Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TriglyceridesLiposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DiglyceridesSpectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Mice, Inbred C57BLLinoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.EstersLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC Abstaining from all food.

*  BibMe: Generate Lipids dictionary entry citations for your bibliography
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
*  Lipid raft idea is floated | JCB
Lipid "sorting," they stated, "must involve the lateral segregation in this leaflet of lipids into those areas of the membrane ... Because plasma membrane lipids are synthesized intracellularly, van Meer and Simons reasoned that lipid sorting must take place ... The lipids wound up on the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane where they could not diffuse past tight junctions, so it ... Lipid locations. For a decade, it had been known that the apical and basolateral membranes of epithelial cells had
*  Treatments for Lipid Disorders | Memorial Hospital
Learn more about Treatments for Lipid Disorders at Memorial Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ... ... Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Screening Reducing Your Risk Talking to Your Doctor Living With Lipid ... The primary goal is to lower your overall risk of heart disease and stroke by getting your lipid levels to an ideal range. Your ... Lipid levels can be affected by lifestyle choices. Treatment may include include weight loss, exercise, and healthy eating. ...
*  British Library EThOS: A continuum model of the electroporation of bilayer...
A continuum model of the electroporation of bilayer lipid membranes Author: Bingham, Richard John ...
*  Apolipoprotein B100 acts as a molecular link between lipid-induced endoplasmic...
Suneng Fu, Steven M. Watkins, Gökhan S. Hotamisligil, The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum in Hepatic Lipid Homeostasis and Stress ... Neetu Sud, Jennifer Taher, Qiaozhu Su, MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Hepatic Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism: Potential ... Apolipoprotein B100 acts as a molecular link between lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatic insulin resistance† ... Small interfering (si)RNA-mediated attenuation of elevated apoB level in the apoB50-expressing cells rescued cells
*  CiNii 論文 - Study of PEG Tether Length of...
Study of PEG Tether Length of Pegylated-Lipid Sensing Films in QCM Odor Sensors * * Wyszynski Bartosz WYSZYNSKI Bartosz ... Effect of Changed Lipid Composition on Responses of Liposonses to Various Odorants : Possible Mechanism of Odor Discrimination ... Development of a chemical vapor sensor using piezoelectric quartz crystals with coated unusual lipids YANO K. ...
*  British Library EThOS: Molecular and isotropic studies of natural environments ...
... distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual lipids. ...
*  Impact of glycaemic and lipid control on outcome after percutaneous coronary...
A very low event rate was observed in patients with both a strict glycaemic and blood lipid control. Our study highlights ... We cannot therefore exclude the fact that patients with poorer glycaemic and lipid profiles were in a more advanced stage of ... Impact of glycaemic and lipid control on outcome after percutaneous coronary interventions in diabetic patients ... Impact of glycaemic and lipid control on outcome after percutaneous coronary interventions in diabetic patients ...
*  Treatments for Lipid Disorders | Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point | Hudson...
Learn more about Treatments for Lipid Disorders at Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point Main Page Risk Factors ... ... Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Screening Reducing Your Risk Talking to Your Doctor Living With Lipid ... The primary goal is to lower your overall risk of heart disease and stroke by getting your lipid levels to an ideal range. Your ... Lipid levels can be affected by lifestyle choices. Treatment may include include weight loss, exercise, and healthy eating. ...
*  Data from: Integrating lipid storage into general representations of fish...
... p.Lipid (% lipid); p.Ash (% ash); EnergyDensity.kJ/g (Energy density of fish [kJ per g wet weight]); L_calc (0 if fish length ... Lipid, Energy density, Fish Abstract Fish, even of the same species, can exhibit substantial variation in energy density ( ... Data from: Integrating lipid storage into general representations of fish energetics. Dryad Repository. ... Data from: Integrating lipid storage into general representations of fish energetics. Martin BT, Heintz R, Danner EM, Nisbet RM ...
*  Effects of Ethanolic Fruit Extract of Parinari polyandra (Rosaceae) on Serum Lipid Profile and Some
effects of ethanolic fruit extract of parinari polyandra rosaceae on serum lipid profile and some electrolytes in pregnant rabbits covenant university repository university links home page site map covenant university repository home about browse by year browse by subject browse by division browse by author login create account effects of ethanolic fruit extract of parinari polyandra rosaceae on serum lipid profile and some electrolytes in pregnant rabbits abolaji a o and adebayo h a and odesanmi o s effects of ethanolic fruit extract of parinari polyandra rosaceae on serum lipid profile and some electrolytes in pregnant rabbits research journal of medicinal plant pp issn preview pdf published version download kb preview item type article subjects q science qh natural history qh biology divisions faculty of medicine health and life sciences school of biological sciences depositing user mr adewole adewumi date deposited feb last modified feb uri http eprints covenantuniversity edu ng id eprint actions login ...
*  Elevated lipids -
... About Us Bookmark this page. HOME SYMPTOMS DISEASES DIAGNOSIS VIDEOS TOOLS COMMUNITY MISDIAGNOSIS DOCTORS HOSPITALS DRUGS. Assessment Questionnaire. Have a symptom. See what questions a doctor would ask. Choose... Rash Fever Pain Headache Fatigue Diarrhea All checklists. Next. Symptoms Elevated lipids. Elevated lipids. Contents for Hyperlipidaemia Introduction: Hyperlipidaemia Causes 44 conditions Combined symptoms. Hyperlipidaemia. Elevated lipids : Elevated lipids is listed as an alternate name or description for symptom: Hyperlipidaemia. Causes of Hyperlipidaemia Elevated lipids : See detailed list of causes below. Hyperlipidaemia medical symptom : An elevated amount of lipids in the blood of the body Causes of Hyperlipidaemia Elevated lipids. The list of medical condition causes of Hyperlipidaemia Elevated lipids includes: Diet Familial combined hyperlipidaemia Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia Hypothyroidism Cholestasis All 44 causes ...
*  Plasma lipid profiles in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine.
... MedLine Citation:. BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth has been reported to be associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in humans, and animal experiments have shown that undernutrition during pregnancy permanently alters cholesterol metabolism in the offspring. There is no direct evidence in humans that maternal malnutrition during pregnancy affects the lipid profiles of the offspring. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effects of maternal malnutrition during specific periods of gestation on plasma lipid profiles in persons aged approximately 50 y. RESULTS: Persons exposed to famine in early gestation had a more atherogenic lipid profile than did those who were not exposed to famine in utero. Their LDL-HDL cholesterol ratios were significantly higher by 13.9%; 95% CI: 2.6-26.4%. Additionally, their plasma HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A concentrations tended to be lower, and their plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B concentrations tended to be higher, although these ...
*  Pyruvate - Doctors Hospital of Augusta | Augusta, GA
Pyruvate - Doctors Hospital of Augusta. Health Information Health Library. Medical Staff Services. A typical therapeutic dosage of pyruvate is 30 g daily, although 6 to 44 g daily have been used in studies. Dihydroxyacetone dosages in studies of DHAP pyruvate plus dihydroxyacetone have ranged from 12 to 75 g daily. Evidence from several small placebo-controlled studies suggests that pyruvate may enhance weight loss. Several small studies enrolling a total of about 150 individuals have found evidence that pyruvate or DHAP can aid weight loss and/or improve body composition the proportion of fat to muscle tissue. Over the course of 6 weeks, individuals in the pyruvate group lost a small amount of weight about 1.5 lb while those in the placebo group did not lose weight. Pyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body composition in hyperlipidemic patients. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Pyruvate ...
*  2 Expert Q&A's Help Solve Your Trickiest Lipid Panel Questions |
2 Expert Q&A's Help Solve Your Trickiest Lipid Panel Questions. Archives Endocrinology Coding Alert 2 Expert Q&A's Help Solve Your Trickiest Lipid Panel Questions. 2 Expert Q&A's Help Solve Your Trickiest Lipid Panel Questions. While reporting the appropriate codes may be easy enough, adding the correct modifiers and determining proper reimbursement can be a major challenge. Answer: Physicians often order both a lipid panel 80061 and an LDL cholesterol measurement 83721 because both tests provide important information about the patient's lipid profile, says William Dettwyler, MT-AMT, president of Codus Medicus, a laboratory coding consulting firm in Salem, Ore. The problem with this approach is that many laboratories calculate the LDL based on the triglyceride result and other results of the lipid panel, rather than performing a separate direct measurement. CMS indicates "direct measurement of LDL cholesterol 83721 or lipid panel 80061 may be reasonable and necessary if the triglyceride level is too high to ...
*  Pyruvate | Memorial Hospital | Jacksonville, FL
Memorial Hospital. Jacksonville, FL. Emergency Care. Memorial Women's Center. H2U - health to you. Health Info. Health Info Health Info. Health Library. Video Library. Hospital Information. Emergency Care. Memorial Women's Center. Memorial Hospital @MemorialJax Women under 40 w/a history of cancer should talk w/their doc. A typical therapeutic dosage of pyruvate is 30 g daily, although 6 to 44 g daily have been used in studies. Dihydroxyacetone dosages in studies of DHAP pyruvate plus dihydroxyacetone have ranged from 12 to 75 g daily. Several small studies enrolling a total of about 150 individuals have found evidence that pyruvate or DHAP can aid weight loss and/or improve body composition the proportion of fat to muscle tissue. 15 Seventeen severely overweight women were put on a restricted diet as inpatients for 3 weeks, during which time they lost an average of approximately 17 pounds. Pyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body ...
*  Lipid droplet
thumb|350px|alt=Structure of a lipid droplet including neutral-lipid rich core, phospholipid monolayer and lipid droplet associated proteins. |Structure of a lipid droplet including neutral-lipid rich core, phospholipid monolayer and lipid droplet associated proteins. 1 are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue. 4 In non-adipocytes, lipid droplets are known to play a role in protection from lipotoxicity by storage of fatty acid s in the form of neutral triacylglycerol, which consists of three fatty acids bound to glycerol. Lipid droplets are composed of a neutral lipid core consisting mainly of triacylglycerols TAGs and cholesteryl esters surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. The first and best-characterized family of lipid droplet coat proteins is the perilipin protein family, consisting of five proteins. doi=10.2337/db11-1402 perilipin 3 PLIN3/ TIP47, perilipin 4 PLIN4/ S3-12 and perilipin 5 PLIN5/ ...
*  How Do I Get a Lipid Profile? (with picture)
How Do I Get a Lipid Profile. How Do I Get a Lipid Profile. A lipid profile test requires a blood sample. These 10 animal facts will amaze you Top 10 amazing movie makeup transformations Adorable animal families that will make you "aww". Lipids are fats that occur in the bloodstream, and a measurement of these fats helps to alert people to the possibility of plaque buildup in arteries and risk level for heart disease. A lipid profile is a blood test that measures the different kinds of cholesterol found in the blood, as well as triglycerides. The lipid profile provides information on total blood cholesterol, the amount of low density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL in the blood and the amount of high density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL that is in the blood. High LDL cholesterol numbers in the lipid profile indicate the presence of large amounts of cholesterol in the blood of the type that can cause atherosclerosis. People with high LDL numbers are generally considered to be at high risk for heart attacks. ...
*  Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Mass Spectrometry-Based Structure Determination of Novel Lipids - Wik
... ibooks, open books for an open world. Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Mass Spectrometry-Based Structure Determination of Novel Lipids From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Structural Biochemistry. Lipids Jump to: navigation, search Targeted versus Untargeted Lipidomics Assays "Targeted" assay is where the lipid species to be analyzed is already labeled and known before the analysis process. Through this method, the researcher only finds what he is looking for. "Untargeted" assay is more of a discover as you research type of assay of lipids. An example of this assay is using the mass spectrometer in full-scan mode, which searches for new mass-to-charge ratio peaks. This method has assumptions such as that the species will ionize efficiently and that the mass spectrometer is sensitive. Furthermore, after a new, novel lipid is discovered, further investigation and research can be conducted on the newly observed lipid. There is a concern/question that arises while conducting ...
*  BioSpace - Lipid Composition of the Human Eye: Are Red Blood Cells a Good Mirror of Retinal and O
... ptic Nerve Fatty Acids. Post Jobs. Jobs. Lipid Composition of the Human Eye: Are Red Blood Cells a Good Mirror of Retinal and Optic Nerve Fatty Acids. Bron, Lionel Bretillon Background The assessment of blood lipids is very frequent in clinical research as it is assumed to reflect the lipid composition of peripheral tissues. This is particularly true in ophthalmology where the use of blood lipids has become very common following recent data linking lipid intake to ocular health and disease. In the present study, we wanted to determine in humans whether a lipidomic approach based on red blood cells could reveal associations between circulating and tissue lipid profiles. Methodology and Principal Findings Red blood cells, retinas and optic nerves were collected from 9 human donors. The lipidomic analyses on tissues consisted in gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization source-mass spectrometer LC-ESI-MS. Gas chromatography did not reveal any relevant ...
*  Which of the following is not a role played by lipid molecules - 9 the amount of energy needed for
... a reaction to take place is the activation energy enzymes can lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction which of the following describes a way that process could happen :: Answer Animal. Q Which of the following is not a role played by lipid molecules. Was this answer helpful. This answer closely relates to: 5 which of the following is not a role played by lipid molecules points 3. Which statement best describes the structure of a lipid molecule. They played together for an hour, and then Paul`s mother gave them some food ; but she forgot to give Peter any. This answer closely relates to: 3 which of the following is not a role played by lipid molecules points 3. They played together for an hour, and then Paul`s mother gave them some food ; but she forgot to give Peter any. This answer closely relates to: 5 which of the following is not a role played by lipid molecules points 3. Add Your Answer Which of the following is not a role played by lipid molecules. What was the name of the song that was ...
*  CellScrub Buffer, Remove DNA Complexes and Cationic Lipids - Genlantis
... DNA Transfection. Cells and Media. Cell Culture Media. Cell Culture Reagents. Bovine Cells & Media. Human Cells & Media. Porcine Cells & Media. PrimaPure Cells. Cells and Media. Cell Culture Reagents. CellScrub Buffer Home. CellScrub Buffer. Cell Culture Reagents CellScrub Buffer Effective removal of extracellular lipid/DNA complexes post-transfection Non-toxic to cells Fast and easy procedure CellScrub Buffer is a unique washing buffer designed to remove all complexes of DNA and cationic lipids which associate with cell surfaces during transfection. This buffer is non-toxic to cells and is able to distinguish between extracellular and intracellular plasmid DNA. When CellScrub Buffer is used as part of the cell washing procedure, more precise quantitation of the amount of DNA delivered into cells can be achieved. http://www.genlantis.comcellscrub-buffer.html $107.00. CellScrub Buffer. CellScrub Buffer: 100 ml, B100001 $107. Effective removal of extracellular lipid/DNA complexes post-transfection ...
*  Chapter 5 Lipids - Study Resources - Chapter 5 – The Lipids:
... Study Resources. Create Flashcards. Chapter 5 Lipids - Study Resources - Chapter 5 – The... Home University of Florida HUN HUN 2201 Chapter 5 Lipids - Study Resources. View Full Document. Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 – The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols Learning Objectives After completing Chapter 5, the student will be able to: 1. 5 Explain the roles of phospholipids and sterols in foods and in the body. Explain the recommended dietary intakes for fat, saturated fat, essential fatty acids and cholesterol. I The Chemist’s View of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides The class of nutrients known as lipids includes triglycerides fats and oils, phospholipids, and sterols. A Fatty Acids 1. b Unsaturated fatty acids lack hydrogen atoms and have at least one double bond. 1 Monounsaturated fatty acids lack two hydrogen atoms and have one double bond. 2 Polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA lack four or more hydrogen atoms and have at least two or ...
*  .. Understanding the classification of Lipids .. Post navigation .. Like this: .. Related
Understanding the classification of Lipids Posted on August 15, 2008 by biochemistryquestions. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that can be extracted from biological material using non-polar solvents. It explains that lipids are very different from the structural point of view. Different kind of lipids. According to specific structural similarities, lipids are classified in the following subgroups:Â. Â Â Â Â Â Fatty acids :Â. Natural fatty acids generally have an even number of carbon. They can be saturated or unsaturated, essentials or no essential, cis or trans you can find the different criteria for the classification of fatty acids in this post. Â Â Â Â Â They are esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Depending on the number of fatty acids that are esterified to the glycerol, they can be sub classified as monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols. Waxes. Â Â Â Â Â From the structural point of view, they are esters of fatty acids with an alcohol ...
*  Effect of water or medication on Fasting Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile Test | allnurses
Effect of water or medication on Fasting Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile Test. allnurses. General Nursing › General Nursing Discussion ›. Effect of water or medication on Fasting Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile Test. by jlsr Apr 16, '11. does drinking water or taking medication affect the results if a patient is while on fasting blood sugar or lipid profile test. Tags fbs lipid panel fbs lipid panel. jlsr likes this. I always tell my patients that they can drink water prior to a lipid panel and water isn't going to affect the glucose either. I also tell my patients to take all their routine medications the morning of their tests, with the exception of medications that are taken with food. When I worked on the floor, we gave all routine meds to patients who were NPO just for lab work and we didn't restrict water for them either. Heck, we gave many routine PO meds with sips of water even for those patients who were NPO for surgery. I goofed up on the whole NPO thing for my last FBS and lipid profile ...
*  Molecular Nutrition: Tell us why you want Lipid Stabil and win! (New Product) -
Molecular Nutrition: Tell us why you want Lipid Stabil and win. Nutrition News. Nutrition Forum. Main Forum. Nutrition Forum. Molecular Nutrition: Tell us why you want Lipid Stabil and win. Molecular Nutrition: Tell us why you want Lipid Stabil and win. 12-02-2008, 05:14 PM. Molecular Nutrition: Tell us why you want Lipid Stabil and win. 1 bottle of Lipid Stabil will be given out to each winner. Tell me about Lipid Stabil. It contains a full array of natural ingredients that help maintain healthy levels of total cholesterol, HDL good cholesterol, LDL bad cholesterol, and triglycerides. With a large body of clinical research backing its individual ingredients, Lipid Stabilis the most complete daily supplement available for supporting cholesterol and heart-health!* A Full Spectrum Heart-Health Formula Designed to Support: Reduced Cholesterol Absorption Increased HDL good Cholesterol Reduced LDL Triglycerides Reduced Plaque Formation Reduced Homocysteine An Overall Healthy Lipid Profile More Information ...
*  Lipidome
... notoc image metabolomics schema png image flexibility of a eukaryotic lipidome insights from yeast lipidomics klose surma fig a svg the lipidome refers to the totality of lipids in cells lipids are one of the four major molecular components of biological organisms along with proteins sugar s and nucleic acid s lipidome is a term coined in the context of omics in modern biology within the field of lipidomics it can be studied using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics as well as traditional lab based methods the lipidome of a cell can be subdivided into the membrane lipidome and mediator lipidome the first cell lipidome to be published was that of a mouse macrophage in the lipidome of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae has been characterised with an estimated coverage studies of the human lipidome are ongoing research suggests that the lipidome of an individual may be able to indicate cancer risks associated with dietary fats particularly breast cancer see also references further reading ...
*  'High cholesterol genes' discovered - Coleraine Times
... with your email account Email Address {* traditionalSignIn emailAddress *} Password {* traditionalSignIn password *}. with your email account {* traditionalSignIn emailAddress *} {* traditionalSignIn password *}. Email Address {* traditionalSignIn emailAddress *} Password {* traditionalSignIn password *}. The researchers were interested in whether there were specific SNPs that were associated with higher levels of cholesterol and other fats lipids in the blood, and identified several SNPs that had not been previously established to be associated with blood lipid profile. The researchers looked at which of these variations were significantly associated with blood lipid levels. Overall, in genes previously demonstrated to be associated with blood lipids, they identified SNPs that had not been previously associated with blood lipids: They also identified lipid-related SNPs in genes that had not previously been reported to be associated with blood lipids: For the studies where ...
*  'High cholesterol genes' discovered - Morley Observer and Advertiser
with your email account Email Address {* traditionalSignIn emailAddress *} Password {* traditionalSignIn password *}. with your email account {* traditionalSignIn emailAddress *} {* traditionalSignIn password *}. Email Address {* traditionalSignIn emailAddress *} Password {* traditionalSignIn password *}. {* traditionalRegistration firstName *} {* traditionalRegistration lastName *} {* traditionalRegistration emailAddress *} {* traditionalRegistration password *} {* traditionalRegistration passwordConfirm *} {* traditionalRegistration displayName *} {* traditionalRegistration jpCommsOptIn *} By registering you are agreeing to the Terms and Conditions of the website. The researchers were interested in whether there were specific SNPs that were associated with higher levels of cholesterol and other fats lipids in the blood, and identified several SNPs that had not been previously established to be associated with blood lipid profile. The researchers looked at which of these variations were significantly ...
*  Videos for lipid - Homework Help Videos - Brightstorm
... Toggle navigation. Browse Subjects. Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Geometry. Algebra 2. Trigonometry. Precalculus. Calculus. Science. Biology. Chemistry. Physics. English. Grammar. Writing. Literature. Test Prep. SAT. ACT. ACT Red Book. PSAT. AP US Gov. AP US History. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. College. Get Better Grades. College Application. College Essay. Financial Aid. Search. or Find by textbook. Study. Math. Science. English. Test Prep. Sign in. Teacher membership. School membership. Start Your Free Trial. 4 Videos for "lipid" Fats and Lipids Science › Chemistry › Biochemistry The description of a lipid. Tags: fat lipid oil wax plasma membrane steroid triglyceride phospholipid. Fats and Lipids Science › Biology › Chemical Basis of Life The description of a lipid. Tags: fat lipid oil wax plasma membrane steroid triglyceride phospholipid. Endocrine System Science › Biology › The Human Body Understanding the functions of the endocrine system. Tags: endocrine system hormones steroids ...
*  GO:0005811 lipid particle
EBI Databases QuickGO GO:0005811 lipid particle. May include associated proteins. Type Synonym. goslim generic 149. goslim chembl 309. UniProtKB-KW Lipid droplet. UniProtKB-SubCell Lipid droplet. Database. Synonym. Database. ENSEMBL TranscriptID Ensembl database of automatically annotated genomic data. You can apply multiple filtering parameters to restrict the set of annotations to those that match, for example: a list of gene/protein identifiers ID gene products from specified taxonomic groups Taxon annotations that apply certain Qualifier types those that are supported by a particular Reference or Evidence type those that use a particular source of external annotation data annotations that have been supplied by a particular GO annotation group. Gene Product ID proteinID Currently selected additional filtering parameters:. Predefined GO term sets: None goslim candida 89 goslim plant 100 goslim pir 462 goslim generic 149 goslim chembl 309 goslim virus 29 goslim synapse 60 goslim yeast 169 goslim aspergillus ...
*  Avanti Polar Lipids ?
avanti polar lipids avanti polar lipids patrick grealish kallisti at merle acns nwu edu tue jul est previous message avanti polar lipids next message avanti polar lipids messages sorted by in article u d gm at news kreonet re kr icshin at chiak kaist ac kr incheol shin wrote hi all i d like to know the address snail mail of course or the phone number of the chemical company avanti polar lipids any of your kind help would be greatly appreciated incheol icshin at bioneer kaist ac kr email is preferred or please post here here you go avanti polar lipids inc industrial park drive alabaster al fax hail eris all hail discordia kallisti patrick grealish kallisti at merle acns nwu edu previous message avanti polar lipids next message avanti polar lipids messages sorted by more information ...
*  Lipid A
thumb|250px|Chemical structure of lipid A as found in 'E. 2 While its toxic effects can be damaging, the sensing of lipid A by the human immune system may also be critical for the onset of immune responses to Gram-negative infection, and for the subsequent successful fight against the infection. 3 Functions Chemical composition Biosynthesis Inhibition and activation of immune response Mechanism of activating cells See also References External links. The optimal immune activating lipid A structure is believed to contain 6 acyl chains. Four acyl chains attached directly to the glucosamine sugars are beta hydroxy acyl chains usually between 10 and 16 carbons in length. Two additional acyl chains are often attached to the beta hydroxy group. coli' lipid A, as an example, typically has four C14 hydroxy acyl chains attached to the sugars and one C14 and one C12 attached to the beta hydroxy groups. Lipid A structure and effects on eukaryotic cells have been determined and examined, among others, by the groups of ...
*  The genetic heart of the lipids
... Genetics. December 7, 2008 The genetic heart of the lipids December 7, 2008 A new study presages a real aim of genetics: to look at whole populations to in order determine the significance of individual genetic variants for individual health. The research team, whose work is published in Nature Genetics, find six novel genetic variants that are associated with lipid levels, a common indicator of heart or artery disease. New, more powerful studies, such as our work on lipid levels, will illuminate the areas and the variants of our genome that play an important part in human disease." Human geneticists often carry out case-control studies: researchers examine the genetics of people with a given disease the 'cases' and compare them to the genetics of apparently unaffected people the 'controls'. If we wish to understand the real impact of the identified gene for a disease risk at the population level for disease risk we need to study population cohorts. The region around NCAN gene has previously been ...
*  Efficiency of Barley Bran and Oat Bran in Ameliorating Blood Lipid Profile and the Adverse Histologi
... cal Changes in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats : Table 1. Table 1: Effect of oat bran and barley bran supplementation for 8 weeks on serum lipids in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia. Parameters Statistics G1 G2 G3 G4. s.TC mg % Mean ± SE. t -test   −13.46*** 20.02*** 15.15***. s.T.G mg/dL Mean ± SE. t -test   −2.92** 16.87*** 7.79***. s.HDLc mg/dL Mean ± SE. t -test   5.94*** −9.12*** −10.92***. s.VLDLc mg/dL Mean ± SE. t -test   −1.58 NS 5.53*** 2.94**. s.LDLc mg/dL Mean ± SE. t -test   −6.91*** 10.59*** 8.55***. Significant differences with controls calculated by paired sample t -test. *means significant at., **means highly significant at., ***means very high ...
*  "Role of the extractable lipids and polymeric lipids in sorption of org" by B. L. Chen, Y. G. Li et
role of the extractable lipids and polymeric lipids in sorption of org by b l chen y g li et al home search browse collections my account about digital commons network skip to main content iowa research online my account faq about home previous next home college of engineering civil and environmental engineering cee publications department of civil and environmental engineering publications title role of the extractable lipids and polymeric lipids in sorption of organic contaminants onto plant cuticles authors b l chen y g li y t gu l z zhu document type article peer reviewed publication date journal book conference title environmental science technology doi of published version es keywords sustainability published article book citation environmental science technology pp this document is currently not available here find in your library share coins url http ir uiowa edu cee pubs enter search terms select context to search in this series in this repository across all repositories ...
*  Saponifiable lipid
... a saponifiable lipid is one with an ester functional group that can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions these include triglyceride s phospholipids glycolipid s sphingolipid s and the wax es these lipids are known as simple lipids references h stephen stoker general organic and biological chemistry th ed cengage learning nov pg see also lipids simple lipid category lipids
*  Doctor Grumpy in the House: Freak out!
Doctor Grumpy in the House: Freak out. Doctor Grumpy in the House. Wednesday, October 20, 2010. Dr. Grumpy: "Your labs look okay, lipid levels are good, and..." Mrs. I HAVE LIPIDS IN MY BLOOD?!!!" Dr. Grumpy: "Well, everyone does, and your levels are fine." Mrs. I DON'T WANT ANY LIPIDS AT ALL!" Dr. Grumpy: "But you need to understand that some levels are normal and..." Mrs. Grumpy: "That's not what I said, ma'am, lipids are..." Mrs. I KNOW WHAT LIPIDS DO. I'M AN INTELLIGENT PERSON. Grumpy: "There are drugs that are used to lower lipids when needed, but your levels are already low and..." Mrs. Posted by Grumpy, M.D. Share to Twitter. 38 comments:. October 20, 2010 at 7:56 AM. October 20, 2010 at 8:01 AM. October 20, 2010 at 8:10 AM. October 20, 2010 at 8:18 AM. Try having a MIL whose HDLs are high thanks to years of near-anorexic dieting and four hours a day of tennis. October 20, 2010 at 8:24 AM. October 20, 2010 at 9:36 AM. We have done a good job of communicating ...
*  Blood lipid
... redirect blood lipids
*  NMR Lipid Test Complete...Need to Find a Doc Who Knows What He/She is Looking At
... paleo diet fat diet food weight loss carbs supplements meat ketosis weight exercise protein sugar low carb. PaleoHacks. Register Sign in. Questions Topics Recipes Blog Podcast About Contact. or. Ask a Question. 0 NMR Lipid Test Complete...Need to Find a Doc Who Knows What He/She is Looking At by. JB Primal 1144 Answered on August 19, 2014 Created January 25, 2013 at 7:57 PM. Nmr. Ldl Particle Size. Triglycerides. Cholesterol. I just had an NMR test done for a "no doubt about it" lipid profile. I'm looking for a Doc who can read the test results and give me an honest to goodness assessment of where I stand. Results should be in by Tuesday, 25 January. My "regular" cholesterol screening had people jumping up and down, hence, the more accurate test that I paid for out of pocket. My first test was TC 425, HDL 63, LDL 363, TG 53 Glucose 101. I'm happy with everything but the LDL obviously, so I wanted to see the breakdown between Type A, Type B, etc. Any help is greatly appreciated. Answer Add Comment 9 ...
*  Protein, RNA and Lipid Separation
protein rna and lipid separation protein rna and lipid separation brett phinney brettsp at mail urtexas edu thu nov est previous message protein staining problems next message infrared spectro study of hemoglobin messages sorted by i m working with a membrane containing virus and i was wondering if there was an easy way to separate the membrane proteins from the membrane lipids and the viruses rna as a side question when i load whole virus on a sds page gel i can get a good separation of the proteins i am looking for my question is what happens to the rna and lipids that get loaded onto the gel do they run through the gel get stuck at the top or complex with my proteins somehow thanks a lot in advance brett previous message protein staining problems next message infrared spectro study of hemoglobin messages sorted by more information about the proteins mailing list
*  If you were planning on pulsing m-drol for a bulk. -
If you were planning on pulsing m-drol for a bulk. If you were planning on pulsing m-drol for a bulk. If you were planning on pulsing m-drol for a bulk. 08-25-2010, 09:16 PM. If you were planning on pulsing m-drol for a bulk. 08-25-2010, 10:10 PM. 08-25-2010, 10:46 PM. 08-25-2010, 10:54 PM. Originally Posted by Belikearnold. 08-25-2010, 11:24 PM. If you are concerned about your liver and lipids run the pulse. I pulsed epi, not mdrol, for 6 weeks and my bloodwork came back same as baseline except my T levels where higher. Personally I am more concerned with lipid values then liver, the liver will repair itself, not so sure what you can do about plaque that sticks to arteries when your cholesterol is destroyed. Originally Posted by jayts22. If you have ever seen bloodwork after superdrol you would see hdl is destroyed!!. If you are concerned about your liver and lipids run the pulse. I pulsed epi, not mdrol, for 6 weeks and my bloodwork came back same as baseline except my T levels where higher. ...
*  Digestions of lipids
... redirect lipid metabolism
*  Amphipathic lipids
... redirect lipid
*  Simple lipids
... redirect simple lipid
*  Template:Lipids
template lipids template lipids
*  Journal of Lipid Research
*  Lipoexpediency
... refers to the beneficial effects of lipids in a cell or a tissue primarily lipid mediated signal transmission events that may occur even in the setting of excess fatty acid s the term was coined as an antonym to lipotoxicity see also lipotoxicity references category cell signaling category lipids category metabolism
*  Study of pulsed laser ablated CaBi2Ta2O9 thin films - ePrints@IISc
... . Home. About. Browse. Latest Additions. Advanced Search. Contact. Help. Login. Create Account. Study of pulsed laser ablated CaBi2Ta2O9 thin films. Dasa, Rasmi R and Krupanidhi, SB and Katiyar, Ram S and Péreza, W 2001 Study of pulsed laser ablated CaBi2Ta2O9 thin films. In: Solid State Communications, 119 3. pp. 127-131. PDF Study of pulsed lase.pdf - Published Version Restricted to Registered users only Download 190Kb. Request a copy. Official URL: 01 00234-4 Abstract Polycrystalline CaBi2Ta2O9 thin films were grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si 100 substrates using a pulsed laser deposition technique. The influence of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure on crystallization and orientation of the films was studied. In-situ films deposited under a combination of higher substrate temperature and lower oxygen pressure exhibited a preferred c-axis orientation. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used for complete understanding of phase evolution of CBT films. Thin films deposited ...
*  Structural Biochemistry/Lipid Droplets and Cellular Lipid Metabolism - Wikibooks, open books for an
... open world. Structural Biochemistry/Lipid Droplets and Cellular Lipid Metabolism. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. Structural Biochemistry This page may need to be reviewed for quality. Jump to: navigation, search. Contents. 1 Definition 2 Properties of Lipid Droplets 3 Functions of Lipid Droplets 4 Lipid Droplets and Tissues 5 Reference. Definition. Lipid droplets are the lipid storage organelles of all organisms. Their important roles include cellular and organismic energy storage. Lipid droplets could be found nearly in every cell. They are cytoplasmic organelles that store lipids; some examples are triglycerides and cholesterol. Under nutrient deprivation, droplet triglycerides are hydrolyzed to create free fatty acids, which are then oxidized and used to provide energy. Lipid droplets in a cellular organism are typically composed of nonpolar, hydrophobic lipids, also known as neutral lipids. The droplets contain a hydrophobic center that is encircled by a ...
*  ORP2 is a sterol receptor that regulates cellular lipid metabolism
... Helda. Helsingin yliopisto. Helsingfors universitet. University of Helsinki. Suomeksi. På svenska. In English. Login. Entire archive Current collection. Search. Advanced Search. / E-thesis / Väitöskirjat / Bio- ja ympäristötieteellinen tiedekunta / View Item. ORP2 is a sterol receptor that regulates cellular lipid metabolism. Show full item record. Download file. Permalink. Title:. ORP2 is a sterol receptor that regulates cellular lipid metabolism. Author:. Hynynen, Riikka. Contributor:. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Division of Biochemistry National Institute for Health and Welfare. Thesis level:. Doctoral dissertation article-based. Belongs to series:. URN:ISSN:1798-0062. Abstract:. ORP2 is a member of mammalian oxysterol binding protein OSBP -related protein/gene family ORPs, which is found in almost every eukaryotic organism. ORPs have been suggested to participate in the regulation of ...
*  Anti -Adipophilin (ADFP, Adipose Differentiation-related Protein) (FITC) - United States Biological
Anti -Adipophilin ADFP, Adipose Differentiation-related Protein FITC - United States Biological. Login. Email. Password. Forgot your password. New User. Remember me. Distributors. Technical. Register. Antibodies. Biochemicals. Culture Media. Growth Factors. Bioassay Kits. Contact. Antibodies. Antibodies-Proteins. Anti -Adipophilin ADFP, Adipose Differentiation-related Protein FITC Anti -Adipophilin ADFP, Adipose Differentiation-related Protein FITC. Pricing For pricing information, USA customers sign in. Outside USA. Please contact your distributor for pricing. Specifications Clone. Grade Applications Monoclonal Mouse Affinity Purified IH IC FC. Adipophilin / ADRP is a ubiquitous component of lipid droplets. It has been found in milk fat globule membranes and on the surface of lipid droplets in various cultured cell lines see e.g. Heid et al.; for review see e.g. Targett- Adams et al. ; inducible by etomoxir. Enhanced expression of Adipophilin / ADRP is a useful marker for pathologies characterized by ...
*  FIT and fat
Lipid News: FIT and fat. FIT and fat. Silver Natural selective pressure throughout evolution of the Eukarya has generated a staggering array of control mechanisms that maintain energy homeostasis, such as allosteric regulation of glycolysis, nutritional control of gene expression, and the nutritional control of triglyceride hydrolysis and oxidation. There is substantive new evidence that lipid droplets are formed from the endoplasmic reticulum 1. More recently, our research group discovered a two-gene family of endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins having six transmembrane domains that we named fat-storage-inducing transmembrane FITM1/FIT1 and FITM2/FIT2 protein. FIT2 is the anciently conserved FIT family member. Biochemical evidence indicates that FIT proteins do not mediate fatty-acid or glycerolipid biosynthesis but rather partition newly synthesized triglycerides into lipid droplets 2. FIT1 and FIT2 have distinct tissue distributions in mice and humans – with FIT1 primarily expressed in skeletal muscle ...
*  Lipid metabolism
... refers to the processes that involve the intercourse and degradation of lipid s the types of lipids involved include bile salt s cholesterol s eicosanoid s glycolipid s ketone bodies fatty acids see also fatty acid metabolism phospholipid s sphingolipid s steroid see also steroidogenesis triacylglycerol s fats see also lipolysis and lipogenesis external links ophardt charles e virtual chembook elmhurst college king michael w the medical biochemistry page in category lipids category metabolism
*  UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine diphosphatase
udp diacylglucosamine diphosphatase udp diacylglucosamine diphosphatase udp diacylglucosamine diphosphatase udp diacylglucosamine hydrolase udp diacylglucosamine pyrophosphatase ybbf gene lpxh gene is an enzyme with system name udp bis r hydroxymyristoyl alpha d glucosamine bis r hydroxymyristoyl beta d glucosaminyl phosphate phosphohydrolase this enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction udp bis alpha d glucosamine h o rightleftharpoons bis beta d glucosaminyl phosphate ump the enzyme catalyses a step in the biosynthesis of lipid a references external links category ec,3-diacylglucosamine_diphosphatase
*  Model lipid bilayer
... Supported bilayers are anchored to a solid substrate, increasing stability and allowing the use of characterization tools not possible in bulk solution. Black lipid membranes BLM Supported lipid bilayers SLB Tethered bilayer lipid membranes t-BLM Vesicles Micelles, bicelles and nanodiscs References. Black lipid membranes BLM. The earliest model bilayer system developed was the “painted” bilayer, also known as a “black lipid membrane.” The term “painted” refers to the process by which these bilayers are made. To form a BLM, the area around the aperture is first "pre-painted" with a solution of lipids dissolved in a hydrophobic solvent by applying this solution across the aperture with a brush, syringe, or glass applicator. 3 Black lipid membranes are also well suited to electrical characterization because the two chambers separated by the bilayer are both accessible, allowing simple placement of large electrodes. For this reason, electrical characterization is one of the most important methods ...
*  Lipid bilayer mechanics
... 'Lipid bilayer mechanics' is the study of the physical material properties of lipid bilayers, classifying bilayer behavior with stress and strain rather than biochemical interactions. Local point deformations such as membrane protein interactions are typically modelled with the complex theory of biological liquid crystals but the mechanical properties of a homogeneous bilayer are often characterized in terms of only three mechanical elastic modulus : the area expansion modulus K a, a bending modulus K b and an edge energy \Lambda. Area expansion Modulus Bending Modulus Curvature Edge Energy References. Area expansion Modulus. Since lipid bilayers are essentially a two dimensional structure, K a is typically defined only within the plane. The reason for this is that the lipids in a fluid bilayer rearrange easily so, unlike a bulk material where the resistance to expansion comes from intermolecular bonds, the resistance to expansion in a bilayer is a result of the extra hydrophobic area exposed to ...
*  Lipid bilayer phase behavior
... One of the most important properties of a lipid bilayer is the relative mobility fluidity of the individual lipid molecules and how this mobility changes with temperature. Broadly, at a given temperature a lipid bilayer can exist in either a liquid or a solid phase. All lipids have a characteristic temperature at which they undergo a transition melt from the gel to liquid phase. In both phases the lipid molecules are constrained to the two dimensional plane of the membrane, but in liquid phase bilayers the molecules diffuse freely within this plane. Unlike liquid phase bilayers, the lipids in a gel phase bilayer are locked in place and exhibit neither flip-flop nor lateral mobility. Due to this limited mobility, gel bilayers lack an important property of liquid bilayers: the ability to reseal small holes. Longer tailed lipids have more area over which to interact, increasing the strength of this interaction and consequently decreasing the lipid mobility. Thus, at a given ...
*  The Structure of the Mercury Transporter MerF in Phospholipid Bilayers: A Large Conformational Rearr
Opella, S. J Am Chem Soc. Opella † *. Abstract The three-dimensional structure of the 81-residue mercury transporter MerF determined in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions by Rotationally Aligned RA solid-state NMR has two long helices, which extend well beyond the bilayer, with a well-defined inter-helical loop. Truncation of the N-terminal 12 residues, which are mobile and unstructured when the protein is solubilized in micelles, results in a large structural rearrangement of the protein in bilayers. Relatively little is known about the effects of these environments on membrane protein structures because so few structures have been determined in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers for comparisons. Since the initial solution NMR spectra of MerF in micelles 24 were dominated by intense, narrow resonances from mobile residues near the N-and C-termini, a total of 12-residues from the N-terminus and 9-residues from the C-terminus were removed, eliminating all of ...
*  Structural Biochemistry/The Evolution of Membranes - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
... Structural Biochemistry/The Evolution of Membranes From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Structural Biochemistry Jump to: navigation, search Cellular membranes are highly complex biological machines, responsible for regulating the import and export of metabolites and polymers. 1 The Interdependency of Lipid Membranes and Membrane Proteins 1.1 Ideas About The Earliest Membranes 1.2 From Water-Soluble Proteins to Integral Membrane Proteins 1.3 The Co-Evolution of Lipid Bilayers, Membrane Bioenergetics, and Membrane Proteins 1.3.1 LUCA and Early Membranes 1.3.2 ATPases as Basis of Membrane/Membrane-Protein Co-evolution From ‘Pore’ to ATPase Birth of Bioenergetics: Beginning of ATP Synthesis and Sodium Tight Membranes. The Interdependency of Lipid Membranes and Membrane Proteins. The interdependency of lipid membranes and membrane proteins suggests that lipid bilayers and membrane proteins co-evolved together with membrane bioenergetics. Water-soluble proteins evolved gradually into ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structural and Dynamical Properties of Pu
Various structural and dynamical properties of POAC lipid bilayers were calculated; we compared the structural and dynamical properties of POAC lipid bilayers with those of POPC lipid bilayers to understand how the arsenate groups affect the structural and dynamical properties of lipid bilayers. Atom Distribution To investigate the structures of POAC and POPC lipid bilayers, we calculated the locations of the lipid head group and carbonyl group atoms arsenate group contains As, O11, O12, O13, and O14 atoms; phosphate contains P, O11, O12, O13, and O14 atoms; and choline group contains N, C12, O13, C14, and C15 atoms, carbonyl group C21, O22, C31, and O32 atoms, the ions, and the water molecules from their corresponding lipid bilayers centers Figure 3. To further clarify interactions of inter-lipid arsenate/phosphate-choline groups, we calculated the g r for the nitrogen atoms on choline groups with respect to the phosphorus or arsenic atoms Figure 4b. a The average area per lipid A plotted with respect to ...
*  Interbilayer forces in membrane fusion
... Regardless of the complexity of the system, fusion essentially occurs due to the interplay of various interfacial forces, namely hydration repulsion, hydrophobic attraction and van der Waals force s. Israelachvili et al.,Biochemistry,1992,31,1794. Inter-bilayer forces Hydration repulsion. Hydrophobic attraction. van der Waals forces in bilayers. Lipid bilayers are structures of lipid molecules consisting of a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head group. Therefore, these structures experience all the characteristic Interbilayer forces involved in that regime. Hydration repulsion. Hydration repulsion can thus be defined as the work required in removing the water molecules around hydrophilic molecules like lipid head groups in the bilayer system. R.P Rand,Annual Reviews of Biophysics and Bioengineering,1981,10,277 As water molecules have an affinity towards hydrophilic head groups, they try to arrange themselves around the head groups of the lipid molecules and it becomes very hard to separate this ...
*  GUPEA: Mechanics of lipid bilayer junctions affecting the size of a connecting lipid nanotube
... Mechanics of lipid bilayer junctions affecting the size of a connecting lipid nanotube. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: Title: Mechanics of lipid bilayer junctions affecting the size of a connecting lipid nanotube. Abstract: Abstract In this study we report a physical analysis of the membrane mechanics affecting the size of the highly curved region of a lipid nanotube LNT that is either connected between a lipid bilayer vesicle and the tip of a glass microinjection pipette tube-only or between a lipid bilayer vesicle and a vesicle that is attached to the tip of a glass microinjection pipette two-vesicle. For the tube-only configuration TOC, a micropipette is used to pull a LNT into the interior of a surface- immobilized vesicle, where the length of the tube L is determined by the distance of the micropipette to the vesicle wall. For the two-vesicle configuration TVC, a small vesicle is inflated at the tip of the micropipette tip and the length ...
*  Saturation with cholesterol increases vertical order and smoothes the surface of the phosphatidylcho
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1a POPC bilayer, and the other POPC and Chol Fig. Average values of the surface area available to the lipid Area ; distance between average positions of phosphorus P atoms in the two leaflets of a bilayer P–P distance ; molecular order parameter, Smol; tilt angle of chains, as well as the upper δ and lower ω fragments of the oleoyl-chain, for the palmitoyl- P and oleoyl- O chains of POPC; number of trans # trans and gauche # gauche rotamers per chain torsion 11 in the O-chain is excluded ; and roughness parameter, in the POPC and POPC–Chol50 bilayers. Smolprofiles along the palmitoyl P and oleoyl O chain in the POPC and POPC– Chol50 bilayers are shown in Fig. Distributions of the tilt angles of the P and O chains, as well as those of δ and ω segments of the O chain, in the POPC and POPC–Chol50 bilayers are shown in Fig. Chol significantly narrows the distributions and shifts them to- ward lower values, decreasing both the most probable and average tilt values of both chains to ...
*  .. All Entries in the "Bio-MEMS" Category .. Bacteria turn tiny gears .. Lipid bilayer formation .
All Entries in the "Bio-MEMS" Category. Bacteria turn tiny gears. Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: or Scientific American: Courtesy Igor Aronson. Duration : 0:0:21. admin. Dec 23, 2009. Comments 20. Full Story. Lipid bilayer formation. Shows the deposition of liposomes on to the surface of an optical chip and their subsequent rupture and merger to form a lipid bilayer. Protein molecules then embed and float in the surface of the bilayer. This is an excerpt from a video that iemedia solutions produced for the Scientific Instrumentation Division of the. admin. Jun 18, 2009. Comments 2. Full Story. Blood Plasma CD Movie. Duration : 0:0:25. admin. Mar 06, 2009. Comments 0. Full Story. DNA Hydridization Fluidics ...
*  Research
In particular, I am interested in pattern and shape formation in multi-components solid and liquid membranes and self-assembly of complex, nanocomposite materials at nano-scales. Research Highlights DNA-driven assembly of nanoparticles Over past decade there has been a tremendous development in the field of guided assembly of nano-composite materials. Sknepnek, R. Olvera de la Cruz Modeling the Crystallization of Spherical Nucleic Acid Nanoparticle Conjugates with Molecular Dynamics Simulations Nano Lett., 2012, 12 5 , pp 2509–2514, doi: 10.1021/nl300679e. Curvature-driven shapes of liquid vesicles We study closed liquid membranes that segregate into three phases due to differences in the chemical and physical properties of its components. Sknepnek, M. Olvera de la Cruz A curvature-driven effective attraction in multicomponent membranes accepted in Phys. Coarse-grained simulations of charged lipid bilayers By combining Molecular Dynamics simulations and analytical arguments we investigate the elastic ...
*  Peripheral membrane protein
Binding of peripheral proteins to the lipid bilayer Membrane binding mechanisms Non-specific hydrophobic association. Specific protein–lipid binding. Membrane-targeting domains “lipid clamps". Structural domains. Binding of peripheral proteins to the lipid bilayer. Boundary of the hydrocarbon core region – blue dots intracellular side. The phospholipid bilayer that forms the cell surface membrane consists of a hydrophobic inner core region sandwiched between two regions of hydrophilic ity, one at the inner surface and one at the outer surface of the cell membrane see lipid bilayer article for a more detailed structural description of the cell membrane. Boundary of the hydrocarbon core region – red dots extracellular side. These proteins may be anchored to the bilayer as a result of hydrophobic interactions between the bilayer and exposed nonpolar residues at the surface of a protein, by specific non-covalent binding interactions with regulatory lipids, or through their attachment to covalently bound ...
*  Lipid bilayer
Phospholipids with certain head groups can alter the surface chemistry of a bilayer and can, for example, serve as signals as well as "anchors" for other molecules in the membranes of cells. Vesicles made by model bilayers have also been used clinically to deliver drugs. Certain kinds of membrane proteins are involved in the process of fusing two bilayers together. File:Supported Lipid Bilayer and Nanoparticles AFM.png|left|thumb|250px|3d-Adapted AFM images showing formation of transmembrane pores holes in supported lipid bilayer. File:Bilayer AFM schematic.png|right|thumb|250px|Illustration of a typical AFM scan of a supported lipid bilayer. Alireza Mashaghi et al., Hydration strongly affects the molecular and electronic structure of membrane phospholipids. thumb|right|210px|Exocytosis of outer membrane vesicles MV liberated from inflated periplasmic pockets p on surface of human 'Salmonella' 3,10:r:- pathogens docking on plasma membrane of macrophage cells M in chicken ileum, for ...
*  Protein–lipid interaction
The questions which are relevant to understanding of the structure and function of the membrane are: 1 Do intrinsic membrane proteins bind tightly to lipids see annular lipid shell, and what is the nature of the layer of lipids adjacent to the protein. 2 Do membrane proteins have long-range effects on the order or dynamics of membrane lipids. 3 How do the lipids influence the structure and/or function of membrane proteins. 4 How do peripheral membrane protein s which bind to the layer surface interact with lipids and influence their behavior. Binding of lipids to intrinsic membrane proteins in the bilayer Perturbations of the lipid bilayer due to the presence of lateral membrane proteins Backbone and solid chain dynamics of membrane proteins Binding of peripheral membrane proteins to the lipid bilayer References See also. Binding of lipids to intrinsic membrane proteins in the bilayer. Membrane protein denaturation causes further broadening of ESR spin label ...–lipid_interaction
*  Hydrophobic mismatch
... 'Hydrophobic mismatch' is the difference between the hydrophobic length of the integral protein s and the hydrophobic thickness of the membrane they span. Theories for the mismatch effects Mattress model. The thickness of biological membrane is approximately same with the hydrophobic core of lipid bilayer. R.; Ben-Shaul, A. When the hydrophobic part of a transmembrane protein is too large to match the hydrophobic bilayer thickness left part of Figure, the protein might aggregate in the membrane to minimize the exposed hydrophobic area or tilt to reduce their effective hydrophobic length. When the hydrophobic part of a transmembrane protein is too small to match the hydrophobic bilayer thickness right part of Figure, again this might result in protein aggregation, or changes in backbone conformation and/or side chain orientation. Since Mouritsen and Bloom Mouritsen, O.G.; Bloom, M. thumb|300 px|Mattress model Mattress model was proposed as a phenomenological theory approach in 1984 by Mouritsen and ...
*  Biological membrane
... s, in the form of cell membrane s, often consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded, integral and peripheral proteins used in communication and transportation of chemicals and ion s. 1 The interactions of lipids, especially the hydrophobic tails, determine the lipid bilayer physical properties such as fluidity. 2 Aggregating is caused by the hydrophobic effect, where hydrophobic ends are kept away from water and hydrophilic ends are in contact with it. This creates a favorable molecular arrangement by reducing unfavorable contact between hydrophobic tails and water and increasing hydrogen bonding between the hydrophilic heads and water. Less water is allowed to interact with the hydrophobic ends and, therefore, hydrogen bonding between hydrophilic heads and water is increased. The aggregation formed due to the hydrophobic effect is partially responsible for the shape of biological membranes. These types of membranes differ in lipid and protein composition. Distinct types of membranes also ...
*  RRI Digital Repository: Browsing DSpace
... Search RRI Repository. Advanced Search. Home. Browse. Communities Collections. Issue Date. Author. Title. Subject. Statistics. Sign on to:. Receive email updates. RRI Repository authorized users. Edit Profile. Help. About DSpace. RRI Digital Repository. Browsing by Author "Raghunathan, V.A.". Jump to: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. or enter first few letters:. . Sort by: title issue date submit date In order: Ascending Descending Results/Page 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Authors/Record: All 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50. Showing results 32 to 51 of 85 previous next. Issue Date Title Author s Citation Oct-1996 Lβ′→Lc′ phase transition in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers: A disorder-order transition in two dimensions Raghunathan, V.A. ; Katsaras, J. Physical Review E, 1996, Vol.54, p4446-4449. 2004 Magnetically alignable phase of phospholipid Bicelle mixtures Is a chiral nematic made up of wormlike micelles Nieh, M.P. ; Raghunathan, V.A. ; ..., V.A.&starts_with=K
*  Lipid peroxidation
It is the process in which free radicals "steal" electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, resulting in cell damage. This process proceeds by a free radical chain reaction mechanism. As with any radical reaction, the reaction consists of three major steps: initiation, propagation, and termination. Initiation Propagation Termination Final products of lipid peroxidation Hazards Tests See also References External links. The most notable initiators in living cells are reactive oxygen species ROS, such as OH· and HOO·, which combines with a hydrogen atom to make water and a fatty acid radical. The fatty acid radical is not a very stable molecule, so it reacts readily with molecular oxygen, thereby creating a peroxyl-fatty acid radical. This radical is also an unstable species that reacts with another free fatty acid, producing a different fatty acid radical and a lipid peroxide, or a cyclic peroxide if it had reacted with itself. When a radical reacts with a non-radical, it always produces another ...
*  Effect of Single-Session Aerobic Exercise with Varying Intensities on Lipid Peroxidation and Muscle-
... Damage Markers in Sedentary Males. Moflehi. Global Journal of Health Science. Global Journal of Health Science. Open Journal Systems. Journal Help. Journal Content Search. All Authors Title Abstract Index terms Full Text. By Issue. By Title. Other Journals. Current Issue. Search. Current. Moflehi. Effect of Single-Session Aerobic Exercise with Varying Intensities on Lipid Peroxidation and Muscle-Damage Markers in Sedentary Males. Abstract. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different intensity levels of single-session aerobic exercise on serum levels of lipid peroxidation and muscle damage markers in sedentary males. Method: Fifty one sedentary healthy males aged 21.76±1.89 years were randomly divided into four groups, with one control n=10 and three treatment groups that attended single-session aerobic exercise with low n=14 , moderate n=14 , and high n=13 intensities. The serum levels of malondialdehyde MDA and creatine kinase CK were measured. Results: Data analysis ...
*  A Yeşilkaya, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine - ResearchGate
... Exercise-induced oxidative stress affects erythrocytes in sedentary rats but not exercise-trained rats. Ü.K. M Bor-Küçükatay A Yeşilkaya. Administration of antioxidant vitamin for 1 mo before exhaustive exercises prevented lipid peroxidation TBARS, H2O2-induced TBARS in Sed rats without any functional or structural alterations in erythrocytes. ABSTRACT: In the present study, we measured the concentrations of reduced glutathione GSH and malonyldialdehyde MDA and the activities of glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px, glutathione S-transferase GSH-S-T, superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase CAT and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G-6-PD in erythrocytes obtained freshly from adult male donors which was preserved with CPDA-1 anticoagulant citrate,phosphate, dextrose, adenine on different days of storage. GSH, GSH-Px, GSH-S-T, SOD, CAT and G-6-PD activities decreased, but erythrocyte MDA levels, as anindex of lipid peroxidation, increased during the storage period. DOI:10.1016/S0306-3623 97 00285-1. We measured the ...
*  lipid peroxidation definition
... genes proteins definitions models developmental models general concepts contribute corrections links protocols home a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z lipid peroxidation definition search for glossary word glossary def textbooks protocols images tools forum pubmed links press releases biology glossary search by everythingbio com the process whereby free radicals steal electrons from the lipids in our cell membranes resulting in cell damage and increased production of free radicals a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z genes proteins definitions models developmental models general concepts contribute corrections links protocols home website created and maintained by mark lefers and the holmgren lab last updated july
*  GPX4
'Glutathione peroxidase 4', also known as 'GPX4', is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the 'GPX4' gene. Function Structure Reaction mechanism Subcellular distribution of isoforms Animal models References Further reading. Gpx4 catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides, and lipid peroxides at the expense of reduced glutathione and functions in the protection of cells against oxidative stress. The oxidized form of glutathione glutathione disulfide, which is generated during the reduction of hydroperoxides by GPx4, is recycled by glutathione reductase and NADPH/H +. GPx4 catalyzes the following reaction:. 2 glutathione + lipid – hydroperoxide → glutathione disulfide + lipid–alcohol + H 2 O. During the catalytic cycle of GPx4, the active selenol -SeH is oxidized by peroxides to selenenic acid -SeOH, which is then reduced with glutathione GSH to an intermediate selenodisulfide -Se-SG. In mouse and rat, three distinct GPx4 isoforms with different subcellular localization are produced ...
*  Hydroperoxide dehydratase
... in enzymology a hydroperoxide dehydratase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction z e z s hydroperoxyoctadeca trienoate rightleftharpoons z s epoxyoctadeca dienoate h o hence this enzyme has one substrate z e z s hydroperoxyoctadeca trienoate and two products z s epoxyoctadeca dienoate and h o this enzyme belongs to the family of lyase s specifically the hydro lyases which cleave carbon oxygen bonds the systematic name of this enzyme class is z e z s hydroperoxyoctadeca trienoate hydro lyase other names in common use include hydroperoxide isomerase linoleate hydroperoxide isomerase linoleic acid hydroperoxide isomerase hpi z e z s hydroperoxyoctadeca trienoate and hydro lyase structural studies as of late only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes with the pdb accession code references category ec category enzymes of known structure
*  Phospholipid profile and fatty acid composition of rat cecal mucosa in relation to intestinal resect
... ion. Phospholipid profile and fatty acid composition of rat cecal mucosa in relation to intestinal resection. MedLine Citation:. In this study we examined the effect of distal small bowel resection DSBR on the phospholipid composition of rat cecal mucosa. Three groups of animals were used: sham-operated, and 50% and 75% DSBR. The fatty acid composition of phosphatidylethanolamine PE , phosphatidylcholine PC , phosphatidylinositol PI , lysophosphatidylcholine LPC and sphingomyelin SM was also determined. PE was the predominant phospholipid, together with PC, in the 3 groups of animals. Both phospholipids accounted for more than 60% of the total phospholipids. DSBR affected the phospholipid profile of the cecal mucosa. Thus the ratio PC/PE was increased in the 75% resected animals. A decrease in the proportion of LPC and LPE was observed after DSBR, and the PI proportion was not changed in the resected rats. Different fatty acid composition changes in the cecal phospholipid subclasses were ...
*  phospholipid - - Human pathology
... - Human pathology A. Molecular pathology. B. Cellular pathology. C. Tissular pathology. D. Systemic pathology. E. Pathology by systems. F. Pathology by regions. G. Tumoral pathology. H. Case records. J. Books. K. Info - Admin. Resources in pathology. Technical section. Home. A. Molecular pathology. phospholipid phospholipid Tuesday 7 October 2003. phospholipids. Definition : Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers. Most phospholipids contain a diglyceride, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule such as choline; one exception to this rule is sphingomyelin, which is derived from sphingosine instead of glycerol. The first phospholipid identified as such in biological tissues was lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine, in the egg yolk, by Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French chemist and pharmacist, in 1847. The structure of the phospholipid molecule generally consists of hydrophobic tails ...
*  Ethanol-induced non-lamellar phases in phospholipids
... Biomembranes and phospholipid bilayers Factors that affect biomembranes and lipid formations Non-lamellar phases vs. Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. Biomembranes and phospholipid bilayers. The phospholipid bilayer is a two-layer structure mainly composed of phospholipids, which are amphiphilic molecules that have hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Non-lamellar phases vs. This can lead to formation of non- lamellar non-bilayer or lamellar phases in phospholipids. The host membranes were chosen because their phase diagrams are well understood and have been extensively characterized by different analytical techniques.6 The nearest neighbor recognition technique is being applied to the formation of the modeled membranes to observe the association between cholesterol and phospholipids as well as the effects that the presence of ethanol has against this interaction. Each model membrane consists of a high concentration of one of the host membranes/phospholipids 95% mol %, low ...
*  Phospholipids | CK-12 Foundation
Phospholipids. CK-12 Foundation meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/". iframe src="//" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden" /iframe. Donate. Help. Join. Sign In. Help. Donate. Join. Sign In. Phospholipids. Featured Content. READ. Phospholipids. Covers the structures of phospholipids and the cell membrane. VIDEO. Cell Membranes, Ligands, Receptors, and Phospholipids. Explains the structure of phospholipids and how they create cell membranes. Goes over ligands, receptors, and their role in transporting things across the membrane. CK-12 Content. Community Contributed. All Content. All Levels. All Levels. At Grade. Levels are CK-12's student achievement levels. Basic Students matched to this level have a partial mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills fundamental for proficient work. At Grade Proficient Students matched to this level have demonstrated competency over challenging ... grade&by=ck12
*  mixed phospholipids
... my account favorites help web vitamins live healthy look healthy free shipping over live chat since brand index a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z all products vitamins supplements targeted formulas health personal care diet nutritional foods exercise teas accessories herbs children s products baby care homeopathy pet products more my favorites sign up for health news and exclusive discounts view all coupons your cart is empty full screen cart customer reviews featured brands nature s way country life thorne ortho molecular products jarrow formulas twinlab herbasway born free nutramedix now foods dr montague s brands mixed phospholipids products containing mixed phospholipids order by product name brand name lowest price highest price best rated most reviews off retail ecological formulas helicobacterin tablets servings shop by brand by category by nutrient about our company our blog security privacy terms conditions shipping affiliates customer service help contact ...
*  Phospholipid
The structure of the phospholipid molecule generally consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head", joined together by a glycerol molecule. Phospholipid synthesis Sources In signal transduction Food technology Phospholipid derivatives Abbreviations used and chemical information of glycerophospholipids See also References. The hydrophilic head contains the negatively charged phosphate group and glycerol. :''See: Glycerophospholipid ''. Phosphatidic acid phosphatidate PA Phosphatidylethanolamine cephalin PE Phosphatidylcholine lecithin PC Phosphatidylserine PS Phosphoinositides:. Phosphatidylinositol PI Phosphatidylinositol phosphate PIP Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PIP2 and Phosphatidylinositol triphosphate PIP3. Ceramide phosphorylcholine Sphingomyelin SPH Ceramide phosphorylethanolamine Sphingomyelin Cer-PE Ceramide phosphoryllipid. Natural phospholipid derivates: :egg PC, egg PG, soy PC, hydrogenated soy PC, sphingomyelin as natural phospholipids. Phosphatidic ...
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Crosstalk between DnaA Protein, the Initiator of Escherichia coli Chromosom
Crosstalk between DnaA Protein, the Initiator of Escherichia coli Chromosomal Replication, and Acidic Phospholipids Present in Bacterial Membranes. coli chromosomal initiator protein, DnaA, and acidic phospholipids present in the bacterial membrane. DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication at oriC once per cell cycle. Acidic phospholipids inhibit the DNA-binding activity of DnaA protein, the initiator of chromosomal DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Replication initiator DnaA of Escherichia coli changes its assembly form on the replication origin during the cell cycle. As active ATP-DnaA concentration increases through acidic phospholipid stimulated DnaA exchange of ADP-ATP, DARS, and synthesis of new DnaA protein, low affinity DnaA binding sites in oriC are filled, and chromosomal replication is initiated; B After initiation, a combination of mechanisms to prevent re-initiation i RIDA ii sequestration of DnaA iii inhibition of DnaA binding to oriC by acidic phospholipid domains ...
*  question: occupying protein with phospholipid?
question: occupying protein with phospholipid. question: occupying protein with phospholipid. Emir Khatipov khatipovNO at Wed Aug 14 12:24:25 EST 2002. Previous message: question: occupying protein with phospholipid. Next message: Messages sorted by:. You could incorporate your protein in phospholipid liposomes immediately after purification. There are several ways to produce liposomes of various sizes. For small liposomes just sonicate the phospholipid in the buffer, then add protein an either briefly sonicate again or vortex. For big liposomes, dissolve the lipid in methanol or chlorophorm, poor into glass or plastic tube lipid/protein ration should be determined experimentally, dry completely so that thin film is formed on the walls of the tube, add your protein solution and vortex ~1min on medium. The question is would having you protein immobilized in liposomes would be acceptable for your downstream applications. Another possibility could be using buffers with ...
*  Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols
... Triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine share two precursors fatty acyl-CoAs and glycerol-3-phosphate and several enzymatic steps in their biosynthesis in animal tissues. The first stage in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols is the acylation of the two free hydroxyl groups of glycerol-3-phosphate by two molecules of fatty acyl-CoA to yield diacylglycerol-3-phosphate, more commonly called phosphatidate Fig. Diacylglycerols are then converted into triacylglycerols by transesterification with a third fatty acyl-CoA. Figure 20-19 Phosphatidate is the precursor of both triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids. Biosynthesis of Membrane Phospholipids. In general, the assembly of phospholipids from simple precursors requires 1 synthesis of the backbone molecule glycerol or sphingosine ; 2 attachment of fatty acid s to the backbone, in ester or amide linkage; 3 addition of a hydrophilic head group, joined to the backbone through a phosphodiester ...
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Phospholipid
Biology-Online View topic - Phospholipid. Login Welcome to Please login to access all site features. Create account. Log me on automatically each visit. Join for Free. 121316 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Home. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Articles. Tutorials. Books. Directory. Share your work. Biology-Online. Skip to content. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. General Discussion. Change font size. Advanced search. FAQ. Register. Login. Phospholipid. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a particular topic. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 8 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Phospholipid by jsmith613. Sun Nov 07, 2010 10:58 pm a phospholipid is produced when a triglyceride reacts with a phosphate group, eliminating a fatty acid and a phosphate group replaces the fatty acids position. If we look at this from a chemistry point of view, what would the word reaction be. NOTE: when the phosphate group joins on, one of the atoms attached ...
*  Choline phospholipid
... redirect phosphatidylcholine
*  Membrane vesicle -
... Development Forums Skip to content. Search Advanced search. Unanswered posts. Search. The team. Board index. Blender development forums. Academic Research. Search. Membrane vesicle. An open space where people who use Blender in an academic environment can share progress and the typical problems and needs of academic environments. Post Reply. Print view. Search Advanced search. 3 posts Page 1 of 1. damsport11. Posts: 2. Joined: Tue Dec 07, 2010 1:36 pm. Membrane vesicle Quote. Post by damsport11. Tue Dec 07, 2010 1:50 pm Dear all, In a project I am currently involved in, we would like visualize membrane proteins in a membrane bilayer. Although in Blender the basic building block the phospholipid can be made relatively easy with a sphere and two sticks, i was wondering if there is an easy way to create a vesicle from these phospholipids in which the heads of phospholipids are layered on the inside and outside face. I do know how you can create an array, however, is it also ...
*  Category:Phospholipids
category phospholipids category phospholipids category cell signaling category signal transduction category lipids category organophosphates category membrane biology da kategori fosfolipider
*  Sphingosyl phosphatide
... refers to a lipid containing phosphorus and a long chain base references category phospholipids
... putative tyrosine protein phosphatase tpte is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the tpte gene function tpte is a member of a large class of membrane associated phosphatase s with substrate specificity for the position phosphate of inositol phospholipid s tpte is believed to lack phosphatase activity however the closely related protein tpip also called tpte is an active phosphatase with activity against inositol phospholipid substrates tpte and tpip are the mammalian homologues to the family of voltage sensitive phosphatase s references further reading
*  DHR1 domain
dhr domain dhr domain dhr d ock h omology r egion also known as czh or docker is a protein domain of approximately amino acid s that is present in the dock family of signalling proteins this domain binds phospholipids and so may assist in recruitment to cellular membrane s there is evidence that this domain may also mediate protein protein interaction s references further reading category protein domains
*  Janek Kubelt:
Investigations on the rapid transbilayer movement of phospholipids inbiogenic memb
*  What Is the Cholesterol Ratio? Total Cholesterol vs Cholesterol Ratio
What Is the Cholesterol Ratio. Total Cholesterol vs Cholesterol Ratio. What Is the Cholesterol Ratio. What is cholesterol ratio. Your cholesterol ratio is the ratio of your total cholesterol to your HDL “good” cholesterol level. 7 Natural Ways to Lower Cholesterol: Top Foods, Supplements Therapies to Achieve Normal Cholesterol Readings. If you want to know what your standard cholesterol test says about your heart disease risk, it’s much better to look at these numbers than simply your total cholesterol or your LDL, according to the most recent studies. In fact, as astounding as it might sound, just having a high total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol does not necessarily mean you are at increased risk of heart disease. While the total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio was associated in a statistically significant way to heart disease, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol values were not. That means, if your total cholesterol is 200, you would need an HDL of at least 57 to achieve the optimal ratio of 3.5. It’s well ...—more-important-than-total-cholesterol-or-ldl-cholesterol/
*  Serum cholesterol concentration and coronary heart disease in population with low cholesterol concen
... trations. The BMJ. Research Serum cholesterol... Serum cholesterol concentration and coronary heart disease in population with low cholesterol concentrations. Research Article Serum cholesterol concentration and coronary heart disease in population with low cholesterol concentrations. RESULTS--The average serum cholesterol concentration was 4.2 mmol/l at baseline examination, and only 43 7% of the deaths that occurred during 8-13 years of follow up were attributed to coronary heart disease. There was no significant relation between serum cholesterol concentration and death from stroke or all types of cancer. The 79 deaths due to liver cancer or other chronic liver disease were inversely related to cholesterol concentration at baseline. Serum cholesterol concentration and coronary heart disease in population with low cholesterol concentrations. BMJ 1991; 303 :276. BibTeX win & mac Download EndNote tagged Download EndNote 8 xml Download RefWorks Tagged win & mac Download RIS win only Download Medlars ...
*  How to Lower Cholesterol Levels – Flora ProActiv
... 0 How to Lower Cholesterol Levels There’s a number of small diet and lifestyle changes you can make to help you lower cholesterol. – Good and bad cholesterol. – Healthy Cholesterol Levels. How to Lower Cholesterol Levels. – Cholesterol Lowering Diet Plan. – Saturated and Unsaturated Fats. – Is Saturated Fat Bad. – What Foods Contain Unsaturated Fats. – What is Unsaturated Fat. Some of the factors involved in developing elevated cholesterol are uncontrollable – for example, gender, family history, or age. Five ways to lower cholesterol levels A good way to lower cholesterol levels is to make a series of small changes to your diet and lifestyle to make them as healthy as possible. Swap bad fats for good fats Replace foods high in saturated fats like sausages, butter, biscuits, cake, full fat diary and fatty meats with those containing unsaturated fats mono- and poly-unsaturated, or opt for reduced-fat options – for example, low fat cheeses, low fat yoghurts, vegetable oil based soft spreads, and lean ...
*  .. A Few natural remedies for high cholesterol levels in the body .. Menu Links .. Natural Remedies
Natural Remedies for High Cholesterol. A Few natural remedies for high cholesterol levels in the body. Natural remedies for high cholesterol help to lower cholesterol levels in the body in a natural way. Many people choose natural remedies for high cholesterol because this condition needs continuous maintenance and also could be long term. Niacin Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3, which is known as niacin, is highly useful in lowering cholesterol levels in the body. Especially, it lowers LDL cholesterol and increases HDL cholesterol. Recent studies suggest that vitamin B3 lowers triglycerides by 25%, lowers LDL cholesterol by approximately 10%, and raises “good” HDL cholesterol up to 30%. Vitamin B3 is available as prescription medication and also as dietary supplement. The American Heart Association cautions people to use only the prescription form of niacin.Because of its side effects, niacin should not be used to lower cholesterol levels unless under the supervision of a qualified medical practitioner. High doses of ...
*  .. Understanding Normal Cholesterol Levels and Cholesterol Numbers: Tips to a Cholesterol and Trigl
If you are a man, lower than 40 is a serious threat, while women with HDL cholesterol levels lower than 50 have a much higher risk of heart disease. The high levels of triglycerides in the VLDL cholesterol means that your risk of coronary artery disease is much higher, which can lead to strokes and heart attacks. It is just as important to control your triglycerides as it is to control all other kinds of cholesterol, as that will help you to ensure that your VLDL cholesterol stays in check. This means that the cholesterol is building up in your body over time, and only when it’s too late to do anything about it will the problems show up in the form of heart attacks or strokes. If you are at serious risk of heart problems due to cholesterol levels being way off the chart, here are a few things you can do:. Take Strong Supplements – There are certain cholesterol lowering supplements that will be very effective at lowering your LDL and total cholesterol levels, while some will work to boost your HDL Cholesterol ...

Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase: UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase (, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, acyltransferase LpxD, acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase, firA (gene), lpxD (gene)) is an enzyme with system name (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-(acyl-carrier protein):UDP-3-O-((3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionModel lipid bilayer: A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model bilayer can be made with either synthetic or natural lipids.Lipid peroxidationPhospholipidCholesterolLipid microdomain: Lipid microdomains are formed when lipids undergo lateral phase separations yielding stable coexisting lamellar domains. These phase separations can be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, ionic strength or by the addition of divalent cations or proteins.Egg lecithinHeptadecanoic acidTriglycerideLiposomeMembrane fluidity: In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane. Lipid packing can influence the fluidity of the membrane.HypolipoproteinemiaCell membraneChromatographic response function: Chromatographic response function, often abbreviated to CRF, is a coefficient which measures the quality of the separation in the result of a chromatography.PhosphatidylglycerolSulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol: Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols, abbreviated SQDG, are a class of sulfur-containing but phosphorus-free lipids (sulfolipids) found in many photosynthetic organisms.Very low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GISphingomyelin: Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons. It usually consists of phosphocholine and ceramide, or a phosphoethanolamine head group; therefore, sphingomyelins can also be classified as sphingophospholipids.Animal fatMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.MalondialdehydeSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".TroloxPermissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Coles PhillipsThiobarbituric acidFatty aldehyde: A fatty aldehyde is an aldehyde with a "fatty" aliphatic carbon chain attached that is typically eight carbon or more in length. In contrast, phenolic aldehydes are aromatic.RopivacaineAtherosclerosisBavituximabMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Galactolipid: Galactolipids are a type of glycolipid whose sugar group is galactose. They differ from glycosphingolipids in that they do not have nitrogen in their composition.Detergent: A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions." These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.GlycerophospholipidGlycerideElectron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Outline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:CeramideDifferential scanning calorimetry: Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSphingolipid: Sphingolipids, or glycosylceramides, are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine. They were discovered in brain extracts in the 1870s and were named for the mythological Sphinx because of their enigmatic nature.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Apolipoprotein L: Apolipoprotein L (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The cholesterol content of membranes is important in cellular processes such as modulating gene transcription and signal transduction both in the adult brain and during neurodevelopment.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Hypolipidemic agent: Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. They are called lipid-lowering drugs.MicelleVitellogenin lipid transport domain: A:18-588Apolipoprotein O: Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Reaction coordinateMediated transportProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Emulsion polymerization: Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer, and surfactant. The most common type of emulsion polymerization is an oil-in-water emulsion, in which droplets of monomer (the oil) are emulsified (with surfactants) in a continuous phase of water.Lipolysis: Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. The following hormones induce lipolysis: epinephrine, norepinephrine, ghrelin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Triacylglycerol lipase: Triacylglycerol lipase (, lipase, butyrinase, tributyrinase, Tween hydrolase, steapsin, triacetinase, tributyrin esterase, Tweenase, amno N-AP, Takedo 1969-4-9, Meito MY 30, Tweenesterase, GA 56, capalase L, triglyceride hydrolase, triolein hydrolase, tween-hydrolyzing esterase, amano CE, cacordase, triglyceridase, triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, amano P, amano AP, PPL, glycerol-ester hydrolase, GEH, meito Sangyo OF lipase, hepatic lipase, lipazin, post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase, salt-resistant post-heparin lipase, heparin releasable hepatic lipase, amano CES, amano B, tributyrase, triglyceride lipase, liver lipase, hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSpectrofluorometer: A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample. A certain excitation wavelength is selected, and the emission is observed either at a single wavelength, or a scan is performed to record the intensity versus wavelength, also called an emission spectra.Sterol carrier protein: A:437-540 A:437-540 A:628-731Lipokine: A lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone. The term "lipokine" was first used by Haiming Cao in 2008 to classify fatty acids which modulate lipid metabolism by what he called a "chaperone effect".Ethyl oleatePhosphatidylinositolSurface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Rice bran oilFluorescent tag: In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Generally, fluorescent tagging, or labeling, uses a reactive derivative of a fluorescent molecule known as a fluorophore.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.

(1/15793) Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line.

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

(2/15793) Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

(3/15793) The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction.

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

(4/15793) Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile.

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

(5/15793) Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast.

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

(6/15793) Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov.

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp.  (+info)

(7/15793) Reclassification of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans as Methanofollis tationis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov. and description of a new strain of Methanofollis liminatans.

Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of Methanogenium tationis DSM 2702T (OCM 43T) (T = type strain) and Methanogenium liminatans GKZPZT (= DSM 4140T) as well as other members of the family Methanomicrobiaceae revealed that both species belong to a separate line of descent within this family. In addition, a new strain of Methanogenium liminatans, strain BM1 (= DSM 10196), was isolated from a butyrate-degrading, fluidized bed reactor and characterized. Cells of both species are mesophilic, highly irregular cocci that use H2/CO2 and formate for growth and methanogenesis. In addition, Methanogenium liminatans strains GKZPZT and BM1 used 2-propanol/CO2, 2-butanol/CO2 and cyclopentanol/CO2. Both species contained diether and tetraether lipids. The polar lipids comprised amino-phosphopentanetetrol derivatives, which appear to be characteristic lipids within the family Methanomicrobiaceae. The pattern of glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids and amino-phosphoglycolipids was consistent with the assignment of these two species to a taxon within the family Methanomicrobiaceae, but also permitted them to be distinguished from other higher taxa within this family. The G+C contents of the DNA of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans were 54 and 60 mol% (Tm and HPLC), respectively. On the basis of the data presented, the transfer of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans to the genus Methanofollis gen. nov. as Methanofollis tationis comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov., respectively, is proposed, with Methanofollis tationis as the type species.  (+info)

(8/15793) Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov.

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)


  • For a decade, it had been known that the apical and basolateral membranes of epithelial cells had different lipid compositions ( Kawai, 1974 ), and specifically that glycolipids are enriched apically. (
  • 50 μM) stabilize a resting-like state when the nAChR is reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine membranes containing the anionic lipid, phosphatidic acid, but have no effect on the nAChR reconstituted into membranes lacking phosphatidic acid, either in the presence or absence of cholesterol. (
  • However, subtle membrane-dependent variations in the vibrations of tyrosine and tryptophan residues, and agonist analog binding studies indicate that the structures of the agonist-bound neurotransmitter sites of the nAChR in membranes lacking both phosphatidic acid and cholesterol differ from the structures of the agonist-desensitized neurotransmitter sites in the presence of both lipids. (
  • Many of the complex and diverse functions of biological membranes are intimately dependent upon the interactions that occur between lipids and proteins. (
  • The lipoprotein outer membranes are made up of phospholipids - phosphate on the outside, and lipids on the inside. (
  • Lipid Peroxyl Radicals Mediate Tyrosine Dimerization and Nitration in Membranes. (
  • Studies of virus assembly in model membranes and in living cells could provide a basis for reducing viral load by manipulation of membrane bilayer phase behaviors via alteration of membrane lipid compositions. (


  • One interpretation suggested by lipid partitioning studies is that phosphatidic acid enhances tetracaine action at the channel pore by increasing the partitioning of tetracaine into the lipid bilayer, thereby enhancing access to the transmembrane pore. (
  • Hochschulschriften / Lipid bilayer permeation kinetics of drug-like. (
  • Primorac, Adriana: Lipid bilayer permeation kinetics of drug-like acids : can the observed permeation kinetics be assigned to the processes of partitioning/translocation by varying the geometry of the system? (
  • Both of these experimental issues are addressed in these proposed studies, with a multicomponent model cytoplasmic mixture that can be coupled to a phase-separated lipid mixture in an asymmetric bilayer. (

membrane lipid composition

  • We tested the hypothesis that membrane lipid composition influences drug action at membrane proteins by studying local anesthetic action at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). (
  • Patched-mediated modulation of membrane lipid composition may regulate Smoothened trafficking. (


  • CONCLUSIONS GFT505 may be considered a new drug candidate for the treatment of lipid and glucose disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome. (
  • Some risk factors for lipid disorders like family history or genetics can not be changed. (


  • Playing off a finding that different viruses budded from the different poles of cultured epithelial cells ( Boulan and Sabatini, 1978 ), van Meer and Simons showed in 1982 that the envelopes of those viruses contained different lipid compositions ( van Meer and Simons, 1982 ). (
  • British Library EThOS: Molecular and isotropic studies of natural environments : distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual lipids. (
  • Molecular and isotropic studies of natural environments : distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual lipids. (
  • The proposed studies will identify the membrane lipid compositions that are favorable for virus assembly, and those that inhibit. (


  • Given the intimate relationship between both lipid and membrane protein structure and function, it seems likely that lipid bilayers influence drug action at membrane protein targets. (


  • He notes that, until this point, lipid microdomains had been reported as biophysical phenomena, but the cell had not previously been caught in the process of actively setting up these differences. (
  • The idea that lipid microdomains might exist within a continuous "fluid" membrane was radical then and continues to be controversial now. (


  • Changes in lipid composition, as a protein target shuttles in and out of a raft, or as a consequence of diet and other factors, could also influence drug action by stabilizing the target protein in conformations that bind drugs with different affinities. (
  • This project will explore how three aspects of membrane lipid mixing behavior are related to viral Gag protein binding and assembly: (1) How is the thermodynamic activity of membrane-bound phosphatidylserine controlled by lipid composition, and how is this PS activity connected to Gag binding? (


  • Hochschulschriften / Identification of novel lipid-soluble arsenic. (


  • Starting with unbiased, forward genetic screens in zebrafish, we isolate mutants with lipid phenotypes of interested (e.g., inappropriate accumulation of lipids in the liver, altered adipose lipid mass) , source: Metabolism: Webster's Timeline read pdf read pdf . (


  • Lipids are a biological term for fats, and Hypothesis means a theory. (
  • So, the " Lipid Hypothesis " is basically a "theory" that proposes that dietary fats result directly in the increase of circulating fats (cholesterol) in the blood. (
  • So let's take a brief look into the genesis of the lipid hypothesis, and examine the merits or demerits thereof. (
  • But by then, the Lipid Hypothesis juggernaut was unstoppable. (


  • Accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in ER stress and lipid overload-induced ER stress has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. (
  • In addition to their importance as energy reserves for reproduction and for survival during unfavourable conditions, the accumulation of lipids represents a large energetic flux for many species, so figuring out how this energy flux is integrated with other major energy fluxes (growth, reproduction) is critical for any general theory of organismal energetics. (
  • Furthermore, the model was used to explain intra and interspecific variation in reproductive output based on patterns of lipid accumulation as juveniles. (


  • The NBD-ceramide probe offered a handy way to start on the project because, once it was inside cells, it would be converted into two distinct lipid probes: an NBD-sphingomyelin and an NBD-glucosylceramide, analogues of a basolateral and apical lipid, respectively. (


  • This suggested that lipid domains might affect membrane functions and structure, but real evidence of a biological role was lacking. (


  • This approach provides predictive power to describe the associations of viral Gag structural proteins with their lipid binding partners: Which membrane factors exert control over the interactions among membrane-bound viral Gag proteins? (


  • The overall strategy is to combine measurements of lipid thermodynamic activity with measurement of virus protein binding and assembly. (

plasma membrane

  • Because plasma membrane lipids are synthesized intracellularly, van Meer and Simons reasoned that lipid sorting must take place to set up the epithelial cell membrane domains. (
  • The lipids wound up on the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane where they could not diffuse past tight junctions, so it seemed logical that they might be synthesized on the lumenal leaflet of the Golgi and transported to the plasma membrane via vesicles. (
  • Lipid "sorting," they stated, "must involve the lateral segregation in this leaflet of lipids into those areas of the membrane that will bud to form transport vesicles destined for either the apical or basolateral plasma membrane domain. (


  • Let's have a closer look and improve our understanding of lipids (fats) and The Lipid Profile - the blood cholesterol check up that we have to undergo regularly. (
  • So our fats (lipids) are transported within special carriers known as lipoproteins. (


  • The HDLs are the reverse transporters of the lipids (back to the liver) and therefore supposed to be the good guys. (


  • In this report, we use Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy to examine how lipid environment influences the ability of a local anesthetic to modulate the conformational equilibria of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from the electric fish Torpedo . (


  • This mechanism, in addition to capturing the two patterns that motivated the model, was able to predict lipid dynamics in a novel context, the migration of anadromous fish from low-food freshwater to high-food marine environments. (
  • Identification of novel lipid-soluble arsenic species in marine samples using HPLC/mass spectrometry / Mojtaba Shokrollahzadeh Taleshi. (


  • Prescription drug database was used to assess exposure to lipid lowering drugs at any time in the one year period preceding the index date. (
  • When labs assess our blood for the lipids, they give us what is known as our Lipid Profile. (


  • 2) How is the thermodynamic activity of Gag's other binding partner, PI(4,5)P2 controlled by the other membrane lipids, and in particular, what factors control the formation of PI(4,5)P2 domains? (


  • A very low event rate was observed in patients with both a strict glycaemic and blood lipid control. (
  • Objective To identify genetic factors affecting blood lipid concentrations and CVD risk factors in the Korean population by a candidate gene association analysis. (


  • Here, we synthesize data from a wide range of fish species and identify patterns of intraspecific variation in energy storage, and use these patterns to formulate a general model of energy allocation between growth, lipid storage and reproduction in fishes. (


  • 1, 2 Glycaemic and lipid control may have an impact on the clinical outcome in type 2 diabetic patients following elective PCI. (


  • Small interfering (si)RNA-mediated attenuation of elevated apoB level in the apoB50-expressing cells rescued cells from lipid-induced ER stress and reversed insulin insensitivity. (


  • The crux of the model is that assimilated energy is partitioned, with κ fraction of energy allocated to pay maintenance costs first, and the surplus allocated to growth, and 1 − κ fraction of assimilated energy is allocated to accumulating storage lipids during the juvenile phase, and later to reproduction as adults. (


  • The paper provided data that lipids are potentially sorted in the Golgi complex. (
  • Martin BT, Heintz R, Danner EM, Nisbet RM (2017) Data from: Integrating lipid storage into general representations of fish energetics. (
  • Conditional logistic regression model for matched data was used to estimate the risk of peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to statins, fibrates, and other lipid lowering drugs. (
  • Genotype data from 7616 subjects without diabetes or lipid-lowering drugs were obtained from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. (


  • The primary goal is to lower your overall risk of heart disease and stroke by getting your lipid levels to an ideal range. (
  • Lipid levels can be affected by lifestyle choices. (
  • Since we have determined that K562 cells have undetectable levels of endogenous lipid peroxidation, all these effects can be assigned to the exogenous HNE treatment. (
  • In order to identify and ultimately treat these diseases, we must first determine how the levels of this lipid are regulated, as well as determine the pathways that are regulated by PI3,5P2. (


  • This study explored the association between prescription of lipid lowering drugs and the risk of peripheral neuropathy. (


  • From this paper, a model emerged that would be the first tip of a lipid microdomain, or raft, iceberg. (


  • Methods 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been reported as associated with lipid concentrations in people of European ancestry were selected and their associations with CVD risk factors in Korean populations assessed. (

risk factors

  • Conclusion Several SNPs associated with lipid traits and CVD risk factors were identified. (


  • This requires further investigations to evaluate the causal role of lipid lowering drugs on the onset of peripheral neuropathy. (


  • Control of Retrovirus Assembly by Membrane Lipid Thermodynamic Activity. (


  • Chylomicrons are used to transport lipids from the digestive tract directly through the lymph and have a very short life of a couple of hours, by which time they have delivered their stuff. (


  • Although lipid lowering drugs are effective in preventing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events, the extent of their adverse effects is not clear. (


  • It was at this point that the authors touched ever-so-briefly on the topic of lipid subdomains. (
  • Several studies point to the existence of an inverse correlation between cellular lipid peroxidation and both cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation. (


  • 3) poorly controlled group (n = 109, 39% of patients) who failed to reach either glycaemic or lipid target values. (


  • A theme of this work is that the tendency of membrane lipids to bind or react is described by their thermodynamic activity, and this activity is controlled by all the components of the mixture. (


  • The lipid trafficking in the body takes place within several lipoproteins, namely (from large to small) Chylomicrons, vLDLs, IDLs (Intermediate), LDLs and the HDLs. (


  • At about the same time, others had shown that heterogeneous lipid domains existed (Karnovsky et al. (


  • It must be noted that among all health parameters, the lipids fluctuate the most and pretty fast . (

Water and oil do not mix.How do lipids move through the body so they can be digested and absorbed?

  • How are lipids stored in the body?
  • Do you go to University of Phoenix? This is the same DQ question that we have for week 4.

Is it healthier to get your calories from carbohydrates or lipids? Why?

  • Is it healthier to get your calories from carbohydrates or lipids? Why?
  • carbohydrates. When you burn them off, they are burned off completely. IF you dont burn them off, they turn to glycogen and eventually become glucose when they are able to be used. (more energy) lipids take a much longer time to digest, so the energy would not kick in for hours or even days, and if they are not totally burned off they will directly store as fat.

What ordinary foods can most likely reduce overall lipids and fat amount from the human blood and body?

  • This question is now posted for the 2nd time for I don't know why it was removed first time.
  • Almonds provide a lot of the "good" fats that help remove the "bad" fats from your body.

What are Lipids and are they found in Herbal Essences shampoo?

  • I was answering a question on here about which shampoos are good and someone said that herbal essences have lipids or lipods in them and that they could make you breakout by your hairline. i have acne by my hairline and was wondering if that was true because i use herbal essences?
  • I use herbal essence and I dont breakout at all. Lipids are naturally occuring molocules that include fats and waxes, I know its found in food. Im not so sure about shampoo though...

Is is dangerous to exercise with small vessel disease and high lipids?

  • After receiving my diagnosis I'm worried about exercising and the risk of stroke, but need to so that I can lower my numbers.
  • I don't know your full medical history, but provided that the exercise is not too intense, it'll be far more helpful to get mild to moderate exercise on a regular basis. Small vessel disease predisposes you to thrombotic strokes, caused by the formation of clots in the cerebral arteries. Thrombotic strokes usually occur in a person with high lipid levels, but exercise would reduce those lipid profiles. Thus, exercise in your circumstance should help, unless otherwise noted by your doctor, who has a more complete history of your health. The type of stroke that you're worried about in terms of exercise is hemorrhagic stroke, where vessels rupture in response to hypertension. Those type of strokes usually occur in people with other conditions such as drug use or some sorts of vessel weakness.

What are the differences between carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?

  • Simple, yet nice explanation please, thank you. Thank you for answering, but I think I would like to change the thing about in short and simple. As long as it is clear and easy to understand, that would be very helpful. Thank you very much :) :(
  • EDIT: Ok... hope this will do, can't do it any simpler.... use the info that you need or discard it. Take care Carbohydrates: Technically speaking, a carbohydrate is a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The most basic carbohydrates are called simple sugars and include honey, jams, jellies, syrup, table sugar, candies, soft drinks, fruits, and fruit juices. Glucose (also called dextrose) is a common simple sugar found in fruits, honey, and vegetables. It is also the substance measured in blood. (In other words, blood sugar equals blood glucose.) They are relatively small compounds. When several of these simple sugars are linked together, they form more complicated molecules known as complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates that come from plants are called starch and are found in quality foods such as grains, vegetables, breads, seeds, legumes, and beans. Whether it's a handful of jelly beans or freshly sliced whole grain bread, it's all carbohydrate! What is a protein? Many foods contain protein, but the best sources are beef, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes like black beans and lentils. Protein builds up, maintains, and replaces the tissues in your body. We mean the stuff your body's made up of. Your muscles, your organs, and your immune system are made up mostly of protein. Your body uses the protein you eat to make lots of specialized protein molecules that have specific jobs. For instance, your body uses protein to make hemoglobin , the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to every part of your body. Other proteins are used to build cardiac muscle. What's that? Your heart! In fact, whether you're running or just hanging out, protein is doing important work like moving your legs, moving your lungs, and protecting you from disease Proteins are sometimes described as long necklaces with differently shaped beads. Each bead is a small amino acid. These amino acids can join together to make thousands of different proteins. Scientists have found many different amino acids in protein, but 22 of them are very important to human health. Different Kinds of Protein Protein from animal sources, such as meat and milk, is called complete, because it contains all nine of the essential amino acids. Most vegetable protein is considered incomplete because it lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. This can be a concern for someone who doesn't eat meat or milk products. But people who eat a vegetarian diet can still get all their essential amino acids by eating a wide variety of protein-rich vegetable foods. For instance, you can't get all the amino acids you need from peanuts alone, but if you have peanut butter on whole-grain bread you're set. Likewise, red beans won't give you everything you need, but red beans and rice will do the trick. The good news is that you don't have to eat all the essential amino acids in every meal. As long as you have a variety of protein sources throughout the day, your body will grab what it needs from each meal. What is a lipid? Lipids contain a lot of calories in a small space. Since Lipids are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water, they are stored in special ways in you body's cells. Lipids can also function as structural components in the cell. Phospholipids are the major building blocks of cell membranes. Lipids are also used as hormones that play roles in regulating our metabolism. Most lipids are composed of some sort of fatty acid arrangement. The fatty acids are composed of methylene (or Methyl) groups, and are not water soluble. There are three different functions for lipids in our bodies: Energy storage Forming the membranes around our cells. Hormones and vitamins

What are diseases caused by shortage or excessive of lipids?

  • I just want to know the names of the diseases.
  • Deficiency of essential fatty acids A major deficiency may cause damage to the heart, as well as the kidneys and liver. Behavior disturbances may also result from a deficiency in the diet. Hair loss and skin eczema have also been reported as well as excessive sweating. An under-par immune system may result from a shortage of this nutrient which in turn may result in slow healing wounds, and susceptibility to infections etc. Stiffness in joints may happen, and an under secretion of tear and saliva may be indicative of too little essential fatty acids in the diet. It has also been suggested that it may have an influence on infertility in men and miscarriages in women. Blood pressure may be elevated and the formation of blood clots may be an increased risk to contend with. Toxicity and symptoms of high intake No toxicity has been reported in healthy individuals but people with health problems should be careful with taking any supplements. People suffering from epilepsy should be careful of taking supplements of seed oils, as they can aggravate the problem, while people with blood disorders or a problem with bleeding should be careful of fish oil supplements. Should you be taking a supplement of essential fatty acids, it would be recommended that you first discuss it with your health professional.

Why are Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins Important in a balanced diet?

  • Why are Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins Important in a balanced diet?
  • Let's compare your body to a car. Carbs are the gasoline of the car. They provide energy to it. Unlike a car, though, if a body is deprived of carbohydrates, it will start eating away at proteins and lipids. This is why a low-carb diet such as the Atkins diet puts special emphasis on eating MORE proteins than usual, because the body will eat at even muscle tissue to get the energy it needs, as well as eating at the stored fat. Proteins represent the metal parts of the car. If your engine blows up, you have to get another engine. Likewise, all the tissues in your body wear down and die with use and age, and must be replaced. Proteins are responsible for replacing these tissues. Vegetarians must eat more nuts and legumes, such as lima and kidney beans, or their bodies will start to deteriorate. Lipids represent nothing specific, as they have many functions in the body. They insulate the body, protect it from impacts, store energy, and are the major component of cellular membranes, among other things. A low-fat diet is healthy, but a no-fat diet is definitely NOT.