Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Ancient Lands: Geographical sites known to be extant in a remote period in the history of civilization, familiar as the names of ancient countries and empires.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.History of MedicineSiberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Neanderthals: Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.HistoryHistory, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mammoths: An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Greek World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Funeral Rites: Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.EuropeSynteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Byzantium: An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.AfricaReproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Choanoflagellata: An order of stalked, sessile, single-celled EUKARYOTES. They are considered the transitional link between the flagellated protozoa and the SPONGES, the most primitive metazoans.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.South AmericaHistory of NursingManuscripts, MedicalAngiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Medicine in ArtEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.PaintingsExtraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Religious Philosophies: Sets of beliefs on the nature of the universe or Man.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Famous PersonsMicrosatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).GreeceHuman Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.MuseumsPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PrimatesSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Central AmericaPseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.LizardsModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Persia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Genealogy and HeraldryOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

*  Roman Times: Boscoreale Wall Paintings Featured in Renovated Greco-Roman Galleries at the Met
Home Other Cultures History's Medical Mysteries Military ... Roman Archaeology Ancient Books Ancient-Themed MultiMedia. ... Mary Harrsch 2009 Historical re ... A history resource article by Mary Harrsch 2015 I ... A history resource article by Mary Harrsch 2015 A ... , education and history, particularly ancient history. August 3 ... exhibition, artist historian George S. Passionate About History History's Medical Mysteries Military Museums...
http://ancientimes.blogspot.com/2007/06/boscoreale-wall-paintings-featured-in.html
*  Ancient History | Reference.com
Ancient History. Reference.com. www.reference.com. Ancient History. See Full Answer. Filed Under ... :. Ancient Greece. History. A: The four staple foods in Mayan...
https://reference.com/history/explore/ancient-history
*  0256-9574 0256-9574 ...
101 6 384 385 FORUM HISTORY OF MEDICINE The ancient use of fa ence ... incontinence in Ancient Egypt with fa ence in the light of ... early practice of historical medicine - some of which still...
http://scielo.org.za/scieloOrg/php/articleXML.php?pid=S0256-95742011000600011&lang=en
*  Download 1100 Hostels Spain... - Library
the birthplace and ancient heartland of hostelling, yet South ... Reviews Helicopters Historical History History Philosophy...
http://tourisme-handicaps.org/library/1100-hostels-spain-alps-south-europe-hyper-guide-backpackers-flashpackers-backpackers
*  Spessartine - AJU
A - Z. Jewelry History. Ancient Jewelry. Medieval Jewelry. ... Glossary. American Jewelry. Jewelry. Agate - Zircon. Famous Diamonds. Jewelry Hallmarks. Color: Yellowish orange to brownish red. Idiochromatic : colored by manganese which is an essential ingredient of spessartine. Similar Stones:. Spessartine was first discovered in the Spessart Mountains of Germany from which it derives its name. Commercially mined deposits:. Rather large stones have been reported to have been mined there up to 50+ ct. Initially a by-product of rubellite mining, the deposit became a major source for bright orange spessartine from 1998/99 till around 2001. Loliondo, Tanzania - Discovered in 2007, initially mined by individual miners. Yellowish-orange color, clean stones are rare, sugar-like and double refractive crystalline inclusions common. The Little Three Mine, Ramona, San Diego CA produces very nice classic spessartines maybe over-rated compared to the brighter vivid orange Tanzanian color. Most stones were medium dark...
http://langantiques.com/university/index.php/Spessartine
*  History: Ancient China for Kids
History: Ancient China for Kids. History Biography ... Games for Kids. Ancient China for Kids. Overview Timeline of Ancient China Geography of Ancient China Silk...
http://ducksters.com/history/china/ancient_china.php
*  Chinese History - History of China - Quatr.us
Chinese History - History of China - Quatr.us. Chinese History ... Quatr.us > China > History. More Chinese history Ancient China. ... Backgammon Dice. Ancient China Chinese Medicine Confucius and...
http://quatr.us/china/history/
*  CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction From OpenWetWare CH391L/S12 Revision as of 15:45, 13 February 2012 by Jared Ellefson Talk. 1 What is Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. 1.1 Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes 1.1.1 Methods of Inferring Ancient Sequences 1.1.2 Gene Synthesis 1.1.3 Testing Ancestral Variants. 1.2 Examples of Ancestral Sequence Reconstructions 1.2.1 Evolution of Coral Pigments 1.2.2 Inferring the Paleoenvironment of ancient Earth. What is Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. Sequence Reconstruction Example. Sequences from extant species of the desired common ancestral gene and outgroup genes are aligned. The ancestral gene is inferred based on evolutionary models typically maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood. Ancestral genes are cloned and tested for function. Methods of Inferring Ancient ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&oldid=583945
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. ==Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes==...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=677463&oldid=677462
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 19:53, 24 February 2013 view source Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs → Evolution of Coral Pigments ← Previous diff. Revision as of 19:55, 24 February 2013 view source Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs → Evolution of Coral Pigments Next diff →. Line 30:. Line 30:. One example of ancestral sequence reconstruction was done by the Matz group currently residing at the University of Texas at Austin. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red cite #Ugalde /cite. The details of the evolution of fluorescent color in the GFP superfamily was not fully understand. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. One example of ancestral sequence reconstruction was done by the Matz group currently residing at the University of Texas at Austin. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wav...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=678933&oldid=678932
*  Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001)
branching order of bacterial phyla gupta branching order of bacterial phyla gupta bacterial phyla there are several models of the branching order of bacterial phyla one of these was proposed in by gupta based on conserved indels or protein termed protein signatures an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels however they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla one feature of the cladogram obtained with this method is the clustering of cell wall morphology with some exceptions from monoderms to transitional diderms to traditional diderms in the cladogram below yellow pseudopeptidoglycan monoderms gram variable red thick peptidoglycan monoderms gram positive blue thin peptidoglycan diderms gram negative green atypical see note in parethesis cladex style width auto bar gold archaea cladex bar crimson firmicutes cladex bar crimson actinobacteria see also branching order of bacterial phyla woese branching order ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branching_order_of_bacterial_phyla_(Gupta,_2001)
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. Sequences for the common ancestor nodes were synthesized and tested for their activity. The common ancestor to all the superfamily had a green emission peak. The more recent common ancestor of Green/Red had two emission peaks; a strong green peak and a smaller red peak. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. Sequences for the common ancestor nodes were synthesized and tested for their activity. The common ancestor to all the superfamily had a green emission peak. The more recent common ancestor of Green/Red had two emission peaks; a strong green peak and a smaller red peak. 1.2 Examples of Ancestral Sequence Reconstructions 1.2.1 Evolution of Coral Pigments 1.2.2 Inferring the...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=678913&oldid=678912
*  The FASTML Server - Server for computing Maximum Likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction
the fastml server server for computing maximum likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction home overview gallery source code citing credits old version the fastml server server for computing maximum likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction type your multiple sequence alignment msa fasta format only or upload your multiple sequence alignment msa file sequences type amino acids nucleotides codons type your phylogenetic tree optional newick format only or upload phylogenetic tree file newick format only model of substitution jtt default lg mtrev for mitochondrial proteins cprev for chloroplasts proteins wag dayhoff jc model jukes and cantor t model tamura hky model hasegawa kishino and yano gtr generalised time reversible yang for codon sequences empiricodon for codon sequences please enter your email address optional your email address will be used to update you the moment the results are ready load an example advanced options phylogenetic tree method maximum likelihood ml neighbor joining optimize branch ...
http://fastml.tau.ac.il/
*  Comparison of Protein Sequences: BLAST searching and Phylogenetic Tree Construction
... Inquiry-based Integrated Instructional Units Comparison of Protein Sequences: BLAST searching and Phylogenetic Tree Construction. It accompanies several weeks of wet lab work in which students clone cDNAs encoding Cytochrome P450 1A CYP1A from animals primarily fish collected locally and exposed to pollution compounds that induce expression of the enzyme. In this exercise, students perform BLAST searches of reported CYP1A sequences and construct phylogenetic trees using CYP1A amino acid sequences from various vertebrate species, especially those with multiple CYP1A paralogs. Thus, evolutionary analysis of CYP1A sequences from many species provides an opportunity to explore the number and timing of gene duplications during vertebrate evolution. Three short readings about gene duplication in evolution and phylogenetic analysis are provided at least one week prior to class. These readings complement earlier readings that specifically concern the cloning and evolutionary analysis of CYP1A genes in fish. Mate...
http://serc.carleton.edu/genomics/units/19100.html
*  Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. From OpenWetWare. Talk:CH391L/S13 Revision as of 00:02, 24 February 2013 by Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs. diff ←Older revision. Current revision diff. Newer revision→ diff. Jump to: navigation, search. Gabriel Wu 16:59, 18 February 2013 EST : Remove the cost and methods of gene synthesis or just reference the dna assembly section we've already gone over. Expand the codon optimization section unless this fits better in somewhere else. Gabriel Wu 16:59, 18 February 2013 EST : How does Pauling's proposal for ancestral gene construction relate to the actual discovery of DNA structure. Benjamin Gilman 13:21, 21 February 2013 EST : The Pauling and Zuckerkandl paper came out when the only protein sequence information we had came from limited peptide sequencing methods like Edman degradation N-terminal sequencing. You might add something about the shift to using DNA or RNA sequences to infer protein sequence once techniques like Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequenc...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&direction=prev&oldid=678776
*  Ancestral reconstruction
'Ancestral Reconstruction' also known as 'Character Mapping' or 'Character Optimization' is a method in evolutionary biology by which one can attempt to understand the phenotypic and genetic states of organisms that lived millions of years ago. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum likelihood. They are: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and the Bayesian Inference. Maximum parsimony is the method that came about first. Maximum likelihood accounts for what we know about the likelihood of various events, which is that they are not all equal. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum likelihood. The main difference between this and maximum parsimony is that the maximum likelihood test accounts for the fact that not all events are equally likely to happen. When this is the case, maximum parsimony may actually be more accurate because it is more willing to make large, unlikely leaps than maximum likelihood is. Maximum likelihood has been shown to be quite reliable in reconstructing character states however it does no...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancestral_reconstruction
*  Viral phylodynamics
... Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread,. Methods Coalescent theory and phylodynamics. Examples Phylodynamics of Influenza. Phylodynamics of HIV. The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure see figure 2 Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. For example, an application to HIV sequences within infected hosts showed that viral substitution rates dropped to effectively zero following the initiation of antiretroviral drug therapy. If the population size N t changes over time, the coalescent rate \lambda n t will also be a function of time. derived this rate for a time-varying population size under the assumption o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_phylodynamics
*  Diagnostic characters from Consortium of mx users. - Encyclopedia of Life
... Diagnostic characters. 2011, by Lewis L. Deitz and Matthew S. Wallace. Add to a collection. Diagnostic characters. Distance from eye to base of forewing usually greater than half eye width exceptions: Deiroderes and many Nicomiinae. Pronotum usually produced posteriorly over scutellum exceptions: Endoiastinae, Nicomiinae, Deiroderes, Abelus, and Hemicentrus, often also with anterior, lateral, or dorsal projections. Forewings with vein M fused with Cu basally share common stem; exceptions: some Nicomia and some Smiliinae. Prothoracic trochanter and femur not fused. Male abdominal segment IX usually with lateral plates discrete from pygofer exceptions: fused to pygofer in few members of various tribes; lateral plates absent in Anchistrotus and some Stegaspidini. Female pygofer not strongly produced posteroventrally. Nymph with abdominal tergum IX forming sheath around segment X, anal opening dorsal or posterior. Latest updates. No one has provided updates yet. Learn how to contribute. Add a new comment. Yo...
http://eol.org/data_objects/12685167
*  Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew | QUT ePrints
Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew. Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew Statistics dashboard. Review. Book Chapter Phillips, Matthew J. Penny, David 2010 Mammalian phylogeny., Phillips, Matthew J. PLoS ONE, 10 5, e0125723., Carrano, Matthew T. Systematic Biology. Phillips, Matthew J., Gibb, Gillian C. 2014 Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and habitat preference evolution of marsupials. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31 9, pp., Phillips, Matthew J. Phillips, Matthew J., Gibb, Gillian,. Bunce, Michael 2013 Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes. PLoS ONE, 8 2, pp. Phillips, Matthew J. Current Biology, 23 14, R603-R605., Phillips, Matthew J. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 59 3, pp., Phillips, Matthew J. 2010 Evolutionary relationships and divergence times among the native rats of Australia. 2009 The evolutionary history of the extinct ratite moa and New Zealand Neogene paleogeography. 2009 Accounting for calibration uncertainty in phylogenetic estimation of evo...
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/view/person/Phillips,_Matthew.html
*  Wiegmann Lab: Current Research
Insect Molecular Systematics at NCSU. phylogenetic relationships and testing hypotheses about the evolution and diversification of insects. A major component of these studies is uncovering patterns and processes of DNA sequence evolution and using these to improve interpretation of morphological and developmental evolutionary pathways. Molecular Phylogenetics of Diptera: FLYTREE - NSF - Assembling the Tree of Life project on Diptera a Collaborative Research Effort in Dipteran Phylogenetics. The need for new, large, comprehensive datasets for Diptera phylogeny motivates our collaborative, National Science Foundation funded, Assembling the Tree of Life ATOL project-- FLYTREE. Within this study, we are assembling multiple phylogenetic data sets to simultaneously assess dipteran phylogenetic relationships and the information content of specific character systems. For example, we will compare large by character data sets 1st tier; 45 taxa; 15-20 genes and mt genomes to those with increased numbers of taxa by taxa ...
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/users/b/bwiegman/public_html/labweb/currentresearch.html
*  Talk:CH391L/S13/DirectedProteinEvolution - OpenWetWare
Gabriel Wu Talk. *' ] 21:45, 21 February 2013 EST ':It would be nice if you added literature examples of Directed Evolution of Proteins for each approach as done in the Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction or take a similar approach. *' ] 21:45, 21 February 2013 EST ':It would be nice if you added literature examples of Directed Evolution of Proteins for each approach as done in the Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction or take a similar approach. + *' ] 15:33, 2 March 2013 EST ':It would be nice to put some numbers on the typical plasmid screening in 'E. + ****' ] 14:03, 4 March 2013 EST ': This is an interesting point. *' ] 04:13, 27 February 2013 EST ':I thought it'd be nice to have a section explaining fitness landscapes and moving through sequence space. *' ] 04:13, 27 February 2013 EST ':I thought it'd be nice to have a section explaining fitness landscapes and moving through sequence space. It's true that many times the selection will result in being trapped in a local optima, but other times the selection wi...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Talk:CH391L/S13/DirectedProteinEvolution&diff=680636&oldid=680003
*  Systematics
thumb|400px|A comparison of phylogenetic and phenetic concepts Biological '''systematics''' is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. Phylogenetic trees of species and higher taxa are used to study the evolution of traits e.g., anatomical or molecular characteristics and the distribution of organisms biogeography. Systematics, in other words, is used to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Definition and relation with taxonomy Taxonomic characters See also References Notes. Definition and relation with taxonomy. Europeans tend to use the terms "systematics" and "biosystematics" for the field of the study of biodiversity as a whole, whereas North Americans tend to use "taxonomy" more frequently. Taxonomic characters. Molecular characters. Immunological distance Electrophoretic differences Amino acid sequences of proteins DNA hybridization DNA and RNA sequences Restriction endonuclease analyses Other molec...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systematics
*  Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" - EEBedia
Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" From EEBedia. Chris Simon. Chris Simon. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Lab%208.%20Kasey%20Pregler%20MiniPresentation%2012April12.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 8. Kasey Pregler MiniPresentation 12April12.pdf. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Lab%208.%20Kasey%20Pregler%20MiniPresentation%2012April12.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 8. Kasey Pregler MiniPresentation 12April12.pdf. Instructor: Chris Simon, Biopharm 305D, 6-4640, chris.simon@uconn.edu Graduate Assistant: Chris Owen, Biopharm 325A, christopher.l.owen@uconn.edu ; 6-3947. Readings: will be posted as PDF’s. Lectures will examine some of the most serious problems in evolutionary tree construction: nucleotide bias, alignment, homoplasy, among-site rate variation, taxon sampling, long branches, big trees, heterogeneous rates of evolution among branches, covarion shifts. Syllabus Molecular Systematics rev 28 Mar 12.pdf Assignment 1. How molecules evo...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Molecular_Systematics_Spring_2012&diff=21831&oldid=21782
*  Molecular phylogenetics
'Molecular phylogenetics ' is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. History of molecular phylogenetics Techniques and applications Theoretical background Limitations of molecular systematics See also Notes and references Further reading External links. A comprehensive step-by-step protocol on constructing phylogenetic tree, including DNA/Amino Acid contiguous sequence assembly, multiple sequence alignment, model-test testing best-fitting substitution models and phylogeny reconstruction using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, is available at Nature Protocol Bast, F. These have been replaced in recent times largely by DNA sequencing, which produces the exact sequences of nucleotides or 'bases' in either DNA or RNA segments extracted using different techniques. In a molecular systematic analysis, the haplotypes are determined for a defined area of genetic material ; a substantial s...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_phylogenetics
*  CH391L/S13/DNA Computing - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S13/DNA Computing From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 11:55, 1 April 2013 view source Dwight Tyler Fields Talk. contribs m New page: Hello world. ← Previous diff. Revision as of 12:03, 1 April 2013 view source Dwight Tyler Fields Talk. contribs m Next diff →. Line 1:. Line 1:. - Hello world. + ] ]. + =Introduction=. + Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. It enables scientists to synthesize biomolecules from extinct organisms. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. + ]. + + ==Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes==. + # Sequences from extan...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/DNA_Computing&diff=687401&oldid=687389
*  Phylogenetic Classification ( Real World ) | Biology | CK-12 Foundation
Phylogenetic Classification Real World. Help. Help. You are viewing an older version of this Concept. Go to the latest version. Phylogenetic Classification. Practice Phylogenetic Classification Practice. 0% Practice Now. Evolution. Resources. Published. Cows Gone Wild. The "cows" you see are Aurochs Bos primigenius. They are the species of bovine that humans domesticated to form our modern day cows. Looking at the cave paintings of aurochs, you may get the sense that they were a bit different than our domesticated cattle. The characteristics which made aurochs successful in the wild were not the characteristics that humans thought were most useful. For example, packing on lots of meat may be a great trait in a cow for a cattle rancher, but if that meat hampers mobility, then it can make a cow an easy target to predators. This is one of the differences between artificial selection and natural selection. However, it does not take 600 years for noticeable changes to appear in bred species once the artificial sel...
http://ck12.org/biology/Phylogenetic-Classification/rwa/21st-Century-Auroch/r8/
*  Filosofía, especie y sistemática
Host structure of the Phylogeny of West Nile Virus WNV: Does it shape the spatiotemporal structure. Methods Sequence Data: All the available sequences of complete genome of WNV, with collection times, and geographic locations 453 sequences, from 25 countries, and 79 hosts species were retrieved from GenBank. Phylogeny inferred using a Maximum likelihood analysis of 53 sequences. Phylogeny with Host structure for WNV. Just Testudines present a different resutl, where the non-nuclear and nuclear partitions had the lowest values Fig. Estimating Evolutionary Rates and Times to the last Common Ancestor DEV-2, using partitions vs complete coding region. Several studies have been aimed at understanding the epidemiology of DENV, rates and dates of evolution, and selection pressure in its different genes and genotypes Rico-hesse Rico-hesse, 1990; Rico-Hesse et al., 1997; S. The objectives of this study were to infer the time to the Most recent common ancestor MRCA of the DENV2 genotypes, and estimate the evolutionary ...
http://elecsist.blogspot.com/
*  PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. | Broad Institute of MIT and
PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Home. News & Publications:Scientific Publications PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. Recent Broad Publications Inherited CHST11/MIR3922 deletion is associated with a novel recessive syndrome presenting with skeletal malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Ferritinophagy via NCOA4 is required for erythropoiesis and is regulated by iron dependent HERC2-mediated proteolysis. Read More / View Supplemental ...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3822
*  Phylogenomics
It is a group of techniques within the larger fields of phylogenetics and genomics. Phylogenomics draws information by comparing entire genomes, or at least large portions of genomes. 1 Phylogenetics compares and analyzes the sequences of single genes, or a small number of genes, as well as many other types of data. Prediction of gene function Establishment and clarification of evolutionary relationships Gene family evolution Prediction and retracing lateral gene transfer. Prediction of Gene Function Prediction and Retracing Lateral Gene Transfer Gene family evolution Establishment of Evolutionary Relationships Databases See also References. Before the use of phylogenomic techniques, predicting gene function was done primarily by comparing the gene sequence with the sequences of genes with known functions. 3 This prediction was based on the fact that this organism has a gene for which the sequence is highly similar to genes from other species in the "MutS" gene family which included many known to be involved ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenomics
*  Wikiomics:RNA phylogenetics - OpenWetWare
... Wikiomics:RNA phylogenetics From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 17:04, 3 March 2008 view source Torsten Waldminghaus Talk. contribs added tags ← Previous diff. Current revision 05:34, 20 October 2009 view source Albert Vilella Talk. contribs adding rnasalsa. One intermediate revision not shown. Line 16:. Line 16:. * Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny. Allows secondary structure models. * Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny. Allows secondary structure models. * Designed specifically for use with RNA sequences that have a conserved secondary structure, e.g., rRNA and tRNA. Substitution models of sequence evolution that consider pairs of sites rather than single sites are implemented in this package along with standard nucleotides substitution models used nowadays. When a RNA molecule with a secondary structure is used in conjunction with a RNA substitution model, PHASE requires a structure-based alignment of the sequences with the consensus secondary structure ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Wikiomics:RNA_phylogenetics&diff=360520&oldid=189099
*  Polyphyly
Image:Monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly.png File:Phylogenetic-Groups.svg|thumbnail|300px|Phylogenetic groups: A monophyletic taxon in yellow, the group of "reptiles and birds" contains a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A paraphyletic taxon in cyan, the reptiles contains its most recent common ancestor, but does not contain all the descendants of that ancestor. A polyphyletic in red, the group of all warm-blooded animals taxon does not contain the most recent common ancestor of all its members. A 'polyphyletic' Greek for "of many races" group is characterized by one or more homoplasies : phenotype s which have converged or reverted so as to appear to be the same but which have not been inherited from common ancestors. For example, warm-bloodedness evolved separately in the ancestors of mammals and the ancestors of birds 1. Researchers concerned more with ecology than with systematics may take polyphyletic groups as legitimate subject matter; the similarities in activity within the fungus group ' Alte...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphyly
*  Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" - EEBedia
Chris Simon. Chris Simon. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/EEB%205350%20Lab%209.%20Minipresentation%20RT-PCR%20Brigette.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 9. Minipresentation RT-PCR Brigette.pdf. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/EEB%205350%20Lab%209.%20Minipresentation%20RT-PCR%20Brigette.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 9. Minipresentation RT-PCR Brigette.pdf. Combining Data/Comparing Trees. + + :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Comparing%20Trees%20Combining%20Data%20Readings%202012.pdf}}Comparing Trees Combining Data Readings 2012.pdf. + + Reading for next week: :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Simon%2C%20Buckley%2C%20Frati%2C%20Stewart%2C%20Beckenbach%202006%20AREES%20%26%20supplement.pdf}}Simon, Buckley, Frati, Stewart, Beckenbach 2006 AREES supplement.pdf. Lectures will examine some of the most serious problems in evolutionary tree construction: nucleotide bias, alignment, homoplasy, among-site rate variation, ...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Molecular_Systematics_Spring_2012&diff=21847&oldid=21846
*  Darwin's Evolutionary Tree 'Annihilated' | The Institute for Creation Research
Darwin s Evolutionary Tree Annihilated. Timely news related to creation and evolution. Life Sciences. Problems with Evolution. Evidence for Creation. Evidence for Truth. Evidence from Science. Apologetics Articles. ICR Store. Darwin's Evolutionary Tree 'Annihilated' by Brian Thomas, M.S. * Resources. Life Sciences Resources. Problems with Evolution. In 1837, Charles Darwin drew his first evolutionary tree in his B notebook, with the words I think scrawled above it, to illustrate his idea that all of today s species arose from a single common ancestor. But the poor fit of gene sequence data is forcing scientists to abandon the tree. A non-Darwinian evolutionary view has been offered, but this proposition is actually just the old Hopeful Monster with a twist. 3 Darwin s tree illustrated a long macroevolutionary past that never happened. 4 Finally, evolutionary biologists seem to be catching up with creation biologists. 5 Michael Syvanen, co-editor of Horizontal Gene Transfer 1998 and a medical biochemist at the...
http://icr.org/articles/view/4404/295/
*  Phylogenetic profiling
... 'Phylogenetic profiling' is a bioinformatics technique in which the joint presence or joint absence of two traits across large numbers of species is used to infer a meaningful biological connection, such as involvement of two different proteins in the same biological pathway. Along with examination of conserved synteny, conserved operon structure, or "Rosetta Stone" domain fusions, comparing phylogenetic profiles is a designated a "post-homology" technique, in that the computation essential to this method begins after it is determined which proteins are homologous to which. A number of these techniques were developed by David Eisenberg and colleagues; phylogenetic profile comparison was introduced in 1999 by Pellegrini, 'et al.' Pellegrini M, Marcotte EM, Thompson MJ, Eisenberg D, Yeates TO. Method Theory Advances and Challenges Notes. For a given protein family, its presence or absence in each genome in the original formulation is represented by 1 present and 0 absent. The large number of complete genom...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenetic_profiling
*  Structural Biochemistry/Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction
... - Wikibooks, open books for an open world. Structural Biochemistry/Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction. 1 Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction. Analyzing protein structure and function using ancestral gene reconstruction. Learning how protein sequence determines structure and function as well as learning the processes that generated the diverse structures and functions of extant proteins requires knowledge of the distribution of structures and functions through the multidimensional space of possible protein sequences. The outcomes of that massive experiment are preserved in the sequences, structures, and functions of modern-day protein families. Evolutionary analysis of these families can provide key insights into the nature of protein sequence space and the determinants of protein structure and function. Horizontal and Vertical Analysis. One way to study protein families is to identify candidate amino acid differences betwe...
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Analyzing_protein_structure_and_function_using_ancestral_gene_reconstruction
*  Patrocladogram
2 " and is used exclusively to determine the amount of divergence of a characteristic from a common ancestor. This means that cladistic and patristic distances are combined to construct a new tree using various phenetic algorithms. 3 The purpose of the patrocladogram in biological classification is to form a hypothesis about which evolutionary processes are actually involved before making a taxonomic decision. 4 Patrocladograms are based on biostatistics that include but are not limited to: parsimony, distance matrix, likelihood method s, and Bayesian probability. Some examples of genomically related data that can be used as inputs for these methods are: molecular sequences, whole genome sequences, gene frequencies, restriction site s, distance matrices, unique characters, mutations such as SNPs, and mitochondrial genome data. Cautions with patrocladogram usage Programs for patrocladogram analysis PATRISTIC. RAMI. Further reading References External links. Cautions with patrocladogram usage. Patrocladograms a...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrocladogram
*  SMART: DUF1866 domain taxonomic distribution
smart duf domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with duf domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing duf domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DUF1866
*  SMART: DUF3700 domain taxonomic distribution
smart duf domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with duf domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing duf domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DUF3700
*  SMART: PTPc motif domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with PTPc motif domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing PTPc motif domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=PTPc_motif
*  SMART: HOX domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with HOX domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing HOX domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=HOX
*  SMART: Citrate ly lig domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with Citrate ly lig domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Citrate ly lig domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Citrate_ly_lig
*  SMART: Catalase domain taxonomic distribution
smart catalase domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with catalase domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing catalase domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Catalase
*  SMART: LRR RI domain taxonomic distribution
smart lrr ri domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with lrr ri domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing lrr ri domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=LRR_RI
*  SMART: Fib alpha domain taxonomic distribution
smart fib alpha domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with fib alpha domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing fib alpha domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Fib_alpha
*  SMART: Frataxin Cyay domain taxonomic distribution
smart frataxin cyay domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with frataxin cyay domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing frataxin cyay domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Frataxin_Cyay
*  SMART: Integrin B tail domain taxonomic distribution
smart integrin b tail domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with integrin b tail domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing integrin b tail domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Integrin_B_tail
*  SMART: BMC domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with BMC domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing BMC domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=BMC
*  SMART: GA domain taxonomic distribution
smart ga domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with ga domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ga domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=GA
*  SMART: ELK domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with ELK domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ELK domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=ELK
*  SMART: SEC14 domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with SEC14 domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing SEC14 domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=SEC14
*  SMART: CP12 domain taxonomic distribution
smart cp domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with cp domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing cp domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=CP12
*  SMART: NH domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with NH domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing NH domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=NH
*  SMART: DM13 domain taxonomic distribution
smart dm domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with dm domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing dm domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DM13
*  SMART: LY domain taxonomic distribution
smart ly domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with ly domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ly domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=LY
*  SMART: zf-AD domain taxonomic distribution
smart zf ad domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with zf ad domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing zf ad domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=zf-AD
*  SMART: AWS domain taxonomic distribution
smart aws domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with aws domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing aws domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=AWS
*  SMART: Amelin domain taxonomic distribution
smart amelin domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with amelin domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing amelin domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Amelin
*  SMART: Ami 3 domain taxonomic distribution
smart ami domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with ami domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ami domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Ami_3
*  SMART: C2 domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with C2 domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing C2 domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=C2
*  SMART: CLH domain taxonomic distribution
smart clh domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with clh domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing clh domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=CLH
*  SMART: CVNH domain taxonomic distribution
smart cvnh domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with cvnh domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing cvnh domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=CVNH
*  SMART: Cache 2 domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with Cache 2 domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing Cache 2 domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=Cache_2
*  SMART: ChSh domain taxonomic distribution
smart chsh domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with chsh domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing chsh domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=ChSh
*  SMART: DAX domain taxonomic distribution
smart dax domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with dax domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing dax domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DAX
*  SMART: DEFSN domain taxonomic distribution
smart defsn domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with defsn domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing defsn domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DEFSN
*  SMART: DSHCT domain taxonomic distribution
smart dshct domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with dshct domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing dshct domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DSHCT
*  SMART: DSPc domain taxonomic distribution
smart dspc domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with dspc domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing dspc domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=DSPc
*  SMART: EPEND domain taxonomic distribution
smart epend domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with epend domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing epend domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=EPEND
*  SMART: FBG domain taxonomic distribution
smart fbg domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with fbg domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing fbg domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=FBG
*  SMART: GPS domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with GPS domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing GPS domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=GPS
*  SMART: GYR domain taxonomic distribution
smart gyr domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with gyr domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing gyr domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=GYR
*  SMART: HALZ domain taxonomic distribution
smart halz domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with halz domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing halz domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=HALZ
*  SMART: LNS2 domain taxonomic distribution
smart lns domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with lns domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing lns domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=LNS2
*  SMART: MltA domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with MltA domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing MltA domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=MltA
*  SMART: MutL C domain taxonomic distribution
smart mutl c domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with mutl c domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing mutl c domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=MutL_C
*  SMART: NMU domain taxonomic distribution
smart nmu domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with nmu domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing nmu domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=NMU
*  SMART: NRF domain taxonomic distribution
smart nrf domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with nrf domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing nrf domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=NRF
*  SMART: NurA domain taxonomic distribution
smart nura domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with nura domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing nura domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=NurA
*  SMART: PA14 domain taxonomic distribution
smart pa domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with pa domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing pa domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=PA14
*  SMART: PMEI domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with PMEI domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing PMEI domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=PMEI
*  SMART: ParB domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with ParB domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ParB domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=ParB
*  SMART: RPEL domain taxonomic distribution
smart rpel domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with rpel domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing rpel domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=RPEL
*  SMART: RasGAP domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with RasGAP domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing RasGAP domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=RasGAP
*  SMART: SPK domain taxonomic distribution
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Taxonomic distribution of proteins with SPK domain. A species tree will be displayed here if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing SPK domain in the selected taxonomic class. 2014 EMBL Send comments to Ivica Letunic....
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=SPK
*  SMART: SPRY domain taxonomic distribution
smart spry domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with spry domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing spry domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=SPRY
*  SMART: VRR NUC domain taxonomic distribution
smart vrr nuc domain taxonomic distribution smart mode normal genomic schultz et al proc natl acad sci usa letunic et al nucleic acids res doi nar gku home setup faq about glossary what s new feedback taxonomic distribution of proteins with vrr nuc domain a species tree will be displayed here if you enable javascript in your browser click on the protein counts or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing vrr nuc domain in the selected taxonomic class embl send comments to ivica letunic...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/complete_tree.cgi?ID=VRR_NUC
*  Treefinder
{{Infobox Software name = TreeFinder developer = Gangolf Jobb latest release version = march2011 latest release date =. A platform-independent graphical environment integrates a standard suite of analyses: phylogeny reconstruction, bootstrap analysis, model selection, hypothesis testing, tree calibration, manipulation of trees and sequence data. Result trees are displayed and can then be saved as a reconstruction report, which may serve as an input for further analysis, for example hypothesis testing. The report contains all information about the tree and the models used. The software supports a broad collection of models of sequence evolution. The June 2008 release implements 7 models of nucleotide substitution HKY, TN, J1, J2, J3 = TIM, TVM, GTR, 14 empirical models of amino acid substitution BLOSUM, cpREV, Dayhoff, JTT, LG, mtArt, mtMam, mtREV, PMB, rtREV, betHIV, witHIV, VT, WAG, 4 substitution models of structured rRNA bactRNA, eukRNA, euk23RNA, mitoRNA, the 6-state "Dayhoff Groups" protein model DG, 2-s...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treefinder
*  Human mitochondrial molecular clock
... Estimating based on AMH archaeology Estimating based on CHLCA Early, HVR, sequence-based methods Coding region sequence based methods Inter-comparing rates and studies Notes Footnotes References. The rate at which mutations accumulate in coding and non-coding region s of the genome also differs as mutations in the coding region are subject to purifying selection. For this reason, some studies avoid coding region or synonymous mutations when calibrating the molecular clock. Pedigree methods estimate the mutation rate by comparing the mtDNA sequences of a sample of parent/offspring pairs or analyzing mtDNA sequences of individuals from a deep-rooted genealogy. Phylogeny based methods are estimated by first reconstructing the haplotype of the most recent common ancestor MRCA of a sample of two or more genetic lineages. The human mutation rate is usually estimated by comparing the sequences of modern humans and chimpanzees and then reconstructing the ancestral haplotype of the chimpanzee-human common ancesto...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_mitochondrial_molecular_clock
*  blogzilly: In Light of Recent Events
... In Light of Recent Events. Unfortunately, the post I wanted to get to today will have to wait for another time. This happens when you have a youngster with multiple disabilities, one of them related to aggressive behaviors, in the public school system, and you get phone calls that suck you into it's vortex away from your job and away from other things you may have going on. I have a LOT to catch you people up on. Today. Carter was home sick, time slipped out of my hands, and by the time I had to watch the kids at night Jen works some late night shifts now ...well, I never am comfortable in the shower if Bennett is here without other supervision. Like putting on a nice worn-in old coat and finding a crisp $50 bill in it from the winter before. I can already see I am going to feel much more relaxed this year But yeah...we still have major communication delays and stuff like that out the wazoo. In fact, even though a lot of stuff has changed in a year. Let's see...I've covered being smelly and unwashed, boo...
http://blogzilly.blogspot.com/2014/02/in-light-of-recent-events.html
*  Debian -- Details of package phyml in wheezy
... / Packages / wheezy oldstable / science / phyml. package names descriptions source package names package contents. all options. Links for phyml. Homepage Similar packages: fasttree. PhyML is a software that estimates maximum likelihood phylogenies from alignments of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. It provides a wide range of options that were designed to facilitate standard phylogenetic analyses. The main strengths of PhyML lies in the large number of substitution models coupled to various options to search the space of phylogenetic tree topologies, going from very fast and efficient methods to slower but generally more accurate approaches. It also implements two methods to evaluate branch supports in a sound statistical framework the non-parametric bootstrap and the approximate likelihood ratio test. PhyML was designed to process moderate to large data sets. In theory, alignments with up to 4,000 sequences 2,000,000 character-long can be analyzed. In practice however, the amount ...
https://packages.debian.org/nl/wheezy/ia64/phyml
*  Systematics of Green Coccoid Algae: the Genus Bracteacoccus - EEBedia
... Systematics of Green Coccoid Algae: the Genus Bracteacoccus From EEBedia Revision as of 15:59, 29 September 2008 by KarolinaFucikova. diff ← Older revision. Latest revision diff. Newer revision → diff. Jump to: navigation, search Karolina Fučíková L. Green algae Chlorophyta are a morphologically heterogeneous group that is undergoing considerable revisions at present. Especially in coccoid genera, there have been striking cases of polyphyly, when species originally placed in one genus were shown to belong to up to three different classes. The coccoid chlorophycean genus Bracteacoccus Tereg was until recently considered monophyletic, but with the advent of new molecular data, it no longer appears as such. The goal of my project is to monograph the genus Bracteacoccus. I collect 18S ribosomal DNA sequences nuclear gene as well as rbcL sequences chloroplast, protein-coding gene. Like other coccoid genera, Bracteacoccus has very simple morphology and therefore few characters to be scored. Transmission electr...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Systematics_of_Green_Coccoid_Algae:_the_Genus_Bracteacoccus&oldid=8372
*  Systematics of Green Coccoid Algae: the Genus Bracteacoccus - EEBedia
... Systematics of Green Coccoid Algae: the Genus Bracteacoccus From EEBedia Revision as of 22:09, 27 April 2008 by KarolinaFucikova. Talk. contribs. diff ← Older revision. Latest revision diff. Newer revision → diff. Jump to: navigation, search Karolina Fucikova L. Lewis Lab. Green algae Chlorophyta are a morphologically heterogeneous group that is undergoing considerable revisions at present. Especially in coccoid genera, there have been striking cases of polyphyly, when species originally placed in one genus were shown to belong to up to three different classes. The coccoid chlorophycean genus Bracteacoccus Tereg was until recently considered monophyletic, but with the advent of new molecular data, it no longer appears as such. The goal of my project is to monograph the genus Bracteacoccus. I collect 18S ribosomal DNA sequences nuclear gene as well as rbcL sequences chloroplast, protein-coding gene. Phylogeny obtained from the sequence data can be subsequently used as a starting point for further research...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Systematics_of_Green_Coccoid_Algae:_the_Genus_Bracteacoccus&oldid=6391
*  The Tree of Life: Now this is my kind of meeting
4 days ago from Tweetie phylogenomics Andrew Roger at #CIFAR is talking about the origin and evolution of mitochondria and related organelles 4 days ago from TwitterFon phylogenomics Joel Dacks at #CIFAR is talking about evolution of eukaryotic membrane traffiicking how it is about "more than just eating" 4 days ago from TwitterFon JATetro @phylogenomics Will there be a proceedings or at least a review of the meeting. #CIFAR 4 days ago from Seesmic Desktop phylogenomics Tom Cavalier-Smith at #CIFAR is one of the few people who can really mix molecar phylogenetics and function/morphology for microbial euks 4 days ago from TwitterFon phylogenomics Listening to THE Tom Cavalier-Smith talking about eukaryotic evolution at #CIFAR - I don't always agree with him but he still rocks 4 days ago from TwitterFon phylogenomics Yan Boucher at #CIFAR is talking about "the life aquatic - vibrio an their mobile gene pool" - looking at lateral transfer recombination 4 days ago from TwitterFon matthewherper RT @phylogenomics A...
http://phylogenomics.blogspot.com/2009/06/now-this-is-my-kind-of-meeting.html
*  Predoc05 Practical Answers
No - and yes. These proteins cannot be homologous. Are there SM-like proteins found in Archaea. Good low P-values are reliable but actually there are many SM proteins, with weak P-values and still others that are not detected at all. So the P-values are not reliable for the more divergent but related sequences. Yes they are strong. They are all common domains. Are there structures for any of these domains. Yes, many have been found in kinase domains for example. Do you think this protein has especially many or few domains. There are many proteins with just a few domains but also many proteins with huge numbers of domains. This protein is made of only two kinds of domain - but has more than 50 of them. Exploring order/disorder with Globplot Questions and Answers Why does GlobPlot not slide a fixed window length over the sequences. But the graph indicates that these regions have mainly globular preference. These are all splendid proteins to explore with GlobPlot. Are there any annotated motifs. For the src CDK ...
http://embl.de/~seqanal/courses/predoc05/predoc05.answers.html
*  bernard SERIN - Member profile - Famille - MyHeritage
... You are not logged in Log in Sign up. You are currently not logged in as a member of MyHeritage. Log in or Sign up. Famille. You are not logged in Log in. Sign up. Site members Family tree. Family tree. Manage trees Photos. Family photos. Search photos Apps. MyHeritage for mobile. Family Tree Builder. Search all records. Birth, Marriage & Death. Census & Voter Lists. Family Trees. Immigration & Travel Hire a researcher. DNA tests. Members. bernard SERIN. Viewed this profile 0000236. bernard SERIN. bernard is a member of the site Famille. Other site memberships by number of visits Famille Caradec LeTessier Member, since June 23 2011. Ocio Costales Web Site Member, since Sep 3 2012. sylvie Web Site Member, since Nov 13 2012. Fradin Web Site Member, since Mar 2 2011. Family history Web Site Member, since July 16 2011. Boulanger Web Site Member, since Dec 19 2011. DENHAUT Web Site Member, since Apr 23 2012. DEMARZO Web Site Member, since Sep 4 2015. SALAFA Web Site Member, since July 18 2015. Bosse Web...
http://myheritage.com/member-46601113_74865261/bernard-serin
*  SC-500E Single Event Stopwatch
sc e single event stopwatch my account log in items view cart men s swim gear women s swim gear team swim gear kids swim gear swim equipment swim accessories clearance items team login shop by brand featured products search products many thanks jeannie your customer service is top notch i wouldn t hesitate to order from you again jorie centerville oh splashwear sc e silent and audible single event stopwatch sc e silent and audible single event stopwatch can be used error free by anyone for accurate results item robic our price quantity volume discounts available of items price product details one step timing for all events start stop reset operation second resolution to hours audible beep confirmation or silent operation water resistant to meters break away safety lanyard helps prevent accidents promotes safe use one year warranty lithium batter cr other items you may like oslo w dual stopwatch countdown timer robic sc w heat stress comfort index stopwatch robic sc w dual memory speed and chronograph stopwatc...
http://swimmerstuff.com/sc500e-single-event-stopwatch-14_1515_p.aspx
*  Tinton Falls, NJ Apartments for Rent - 64 Apartments | Rent.com®
Tinton Falls, NJ Apartments for Rent - 64 Apartments. Apartments for Rent in Tinton Falls, NJ Local Info 64 Properties. 333 Tinton Falls, NJ 07753 $1745 - $2205 1-3 Beds 1-2 Baths 732 481-2168 Check Availability. 216 Units 1-3 Beds 1-2 Baths View More Info Current Rent Specials. Sea Verge Long Branch, NJ 07740 $1430 - $3395 0-2 Beds 1-2 Baths 732 734-0157 Check Availability. 126 Units 0-2 Beds 1-2 Baths View More Info Current Rent Specials. 18 Long Branch, NJ 07740 $1400 - $4415 0-3 Beds 1-2 Baths 732 443-1255 Check Availability. 283 Units 0-3 Beds 1-2 Baths View More Info Current Rent Specials. 412 Units 1-2 Beds 1 Bath View More Info Current Rent Specials. 108 Units 1-2 Beds 1 Bath View More Info Current Rent Specials. 229 West Long Branch, NJ 07764 $1740 - $2665 1-3 Beds 1-2 Baths 732 603-1189 Check Availability. 2 Long Branch, NJ 07740 $1160 - $1585 1-2 Beds 1 Bath 732 963-0001 Check Availability. 8 West End, NJ 07740 $1190 - $1685 1-2 Beds 1 Bath 732 963-2988 Check Availability. Monmouth Beach Village Lo...
http://rent.com/new-jersey/tinton-falls-apartments/2-21664
*  Sequence data and cladistics
... agneta guillemot agneta guillemot at historia umu se tue may est previous message re dna from formalin fixed specimen next message sequence data and cladistics messages sorted by i have a question to systematicists concerning molecular sequences and it s application in cladistic analyses the question is as follows has anyone ever been able to prove anything in a true cladistic analysis with sequence data from proteins or dna i m not interested in talk about molecular clocks and what they are presumed to have proved concerning the relationships of different taxa only in true cladistics what i want to see with my own eyes are unique sequences in dna or proteins not single substitutions of an amino acid or a base pair shared by the taxa you want group together while the other candidates for inclusion into this group have the primitive sequence as determined by outgroup comparison to you who knows anything about this please include in your reply to this forum if it s not to much work a short list of articles...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/mol-evol/1995-May/002776.html
*  .. Phylogenetic trees from 16S rRNA .. Two-dimensional clustering .. Concluding remarks .. Group wo
XML file. We have provided a template for this file, and shall add only a section defining which genomes to be compared. This will depend on who has finished the gene prediction and translation ;- Build the configuration This is done by the scell script make-bm-config.csh - feel free to examine it using less. The scripts simply checks who has finished the *.proteins.fsa file and then build the configuration file accordingly. csh make-bm-config.csh blastmatrix.head.xml > blastmatrix.xml less blastmatrix.xml Running blast matrix program Running the BLAST matrix program scales badly with the number of proteomes n 2 and therefor takes a long time to finish for all your genomes. Luckily the program features a caching system which enables it to reuse results from searches it has already performed. For those of you who are interrested, the program uses MD5 checksums of the input proteomes to keep track of the results - this is a very convinient way to keep track of changes in large data files. We have primed the cac...
http://cbs.dtu.dk/courses/thaiworkshop08/docs/m16.php?grp=stud111
*  PLOS ONE: Distinct Patterns of HIV-1 Evolution within Metastatic Tissues in Patients with Non-Hodgki
Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Article. Similar results were found in both patients: 1 high-resolution phylogenetic analysis showed a significant degree of compartmentalization between lymphoma and non-lymphoma viral sub-populations while viral sub-populations from lymph nodes appeared to be intermixed within sequences from tumor and non-tumor tissues, 2 a 100-fold increase in the effective HIV population size in tumor versus non-tumor tissues was associated with the emergence of lymphadenopathy and aggressive metastatic ARL, and 3 HIV gene flow among lymph nodes, normal and metastatic tissues was non-random. Overall, the results clearly demonstrated that the HIV strains within tumor associated macrophages in both subjects belonged to a unique viral population that was phylogenetically distinct from the strains infecting macrophages and T cells in non-tumor tissues. To address this hypothesis, HIV-1 rate of evol...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0008153
*  human biology - Are homozygous carriers of the CCR5-Δ32 allele fully immune to all known strains of
... HIV. - Biology Stack Exchange. current community. chat blog. Biology. . Biology Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Biology Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. It's 100% free, no registration required. Are homozygous carriers of the CCR5-Δ32 allele fully immune to all known strains of HIV. up vote 10 down vote favorite. Or is there documented evidence of even one homozygous carrier contracting HIV and staying infected. human-biology genetics virology hiv share. improve this question. edited Jan 12 '13 at 11:20. Rory M 8,697. 5 34. 78. asked Feb 10 '12 at 19:02. mring 883. 4...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/975/are-homozygous-carriers-of-the-ccr5-Δ32-allele-fully-immune-to-all-known-strains/1020
*  The Protein Family Tree
... . The Protein Family Tree How can the flood of human genomic data be gainfully employed. The first step is using sequence data to determine 3-D protein structure. But how can scientists wade efficiently through this massive information to solve hundreds of thousands of proteins that remain unsolved. A series of software tools, some of them developed at PSC, make it possible to search databases and classify proteins in family groups that reflect the evolutionary relationships that select for protein function. PSC and University of Pittsburgh scientists have exhaustively analyzed the relationships among a family of enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenase. Found in nearly every living thing, ALDH in mammals protects the body from toxic compounds. In this graphical representation of the ALDH molecular structure top, right, colors represent amino-acid groups that are "highly conserved" - they remain essentially the same in nearly all species of the enzyme. The logic of evolution holds that conserved residues ar...
http://psc.edu/science/2001/highlights/the_protein_family_tree.html
*  Recently Active 'bioinformatics' Questions - Biology Stack Exchange
Recently Active 'bioinformatics' Questions - Biology Stack Exchange. current community. chat blog. Biology. . Biology Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Biology Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Tagged Questions info newest frequent votes active unanswered. Bioinformatics connects life sciences and quantitative sciences, typically involving the application of software and algorithms to solve computationally intensive questions, such as those in genomics, sequence analysis, and systems biology. Questions tagged Bioinformatics should have a direct ... learn more. top users. synonyms 1. 3 votes. 2 answers. 83 views. Do the bacterial species X, Y, Z code for proteins A, B, C. My PI has...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/tagged/bioinformatics?sort=active&pageSize=15
*  Take The Which Lost Character Are You Test | OkCupid
Take The Which Lost Character Are You Test. OkCupid. OkCupid. Join the best free dating site on Earth. Sign in. Sign up. The Which Lost Character Are You Test Member Tests 0. Staff Tests 0. Test 0. Take this test. Danielle. You've been stuck on that damn island for so long you don't know what's going on anymore. Take The Which Lost Character Are You Test See more tests. If you don't, I will kill one of them. Oh, and Charlie, I will kill you last." You are Ethan Ro... Read more Danielle "You have three choices: run, hide or die." You are Danielle Rosseau, the French woman. You're not the most social person on the island, but you don't mind. As long as yo... Read more Locke "You're not going crazy, Jack. Crazy people don't think they're getting crazy. You are a good worker and p... Read more Claire "Don't talk to me about the baby. You are a very kind and caring person. It's gonna be a while before you're going to want to give me a piggy back ride." Dude, you are Hurley. You are a kind s... Read more Claire* "D...
http://okcupid.com/quizzy/results?quizzyid=5052228135609532493&resultid=4
*  TIGR03266
... . TIGRFAMs. JCVI Home. TIGRFAMs Home. Genome Properties. TIGRFAMs Home. TIGRFAMs Terms. TIGRFAMs Complete Listing. TIGRFAMs FTP site. TIGRFAMs Resources. TIGR03266 Seed Alignment. HMM Summary Page: TIGR03266. Accession. TIGR03266. Name. methan mark 1. Function. putative methanogenesis marker protein 1. Trusted Cutoff. 365.00. Domain Trusted Cutoff. 365.00. Noise Cutoff. 265.00. Domain Noise Cutoff. 265.00. Isology Type. hypoth equivalog. HMM Length. 376. Author. Haft DH. Entry Date. Jan 16 2007 4:43PM. Last Modified. May 9 2011 8:01PM. Comment. Members of this protein family represent a distinct clade among the larger set of proteins that belong to families TIGR00702 and PF02624. Proteins from this clade are found in genome sequence if and only if the species sequenced is one of the methanogens. All methanogens belong to the archaea; some but not all of those sequenced are hyperthermophiles. This protein family was detected by the method of partial phylogenetic profiling see Haft, et al., 2006. Reference...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/tigrfams/HmmReportPage.cgi?acc=TIGR03266
*  SMART: DUF1220 domain annotation
... CHROMA format CLUSTALW format MSF format FASTA format PIR format. There are 2239 DUF1220 domains in 453 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. Click on the following links for more information. Evolution species in which this domain is found Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing DUF1220 domain. The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with DUF1220 domain is also avaliable. Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing DUF1220 domain in the selected taxonomic class. Dumas L, Sikela JM DUF1220 domains, cognitive disease, and human brain evolution. 2009; 74 : 375-82 Display abstract We have established that human genome sequences encoding a novel protein domain, DUF1220, show a dramatically elevated copy number in the human lineage >200copies in humans vs. Copy-number variations CNVs in the 1q21.1 region, where mostDUF1220 sequences map, have now been implicated in numerous diseases associatedwith cognitive dysfunction, including autism, autis...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/do_annotation.pl?DOMAIN=DUF1220&BLAST=DUMMY
*  Bio-IT World
New studies of the bacterium that causes anthrax will involve “a lot more sequencing, phylogenetic context, and developing molecular signatures for strains,” says P. New phylogenetic trees could also provide better analytical tools for predicting the functions of unknown proteins. In new findings, Keim and colleagues at Los Alamos and TIGR have recently identified differences among several Ames samples. TIGR intends to sequence the genomes of as many as 14 anthrax strains from around the world, far more than have been sequenced for any other species. “What is needed is an archive containing a fair number of samples and a strategy for going from sequencing of multiple, whole genomes to finding regions containing highly specific molecular signatures,” White says. The Los Alamos group is developing a process for establishing such signatures in any pathogen based on a molecular taxonomic approach, which White describes as the “rational design of DNA signatures.” The development of such signatures for bacteria is ...
http://bio-itworld.com/archive/040702/anthrax/

Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Poltava (chicken)Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Discoverer 23Aztec mummy: Aztec mummy refers to an intentionally prepared or naturally desiccated human body of Aztec origin.Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchPaleopathology: Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases. It is useful in understanding the history of diseases, and uses this understanding to predict its course in the future.The Flash ChroniclesIppolito de' MediciCaninia (genus)Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Coles PhillipsBeaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.Indigenous peoples of SiberiaDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Motu MatakoheGenetic variation: right|thumbGene duplication: Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.Timeline of historic inventionsLa Chapelle-aux-Saints 1: La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 (also known as "The Old Man") is a partial skeleton of the species Homo neanderthalensis. It was discovered in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France by A.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.List of Indus Valley Civilization sites: "'Indus Civilization"' is an ancient civilization.RPTN: RPTN is a gene that encodes the protein repetin. Repetin is an extracellular epidermal matrix protein.List of asbestos disease medical articles: Thousands of scientific and medical articles have chronicled human understanding of the hazards of asbestos to human life.Environmental Working Group, List of References regarding asbestos hazards This understanding paralleled the growth of the industrial revolution, particularly in the textile factories and mines of Great Britain.Parchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Mammoth Hot SpringsQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.CS-BLASTCambrian–Ordovician extinction eventEratosthenesProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.List of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.St. Herman's Blue Hole National Park: St. Herman's Blue Hole National Park is a national park located just off the Hummingbird Highway in Cayo District of Belize, near Belmopan, the capital city.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Index of geology articles: This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:Crime and punishment in the Bible: The Hebrew Bible is considered a holy text in most Abrahamic religions. It records a large number of events and laws that are endorsed or proscribed by the God of Israel.ParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.California Wolf Center: California Wolf Center is a 501(c)3 nonprofit located 50 miles east of San Diego, near the town of Julian, California. It is a one-of-a-kind, conservation, education, and research center dedicated to wolf recovery in the wild.Harry Kane (illustrator): Harry Kane (Kirchner) (July 2, 1912 - March 1988) was a twentieth century American illustrator and artist who was born Harry Kirchner and was of Russian/Jewish descent. Primarily known for his work on the children's books, "The Three Investigators", he had a career that spanned over 50 years, doing work on paperback covers, advertising art, men's adventure magazines, movie posters and much more.Augustine AnieboMedical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.Nome (Egypt): Nome}}Lunar magma ocean: According to the giant impact hypothesis a large amount of energy was liberated in the formation of the Moon and it is predicted that as a result a large portion of the Moon was once completely molten, forming a lunar magma ocean. Evidence for the magma ocean hypothesis comes from the highly anorthositic compositions of the crust in the lunar highlands, as well as the existence of rocks with a high concentration of the geochemical component referred to as KREEP.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGA²LENNegroid: Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a term that is used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The term is commonly associated with notions of racial typology, which are disputed by many anthropologists.Anna of Byzantium (novel): Anna of Byzantium is a historical novel by Tracy Barrett originally published in 1998.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesHorizontal gene transfer in evolutionYamaha Grizzly 600: The Yamaha Grizzly is a large utility all-terrain vehicle manufactured by the Yamaha Motor Company. It has a 595cc four-stroke engine from the XT600.Thermal cyclerMIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009BrachiopodSelection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.NADH-QSymbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: [Martian hemispheres by MOLA.jpg|right|thumb|260px|MOLA topographic images of the two hemispheres of Mars.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health: Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health (MVAH) (also known as Maharishi Ayurveda or Maharishi Vedic Medicine) is a form of alternative medicine founded in the mid-1980s by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who developed the Transcendental Meditation technique (TM). Distinct from traditional ayurveda, it emphasizes the role of consciousness, and gives importance to positive emotions.Gene pool: The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.CapsasporaHuman tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.Professionalization and institutionalization of history: Professionalization and institutionalization of history is term used in historiography to describe process of professionalization of the historical discipline with historians becoming professionals through process of special education, and genesis of historical institutions they founded.Brugsch Papyrus: The Brugsch Papyrus (Pap. Berl.AmborellaNational Bison Range herd: The National Bison Range herd of American bison at the National Bison Range Wildlife Refuge in Flathead Valley of the U.S.Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Oxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.Prophet Jeremiah (Michelangelo): The Prophet Jeremiah is one of the seven Old Testament prophets painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo (c. 1542–1545) on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.EcosystemSpanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.

(1/1126) The Ice Man's diet as reflected by the stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of his hair.

Establishing the diets of ancient human populations is an integral component of most archaeological studies. Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved bone collagen is the most direct approach for a general assessment of paleodiet. However, this method has been limited by the scarcity of well-preserved skeletal materials for this type of destructive analysis. Hair is preserved in many burials, but is often overlooked as an alternative material for isotopic analysis. Here we report that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for the hair of the 5200 year-old Ice Man indicates a primarily vegetarian diet, in agreement with his dental wear pattern. Whereas previous investigations have focused on bone collagen, the stable isotope composition of hair may prove to be a more reliable proxy for paleodiet reconstruction, particularly when skeletal remains are not well preserved and additional archaeological artifacts are unavailable.  (+info)

(2/1126) Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair.

Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artefacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information, for example, concerning incidence of disease, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopic compositions, especially those made on isolates of collagen from bones, have been used to help suggest principal dietary components. A significant problem in the use of collagen is its long-term stability, and the possibility of isotopic alteration during early diagenesis, or through contaminating condensation reactions. In this study, we suggest that a commonly overlooked material, human hair, may represent an ideal material to be used in addressing human diets of ancient civilizations. Through the analysis of the amino-acid composition of modern hair, as well as samples that were subjected to radiation (thus simulating ageing of the hair) and hair from humans that is up to 5200 years old, we have observed little in the way of chemical change. The principal amino acids observed in all of these samples are essentially identical in relative abundances and content. Dominating the compositions are serine, glutamic acid, threonine, glycine and leucine, respectively accounting for approximately 15%, 17%, 10%, 8% and 8% of the total hydrolysable amino acids. Even minor components (for example, alanine, valine, isoleucine) show similar constancy between the samples of different ages. This constancy clearly indicates minimal alteration of the amino-acid composition of the hair. Further, it would indicate that hair is well preserved and is amenable to isotopic analysis as a tool for distinguishing sources of nutrition. Based on this observation, we have isotopically characterized modern individuals for whom the diet has been documented. Both stable nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions were assessed, and together provide an indication of trophic status, and principal type (C3 or C4) of vegetation consumed. True vegans have nitrogen isotope compositions of about 7/1000 whereas humans consuming larger amounts of meat, eggs, or milk are more enriched in the heavy nitrogen isotope. We have also analysed large cross-sections of modern humans from North America and Europe to provide an indication of the variability seen in a population (the supermarket diet). There is a wide diversity in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values based at least partially on the levels of seafood, corn-fed beef and grains in the diets. Following analysis of the ancient hair, we have observed similar trends in certain ancient populations. For example, the Coptics of Egypt (1000 BP) and Chinchorro of Chile (5000-800 BP) have diets of similar diversity to those observed in the modern group but were isotopically influenced by local nutritional sources. In other ancient hair (Egyptian Late Middle Kingdom mummies, ca. 4000 BP), we have observed a much more uniform isotopic signature, indicating a more constant diet. We have also recognized a primary vegetarian component in the diet of the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP). In certain cases, it appears that sulphur isotopes may help to further constrain dietary interpretations, owing to the good preservation and sulphur content of hair. It appears that analysis of the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites may represent a significant new approach for understanding ancient human communities.  (+info)

(3/1126) Preservation of key biomolecules in the fossil record: current knowledge and future challenges.

We have developed a model based on the analyses of modern and Pleistocene eggshells and mammalian bones which can be used to understand the preservation of amino acids and other important biomolecules such as DNA in fossil specimens. The model is based on the following series of diagenetic reactions and processes involving amino acids: the hydrolysis of proteins and the subsequent loss of hydrolysis products from the fossil matrix with increasing geologic age; the racemization of amino acids which produces totally racemized amino acids in 10(5)-10(6) years in most environments on the Earth; the introduction of contaminants into the fossil that lowers the enantiomeric (D:L) ratios produced via racemization; and the condensation reactions between amino acids, as well as other compounds with primary amino groups, and sugars which yield humic acid-like polymers. This model was used to evaluate whether useful amino acid and DNA sequence information is preserved in a variety of human, amber-entombed insect and dinosaur specimens. Most skeletal remains of evolutionary interest with respect to the origin of modern humans are unlikely to preserve useful biomolecular information although those from high latitude sites may be an exception. Amber-entombed insects contain well-preserved unracemized amino acids, apparently because of the anhydrous nature of the amber matrix, and thus may contain DNA fragments which have retained meaningful genetic information. Dinosaur specimens contain mainly exogenous amino acids, although traces of endogenous amino acids may be present in some cases. Future ancient biomolecule research which takes advantage of new methologies involving, for example, humic acid cleaving reagents and microchip-based DNA-protein detection and sequencing, along with investigations of very slow biomolecule diagenetic reactions such as the racemization of isoleucine at the beta-carbon, will lead to further enhancements of our understanding of biomolecule preservation in the fossil record.  (+info)

(4/1126) How microbial ancient DNA, found in association with human remains, can be interpreted.

The analysis of the DNA of ancient micro-organisms in archaeological and palaeontological human remains can contribute to the understanding of issues as different as the spreading of a new disease, a mummification process or the effect of diets on historical human populations. The quest for this type of DNA, however, can represent a particularly demanding task. This is mainly due to the abundance and diffusion of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and protozoans in the most diverse environments of the present-day biosphere and the resulting difficulty in distinguishing between ancient and modern DNA. Nevertheless, at least under some special circumstances, by using rigorous protocols, which include an archaeometric survey of the specimens and evaluation of the palaeoecological consistency of the results of DNA sequence analysis, glimpses of the composition of the original microbial flora (e.g. colonic flora) can be caught in ancient human remains. Potentials and pitfalls of this research field are illustrated by the results of research works performed on prehistoric, pre-Columbian and Renaissance human mummies.  (+info)

(5/1126) The molecular genetics of European ancestry.

In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP.  (+info)

(6/1126) The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective.

The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error.  (+info)

(7/1126) Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids.

The Hata Member of the Bouri Formation is defined for Pliocene sedimentary outcrops in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. The Hata Member is dated to 2.5 million years ago and has produced a new species of Australopithecus and hominid postcranial remains not currently assigned to species. Spatially associated zooarchaeological remains show that hominids acquired meat and marrow by 2.5 million years ago and that they are the near contemporary of Oldowan artifacts at nearby Gona. The combined evidence suggests that behavioral changes associated with lithic technology and enhanced carnivory may have been coincident with the emergence of the Homo clade from Australopithecus afarensis in eastern Africa.  (+info)

(8/1126) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia.

The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio.  (+info)


Why did all the ancient greeks have small penises or the representation of one?


I have been doing alot of research on the history of ancient greece and i have came across lots of pictures and sculpture photos and from reading articles, and it all seems as though they had smallish penises. I read an article on the fact that ancient greeks considered a smaller penis more masculine and desirable to the females. But my point is that when you see sculptures or photos of ancient greek athletes posing, they all seem to have small penises. Why is that the case?
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They considered small penises to be noble. Larger men were thought to be crude and unintelligent. might make sense if you consider that they knew very little about the body and a bigger penis would suggest that is all they would think about. It really just amounts to the powers-that-be at the time decided this because they had smaller penises but more learning. 

A similar prejudice was to people with tanned skin which we praise so much now. They were seen as boorish farmers who got a tan because they worked the land. The 'blue blooded' nobility were so called because their blue veins were more visible under their pale skin. Same thing with the penises. Strange huh but there you go. Now it would seem the bigger the better. Changing times with more informed people.


Why did all the ancient greeks have small penises or the representation of one?


I have been doing alot of research on the history of ancient greece and i have came across lots of pictures and sculpture photos and from reading articles, and it all seems as though they had smallish penises. I read an article on the fact that ancient greeks considered a smaller penis more masculine and desirable to women. But my point is that when you see sculptures or photos of ancient greek athletes posing, they all seem to have small penises. Why is this?
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The other explanation I have heard is that cultures considered barbaric by the Greeks created statues with large penis or phallic aspects - so smaller was considered less "barbaric" and more refined. Greeks considered a smaller than average penis to be part of ideal male beauty, as basically large was just too grotesque.

I heard it through the grape vine though and don't have a cite for that, so take it as it is.

Edit: Found more -  "It has also been pointed out that many of these images are of athletes, and during and immediately after hard exercise (and not only in cold water) the penis is considerably shrunk and the testicles hoist high. " http://www.circumstitions.com/Art1.html


Why did all the ancient greeks have small penises or the representation of one?


I have been doing alot of research for school on the history of ancient greece and i have came across lots of pictures and sculpture photos and from reading articles, and it all seems as though they had smallish penises. I read an article on the fact that ancient greeks considered a smaller penis more masculine and desirable to women. But my point is that when you see sculptures or photos of ancient greek athletes posing, they all seem to have small penises. Why is this?
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Cold Weather


I am 37 and have a history of depression and employment problems. How can I get employed. But not fast food?


I have had a history of job jumping. I have never been employed longer than 8 mths. Now I have been out of work for 3 years because of my trying to get well due to my major depression. I have a Vocational rehabilitation counselor and a employment specialist. But no one wants to look any further than my resume. I have experience in material handling(forklift certified). History of shipping/receiving and distribution 5 years worth. I have a family to take care of and I am desperate to fix this. But how and who?
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Have the Vocational Rehab counselor send you for retraining in a field that most interests you.  Then change your resume from chronological order and just say 5 years work history in _____. . .you did not say if the job hopping was due to the depression or if you were fired as a result of depression.  These things are like dominos. . . One follows the other.   Hard to know which came first the chicken or the egg.  You must delve inside and figure out why you job hopped.  Is it hard to work with others, or you did not like your work, or mentally you could just not function.  Learning these things about ourself will help you hone in on being successfull in you next job.  For example:  If it is others you don't like being around choose a field or work where you can work alone. All that advice is only if you are stable with the depression.  If the depression is not stable then you set yourself up for failure and more depression just like a boomerang.  Employment services don't normally care much but you do need a good supportive voc rehab worker.  If you are not getting the help there ask for a new one.


where can i find the history of bistro cooking in France?


The history of bistro cooking, or anything involved with it would really help me.
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Larousse Gastronomy
It is an excellent french cookbook that is translated to English and many other languages.  It has a complete culinary history of France including Bistros.  It also gives similar info on other countries like the US.  I think it is the all around best book for the study of food.


Do you face problems with your doctors and prefer our ancient home remedies which are more natural?


Our ancient home remedies are believed to be very natural, side effect free, effective and healthy.
Do you agree with this ??
Do you feel that if some Home Remedy guide comes handy then you will first follow it rather than going to your doctor??
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No they are not side effect free.  Natural does not mean safe.

And ancient does not mean effective. That's why we have modern medicine.

Home remedies are risky - especially where proper medical care is needed.  I would not consult a Home remedy "guide", rather I would go to proper medical sources - and remember that self diagnosis  is not always a good idea.


What is the history of food and beverage?


Im a 1st year hotel management student and i still dont know the food and beverage history? 

I need it...I cant find it in the internet
is there any history that shows all the food and beverage?
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Food and Beverage, F&B, is for all purposes a conceptual organization of all aspects of the food industry. The history of foods would go as far back as the beginnings of man as food was gathered and later cooked and prepared for people to eat. The chefs and cooks of medieval times also used tasters in the royal courts, as well servants to bring the feast to the table, and even hunters and farmers who either gathered or grew the fare to be eaten. Hundreds of years evolved through this type of food service to bring food and beverage into that "term", nomenclature we all have come to know. 
You may do better in searching for food service in the hotel and restaurant industry for a history of such employment practices and ideals. The food and beverage industry is becoming a major source of employment globally and much has changed in the way it is managed and programed into the workplace of hotels, clubs, restaurants and all types of bars and dining establishments.
It is an honorable profession and well worth the time to pursue, good luck in your endeavors.


what is the history of peanut brittle?


I have to write a paper on something we make for the holidays. we have to include the history of this item. does anyone know the history of peanut brittle? where did it come from? when was it first introduced. if you don't know then do you know of a website that would answer my question? please help me fast!!thanks in advance.
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Peanut brittle is a Celtic holiday treat made by concentrating peanut butter into a sugar such as molasses or table sugar, roasting it in the oven for 20 minutes and served with cream or butter.  Of course the peanut itself came from Africa, but that is by geography, not history.  The peanut brittle was introduced to the United States in 1830 by Zodian Irishmen who had a reputation for their cooking.  They explained foremost that the brittle itself symbolized Ariel Merlin as the Second Coming of Christ, a joke used to describe Jessica Frodo's bravery into destroying a twisted ring of power.  Since she ascended into Heaven in complete flesh and blood, the brittle represents the bread of Christ, which is his "flesh."  The ale humorously represents the wine as alcoholic beverages are forbidden in Marin.  Real peanuts werwe used in 1928 by philanthropists into whom were touched by the religious spirit of the dish, since Zodian peanut brittle first used almonds and pumpkin seeds.