
http://technologynetworks.com/MassSpec/productsid.aspx?ID=130800
*  Mass Spectrometry - The Online Scientific Community - Products
... Mass Spectrometry. Scientific Community. Mass Spectrometry. Featured Products. Featured Products. Home > Products > This Product. Products. The Q-Col range of HPLC columns are manufactured using silica of exceptional purity. Q-Col GenSphere™ HPLC Columns offer many advanced features including: • Exceptional batch-to-batch reproducibility • Extremely low metals content • Meticulously controlled materials • Ultra-pure silica • Perfect spherical particles • Maximum pH range between 1.5 and 11.0 • 3, 5 and 10 µm particle sizes • Easily scaled-up, from microbore to preparative HPLC. • Exceptionally long column lifetimes • Wide range of packings • Fully deactivated after functional bonding To view Greyhound Chromatography's full range of HPLC columns please visit www.greyhound.com. Company Greyhound Chromatography - Products. More Information View company product page. Newly Identified Biochemical Pathway Could Be Target for Insulin Control Researchers at Duke Medicine and the University of Alberta are reporti...
http://technologynetworks.com/MassSpec/productsid.aspx?ID=130802
*  Mass Spectrometry - The Online Scientific Community - Products
... Mass Spectrometry. Scientific Community. Mass Spectrometry. Featured Products. Featured Products. Home > Products > This Product. Products. The Q-Col range of HPLC columns are manufactured using silica of exceptional purity. Q-Col GenSphere™ HPLC Columns offer many advanced features including: • Exceptional batch-to-batch reproducibility • Extremely low metals content • Meticulously controlled materials • Ultra-pure silica • Perfect spherical particles • Maximum pH range between 1.5 and 11.0 • 3, 5 and 10 µm particle sizes • Easily scaled-up, from microbore to preparative HPLC. • Exceptionally long column lifetimes • Wide range of packings • Fully deactivated after functional bonding To view Greyhound Chromatography's full range of HPLC columns please visit www.greyhound.com. Company Greyhound Chromatography - Products. More Information View company product page. Newly Identified Biochemical Pathway Could Be Target for Insulin Control Researchers at Duke Medicine and the University of Alberta are reporti...
http://technologynetworks.com/MassSpec/productsid.aspx?ID=130817
*  .. Accelerating Glycan Characterization .. New Workflow Brings
Up to six or seven levels of fragmentation may be needed to differentiate between glycan structural isomers. Recent innovations in bioinformatics software have enabled a MS-based workflow Figure 1 that accelerates glycan characterization through automated interpretation of the MS n data produced by ion trap and hybrid ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometers Thermo Fisher Scientific. As shown in Figure 1, MS/MS spectral fragmentation data is acquired on the ion trap or Orbitrap mass spectrometer and then imported into SimGlycan software Premier Biosoft. SimGlycan software automatically matches the experimentally acquired mass spectra against its database of theoretical glycan fragments, and generates a list of candidate glycan structures. The SimGlycan database is a relational database containing 22,456 glycans, 22,814 glycoproteins, 11,438 glycans with known biological sources, 11,918 glycans with known classes, 263 biochemical reactions, 194 biochemical pathways, 250 glycan-related enzymes and 22,265 other data...
http://genengnews.com/keywordsandtools/print/1/27102/
*  Mass Spec Center - Facilities - Chemistry & Biochemistry - AU COSAM
Mass Spec Center - Facilities - Chemistry Biochemistry - AU COSAM. Chemistry and Biochemistry. College of Sciences and Mathematics. Contact Us. Mass Spectrometry Center. Contact Information. LC/MS performs quick data acquisition and automated injection for the following purposes: 1 small molecule mass and structural analysis, 2 protein identification/MW, 3 peptide/protein micro sequencing, 4 peptide mapping, 5 protein modification, 6 shotgun proteomics 1D-SDS/rUPLC , and 7 purity assessment with UPLC. GC/MS analysis with fast data acquisition rates and automated workflow features high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and exact-mass measurement in applications on 8 GC chromatography of volatile/semi volatile SM, 9 structural analysis of SM with EI library search, and 10 quantitative analysis with capillary GC. MALDI/TOF analysis includes 11 MW of macromolecules proteins, carbohydrates, and polymers , 12 protein structural analysis PTM , and 13 small-molecular-mass, composition and purity assessment. LC/MS Waters ...
http://auburn.edu/cosam/departments/chemistry/facilities/massspec.htm
*  Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture
... Cells are differentially labeled by growing them in light medium with normal arginine Arg-0, blue color or medium with heavy arginine Arg-6, red color. Metabolic incorporation of the amino acids into the proteins results in a mass shift of the corresponding peptides. When both samples are combined, the ratio of peak intensities in the mass spectrum reflects the relative protein abundance. In this example, the labeled protein has the same abundance in both samples ratio 1. 'SILAC stable isotope labeling by/with amino acids in cell culture ' is a technique based on mass spectrometry that detects differences in protein abundance among samples using non-radioactive isotopic labeling. One of the cell populations is fed with growth medium containing normal amino acids. In contrast, the second population is fed with growth medium containing amino acids labeled with stable non-radioactive heavy isotope s. For example, the medium can contain arginine labeled with six carbon-13 atoms 13 C instead of the normal car...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stable_isotope_labeling_by_amino_acids_in_cell_culture
*  Prolate trochoidal mass spectrometer
... a prolate trochoidal mass spectrometer is an chemical analysis instrument in which the ions of different mass to charge ratio are separated by means of mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic field s so that the ions follow a prolate trochoidal path these devices are sometimes called cycloidal mass spectrometers although the path is not a cycloid the prolate trochoid path has loops the cycloid has cusps applications the instruments are used for the analysis of gases and in gas chromatography mass spectrometry the trochoidal configuration can also be used as the basis of an electron monochromator references external links cycloidal mass spectrometer cycloidal mass spectrometer with time of flight characteristics and associated method category mass spectrometry...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolate_trochoidal_mass_spectrometer
*  Protein quantitation through targeted mass spectrometry: the way out of biomarker purgatory? | Broad
Protein quantitation through targeted mass spectrometry: the way out of biomarker purgatory. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Home. News & Publications:Scientific Publications Protein quantitation through targeted mass spectrometry: the way out of biomarker purgatory. Recent Broad Publications A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with multiple sclerosis risk affects the EVI5 interactome. Read More / View Supplemental Materials An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Somatic mutation in single human neurons t...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3885
*  Welcome to KINAXO Biotechnologies
KINAXO Cellular Target Profiling. is a global, quantitative phospho-proteomics service developed to investigate cellular signal transduction pathways and their response to drug treatment. State-of-the-art quantitative mass spectrometry is used as an elegant, unbiased way to comprehensively analyze proteome-wide in vivo phosphorylation patterns. service combines high-end quantitative mass spectrometry techniques with unrivaled software applications to: Perform mode of action analysis of your targeted drug Use system-wide modeling of signaling events and investigate your drug s influence on cellular phosphorylation patterns to significantly decrease development times in drug discovery Predict therapeutic outcome Investigate the effects of cross-talk on your drug s efficiency and unveil potential mechanisms of cellular resistance. as a valuable tool to discover predictive biomarkers that foretell the therapeutic outcome in a patient, which in turn allows a personalized therapy approach Validate your target and i...
http://kinaxo.de/tec_phospho.html
*  Mass Spectrometry - The Online Scientific Community - Events
... Mass Spectrometry. Scientific Community. Please select a community. Mass Spectrometry. Newly Identified Biochemical Pathway Could Be Target for Insulin Control Researchers at Duke Medicine and the University of Alberta are reporting the identification of a new biochemical pathway to control insulin secretion from islet beta cells in the pancreas, establishing a potential target for insulin control. First Complete Structural Study Of A Pegylated Protein Significant data obtained at NUI Galway reports first crystal structure of a protein modified with a single PEG chain. Potential Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Isolated Researchers from North Carolina State University utilized a highly sensitive mass spectrometry analysis to identify and measure difficult-to-detect N-glycan biomarkers associated with ovarian cancers in stages I – IV. Protein Aggregation After Heat Shock Is An Organized, Reversible Response New study finds protein aggregation after heat exposure is a reversible cellular process, not unrecoverable...
http://technologynetworks.com/MassSpec/events.aspx?date=2013-08&page=6
*  Fye Lab Mass Spectrometry and NMR Facility : Facilities
... Facilities. About Facilities Administration Staff Policies & Procedures Emergency Procedures Snow Procedures Hurricane Preparedness Procedures Policy on Half-Masting of the Flag WHOI Parking Policy. Fye Lab Mass Spectrometry and NMR Facility. Fye Laboratory. Mass Spectrometry Facility Rooms 123 140 Fye Laboratory Emergency Procedures 08 Feb, 2005 The superconducting magnet portion of the NMR spectrometer is always operative in room 140 Fye. There exists a very strong magnetic field around the large, white tank in the corner of the room. The white tank is filled with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Below are procedures and contacts for the Fye Lab Mass Spectrometry and NMR Facility. Power Outages. It is not necessary to contact me after power outages. Water shutoff or loss of pressure. It is not necessary to contact me about water shutoff or loss of pressure. General Emergency Notes 1 In the event of life threatening or other extreme case, electrical power to the instruments in Fye 123, Fye 123 D, Fye ...
http://whoi.edu/facilities/page.do?pid=26397&tid=282&cid=52174
*  Monoisotopic mass
The 'monoisotopic mass' is the sum of the mass es of the atom s in a molecule using the unbound, ground-state, rest mass of the principal most abundant isotope for each element instead of the isotopic average mass. For typical organic compounds, where the monoisotopic mass is most commonly used, this also results in the lightest isotope being selected. For some heavier atoms such as iron and argon the principle isotope is not the lightest isotope. Isotopic abundance Context of usage See also References External links. The mass spectral peak representing the monoisotopic mass is not always the most abundant isotopic peak in a spectrum despite it containing the most abundant isotope for each atom. This is because as the number of atoms in a molecule increases, the probability that the entire molecule contains at least one heavy isotope atom also increases. For example if there are 100 carbon atoms in a molecule each of which has an approximately 1% chance of being a heavy isotope the whole molecule is highly li...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoisotopic_mass
*  A Faster KAYAK: Mass Spectroscopy for Multiplexed Kinase Assays | Insight & Intelligence™ | GEN
Market & Tech Analysis. GEN Exclusives More » Oct 29, 2012 A Faster KAYAK: Mass Spectroscopy for Multiplexed Kinase Assays Researchers developed a new, simplified method for measuring the phosphorylation rates of peptide substrates. The direct-KAYAK method can be run in a relatively high-throughput 96-plate format with a benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer. This new article* describes a modification to the technique, called direct-KAYAK, wherein the substrate set light substrate peptides was modified, the phosphopeptide enrichment step was removed, and the data analysis was streamlined see Figure 1. The method can be run in a relatively high-throughput 96-plate format with a benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer. C Western blot analysis of kinases involved in the phosphorylation of peptide E11 RSK activity from assays using THP-1 cells treated with Ro-31-8425. Kinases that phosphorylate the set of substrates used in the method include protein kinase A, B, and C; mitogen-activated kinases; cyclin-dependent kinas...
http://genengnews.com/insight-and-intelligenceand153/a-faster-kayak-mass-spectroscopy-for-multiplexed-kinase-assays/77899711/?kwrd=Kinases
*  Biological Mass Spectrometry Laboratory - University of Hong Kong
Biological Mass Spectrometry: Radical-Induced Protein Oxidation From Fundamental Studies, Instrumentation and Bioanalytical to Biomedical Applications Radicals of biomolecules are believed to play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including aging, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease, but their biochemical mechanisms are understood quite poorly at the molecular level. Our comprehensive studies have revolutionized our fundamental understanding of several hallmarks of radical-induced peptide chemistry—including the elementary processes of hydrogen atom, electron, and proton transfers, isomerizations, and dissociations—to shed light on the mechanisms of biological processes under oxidative stress. The study of gas-phase peptide radical chemistry to form a scientific basis underlying peptide sequencing—one of the most important emerging bioanalyticl techniques used in proteomics applications—and to model charge/radical transfer in biological systems. We are actively engaged in the development of ne...
http://web.hku.hk/~ivankchu/ichu.html
*  Browsing HMS Scholarly Articles by Subject "Mass Spectrometry: instrumentation"
browsing hms scholarly articles by subject mass spectrometry instrumentation browsing hms scholarly articles by subject mass spectrometry instrumentation dspace manakin repository dash home harvard medical school hms scholarly articles browsing hms scholarly articles by subject login browsing hms scholarly articles by subject mass spectrometry instrumentation a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z or enter first few letters sort by submit date title issue date order ascending descending results now showing items of high resolution quantitative imaging of mammalian and bacterial cells using stable isotope mass spectrometry hillion francois mcmahon greg benson douglas distel daniel luyten yvette schwartz martin slodzian georges et al journal of biology link to published version now showing items of search dash search dash this collection advanced search browse all of dash communities collections authors titles keywords harvard affiliated authors fas departments by issue date by submit date rss atom...
http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/4454686/browse?value=Mass Spectrometry: instrumentation&type=subject
*  AGML
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis 2-DE is a method used to separate complex protein mixtures by first separating the proteins according to their isoelectric point pI and then according to their molecular weight. This separation would then enable the scientist to identify the proteins according to their published pI and MW values or subject them to further separation or identification using Mass Spectrometry. 'Annotated Gel Markup Language', or 'AGML' is an attempt to bridge this gap. In spite of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis 2-DE being an effective and widely used method to screen the proteome, its data standardization has still not matured to the level of microarray genomics data or mass spectrometry approaches. An equivalent 2-DE-centric data structure would similarly have to include a balance among raw data, basic feature detection results, sufficiency in the description of the experimental context and methods, and an overall structure that facilitates a diversity of usages, from central reposition...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AGML
*  The Dawn A. Bonnell Research Group // Direct Probe of Moleculler Polarization in de novo Protein-bas
... ed Devise. People. Research Archived Research. Publications. Nano Probe Labs. Group Calendars. Links. back Direct Probe of Moleculler Polarization in de novo Protein-based Devise By combining peptide design, monolayer patterning, and a new probe of bio-optoelectronic function to characterize the dielectric and optoelectronic properties of an ambient protein-electrode system, we report the simultaneous detection of electron transport and the effect of optical absorption on dielectric polarizabilityin oriented peptide single molecular layers. 66 amphiphilic alpha helices self assemble in detergent solution to form 4-helix bundles, as illustrated in Fig a and b. 5 ZnPP red are added per 4-helix bundle on the histidine site dark blue. The helices are oriented perpendicular to the underlying substrate. A 425 nm LED blue is directed at the tip-sample junction Fig. Torsionally stabilized nano-impedance microscopy was developed to simultaneously probe transport and impedance of single molecule layers at interface...
http://seas.upenn.edu/~bonnell/research/Direct_Probe_Moleculler_Polarization.html
*  MS Studies Ch 3 Flashcards - Cram.com
... www.cram.com Create Flashcards. Chinese, Pinyin Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional English French German Italian Japanese Japanese, Romaji Korean Math / Symbols Russian Spanish. Chinese, Pinyin Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional English French German Italian Japanese Japanese, Romaji Korean Math / Symbols Russian Spanish. MS Studies Ch 3. Ms Studies Ch 3 by. 2011 Subjects: 3 ch ms studies Click to Rate Hated It. Click to Rate Liked It. Click to Rate Really Liked It. Upgrade to Cram Premium Close You have created 2 folders. Please upgrade to Cram Premium to create hundreds of folders. Shuffle Toggle On Toggle Off Alphabetize Toggle On Toggle Off Front First Toggle On Toggle Off Both Sides Toggle On Toggle Off Read Toggle On Toggle Off. right arrow key left arrow key Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back. a key. The Treaty of Pontotoc Creek. In 1820, a treat was negotiated that gave the U.S 5 million acres including the land where Jackson would be located. He was Pushmata...
http://cram.com/flashcards/ms-studies-ch-3-1922384
*  Malvern's New Zetasizer Nano ZSP Delivers Fast, High Sensitivity Protein Characterization for Multi
Malvern's New Zetasizer Nano ZSP Delivers Fast, High Sensitivity Protein Characterization for Multiple Applications Toggle navigation. Industry News. Submit Press Release. Resources. Tools. About ThomasNet. Industry Market Trends. Fluid Gas Flow. Product News. Products in the News. Company News. Submit Press Release. How to Write an Effective News Release. PR Resources. Product News: Test Measuring Instruments. Dynamic Light Scattering System hastens protein characterization. October 3, 2012 - Zetasizer Nano ZSP enables high-sensitivity measurement of zeta potential for accelerated measurement of electrophoretic mobility of proteins and calculation of protein charge key parameters. Measurement quality is optimized via software that combines size and zeta potential measurements; mobility measurements performed in groups of sub-runs; and automatic measurement settings optimization. Malvern Instruments Ltd. Original Press Release. Malvern's New Zetasizer Nano ZSP Delivers Fast, High Sensitivity Protein C...
http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/Dynamic-Light-Scattering-System-hastens-protein-characterization-622526
*  Gas chromotography mass spectrometry
... redirect gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_chromotography_mass_spectrometry
*  Phosphoproteomics: New insights into cellular signaling - ResearchGate
The iTRAQ method commercially available from Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA involves isotopic labeling of amine groups, allowing uniform labeling of all 230.2 Genome Biology 2005, Volume 6, Issue 9, Article 230Mumby and Brekken http://genomebiology.com/2005/6/9/230 Genome Biology 2005, 6:230 Table 1 Methods for the enrichment of phosphoproteins and phosphopeptides for analysis by mass spectrometry Method Comments References Chemical modification Affinity taggingPhosphorylated amino acids are derivatized by ?-elimination or carbodiimide to introduce tags; ?-elimination strategy is limited to P-Ser and P-Thr, and also occurs with O-glycosylated residues. Analysis of the large dataset 2,002 phosphorylation sites from growing HeLa cell nuclear proteins with the Scansite program showed that kinases that target serine and threonine residues followed by proline residues for example, cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdks, and mitogen- activated protein MAP kinases and acidophilic kinases, such as casein kinases, accou...
http://researchgate.net/publication/7595815_Phosphoproteomics_New_insights_into_cellular_signaling
*  Mass Spectrometry
... products and services standards publications symposia papers stps you are being redirected because this document is part of your astm compass subscription this document is part of your astm compass subscription stay on page continue to compass stp mass spectrometry published jan nbsp format pages price nbsp pdf nbsp add to cart complete source pdf m nbsp add to cart source stp eb astm license agreement abstract mass spectrometry includes a group of techniques useful in identifying elements and compounds in materials solids liquids and gases may be analyzed using the many mass spectrometers commercially available today author information blosser er neher mb committee subcommittee d doi stp s astm international is a member of crossref...
http://astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP37190S.htm
*  Highest Voted 'mass-spec' Questions - Biology Stack Exchange
Highest Voted 'mass-spec' Questions - Biology Stack Exchange. current community. chat blog. Biology. . Biology Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Biology Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Tagged Questions info newest frequent votes active unanswered. The mass-spec tag has no usage guidance. learn more. top users. synonyms. 3 votes. 2 answers. 91 views. Mass Spectrometry Terminology I began reading this paper http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/14/56 and had a few questions about mass spectrometry terminology that I couldn't find answers to elsewhere. Consider the following ... bioinformatics terminology mass-spec asked Jan 8 '14 at 6:03. user93189 16. 1 3 votes. 0 answers. 52 vi...
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*  Items where Author is "Ludányi, Krisztina" - Repository of the Academy's Library
... Items where Author is " Ludányi, Krisztina ". Hevér, Helga and Ludányi, Krisztina and Drahos, László and Vékey, Károly 2013 A tömegspektrometria alkalmazása fehérje alapú gyógyszerek szerkezetvizsgálatára és jellemzésére. Budai, Lívia and Ozohanics, Olivér and Ludányi, Krisztina and Drahos, László and Kremmer, Tibor and Krenyácz, Judit and Vékey, Károly 2009 Investigation of genetic variants of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ozohanovics, Olivér and Krenyácz, Judit and Ludányi, Krisztina and Pollreisz, Ferenc and Vékey, Károly and Drahos, László 2008 GlycoMiner: a new software tool to elucidate glycopeptide composition. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, 22 20. and Boldizsár, M. and Vincze, Borbála and Ludányi, Krisztina and Imre, Timea and Schlosser Vácziné, Gitta and Vékey, Károly 2004 Liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of human serum acid alpha-1-glycoprotein. and Kremmer, Tibor and Ludányi, Krisztina and Imre, Timea a...
http://real.mtak.hu/view/creators/Lud=E1nyi=3AKrisztina=3A=3A.html
*  Protein Characterization
... the protein characterization home page is your chance to glance at how analytical biochemists utilize chemical sequencing and mass spectrometry to characterize proteins within the clayton foundation laboratories for peptide biology the researchers involved in these activities are principal investigator wolfgang fischer ph d principal investigator anthony grey craig ph d research in molecular biology protein and peptide chemistry is undertaken using state of the art instrumentation and various analytical methods which are described in the following pages the laboratories are situated in the south building of the salk institute th floor about half way along with a glorious view facing north and st floor south west corner with absolutely no view we can be reached by telephone at xt xt or xt fax at or by e mail at craig sc salk edu and fischer sc salk edu...
http://salk.edu/labs/pbl/protein.html
*  Oligo HTCS Systems • Novatia
Oligo HTCS Systems Novatia. About Innovative Solutions for Science. Expertise. People. Partners. Company Information. Contact Us. Services Mass Spectrometry. Metabolism. Half Life Determination. Metabolism Data Processing. MS BioMolecule Pricing. MS Small Molecule Pricing. Oligonucleotide LC/MS Analysis Services. Oligonucleotide Sequence Confirmation. PEGylated Oligonucleotide Analysis. Protein LC/MS Analysis Services. MS Resources. ESI Adduct Ions. LC/MS 101 Course. Metabolite Differences. SEQUEST Tips. What Constitutes a Good Hit from a SEQUEST Search. How to use SEQUEST to search a nucleotide database. NMR. cGMP NMR Services. High Sensitivity Capillary NMR Analysis. NMR General Pricing. Polymer NMR Analysis. SepNMR Sample Purification System. Chemistry. Structure Elucidation. Structure Elucidation Case Study: in vitro Buspirone Metabolite. Sample Purification. Sample Submission Forms. Products ProMass. Download ProMass for Xcalibur. ProMass Applications. ProMass Support Information. ProMass 2.8.2 release n...
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*  Describe in detail how you would make one molar solution
... Wednesday October 7, 2015 School Subjects Art. Business. Computers. English. Foreign Languages. Health. Home Economics. Math. Music. Physical Education. Science. Social Studies. Grade Levels Preschool. Kindergarten. Elementary School. 1st Grade. 2nd Grade. 3rd Grade. 4th Grade. 5th Grade. 6th Grade. 7th Grade. 8th Grade. High School. 9th Grade. 10th Grade. 11th Grade. 12th Grade. College. Adult Education. Post a New Question. Current Questions. Homework Help : Chemistry Posted by ~Brittney~ on Tuesday, August 28, 2007 at 9:10pm. Describe in detail how you would make one molar solution of sodium chloride. Do I add the atomic masses of Na and Cl and then find the mols. And the after that you would just add 1L of water, correct. Chemistry - DrBob222, Tuesday, August 28, 2007 at 9:12pm Almost. Yes, you add atomic mass Na to atomic mass Cl. Weigh that amount of NaCl, dissolve it in a litle water, then make to a final volume of 1 L. Note tht this is NOT the same as adding 1 L of water. If you weigh 1 mol NaCl ...
http://jiskha.com/display.cgi?id=1188349804
*  Electron rest mass
Terminology Determination Relationship to other physical constants References. : R {\infty} = \frac{m {\rm e}c\alpha 2}{2h} \Rightarrow m {\rm e} = \frac{2R {\infty}h}{c\alpha 2}. As mentioned above, the electron mass is used to calculate the Avogadro constant 'N' A : : N {\rm A} = \frac{M {\rm u} A {\rm r} {\rm e} }{m {\rm e}} = \frac{M {\rm u} A {\rm r} {\rm e} c\alpha 2}{2R \infty h} Hence it is also related to the atomic mass constant 'm' u : : m {\rm u} = \frac{N {\rm A}}{M {\rm u}} = \frac{A {\rm r} {\rm e} }{m {\rm e}} = \frac{A {\rm r} {\rm e} c\alpha 2}{2R \infty h} where M u is molar mass constant defined in SI and 'A' r e is directly measured quantity, relative mass of electron. Taking the simplest case of complete ionization of all electrons, for a nuclide X of atomic number 'Z', : A {\rm r} {\rm X} = A {\rm r} {\rm X} {Z+} + ZA {\rm r} {\rm e} - E {\rm b}/m {\rm u}c 2\, As relative atomic masses are measured as ratios of masses, the corrections must be applied to both ions: fortunately, the uncer...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_rest_mass
*  Moving Target | The Scientist Magazine®
Moving Target. The Scientist Magazine. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. Magazine. Lab Tools. Moving Target New mass spectrometry based techniques are blurring the lines between discovery and targeted proteomics. By Nicholette Zeliadt. June 1, 2014. ITSDESIGNNET/ISTOCKPHOTO.COM T he complex, ever-changing multitude of proteins present in a cell or tissue at any given time, referred to as the proteome, is difficult to capture and describe. Molecular biologists have a variety of tools at their disposal to study proteins, but arguably none is more powerful for the comprehensive analysis of proteins present in a complex sample than mass spectrometry. Traditionally, researchers have used one of two mass spec based approaches to tease apart the complexities of the proteome: a discovery-based strategy to identify as many proteins as possible, and a targeted approach to accurately quantify a few select proteins of interest. Regardless of the method used, researchers typically begin by c...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/40051/title/Moving-Target/
*  Newest 'chromatography' Questions - Biology Stack Exchange
Newest 'chromatography' Questions - Biology Stack Exchange. chat blog. Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. help. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Users. Unanswered. Tagged Questions info newest frequent votes active unanswered. The chromatography tag has no usage guidance. top users. 49 views. View ABI chromatogram plots with python I would like to view the chromatogram traces from a few ABI .ab1 files. dna-sequencing chromatography biopython asked Jul 7 at 9:37. 3 votes. 35 views. Decreasing Solubility as Solvent Moves Higher in Paper Chromatography In paper chromatography, as the mobile phase I used 1:9 acetone/petroleum ether climbs higher and higher, will the solubility of the solutes decrease as the solvent moves higher. lab-techniques photosynthesis chromatography asked Apr 18 at 13:25. 51 views. molecular-biology proteins chromatography asked Dec 6 '14 at 6:43. 6 votes. 2 answers. 205 views. It seems that my pro...
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*  Chapter 4 Electrophoresis, Figure 4.9 Protein standard scan from Model 1312
chapter electrophoresis figure protein standard scan from model chapter electrophoresis figure protein standard scan from model cell biology laboratory manual dr william h heidcamp biology department gustavus adolphus college st peter mn cellab gac edu...
http://homepages.gac.edu/~cellab/chpts/chpt4/figure4-9.html
*  etd AT Indian Institute of Science: Browsing etd@IISc
etd at indian institute of science browsing etd iisc search etd iisc advanced search home browse communities collections title author thesis guide subject submitted date sign on to receive email updates login register authorized users edit profile help about dspace etd at indian institute of science browsing by subject cyclic peptides jump to a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z or enter first few letters sort by title submission date issue date in order ascending descending results page authors record all showing results to of submitted date title author s thesis guide s mass spectrometric sequencing of acyclic and cyclic peptides sabareesh v balaram p showing results to of powered by dspace compliant to oai pmh v and etd ms v...
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*  Chemistry Essay by Mightystudents.com
Free essays. Paper Topic: Chemistry Using the average atomic masses given in Table 8 .1, calculate the mass in grams, of each of the following samples 455 atoms of hydrogen 455 x 1 .008 6 .022 x 1023 7 .62 x 10-22g H b. If an average sodium atom has the mass 3 .817 x 10-23 g, what is the mass of an average magnesium atom in grams. What is the average mass of a potassium atom in grams. Using the average masses given inside the front cover of the text calculate the number of moles of each element represented in the following masses a. 62 .55 kg of iron, Fe 62 .55 kg Fe x 1000 g Fe x 1 mol Fe 1120 mol Fe 1 kg Fe 55 .845 g Fe c. Using the average atomic masses given inside the front cover of the text, calculate the mass in grams of each of the following samples a. 2 .71 x 10-4 mol of platinum, Pt 2 .71 x 10-4 mol Pt x 195 .078 g Pt 0 .053 g Pt 1 mol Pt b. 56 .2 mol of hydrogen, H 56 .2 mol H x 1 .008 g H 56 .65 g H 1 mol H 5. Using the average atomic masses given inside the front cover of the text, calculate the ...
http://mightystudents.com/essay/Chemistry.essay.chemistry.62181
*  Nitrogen rule (with regard to mass spectrometry)
nitrogen rule with regard to mass spectrometry nitrogen rule with regard to mass spectrometry redirect nitrogen rule...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_rule_(with_regard_to_mass_spectrometry)
*  Patent US20020172961 - Mass defect labeling for the determination of oligomer sequences - Google Pat
A method for sequencing a terminal portion of an oligomer, comprising: a contacting said oligomer with a labeling moiety to covalently attach a label to the terminus of the oligomer and form a labeled oligomer, said labeling moiety comprising at least one element having an atomic number from 17 to 77, with the proviso that said element is other than sulfur or phosphorus; b fragmenting said labeled oligomer using an enzymatic, chemolytic or mass spectrometric fragmentation method to produce labeled oligomer fragments; and c analyzing said labeled oligomer fragments using a mass spectrometric fragmentation method to determine the sequence of at least two terminal residues. Sequencing a Portion of a Protein In another aspect, the present invention provides a method for sequencing a portion of a protein in a protein mixture, the method comprising: a contacting the protein mixture with a C-terminus or N-terminus labeling moiety to covalently attach a label to the C- or N-terminus of the protein and form a labeled ...
http://google.com/patents/US20020172961?ie=ISO-8859-1
*  .. New Mass Spec-Based Approach Pinpoints Mystery Proteins .. !
GEN News Highlights : Apr 25, 2013. New Mass Spec-Based Approach Pinpoints Mystery Proteins. Cytokines, interleukins, growth factors, hormones, and other proteins secreted by activated immune cells are key intercellular messengers they propagate biological information that controls a broad range of functions, coordinating homeostasis. However, for as important as they are, scientists still know very little about the range of such secreted proteins and their functions. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry have come up with a workaround. They ve developed an approach to detect and quantify proteins released from immune cells upon receptor ligation using high-resolutions mass spectrometry MS. One of the benefits of our tech is that we are very sensitive at the moment, so we can look at very rare subsets, Max Planck s Felix Meissner, study co-author, tells GEN. In their paper, Meissner and his colleagues describe and report on the results of their experimental induction of the Toll-like recepto...
http://genengnews.com/keywordsandtools/print/4/31167/

Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Electrospray ionizationTandem mass spectrometry: 300 px|right|thumb|A [[Quadrupole mass analyzer|quadrupole time-of-flight hybrid tandem mass spectrometer.]]Soft laser desorption: Soft laser desorption is laser desorption of large molecules that results in ionization without fragmentation. "Soft" in the context of ion formation means forming ions without breaking chemical bonds.Coles PhillipsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Obsidian hydration dating: Obsidian hydration dating (OHD) is a geochemical method of determining age in either absolute or relative terms of an artifact made of obsidian.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Cancer screeningGas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbFast atom bombardment: Fast atom bombardment (FAB) is an ionization technique used in mass spectrometry in which a beam of high energy atoms strikes a surface to create ions. It was developed by Michael Barber at the University of Manchester.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Plant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Mass media impact on spatial perception: Mass media influences spatial perception through journalistic cartography and spatial bias in news coverage.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.SEA Native Peptide LigationLifesaving Awards: The Royal Life Saving Society UK awards several lifesaving awards indicating competence and ability.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingQuantitative computed tomographyAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Two-dimensional gel electrophoresisLattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Concentric hypertrophy: Concentric hypertrophy is a hypertrophic growth of a hollow organ without overall enlargement, in which the walls of the organ are thickened and its capacity or volume is diminished.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Crowd: A crowd is a large group of people that are gathered or considered together. The term "the crowd" may sometimes refer to the so-called lower orders of people in general (the mob).Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Overweight PoochIsotope-coded affinity tag: An Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) is an isotopic labeling method used for quantitative proteomics by mass spectrometry that uses chemical labeling reagents. "Rapid quantitative analysis of proteins or protein function in complex mixtures," Rudolf Hans Aebersold et al.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Cancellous bone: Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. The other osseous tissue type is cortical bone also called compact bone.Restricted isometry property: In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès and Terence TaoE.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.HyperintensityWaterladder pumpCalibrationBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Size-exclusion chromatography: Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight. It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers.Fourier operator: The Fourier operator is the kernel of the Fredholm integral of the first kind that defines the continuous Fourier transform.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Certified reference materials: Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are ‘controls’ or standards used to check the quality and metrological traceability of products, to validate analytical measurement methods, or for the calibration of instruments.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Advanced Cyclotron Systems: Advanced Cyclotron Systems, Inc. (ACSI) is a company based in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada that supplies and services cyclotrons predominately used for the production of medical isotopes by hospitals for nuclear medicine.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Deuterium NMR: Deuterium NMR is NMR spectroscopy of deuterium (2H or D), an isotope of hydrogen. Deuterium is an isotope with spin = 1, unlike hydrogen which is spin = 1/2.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Affinity chromatography: Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.KIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.Glycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIHypertension

(1/10392) Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour.

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

(2/10392) The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction.

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

(3/10392) Coeliac disease detected by screening is not silent--simply unrecognized.

Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation and may be overlooked as a diagnosis. There is some evidence that untreated CD is associated with a doubling of mortality, largely due to an increase in the incidence of malignancy and small intestinal lymphoma, which is decreased by a strict gluten-free diet. We studied the clinical features of screening-detected coeliacs compared to age- and sex-matched controls as a 3-year follow-up to a population screening survey, and followed-up subjects who had had CD-associated serology 11 years previously to determine whether they have CD or an increased mortality rate compared to the general population. Samples of the general population (MONICA 1991 and 1983) were screened for CD-associated serology and followed-up after 3 and 11 years, respectively, and assessed by a clinical questionnaire, screening blood tests and jejunal biopsy. Mortality rates for 'all deaths' and 'cancer deaths' were compared in subjects with positive serology in 1983 with reference to the general population. Thirteen coeliacs were diagnosed by villous atrophy following screening, compared to two patients with clinically detected CD, giving a prevalence of 1:122. Clinical features or laboratory parameters were not indicative of CD compared to controls. Subjects with positive serology followed up after 11 years did not have an excess mortality for either cancer deaths or all causes of death. Screening-detected CD is rarely silent and may be associated with significant symptoms and morbidity. In this limited study with small numbers, there does not appear to be an increased mortality from screening-detected CD, although the follow-up may be too short to detect any difference.  (+info)

(4/10392) Faecal occult blood screening and reduction of colorectal cancer mortality: a case-control study.

To estimate the efficacy of screening on colorectal cancer mortality, a population-based case-control study was conducted in well-defined areas of Burgundy (France). Screening by faecal occult blood test prior to diagnosis in cases born between 1914 and 1943 and who died of colorectal cancer diagnosed in 1988-94 was compared with screening in controls matched with the case for age, sex and place of residence. Cases were less likely to have been screened than controls, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.94]. The negative overall association did not differ by gender or by anatomical location. The odds ratio of death from colorectal cancer was 0.64 (95% CI 0.46-0.91) for those screened within 3 years of case diagnosis compared with those not screened. It was 1.14 (95% CI 0.50-2.63) for those screened more than 3 years before case diagnosis. There was a negative association between the risk of death from colorectal cancer and the number of participations in the screening campaigns. The inverse association between screening for faecal occult blood and fatal colorectal cancer suggests that screening can reduce colorectal cancer mortality. This report further supports recommendations for population-based mass screening with faecal occult blood test.  (+info)

(5/10392) The identification of agreed criteria for referral following the dental inspection of children in the school setting.

AIM: To clarify the function of the school based dental inspection. OBJECTIVE: For representatives of the Community Dental Service, General Dental Service and Hospital Dental Service to identify an agreed set of criteria for the referral of children following school dental inspection. DESIGN: Qualitative research methodology used to establish a consensus for the inclusion of referral criteria following dental screening. SETTING: Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, England. MATERIALS: A Delphi technique was used to establish a consensus amongst the study participants on the inclusion of nine possible criteria for referral following dental screening. All participants scored each criterion in the range 1-9, with a score of 1 indicating that referral of individuals with the condition should definitely not take place, and a score of 9 indicating referral should definitely take place. Referral criteria were accepted only if they achieved a group median score of 7 or more, with an interquartile range of three scale points, with the lower value being no less than 7. RESULTS: Four of the nine possible criteria met the agreed group standard for inclusion: 'Sepsis', 'Caries in the secondary dentition', 'Overjet > 10 mm', and 'Registered & caries in the permanent dentition'. CONCLUSION: It is possible to agree clear criteria for the referral of children following the school dental inspection.  (+info)

(6/10392) Special medical examination program reform proposal in Korea.

We are at a time when reform in the special medical examination program in keeping with the changing times is desperately needed because the common perception of workers, employers, and medical examination facilities is "special medical examination is merely ritualistic and unproductive." Therefore, we have tried to set forth the basic structure for reforming the special medical examination program by taking a close look at the management status of the current program and analyzing its problems. The specifics of the special medical examination program reform proposal consist of three parts such as the types, health evaluation based on occupational medicine, and the interval, subject selection, items and procedure. Pre-placement medical examination and non-periodic medical examinations-as-necessary are introduced newly. Health evaluation based on occupational medicine consists of classification of health status, evaluation of work suitability, and post-examination measure. Details regarding the medical examination interval, subject selection, items and procedure were changed.  (+info)

(7/10392) Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia: pattern of use and health care system costs.

BACKGROUND: The use of mammography for screening asymptomatic women has increased dramatically in the past decade. This report describes the changes that have occurred in the use of bilateral mammography in British Columbia since the provincial breast cancer screening program began in 1988. METHODS: Using province-wide databases from both the breast cancer screening program and the provincial health insurance plan in BC, the authors determined the number and costs of bilateral mammography services for women aged 40 years or older between Apr. 1, 1986, and Mar. 31, 1997. Unilateral mammography was excluded because it is used for investigating symptomatic disease and screening abnormalities, and for follow-up of women who have undergone mastectomy for cancer. RESULTS: As the provincial breast cancer screening program expanded from 1 site in 1988 to 23 in 1997, it provided an increasing proportion of the bilateral mammographic examinations carried out each year in BC. In fiscal year 1996/97, 65% of bilateral mammographic examinations were performed through the screening program. The cost per examination within the screening program dropped as volume increased. Thirty percent more bilateral mammography examinations were done in 1996/97 than in 1991/92, but health care system expenditures for these services increased by only 4% during the same period. In calendar year 1996, 21% of new breast cancers were diagnosed as a result of a screening program visit. INTERPRETATION: Substantial increases in health care expenditures have been avoided by shifting bilateral mammography services to the provincial screening program, which has a lower cost per screening visit.  (+info)

(8/10392) Pap screening clinics with native women in Skidegate, Haida Gwaii. Need for innovation.

PROBLEM ADDRESSED: First Nations women in British Columbia, especially elders, are underscreened for cancer of the cervix compared with the general population and are much more likely to die of the disease than other women. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To develop a pilot program, in consultation with community representatives, to address the Pap screening needs of First Nations women 40 years and older on a rural reserve. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Identification of key links to the population; consultation with the community to design an outreach process; identification of underscreened women; implementation of community Pap screening clinics; evaluation of the pilot program. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a Pap screening outreach program that marked a departure from the usual screening approach in the community. First Nations community health representatives were key links for the process that involved family physicians and office staff at a local clinic on a rural reserve. Participation rate for the pilot program was 48%, resulting in an increase of 15% over the previously recorded screening rate for this population. More screening clinics of this type and evaluation for sustainability are proposed.  (+info)


What supplements increase muscle mass or speed up the gaining of muscle?


I want to gain muscle mass in 4 months. I heard of whey protein, creatine, multi vitamin. I was wondering what combination of those or other supplements I should take for the best results? I do not want to take anything with side effects that could cause any harm to my body. Can anyone help me?
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Whey protein, creatine, and a multi-vitamin are the perfect base for building muscle.  A little bit of creatine and protein after working out is perfect. The multivitamin is best taken in the morning. For an extra little boost of energy and muscle mass theres an affordable supplement called Jack3d. Copy this into your address bar. 
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2958008/preworkout_supplement_review_jack3d.html?cat=50


Whats the difference between Mass Produced and Handmade rings?


What is the difference between Mass Produced Rings and Handmade rings like price or value and how they are made by them. As much detail will be useful. Thanks =D
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Mass produced products are made in factories that generally everyone can get their hands on. The products are made for the general public. Handmade products are usually individually crafted and takes a very long time to make. Handmade would be more expensive due to the long time it took to make the ring usually by hand and the quality of the ring. Handmade rings are due to the fact that many or not made.


We have a delicious, unique cake recipe but not the facilities to mass produce it. How to get on store shelf?


How can I get a bakery to mass produce the cakes and how can I get an existing retail store to put them on their shelves?  I took some of the cakes to Starbucks and was told that they were incredible, but that Starbucks doesn't buy new recipes, and they only accept goods for resale from their franchise bakery vendor.  They don't seem to realize the gold mine they are passing up...these cakes are truly exceptional!  

Here's a partial list of ingredients:  Peaches, pineapples, cherries, raisins, cocoanut, vanilla extract, pudding...and a few other secret ingredients as well!
I really don't want to sell the recipe, I just want to know whether to approch it from the manufacturing end or the retailing end.  I mean, should I already have a reseller (local coffee house, sweets shop) set up before approaching a bakery or vice versa?
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well my dear other than opening your own bakery and selling it yourself , most will opt to buy out your recipe. you can submit a sample to the larger brands like duncan hines or similar and have them write back. they might even hire you. but if you want poeple to know your cake. then just start doing it yourself. it doesn't have to be a mass thing. start slow and small. a good kitchen aid is enough make like 2-3 batches and start peddling it to the local area ( supermarkets, independent coffee house, flea market, weekend market, 711, gas stations) go directly to the manager and let them decide.


What impact does diet have on strength training as opposed to muscle mass training?


I've done plenty of muscle mass training, in which you have to eat a lot to gain mass. But there's a good chance I'm going to enlist in the Marines, and I'm dangerously close to the maximum weight qualified of my height. So I've decided to switch over to doing strength training instead. So here's my question. Do I need to still eat proteins or do any special diety things when I train to improve muscle strength, or does it pretty much not matter?
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you still want to keep some of your muscle mass... but what u will do is drop and reduce some of the carbs...... increase your cardio exercise to lean out.. so cardio 3 times a week for 30 mins

still stick to the weight training.. but this time go for higher reps of 10...

yes u still need to eat proteins... u need them for recovery and muscle maintanence..


What's the difference between building muscle and building mass?


In order to build muscle mass, do I first have to build muscle?  I am very confused.  I have been lifting weights for 2 months and I am toning up, but I want to bulk up my legs and hips.  How?  Repetitions/weights? What should I be eating? (Currently 1200-1400 calories daily) I don't want my upper body any larger. Is this what you call weight distribution?  A lot of questions, I know... Give me your best shot.
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Higher reps at a lower weight will tone the muscle mass that you already have.  Lower reps with much higher weight will add bulk.

If you are happy with your upper body, definitely go with a weight that you can throw around at 10-14 reps per set, upping the weight around 10% every week to two weeks.

Legs, 6-8 reps per set at high weight.  You should shoot for a good 10-15% advance every two weeks, depending on how much you lift.

If you are working in a good cardio 3 or 4 times a week, you want at least 2000-2500 calories each day.  Your muscles need those calories or you will slow down your bulk/toning and hit your "wall" much sooner.


How can I build more muscle mass with my dumbbells in my bedroom?


I need some advice on dumbbell exercising. I want to focus on build muscle mass. Are there any things I should know about to help me? I don't have a bench or anything fancy, just 20kg dumbbells and my bedroom...

Thanks.
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Sometimes I wish I’d be a man...to be stronger, make more money for the same job, could sleep with people of the opposite sex who would be half my age and having kids without having to bear them. 
But sometimes I’m glad I’m a woman just needing to do calisthenics and using small weights at home...2.5lbs, 5lbs and 8lbs dumbbells and some wrist/ankle weights like 1.5lbs, 2.5lbs and 5lbs adjustable (1 to 5).

You’re a man. You need to man up. 20kg dumbbells are surely heavy (44lbs) but you really need gym weight machines. 
Get a gym membership and if you cannot afford one, volunteer there to get free access.

Edit:
You need a bench if you want to work out at home safely. I got a good one for $100 that will last me my lifetime.
I would not ask a question about having no bench and trying to build up muscle mass with just a pair of 8lbs dumbbells (I need 1.5, 2.5, 5 and 8lbs dumbbells and wrist/ankle weights).
Maybe find things around the house that are heavy enough for your need. Before I knew that I needed 8lbs dumbbells for my dumbbells curls, I used my English Unabridged dictionary that weighs 8 pounds. Some guys use the vacuum cleaner for their biceps or triceps exercises. If you can handle 44lbs, you can start using pieces of furniture. Have you seen the movie Terminator, the one when she’s using her bed, that she put vertical and use it as a pull up bar?
Before I figured out the weights of the dumbbells I needed to buy, I used milk jugs filled with water or sand and plastic bags filled with heavy stuff or using bricks...and my English Unabridged dictionary. 
Also you always have your body. Doing calisthenics is using your body as weight (crunches, push-ups, squats, lunges...). If you can handle 44lbs dumbbells, you might need to add weight/incline to your calisthenics, like wearing a heavy backpack full of books while doing squats, lunges and push-ups and adding some weight on your chest while doing crunches or using a wood plank to get into an incline position.


What helps gain muscle mass faster: lighter weights multiple times or heavy weights a few times?


What helps gain muscle mass faster: benching a small amount of weight multiple times, or much heavier amount a few? If anybody has any tips or other information, that would be great. Thank you.
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Go for the heaviest weight that you think you can bench at least 10 times. Also, do 3 sets of this with a break of about 60 seconds in between. So:

3 sets x 10 reps = 30 benches in total.

You should also be doing other exercises as well like rowing and squatting.

Now for Muscle Mass...
Within 20 minutes after your workout take some protein. Protein is really important for gaining muscle mass as it helps your muscles to repair quickly. You can pick up a protein drink or protein powder from any health and fitness store. I would really recommend protein its wonder food. :) enjoy


How would I explain to an older adult why maintaining muscle mass is important?


I am not sure how to explain why muscle mass is important to my grandparents.  I want them to do strength training in order to keep their muscle but how can I explain it to them in simpler terms? Please help!
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If your grandparents are concerned about it just tell them that using their muscles helps keep their bones strong which helps them not break something...strong muscles help them keep their balance better.  Good muscle mass makes a difference in how the lungs and heart work. Good muscle mass reduces likelihood of using a cane, walker or wheelchair. Good muscle mass means they won't be as dependent on others when they grow older and older. It will allow them to maintain their independence from others having to help them shower,
shop, or clean house. Good muscle mass will mean they will have the strength they need to take care of any pets they might have, pick up and hug their grandchildren, great grandchildren, etc.  Good muscle mass helps burn fat calories efficiently and reduce too much weight gain -- it is okay for older people to have some extra fat on them.  

If your grandparents are not concerned about these things and it is you who is worried.  You might want to respect their position and let them live the life they wish to live. Hopefully you will live as long as they do and will want to live how you wish regardless of how you grandchildren feel about your lifestyle.