Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Immune System Phenomena: The characteristic properties and processes involved in IMMUNITY and an organism's immune response.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Mice, Inbred C3HHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Psychoneuroimmunology: The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Monitoring, Immunologic: Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.HemocyaninBacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hemic and Immune Systems: Organs involved in the production of BLOOD, including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defense against foreign organisms or substances.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.

*  Stranger than you can imagine: Mechanism for mitochondria failure during immune system activation
Mechanism for mitochondria failure during immune system activation. The roots of autism : How immune system activation can cause regression with/without autism and with/without mitochondrial failure. The main focus of this article is on the generation of superoxide by mitochondria under high NO levels causing mitochondria depletion which causes high superoxide due to higher mitochondrial potential. Acute mitochondria failure In a nutshell, mitochondria failure during immune system activation results from mitochondria being pushed to a high potential where they generate a high superoxide flux under conditions of high NO. That is, the cells become so depleted in ATP that they do not have enough ATP to repair the damage and recover. NO happens to be an important one in the context of immune system activation. Because much of the regulation of mitochondria depends on the interplay between NO and superoxide, what happens when mitochondria don't make enough superoxide. If the number of mitochondria drops below the ...
http://daedalus2u.blogspot.com/2008/06/mechanism-for-mitochondria-failure.html
*  Month of birth impacts on immune system development
... Newborn babies’ immune system development and levels of vitamin D have been found to vary according to their month of birth, according to new research. Image credit: Milan Jurek The research, from scientists at Queen Mary, University of London and the University of Oxford, provides a potential biological basis as to why an individual’s risk of developing the neurological condition multiple sclerosis MS is influenced by their month of birth. In this study, samples of cord blood – blood extracted from a newborn baby’s umbilical cord – were taken from 50 babies born in November and 50 born in May between 2009 and 2010 in London. The blood was analysed to measure levels of vitamin D and levels of autoreactive T-cells. by the immune system during its development. The results showed that the May babies had significantly lower levels of vitamin D around 20 per cent lower than those born in November and significantly higher levels approximately double of these autoreactive T-cells, compared to the sample of Nove...
http://qmul.ac.uk/media/news/items/smd/95198.html
*  Immune system development in foals
... >> Mobile Site Home of dvm360 magazine Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Economics Firstline The CVC Group. CVC. Equine news. Immune system development in foals In Part 1 of this series, an equine research team explains two key immune factors transfer of proinflammatory cytokines to the foal and the foal's ability to respond to antigens. A group of Cornell researchers that included Felippe found that "the transfer of cytokines in colostrum to equine neonates could have immunomodulatory effects and help with protection early in life. Perhaps foals with inadequate colostral ingestion and absorption may be more susceptible to infectious diseases not only because of the critical concentrations of IgG but also because of low proinflammatory cytokine transfer from colostrum—both important to help fight off pathogens before competence of their own immune systems are developed." 1. This research determined that "serum TNF-alpha concentrations were high in postsuckle samples, though essentially undetectable in presu...
http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/immune-system-development-foals
*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  LRI Grant Recipients | Lupus Research Institute
2005 New Treatments, Human Lupus Biology. 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Cardiovascular System, Human Lupus Biology 2010 Human Lupus Biology 2011 Kidney. 2001 Biomarkers, General Immune System Function.Human Lupus Biology 2004 Biomarkers. 2015 Cell Signaling, Kidney, Target Identification, Immune System Function 2003/2004 Biomarkers, Kidney 2009 B Cells, Kidney, New Treatments. 2014 B cells, Target Identification, General Immune System Function, Human Lupus Biology 2001 Central Nervous System. 2006 Central Nervous System, Human Lupus Biology 2014 Skin, Environmental Triggers, Dendritic cells. 2003/2004 Why the Lupus Immune System Reacts to Its Own DNA, Human Lupus Biology. 2015 New Treatments, Target Identification, Biomarkers, Immune System Function. 2005 General Immune System Function 2011 General Immune System Function, Skin. 2013 Cell Signaling, General Immune System Function, Target Identification. 2005 Cardiovascular System 2014 General Immune System Function, B cells, T cells, Human Lupus Biology. 2001 Kidney 2...
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*  ARS | Publication request: Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune Sys
ARS. Publication request: Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets ARS : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets Authors. Submitted to: Meeting Abstract Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: April 22, 2011 Publication Date: July 16, 2011 Citation: Montiel, E., Wilson, J., Buhr, R.J., Cox Jr, N.A., Mclendon, B., Rigsby, L.L. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets. Technical Abstract: Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vacci...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=267161
*  Top 10 Vitamins to Help a Weak Immune System
... Muscle building protein diet. vitamins to help a weak immune system normal cellular functioning immune system diseases and disorders antioxidants vitamins to help weak immune system daily allowance of vitamins vitamin regime daily intake of vitamins hair growth enhancer bariatric care types of bariatric care increased blood flow symptoms of immune system failure vitamin overdose endurance and stamina bariatric vitamin supplements ester c with bioflavinoids vitamin intake hair and nail supplements immune system vitamins and minerals. Vitamins. Top 10 Vitamins to Help a Weak Immune System. Symptoms of immune system failure such as immune system diseases and disorders can be alleviated by vitamins to help a weak immune system. Below is a list of the top ten immune system vitamins and minerals. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that attacks free radicals in the body that cause immune symptoms of immune system failure. Vitamin A is one of the best vitamins to help a weak immune system. Coenzyme Q10 improves...
http://invigorate360.com/reviews/top-10-vitamins-to-help-a-weak-immune-system/
*  Innate immune system can kill HIV when a viral gene is deactivated
... March 28, 2013 in Medicine Health / HIV & AIDS Human cells have an intrinsic capacity to destroy HIV. When this gene is removed from the virus, the innate human immune system destroys HIV by mutating it to the point where it can no longer survive. This phenomenon has been shown in test tube laboratory experiments, but now researchers at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have demonstrated that the same phenomenon occurs in a humanized mouse model, suggesting a promising new target for tackling the virus, which has killed nearly 30 million people worldwide since it first appeared three decades ago. A family of human proteins called APOBEC3 effectively restrict the growth of HIV and other viruses, but this action is fully counteracted by the viral infectivity factor gene vif in HIV. In the study, researchers intravenously infected humanized mice with HIV. They found that the most commonly transmitted strains of HIV are completely neutralized by APOBEC3 proteins when vif is removed from the...
http://medicalxpress.com/print283707538.html
*  Babies' Immune Systems May Stand Down To Let Good Microbes Grow | KTTZ
Babies Immune Systems May Stand Down To Let Good Microbes Grow. KTTZ. Donate. Menu. Channel 5. TV Schedule. Contact Us. KTTZ Kids Club. Inside Texas Tech. 24 Frames. East Lubbock Promise Neighborhood. Between Earth and Sky. American Graduate. Texas Graduate Initiative. Production Submissions. KTTZ 89.1 FM. KTTZ FM Schedule. KTTZ-HD2 Schedule. KTTZ-HD3 BBC Schedule. Contact Us. Hosts. Clint Barrick. Alexa Vogelzang. Paul Hunton. Contact Us. KNCH Schedule. Donate Now. Menu. Channel 5. TV Schedule. Contact Us. KTTZ Kids Club. Inside Texas Tech. 24 Frames. East Lubbock Promise Neighborhood. Between Earth and Sky. American Graduate. Texas Graduate Initiative. Production Submissions. KTTZ 89.1 FM. KTTZ FM Schedule. KTTZ-HD2 Schedule. KTTZ-HD3 BBC Schedule. Contact Us. Hosts. Clint Barrick. Alexa Vogelzang. Paul Hunton. Contact Us. KNCH Schedule. Donate Now. Babies Immune Systems May Stand Down To Let Good Microbes Grow By. A newborn's immune system is deliberately not doing battle with every germ that comes along s...
http://kttz.org/post/babies-immune-systems-may-stand-down-let-good-microbes-grow
*  The impact of perinatal immune development on mucosal homeostasis and chronic inflammation
... Article The impact of perinatal immune development on mucosal homeostasis and chronic inflammation. Harald Renz. Harald Renz Philipps-Universität Marburg Message author. Impact Factor: 34.99. Several environmental factors promote the perinatal programming of the immune system, including colonization of the gut and airways by commensal microorganisms. In epithelial organs such as lung, breast, and intestine, postnatal organogenesis is regulated by communication between epithelial cells and innate immune cells Reed and Schwertfeger, 2010; Renz et al., 2012. Adaptive Immune Regulation of Mammary Postnatal Organogenesis. Innate immune cells have beneficial roles in postnatal tissue remodeling, but roles for the adaptive immune system are currently unexplored. We found that antigen-mediated interactions between mammary antigen-presenting cells and interferon-γ IFNγ -producing CD4+ T helper 1 cells participate in MG postnatal organogenesis as negative regulators, locally orchestrating epithelial rearrangement....
http://researchgate.net/publication/51868391_The_impact_of_perinatal_immune_development_on_mucosal_homeostasis_and_chronic_inflammation
*  Individual Human Immune Systems Can Be Copied in Mice | Gadgets, Science & Technology
Individual Human Immune Systems Can Be Copied in Mice. Gadgets, Science & Technology. Gadgets. Science. Technology. Vehicles. Vintage & Retro. Individual Human Immune Systems Can Be Copied in Mice. Treating type I diabetes and other immune disorders is so hard partially because researchers aren t really sure why some people develop the disease while others don t. To make immune disorders and their treatments easier to study, scientists at the Columbia University Medical Center have come up with a way to replicate individual humans immune systems in mice. The mouse immune models will provide an unprecedented opportunity for research into why some people develop immune diseases, but they will also allow doctors to try out treatments without risking human patients health. See more in Medical Marvels or under Science. Gadgets. Science. Technology. Vehicles. Vintage. :::Collections::: Gadgets Audio TV Camera Video Clocks Watches Computers Gaming Geek Home Personal Phones Mobile Various Gizmos. Science Earth Nature...
http://gajitz.com/individual-human-immune-systems-can-be-copied-in-mice/
*  “How did our adaptive immune system evolve?” | Research
“How did our adaptive immune system evolve?”. Skip to main content UK HealthCare CoM Home Apply Visit Alumni Giving Directory Services. Search form Search. Office of Research. Research Facilities Management. Research Communications. Administrative Services. Bridge Funding. Financial Conflict of Interest Disclosure. Lab SOP Templates. Research Space Management. Core Facilities. “How did our adaptive immune system evolve?”. Date: Jun 6 2013 - 12:00pm. Event Category: DDLS Speaker: Max D. Cooper, MD. Institute: Emory University. Max D. Cooper, M.D. Immunology Emory University. Research Interests Our immune system can recognize all kinds of potential microbial invaders, repel them, remember them, and prevent their reinvasion by producing pathogen-specific antibodies. We seek to understand how the different types of cells in the immune system develop and function together for effective immunity. Research Vision The different components of our complex immune system evolved in concert through powerful and enduring s...
http://research.med.uky.edu/events/ddls-6-6-2013
*  Immune Troops! Move In! Book - Immune system
Immune Troops. Move In. Book - Immune system. Arts. Biographies. Business. Education. Gay Lesbian. Health. History. Law. Literature. Medical. Free Ebooks. Immune Troops. Move In. Immune Troops. Move In. Book: Name: Immune Troops. Move In. by Shauna Hutton Your body has a very special system that protects you from illness and disease. Immune Troops. Move In!:. http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/reading-comp/5th-immune-system.pdf Download PDF . Immune Troops. Move In. Vote: 1 2 3 4 5 Related to Immune Troops. Move In!:. The Immune System The Immune System Your body has an immune system. Your immune system is made up. The Immune System.. 03–5423 September 2003 www.niaid.nih.gov www.nci.nih.gov NIAID Cover.ƒ 10/27/03 11:37 AM Page 1 Understanding the Immune System. Immune Lymphatic Notes I. Immune System A. Our bodies defense systems to disease can be divided into 2 categories: our nonspecific resistance innate defenses which are defense mechanisms. Lesson 1: The Immune System - Lecture Notes. The immun...
http://free.ebooks6.com/Immune-Troops!-Move-In!-download-w19210.html
*  Babies' Immune Systems May Stand Down To Let Good Microbes Grow | Valley Public Radio
Babies Immune Systems May Stand Down To Let Good Microbes Grow. Valley Public Radio. skip to main content NPR For Central California. Menu. Environment. Morning Edition. Valley Edition. The California Report. Classics All Night. Concierto. Jazz Night In America. New York Philharmonic. Sunday Baroque. The Oasis. The Intersection. The Thistle Shamrock. Weekend Classics. Thomas Jefferson Hour. The Moth Radio Hour. America s Test Kitchen. The Best of Car Talk. Philosophy Talk. Radiolab. TED Radio Hour. The Moth. Wait Wait, Don t Tell Me. Membership Events. Membership. Update Sustainer Info. Corporate Sponsorship. Staff. Corporate Partners Foundations. EEO Report. Special Projects List. Policies. Financial Statement. Contact. Listener Feedback. Podcasts. Audiophile Magazine. Social Media. FM89 Calendar. Menu. Environment. Morning Edition. Valley Edition. The California Report. Originally published on November 6, 2013 12:27 pm Here's possible solace for parents who are up at night with a baby who gets sick all the ...
http://kvpr.org/post/babies-immune-systems-may-stand-down-let-good-microbes-grow
*  Ancient "Jumping DNA" May Have Evolved Into Key Component Of Human Immune System -- ScienceDaily
... Ancient "Jumping DNA" May Have Evolved Into Key Component Of Human Immune System. Date: August 21, 1998 Source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute Summary: The human immune system, an elegant and intricate biological defense system unmatched in most life forms, may have evolved from a mobile piece of DNA that inserted itself into the mammalian genome more than 450 million years ago. This system of genetic recombination is at the heart of Schatz's study. All of these species possess immune systems that use genetic recombination. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "Ancient "Jumping DNA" May Have Evolved Into Key Component Of Human Immune System." ScienceDaily. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Ancient "Jumping DNA" May Have Evolved Into Key Component Of Human Immune System. Retrieved October 4, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/08/980821085953.htm Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "Ancient "Jumping DNA" May Have Evolved Into Key Component Of Human Immune System." ScienceDaily. RELATED TOPICS. Health Me...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/08/980821085953.htm
*  Understanding the Immune System - HIV/AIDS Resource Center for the Newly Diagnosed - TheBody.com
... HIV/AIDS Basics. Key Cells of the Immune System Some key cells of the immune system are: Neutrophils Dendritic cells and macrophages Helper and Killer T cells Natural killer cells B cells. When CD4 cells "see" the antigens displayed, they get busy and put the word out to other immune system cells. In other words, these cells coordinate and direct the activity of other types of immune cells -- such as killer T cells, B cells, and macrophages -- calling them into action to fight the intruder. Both killer T cells and suppressor T cells are also known as CD8 cells. Natural Killer Cells Natural killer, or NK cells also destroy infected or abnormal cells. NK cells are an important part of the early response to viral infections because they kill cells infected by virus while the body is recruiting killer T cells into action. B Cells and Antibodies B cells are another type of immune cell that is activated by CD4 cells. HIV and the Immune System In people living with HIV HIV+ , the virus attacks the CD4 cells tha...
http://thebody.com/content/art58843.html?getPage=2
*  Nonspecific immune cell
... Non-specific immune cells function in the first line of defense against infection or injury. The cells of the innate immune system do not have specific responses and respond to each foreign invader using the same mechanism. Innate Immunity. The Innate Immune System Cells of the Innate Immune System Macrophages. Dendritic Cells. The Innate Immune System. There are two categories to which parts of the immune system are assigned: the non-specific, or innate immune system and the adaptive immune system .The non-specific response is a generalized response to pathogen infections involving the use of several white blood cells and plasma proteins. thumb|Phagocytosis in Three Steps Macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells are all cells of the innate immune system that utilize phagocytosis and are equipped with Toll-like receptors TLR. These cells that participate in the non-specific immune system response do not differentiate between types of microorganisms but do have the ability to discern between what is ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonspecific_immune_cell
*  Medical Xpress - immune system(... continued page 4)
Medical Xpress - immune system ... Home immune system. News tagged with immune system. Related topics: cells · immune cells · immune response · bacteria · protein. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Aug 31, 2015 5 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Aug 31, 2015 25 0. Aug 27, 2015 11 0. Cancer. Researchers thwart cancer cells by triggering 'virus alert'. Working with human cancer cell lines and mice, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and elsewhere have found a way to trigger a type of immune system "virus alert" that may one day boost cancer patients' ... Aug 27, 2015 226 0. Cancer. Aug 27, 2015 47 0. Medical research. Aug 24, 2015 10 0. Aug 24, 2015 20 0. Cancer. Blood vessel cells help tumours evade the immune system. A study by researchers at Sweden's Karolinska Institutet is the first to suggest that cells in the tumour blood vessels contribute to a local environment that protects the cancer cells from tumour-killing immune cells. Aug 24, 2015 10 0. Aug 21, 2015 73 0. Aug 20, 2015 41 0. ...
http://medicalxpress.com/tags/immune system/page4.html
*  Immune System
... ABOUT BROWARD HEALTH. Home / Kids Health Kids Health. Immune System. About the Immune System. Problems of the Immune System. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease. One of the important cells involved are white blood cells, also called leukocytes, which come in two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. Problems of the Immune System Disorders of the immune system fall into four main categories:. immunodeficiency disorders primary or acquired autoimmune disorders in which the body's own immune system attacks its own tissue as foreign matter allergic disorders in which the immune system overreacts in response to an antigen cancers of the immune system Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunodeficiencies happen when a part of the immune system is missing or not working properly. HIV human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndr...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=Chris_Evert_Childrens_Hospital&lic=306&cat_id=20091&article_set=20542&tracking=P_RelatedArticle
*  Dr David Williams - Search Results for Penetran Plus
... Immune Health. Healthy Directions Products. Top Sellers Joint Advantage Gold. Probiotic Advantage. Daily Advantage. View Health A-Z. Catalog Quick Order. Sort By: Top Sellers Lowest Price Highest Price Rating. AM-PM Bladder Control Advantage 60 tablets, 30-day supply Item## BAP $34.99 convenient AM-PM blister pack New AM-PM Bladder Control Advantage® promotes urinary continence and helps reduce the constant urge to go day or night. Vision Advantage 90 capsules, 30-day supply Item## VAD $39.99 -blind, placebo studies have shown that a special form of astaxanthin reduces the symptoms of eyestrain and fatigue and improves dimness of sight. Super Healthy Prostate 30-day supply, 120 softgels Item## SHP $49.99 prostate health support and control. Probiotic Advantage Ultra-20 60 tablets, 30-day supply Item## UPB $44.99 bacteria on your intestinal wall—creating a "fortress" that helps to keep unwanted organisms out of your gut—and supports proper immune function. Daily Advantage and Probiotic Advantage Kit 30-da...
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*  Your Immune System: The Basics
... Breastcancer.org. Search Breastcancer.org. Day-to-Day Matters. Search Breastcancer.org. Day-to-Day Matters. Your Immune System: The Basics. Your Immune System: The Basics. When microbes make it past these protective coverings, though, your immune system’s organs, tissues, and cells are there to fight off the invaders. To launch an immune response, your body has to be able to tell the difference between cells or substances that are “self” part of you versus “non-self” not part of you and potentially harmful. All of your body’s cells carry specific proteins on their surfaces that help the immune system recognize them as “self.” That’s why the immune system usually doesn’t attack your body’s own tissues. “Non-self” materials have proteins and other substances on their surfaces that the body doesn’t recognize, called antigens. Antigens trigger the immune system to attack them and whatever they’re attached...
http://breastcancer.org/tips/immune/defense
*  Dr David Williams - Search Results for Calcium
... Shop Vitamins & Supplements. Bone Joint Health. Healthy Directions Products. Top Sellers Joint Advantage Gold. Bone Joint Health. Catalog Quick Order. Sort By: Top Sellers Lowest Price Highest Price Rating. Vitamin D3 5,000 IU 30 softgels, 30-day supply Item## VDH $9.99 Vitamin D3 offers year-round support for optimal health * Supports bone health and physical mobility * Aids in calcium absorption * Helps the body process sugar * Supports healthy metabolism Our bodies require sunshine to make Vitamin D. MK-7 30 softgels, 30-day supply Item## HMK $27.99 MK-7 shuttles calcium out of your bloodstream and into your bones * Supports bone and cardiovascular health * Helps strengthen bones and increase bone density levels * Aids in calcium absorption * Supports optimal calcium utilization * Promotes normal blood clotting Calcium is extremely important for. Daily Advantage & Probiotic Advantage Extra Strength Kit 30-day supply Item## YAE $89.98 adrenal and stress response, energy production, immune system functi...
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*  Dr David Williams - Search Results for Homocysteine
... Shop Vitamins & Supplements. Bone Joint Health. Healthy Directions Products. Top Sellers Joint Advantage Gold. Daily Advantage. Bone Joint Health. Catalog Quick Order. Sort By: Top Sellers Lowest Price Highest Price Rating. Daily Advantage & Probiotic Advantage Extra Strength Kit 30-day supply Item## YAE $89.98 of essential vitamins and minerals, starting with the full B-vitamin family. This means great protection for your cardiovascular health, normal homocysteine levels, adrenal and stress response, energy production, immune system function, and more. Folic acid promotes normal homocysteine levels for optimal cognitive function. Daily Advantage 60 packets, 30-day supply Item## DAD $54.99 of essential vitamins and minerals, starting with the full B-vitamin family. This means great protection for your cardiovascular health, normal homocysteine levels, adrenal and stress response, energy production, immune system function, and more. Vision Advantage 90 capsules, 30-day supply Item## VAD $39.99 in hand wit...
http://drdavidwilliams.com/search/go?p=Q&lbc=drdavidwilliams&sli_id=766598278&ts=custom&w=Homocysteine&isort=score&method=and&view=list&modaf=daf:1 a:type:articles
*  Immune System Supplements | Dr. Whitaker - Rapid Immune Daily
Immune System Supplements. Dr. Whitaker - Rapid Immune Daily. Dr. Julian Whitaker View Cart 0. Shop Vitamins & Supplements. Blood Sugar Support. Immune Health. Healthy Directions Products. New Products. Omega-3s. Omega-3. B Vitamins. Top Sellers Forward Plus. View Health A-Z. Blood Sugar. Whitaker. About Dr. Whitaker. Dr. Special Offers. Catalog Quick Order. Shop Vitamins Supplements. Rapid Immune Daily® 60 capsules, 30-day supply. Rapid Immune Daily® 60 capsules, 30-day supply. Immune System Vitamins Supplements Item# EPC. Rapid Immune Daily helps: Strengthen your immune system Keep your immune system primed and ready for action Promote natural killer cell activity Reduce cortisol levels and reduce stress and anxiety Provide antioxidant protection against free-radical damage. Plus , it tackles the other side effects of stress, helping to: Promote normal blood sugar levels Support normal blood lipids Lower levels of C-reactive protein. Whitaker has developed this new immune supplement to support your entire i...
http://drwhitaker.com/special-offers-presidentsday-sale/rapid-immune-daily/
*  NK 9 AHCC Immune System Support 30 Capsules American Bioscience - Compare Price and Reviews at Vit
American BioSciences NK 9 AHCC for pets helps provide unsurpassed support for a pet's immune system, especially their NK cells - a type of white blood cell known as the immune system's front-line defense. They put “helping people” over “selling products” and so encourage consumers who want to use their products to become knowledgeable about their health conditions – to learn the causes of these health problems, how they progress, what diagnostic techniques, and the risks and benefits of their “conventional therapy” options, so they know how to evaluate the natural and nutritional therapies. Once daily use of Avé is shown to support healthy cell metabolic regulation in vulnerable cells and promote immune system modulation, resulting in a healthy cellular and humoral Th1/Th2 immune system balance. NK-9 Immune System Support for pets helps provide unsurpassed support for a pet's immune system, especially their NK cells - a type of white blood cell known as the immune system's front-line defense. American BioScie...
http://vitadigest.com/ab-nk-9-ahcc-30.html
*  Immunogenicity
In other words, immunogenicity is the ability to induce a humoral and/or cell mediated immune response. The ability of an antigen to elicit immune responses is called immunogenicity, which can be humoral and/or cell-mediated immune responses. Wanted immunogenicity is typically related with vaccines, where the injection of an antigen the vaccine provokes an immune response against the pathogen virus, bacteria... 1 Unwanted immunogenicity is an immune response by an organism against a therapeutic antigen ex. 3 Antigenic immunogenic potency Protein drugs Antigens Evaluation methods T cell epitopes See also References. Protein drugs. Factors including delivery route, delivery vehicle, dose regimen, aggregation, innate immune system activation, and the ability of the protein to interface with the humoral B cell and cellular T cell immune systems, all impact the potential immunogenicity of vaccine immunogens when delivered to humans for reviews related to unwanted immunogenicity determinants, see references below. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunogenicity
*  Immune System
... Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease. The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. One of the important cells involved are white blood cells, also called leukocytes, which come in two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. phagocytes, cells that chew up invading organisms lymphocytes, cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them A number of different cells are considered phagocytes. Problems of the Immune System Disorders of the immune system fall into four main categories:. immunodeficiency disorders primary or acquired autoimmune disorders in which the body's own immune system attacks its own tissue as foreign matter allergic disorders in which the immune system overreacts in response to an antigen cancers of the immune sy...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=RadyChildrensHospital&lic=102&cat_id=20091&article_set=20542&tracking=P_RelatedArticle
*  Immune System
... About the Immune System. Problems of the Immune System. Autoimmune Disorders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease. One of the important cells involved are white blood cells, also called leukocytes, which come in two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. phagocytes , cells that chew up invading organisms lymphocytes , cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them A number of different cells are considered phagocytes. immunodeficiency disorders primary or acquired autoimmune disorders in which the body's own immune system attacks its own tissue as foreign matter allergic disorders in which the immune system overreacts in response to an antigen cancers of the immune system Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunodeficiencies happen when a part of the immune system is missing or not working properly....
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=K_HovnanianChildrens_Hospital&lic=184&cat_id=20664&article_set=20542&tracking=P_RelatedArticle
*  Butler, Party of 3: Boost Your Immune System
... Tuesday, February 21, 2012. Boost Your Immune System. Here are some simple practices you can do to help boost your immune system. Studies show that these types of food can actually weaken your immune system. Check out the product on Amazon and read all the benefits .it s AWESOME for you and helps strengthen your immune system. Get enough sleep. When your body is sleep deprived, your body automatically goes into survival mode and your immune system is compromised. Even if you eat healthy, the soil is not as nutrient rich as it once was, and most of our food still has deficiencies. Exercise. I totally understand that some people don t like to work out, but there are things I don t like to do that I do anyway because it is important. Not to mention, exercise helps with stress and can lead to a stronger immune system. Stress weakens our immune system, and something as simple as taking the time to breathe deeply a few times a day can reduce your stress levels. Taking a few preventative measures to boost your ...
http://butlerpartyof3.com/2012/02/boost-your-immune-system.html
*  .. HIV, The Happy Exosome .. Post navigation .. What is AIDS .. “Previously Healthy Young Gay Men
What is AIDS. These bubbles, some of the time, and in some cases, they called “LAV” or “HTLV-iii,” and later “HIV.”. If the little bubble causes immune deficiency, by killing T-Cells. “Until recently, prevailing dogma said HIV causes AIDS by killing T-cells. Silvestri and Feinberg inform us that, “Prevailing views…have shifted from models that focus primarily on direct HIV-mediated killing of CD4+ T cells to models that emphasize the pathogenic role of generalized immune system activation.” In other words, HIV no longer causes AIDS by killing our immune cells, as Gallo contends, but by boosting our immune system.” Rethinking Aids.com/Gallo Rebuttal. Let’s see what mainstream AIDS researchers think about T-Cells and “HIV/LAV/HTLV-iii.”. Although twelve years have passed since the identification of HIV as the cause of AIDS, we do not yet know how HIV kills its target, the CD4+ T cell, nor how this killing cripples the immune system. Prominent theories include direct killing of infected CD4+ T cells by the...
http://liamscheff.com/2011/02/hiv-the-happy-exosome/
*  September 2001: Stress and your Immune System: Vitamins, supplements benefit immune system?
September 2001: Stress and your Immune System: Vitamins, supplements benefit immune system. Breastcancer.org. Search Breastcancer.org. Day-to-Day Matters. Search Breastcancer.org. Day-to-Day Matters. Ask-The-Expert Conferences: Day-to-Day Matters. September 2001: Stress and your Immune System. Vitamins, supplements benefit immune system. Vitamins, supplements benefit immune system. Question from Ms Believin : Can vitamins and supplements be of any benefit in helping to strengthen the immune system. Answers - Marisa C. There is no question that good nutrition is necessary for a healthy immune system and that means a healthy variety of proteins, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamins, fluids, etc. On Wednesday, September 19, 2001, our Ask-the-Expert Online Conference was called Stress and Your Immune System. and Marisa Weiss, M.D. answered your questions on how stress affects your treatment, and what you can do to boost your immune system. The materials presented in these conferences do not necessarily reflect ...
http://breastcancer.org/tips/ask_expert/2001_09/question_12
*  The Immune System - Resource Center on Starting HIV Treatment - TheBody.com
... The Immune System Part of A Practical Guide to HIV Drug Treatment for People Living With HIV From Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange. The immune system has many components, including the skin, mucous membranes and white blood cells. A CD4 cell is a type of white blood cell that is especially important to the immune system. The immune system is the body's defence against disease. It protects the body from disease-causing germs, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, as well as cancerous cells. Outside the Body The skin is your immune system's first line of defence. The immune system includes white blood cells, lymph nodes and body tissues, such as the tonsils and insides of the intestines. The lymphatic system is especially important in people with HIV. Inside these nodes and tissues, cells of the immune system trap, filter and destroy foreign material, including bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Although CD4 cells are very important for HIV-positive people, the other types of white...
http://thebody.com/content/63436/the-immune-system.html?nxtprv
*  .. How Do Antibiotics Destroy Your Immune System? .. How do Antibiotics affect the immune system? .
How Do Antibiotics Destroy Your Immune System. October 18, 2012 Immune System, Probiotics. Your immune system is on the lookout for foreign invaders 24-7. This includes germs, cell defects, and mutant cells. The immune system has the ability to remember harmful invaders and how to destroy them. Your immune cells are the hardest working and fastest growing cells in the body. Much of the work is done in the intestinal tract. “Over 80 percent of the body’s immunity is built in the intestinal tract by the friendly bacteria balance that resides there.” natural news When we are born, the body begins to populate our gut flora and immune system starts an inventory of good and bad cells. The body continues to process and manage this inventory throughout life. How do Antibiotics affect the immune system. A round of antibiotics permanently changes the immune system, as it indiscriminately kills bacteria. Since the good bacteria is killed along with the bad bacteria, the body’s ability to manufacture appro...
http://gobeyondorganic.com/how-do-antibiotics-destroy-your-immune-system
*  Immune System
... About the Immune System. Problems of the Immune System. Autoimmune Disorders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease. One of the important cells involved are white blood cells, also called leukocytes, which come in two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. phagocytes, cells that chew up invading organisms lymphocytes, cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them A number of different cells are considered phagocytes. immunodeficiency disorders primary or acquired autoimmune disorders in which the body's own immune system attacks its own tissue as foreign matter allergic disorders in which the immune system overreacts in response to an antigen cancers of the immune system Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunodeficiencies happen when a part of the immune system is missing or not working properly. H...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=ChildrensHealthNetwork&lic=142&cat_id=20090&article_set=20542&tracking=P_RelatedArticle
*  Recent Articles | Corn And Immunology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 6
Recent Articles. Corn And Immunology. The Scientist Magazine. Page 6. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: corn x. immunology x. The Scientist corn and immunology. Most Recent Protein Clumps Spread Inflammation By Kate Yandell. June 22, 2014. ASC specks protein aggregations that drive inflammation are released from dying immune cells, expanding the reach of a defense response. 1 Comment. Ancient Apoptosis By Kate Yandell. June 9, 2014. Humans and coral share a cell-death pathway that has been conserved between them for more than half a billion years. 0 Comments. Immunology and Neurology Pioneer Dies By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 24, 2014. Gerald Edelman, who broke new ground in two distinct fields of life science, has passed away at age 84. 0 Comments. Long-Distance Call By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 1, 2014. Neurons may use interferon signals transmitted over great distances to fend off viral infection. 0 Comments. Commander of an Immune Flotilla By Jef Akst. April 1, 2014. With muc...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/147,12/tags/corn,immunology/pageNo/6/
*  Super Seed Beyond Fiber 600 Gram Garden of Life - Compare Price and Reviews at VitaDigest.com
Immune Balance™ Sinus works naturally to support a balanced immune system response for seasonal protection of sinus and respiratory health. Total number of human clinical studies - 6 Total number of subjects - 780 Study findings indicate that Wild Crafted Butterbur is effective in support of sinus health and respiratory function. Maintaining optimal digestive balance and function is the first step in any immune support program RAW Food Vitamins and Minerals: Feed your body what it needs to perform - certain vitamins and minerals are well-documented as vital factors in immune wellness. Time-Tested Traditional Herbs and Botanicals: Traditionally used for generations, plant extracts continue to be widely utilized throughout the world today for healthy immune system function. Your body's immune system is multidimensional - it needs multidimensional support. Immune Balance™ Sinus works naturally to support a balanced immune system response for seasonal protection of sinus and respiratory health. Total number of hu...
http://vitadigest.com/gl-super-seed-600gm.html
*  Evolution of the immune system
... L.A. Previous message: Faculty Position -- Population Biology -- UMass/Boston Next message: Evolution of the immune system Messages sorted by:. Don Forsdyke asks, But Larry, is it not true that certain evolutionary developments virtually arrest certain species in a frozen state so that other avenues of evolution are closed off for them. the evolution of restriction enzymes by bacteria and anti-restriction enzymes by phage. I think you go too far in saying it is unlikely that this is evolutionarily unrelated to mammalian intracellular immune mechanisms. I stand by my statement that these mechanisms are not evolutionarily related to those of the mammalian immune system. Highly conserved and guess where some of them map on mammalian chromosomes...the MHC complex. These genes are the most highly conserved genes known in all of biology and this reflects their fundamental importance as chaperones that catalyze the folding of proteins and their assembly into macromolecular structures. It is not surprising that ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/mol-evol/1992-December/000658.html
*  Recent Articles | Mobile Dna And Immunology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 6
Recent Articles. Mobile Dna And Immunology. The Scientist Magazine. Page 6. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: mobile DNA x. immunology x. The Scientist mobile DNA and immunology. Most Recent Newly ID’d Transposons Involve Cas By Kerry Grens. May 27, 2014. Researchers uncover a group of mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea encoding a Cas enzyme. 0 Comments. Immunology and Neurology Pioneer Dies By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 24, 2014. Gerald Edelman, who broke new ground in two distinct fields of life science, has passed away at age 84. 0 Comments. Long-Distance Call By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 1, 2014. Neurons may use interferon signals transmitted over great distances to fend off viral infection. 0 Comments. Commander of an Immune Flotilla By Jef Akst. April 1, 2014. With much of his early career dictated by US Navy interests, Carl June drew inspiration from malaria, bone marrow transplantation, and HIV in his roundabout path to a breakthrough in cancer immunotherap...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/1831,12/tags/mobile-DNA,immunology/pageNo/6/
*  Recent Articles | Climategate And Immunology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 6
Recent Articles. Climategate And Immunology. The Scientist Magazine. Page 6. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: climategate x. immunology x. The Scientist climategate and immunology. Most Recent Immunology and Neurology Pioneer Dies By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 24, 2014. Gerald Edelman, who broke new ground in two distinct fields of life science, has passed away at age 84. 0 Comments. Long-Distance Call By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 1, 2014. Neurons may use interferon signals transmitted over great distances to fend off viral infection. 0 Comments. Court: Scientist’s Emails Are Private By Kerry Grens. April 22, 2014. Judges rule that climate scientist Michael Mann s communications are not subject to Freedom of Information Act requests. 2 Comments. Commander of an Immune Flotilla By Jef Akst. April 1, 2014. With much of his early career dictated by US Navy interests, Carl June drew inspiration from malaria, bone marrow transplantation, and HIV in his roundabout path to a breakthr...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/1174,12/tags/climategate,immunology/pageNo/6/
*  Recent Articles | Primates And Immunology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 6
Recent Articles. Primates And Immunology. The Scientist Magazine. Page 6. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. National Laser Company. The Scientist. tags: primates x. immunology x. The Scientist primates and immunology. Most Recent Ancient Apoptosis By Kate Yandell. June 9, 2014. Humans and coral share a cell-death pathway that has been conserved between them for more than half a billion years. 0 Comments. Contributors By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. June 1, 2014. Meet some of the people featured in the June 2014 issue of The Scientist 0 Comments. Immunology and Neurology Pioneer Dies By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 24, 2014. Gerald Edelman, who broke new ground in two distinct fields of life science, has passed away at age 84. 0 Comments. Long-Distance Call By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 1, 2014. Neurons may use interferon signals transmitted over great distances to fend off viral infection. 0 Comments. Commander of an Immune Flotilla By Jef Akst. April 1, 2014. With much of his early career dictated by US Navy int...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/2786,12/tags/primates,immunology/pageNo/6/
*  Medical Xpress - immune cells
... Home immune cells. News tagged with immune cells. 1 week. 1 week. 1 week. Related topics: immune system · cells · immune response · t cells · autoimmune diseases. Immune cells may help fight against obesity. While a healthy lifestyle and "good genes" are known to help prevent obesity, new research published on September 15 in Immunity indicates that certain aspects of the immune system may also play an important role. HIV & AIDS. HIV & AIDS. Cancer. Implant captures cancer cells. HIV & AIDS. Diabetes. The buildup of a substance in the pancreas during the pre-symptomatic stage of Type 1 diabetes is essential to the development of the disease, Stanford University School of Medicine researchers have shown. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Cancer. Promising drugs turn immune system on cancer. Cancer Research UK scientists have shown that a class of experimental drug treatments already in clinical trials could also help the body's immune system to fight cancer, according to a study published today Thursday in...
http://medicalxpress.com/tags/immune cells/sort/popular/1m/
*  HIV/AIDS Glossary
HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS. How HIV Causes AIDS. About HIV/AIDS. When ALVAC ™ infects a human cell, the inserted HIV genes direct the cell to make HIV proteins. In HIV vaccines, anti-idiotype vaccines are made from antibodies generated against antibodies to the virus. HIV may cause apoptosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected immune system cells. Also known as helper T cells, CD4 + T cells help orchestrate the immune response, including antibody responses as well as killer T cell responses. cytotoxic T lymphocyte CTL : immune system cell that can destroy cancer cells and cells infected with viruses, fungi or certain bacteria. env : a gene of HIV that codes for gp160, the precursor molecule that breaks down into the envelope proteins gp120 and gp41. epitope : a specific site on an antigen that stimulates specific immune responses, such as the production of antibodies or activation of immune cells. gp41 plays a key role in HIV's infection of CD4 + T cells by facilitating the fusion of the viral and cell membranes....
http://niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/understanding/prevention/Pages/vaccineGlossary.aspx
*  Immune Response, Health Information in South Bend, IN - Saint Joseph Health System, Mishawaka
... Mishawaka Medical Center. Health Insurance Services. Top 15 Health System. Immune response Definition The immune response is how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. Alternative Names Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired adaptive immunity. Information The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens. Antigens are substances usually proteins on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria. Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system with which you were born. Innate immunity involves barriers that keep harmful materials from entering your body. Stomach acid Innate immunity also comes in a protein chemical form, called innate humoral immunity. Acquired immunity is immunity that develops with exposure to various antigens. Passive immunity is due to antibodies that are produced in a body other than...
http://sjmed.com/body.cfm?id=41&action=detail&AEArticleID=000821&AEProductID=Adam2004_5117&AEProjectTypeIDURL=APT_1
*  human biology - What prevents a pregnant woman's immune system from recognizing her fetus as nonself
human biology - What prevents a pregnant woman's immune system from recognizing her fetus as nonself and attacking. - Biology Stack Exchange. chat blog. Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. help. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Ask Question. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. What prevents a pregnant woman's immune system from recognizing her fetus as nonself and attacking. up vote 8 down vote favorite 2. On the most basic level, I feel as though the fetus should be recognized as "nonself" due to paternal genetic contribution. human-biology immunology development share. improve this question. 1 Answer 1 active oldest votes. up vote 3 down vote accepted. Just so that someone answers this question so that the moderators have less work to do: The fundamental reason why embryos don't get massacred by the maternal immune system...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/6932/what-prevents-a-pregnant-womans-immune-system-from-recognizing-her-fetus-as-non
*  Flies In Space - Immune System
... + en Espanol + For Educators + NASA Quest + Search Quest. Flies in Space Home. Immune System Overview in Humans. Drosophila Immune System. Immune System: Introduction Every day, your body is exposed to thousands of potential disease-causing organisms, or pathogens. How does your body work to stay healthy with everyday exposure to these potential pathogens. Your immune system. All animals, from fruit flies to humans, have some type of immune system to keep them healthy. The immune system works by identifying foreign invaders in the body- this is called recognizing self from non-self. Special immune cells in the body are able to react to foreign invaders that don t belong in the body to get rid of them or to neutralize them. Immune cells communicate with each other through cell-to-cell contact. This ability for recognition is important because you don t want these immune cells to attack your own body. When the immune system is not working the way it should and cannot identify or see the difference between ...
http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/projects/flies/immune.html
*  Medizym - Systemic Enzyme
... Systemic Enzyme Products. Medizym. Medizym V. Medizym®. Immune and Inflammation Support* Enzymes, like those in Medizym, are involved in almost every metabolic process in the human body, including breathing, digestion, energy production, blood clotting, immune system function and tissue and wound repair. Medizym is a natural, drug-free formula used for immune and inflammation support. Enzymes, like those in Medizym, are involved in almost every metabolic process in the human body, including breathing, digestion, energy production, blood clotting, immune system function and tissue and wound repair. Medizym is a natural, drug-free formula used for immune and inflammation support. Experimental and clinical studies show that the specific systemic enzymes contained in Medizym work preventively to help the body maintain healthy immune system activity and low to normal inflammation levels, and support the body's natural tissue repair processes. Back pain is gone. What are enzymes. Why should I use Medizym. Prot...
http://naturally.com/store/best-seller/medizym-systemic-enzyme.html
*  A Chance to Save Lives: 1663 Science and Technology Magazine | Los National Alamos Laboratory
A Chance to Save Lives: 1663 Science and Technology Magazine. Los National Alamos Laboratory. Jump to: home. search. phonebook. banner navigation. site navigation. main content. footer navigation. Home. Phone. Library. Subscribe. Low-bandwidth. . Current Issue. Past Issues. Contacts. HIV HIV is a roughly spherical retrovirus approximately 120 nanometers in diameter. About 25 million would fit on the head of a pin. Retroviruses use RNA as their genetic material, carrying with them a protein called reverse transcriptase RT to copy their RNA into DNA. Another protein, called integrase, then integrates the viral DNA into the cell's genome, and the cell begins to make the proteins needed to produce a functioning virus. But the RT does sloppy work, so the DNA copies of HIV's genome are always a little different than the RNA originals. This is one of the root causes of HIV's diversity. HIV has nine genes, three of which gag, pol, and env encode for polyproteins that get broken into smaller proteins. The Gag proteins...
http://lanl.gov/science/1663/march2011/story4a.shtml
*  .. Natural Ways To Boost Your Immune System .. 2 Comments .. Paleo Naan Bread .. Chicken in Cash
avoid, avoid cold, Avoid Cold and Flu, biology, boost your immune system, colds, colds and flu, common cold, Dr. Peggy Malone, flu, flu season, health, immune system, immune system boosters, Improve your Immune Function, influenza, medicine, microbiology, Natural Immune System Boosters, natural sugar, nutrition, Nutrition to Improve Immune Function, pulmonology, sick, Stay Healthy During Cold and Flu Season, vitamin c, vitamin d. Let’s look at some natural ways that you can boost your immune system such that cold and flu season is less likely to get you down. When you fuel your body with good nutrition, your body will be able to function at its highest level of health and your immune system will be able to function very well as it fights off the sickness invaders that are so prevalent at this time of year. If you eat a lot of processed foods and sugar which most of us probably do, your immune system will suffer. When you put sugar in your body, there is a decrease in the function of your immune system almost ...
http://drpeggymalone.com/natural-immune-boost/
*  Stalking the AIDS Virus | Research Quarterly Fall 2003| Los Alamos National Laboratory
[figure: AIDS virus ] Variation in the Virus and Its Victims To understand how HIV can so completely compromise its victims' immune systems and why designing an effective vaccine is such a difficult task we must appreciate the genetic variation in both the virus and its victims. [figure: HIV subtypes ] For HIV victims, this viral variability is further complicated by human genetic variation. In the context of normal immune system function, they are key molecular intermediaries in the process by which the two major types of immune system T cells T-helper cells and cytotoxic T cells recognize invading pathogens such as bacteria and viruses see the sidebar: How HIV cripples. Specifically, the cytotoxic T cells of our immune system recognize these HLA proteins as molecular billboards, advertising that other body cells are virus-infected and should be killed. Using a combination of viral molecular fragments and the HLA Class-I proteins, cytotoxic T cells can detect and attack HIV-infected T-helper cells, killing c...
http://lanl.gov/quarterly/q_fall03/stalking_aids.shtml
*  How does stress weaken the immune system? - Stress - Sharecare
How does stress weaken the immune system. - Stress - Sharecare. Question Stress How does stress weaken the immune system. Mental Health. Stress. How does stress weaken the immune system. Unfollow Pending Disabled. Stress clearly weakens our immune response -- the death of a loved one, for example, measurably decreases the number of T cells a kind of white blood cell that is important for immune defenses in the bloodstream for as long as a year after the event. These nagging stresses and major life event stresses clearly age the immune system. Unfollow Pending Disabled. Stress does affect the immune stress. Unfollow Pending Disabled. Unfollow Pending Disabled. Unfollow Pending Disabled. Unfollow Pending Disabled. Unfollow Pending Disabled. Unfollow Pending Disabled. In the study, the researchers exposed mice to social disruption, which is known to cause increases in circulating cytokines hormones of the immune system, which themselves induce enhanced reactivity in the immune system. Not only does stress affect...
https://sharecare.com/health/stress-reduction/how-stress-weaken-immune-system
*  2 Immune System
... Investigate this. Andrew's adventures. Microscopic world. Send inventions. Find the books. Our Bodies Are Heroes. Many things outside our bodies are dangerous. But our bodies have lots of ways of protecting us:. Skin keeps things from getting inside our bodies. Tears keep eyes clean. Nose hairs help to clean the air that goes into lungs. Mucus in noses traps and washes away some of the nasty little things that manage to get by. Some harmful things -for example, bacteria and viruses -- will always sneak by these defenses. But our bodies have an army of special cells. It's called the immune im-yoon system. These cells patrol our bodies and search for invaders. The immune system can tell the good guys from the bad guys by what they wear. For example, your body is made up of cells, like the dish-shaped red blood cells in this picture. They carry oxygen to every part of your body. The other scruffy looking cells are part of the immune system army. The outsides of cells are marked by lumpy, bumpy molecules. Yo...
http://andrewlost.com/immune_system_k2.htm
*  How Vaccines Trigger the Immune System
... print. close. How Vaccines Trigger the Immune System. Eileen L. Thacker. Fri, 2000-12-01 12:00. Developing vaccines that induce an effective immune response, override the impact of pathogens and provide protection can be quite challenging.The purpose of vaccination is to induce protection against an infectious agent without causing significant disease.Unfortunately, it is not always possible to simply inject the agent, either live or inactivated killed, into the pig and obtain the desired. Developing vaccines that induce an effective immune response, override the impact of pathogens and provide protection can be quite challenging. The purpose of vaccination is to induce protection against an infectious agent without causing significant disease. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to simply inject the agent, either live or inactivated killed, into the pig and obtain the desired protection. Successful pathogens have developed ways to adapt and survive in the host animal by evading or circumventing the...
http://nationalhogfarmer.com/print/mag/farming_vaccines_trigger_immune
*  Boost Your Immune System: Diet, Stress, and Other Factors
... Cold, Flu Cough. Featured Topics. Communities: Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life. WebMD Pain Coach. WebMD My Medicine Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more. Drug News. WebMD Mobile Drug Information App. Living Healthy. Featured Content. Featured Topics. WebMD Allergy App for iPhone. Fight allergies with daily forecasts, local alerts, and personalized tips. Family Pregnancy. Featured Content. Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox. Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life. Myth: Getting a flu shot weakens your immune system and makes you more likely to get the flu. Fact: Seasonal Allergies are caused by an abnormal response by the immune system. While no single food will upgrade your immune system, poor nutrition can have a negative effect on the immune system. And those infections, especially flu and pneumonia, are more likely to be...
http://webmd.com/cold-and-flu/myths-and-facts-about-your-immune-system?page=2
*  Immune system molecule affects our weight
... September 24, 2012 Immune system molecule affects our weight September 24, 2012 Researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have identified a molecule in the immune system that could affect hunger and satiety. Interleukin-6 is a chemical messenger in our immune system that plays an important role in fighting off infection. Researchers at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, have been investigating and managed to identify the specific types of brain cells that are targeted by the interleukin-6 molecule. The results show that the cells that are affected by interleukin-6 produce substances that not only affect our sense of hunger and fullness but also control the body's ability to burn fat. "Interleukin-6 increases levels of substances in the brain that trigger weight loss, which could explain why high levels of this molecule lead to weight loss," says doctoral student Erik Schéle, who is presenting the results in his thesis. The thesis also shows that our gut bacteri...
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-09-immune-molecule-affects-weight.html
*  Best Immune System Support Vitamins - Top 10 For 2015
... Top10Supps - Supplement Reviews and Rankings Protein Weight Gain Weight Loss Pre-Workout Men Women More Amino Acids Creatine Post-Workout Intra-Workout Testosterone Vitamins View All Categories. Home » Immune System » Best Immune System Support Vitamins Top 10 For 2015. Best Immune System Support Vitamins Top 10 For 2015. Written by: Top10 on March 28, 2015 Tagged: Tagged With: 2015, list, top 10 Looking for the best immune system support supplements of 2015. Top 10 Immune System Support Products for 2015. Lowest Price We Found. Price Comparison. Buy Now. Buy Now. Go To Full Product Page. Lowest Price We Found. Price Comparison. Buy Now. Buy Now. Go To Full Product Page. Lowest Price We Found. Price Comparison. Buy Now. Buy Now. Go To Full Product Page. Lowest Price We Found. Price Comparison. Buy Now. Buy Now. Go To Full Product Page. Controlled Labs Orange OxiMega Greens appears to be another rising star in our list of the best immune system supplements, offering an impressive collection of plant extra...
http://top10supplements.com/best-immune-system-support-products-2015/
*  .. Newly recognized syndrome called PICS keeps patients from full recovery, UF researchers say
Nanoparticle air pollution linked to RA, autoimmune diseases in new study →. Newly recognized syndrome called PICS keeps patients from full recovery, UF researchers say. — University of Florida researchers have identified a medical condition they say keeps many intensive care, heart surgery and burn patients from recovering fully and returning home. Called persistent inflammation, immunosuppression and catabolism syndrome, or PICS, for short, the newly named condition defies existing treatments and leaves patients weak and unable to breathe or move properly. Frederick Moore, a professor and chief of acute care surgery in the UF College of Medicine department of surgery. Moore and colleagues, including Lyle Moldawer, a professor and vice chairman of research in the department, and Bruce McKinley, a professor of surgery, define and describe the new syndrome in the June 8 edition of the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. patients develop PICS each year as a result of severe sepsis, an infection that spr...
http://stonehearthnewsletters.com/newly-recognized-syndrome-called-pics-keeps-patients-from-full-recovery-uf-researchers-say/inflammation/
*  Genetic controller prepares immune system for diverse threats
... September 11, 2011 Genetic controller prepares immune system for diverse threats September 11, 2011 An army of immune cells circulates the human body to protect against its potential foes viruses, bacteria, cancer cells, and other invaders. Now, Howard Hughes Medical Institute scientists have identified a genetic regulator that controls the reshuffling of gene segments that immune cells use to manufacture billions of distinct antibodies and pathogen-recognizing receptors from a limited number of genes. Mutating that regulatory region, the scientists have discovered, causes a cell to create an incorrect mishmash of antibody parts. The finding is important not only for understanding how antibodies are made, but for understanding how gene regulation can be coordinated across distant regions of the genome. Alt of Children s Hospital Boston, who has spent his career studying how the immune system generates diverse antibodies, says the discovery of this master regulator is the culmination of decades of work in...
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-09-genetic-immune-diverse-threats.html
*  Understanding a bacterial immune system one step at a time
... Home. Biology. Cell & Microbiology. May 17, 2011 Understanding a bacterial immune system one step at a time May 17, 2011 Researchers at the University of Alberta have taken an important step in understanding an immune system of bacteria, a finding that could have implications for medical care and both the pharmaceutical and dairy industries. In research published in the high impact journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Andrew MacMillan and co-workers in his lab have described the first step of the immune response of bacterial cells. Scientists had previously found that a bacterial virus, called a bacteriophage, attacks a bacterial cell by injecting its DNA in to the cell. MacMillan's lab discovered the mechanism by which bacterial RNA is cut into pieces by a specific protein; these pieces then target the invading virus' DNA. "We are starting at the beginning because we want to understand how this works and how we can use this to basically control bacterial growth," said Matt Schellenberg, a post...
http://phys.org/news/2011-05-bacterial-immune.html
*  INTERVIEW - TITLE - 907I-000-005
COMMUNITY‑BASED RESEARCH. AIDS ACTIVISM. AIDS TREATMENT BUYERS CLUBS. We sell drugs that should be available to people with AIDS, but are not, says Sally Cooper, executive director of New York's PWA Health Group. One of the first buyers clubs in the U.S., the health group has sold promising treatments to PWAs since early 1987. Buyers clubs purchase drugs approved overseas but not in the U.S. AIDS activists have pushed the government to streamline and accelerate the testing and approval process, through such innovations as parallel tracking, so that a promising treatment can go through several stages of testing at the same time, expanded access, which conditionally releases treatments in the final stages of testing to people with AIDS, and special task forces to oversee and coordinate all drug trials related to AIDS. Though long‑term testing has shown them to have little if any effectiveness over time, these drugs‑ the only ones approved for treatment of HIV in the U.S.‑do briefly boost certain immune‑system f...
http://maryellenmark.com/text/magazines/interview/907I-000-005.html
*  Viruses And The Immune System
... christopher robin kovacs umkovac at cc umanitoba ca tue sep est previous message voice assist software next message hfv what is it messages sorted by i have some questions regarding the immune systems in animals and humans my dog became ill with a blood disorder could not be treated effectively and had to be euthenized apparently her blood cells were being destroyed by her immune system because of a virus later my son was diagnosed with and treated for thrombocytopenia which i understand can be triggered by a virus could the same virus be a causal factor in both cases and could that virus be carried and transmitted from a rodent such as a mouse my email addr is umkovac at cc umanitoba ca thanks in advance previous message voice assist software next message hfv what is it messages sorted by more information about the virology mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/virology/1994-September/000871.html
*  Type III immune response
... redirect type iii hypersensitivity...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_III_immune_response
*  ARS | Publication request: miRNA regulation of plant innate receptors ARS : Research
Publication request: miRNA regulation of plant innate receptors ARS : Research. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: miRNA regulation of plant innate receptors Authors. miRNA regulation of plant innate receptors. These novel miRNAs target receptor gene transcripts for cleavage and trigger production of a second group of silencing small RNAs from “sliced” transcripts. miRNAs are regulators of several fundamental processes in higher eukaryotes, and this work demonstrates that regulation of agronomically significant innate immune receptor genes resistance R -genes and their encoded cell-death response is another miRNA-regulated process. The wide distribution of plant miRNAs targeting innate immune receptor genes described in this work suggests that this two-part silencing system is a conserved mechanism. Technical Abstract: Plant genomes contain large numbers of cell surface leucine-rich repeat LRR and intracellular nucleotide binding NB -LRR immune receptors encoded by resistance R genes that r...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=285039
*  P Gasque
2000 Complement: a unique innate immune sensor for danger signals Philippe Gasque Brain Inflammation and Immunity Group BIIG, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Wales, Cardiff CF144XN, UK Mol Immunol 41:1089-98. Complement: a unique innate immune sensor for danger signals Philippe Gasque Brain Inflammation and Immunity Group BIIG, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Wales, Cardiff CF144XN, UK Mol Immunol 41:1089-98. Innate immunity and brain inflammation: the key role of complement Karen Francis Department of Medical Biochemistry, Brain Inflammation and Immunity Group, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK Expert Rev Mol Med 5:1-19. Decay-accelerating factor CD55 is expressed by neurons in response to chronic but not acute autoimmune central nervous system inflammation associated with complement activation Johan van Beek Brain Inflammation Immunity Group BIIG, Cardiff University, Cardi...
http://labome.org/expert/uk/cardiff/gasque/p-gasque-180834.html
*  Laboratory for Host-specific virology
... Stefan Rothenburg. Importance of Host-Virus-Specific Interactions for Vir us Host Range and Virulence. Evolution of the Host Innate Immune System and Interaction with Viruses. Improved poxviruses for cancer therapy. The host innate immune system plays an essential role in detecting invading viruses and in initiating and orchestrating antiviral responses. Our research focuses on the interaction between viruses with the immune system of their hosts. Viral genes that are studied in our laboratory include those from poxviruses, influenza viruses, herpesviruses, iridoviruses, Ebola virus and tumor viruses. We are harnessing the knowledge gained from the interaction studies of viral gene products with proteins of the host innate immune system to engineer poxviruses with enhanced capabilities to selectively destroy human cancer cells and to create proteins with enhanced antiviral activity that will help to prevent the transmission of viruses from animals to humans and to other animals. Photo by Sherry Haller. L...
http://k-state.edu/hsv/Site/Welcome.html
*  Innate immune system
... The major functions of the vertebrate innate immune system include: Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection, through the production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical mediators, called cytokine s Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead cells The identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, the blood and lymph, by specialised white blood cells Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents. Anatomical barriers Inflammation Complement system Cells of the innate immune response Mast cells. Innate immunity in other species Host defense in prokaryotes. Host defense in plants. 6 Cells of the innate immune response. The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils ; and the phagocytic cells including macrophages, neutrophils, and ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innate_immune_system
*  People with natural immunity to HIV may serve as basis for new vaccine
... Home. HIV & AIDS. November 9, 2012 People with natural immunity to HIV may serve as basis for new vaccine November 9, 2012 by James Hataway Medical Xpress —Despite urgent need and tremendous scientific effort, researchers have yet to discover a vaccine for HIV that adequately protects humans from infection. But some people don't need one. For reasons not completely understood, there are individuals who have developed a natural immunity to the virus without any medical intervention. Now, thanks in part to a five-year $1.3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, researchers at the University of Georgia in collaboration with researchers at Scripps Research Institute are trying to mimic this natural immunity in a new vaccine that may one day help stop the disease that infects five million people each year. "HIV is very good at evading the immune system, but people with natural immunity have antibodies that will protect them against most variations of the virus," said Joshua Sharp, an analytical...
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-11-people-natural-immunity-hiv-basis.html
*  Maximizing innate immunity | Bovine Vet Online
Bovine Vet Online. Twitter Link. Instagram Link. Bovine Vet Online. Facebook Link. Twitter Link. Instagram Link. Connect with us on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. It’s interesting, Woolums says, that short-term stress can actually improve innate immune responses. “For example, it’s been shown that alum, which is an adjuvant commonly used in human and veterinary vaccines, interacts with receptors inside of cells which activate innate immune pathways, and this interaction is what leads to the adjuvant effect induced by alum.” “Immunologists recognize that we can enhance selected aspects of innate immunity but there might be risks associated with doing this in healthy animals with normal functioning immune systems,” Kehrli says. How do you measure innate immunity. However, the innate immune response is also critical for antibiotics to be useful, as evidenced by the fact that animals with defects in innate immune function, such as defects in neutrophil function, develop repeated bacterial infections that cannot...
http://bovinevetonline.com/bv-magazine/Maximizing-innate-immunity-160738375.html
*  Genome-wide study reveals how key immune sensors arrive at the front lines of infection
... March 14, 2012 Genome-wide study reveals how key immune sensors arrive at the front lines of infection March 14, 2012 In a healthy immune system, invading pathogens trigger a cascade of alerts and responses to fight off the infection. Sensors called toll-like receptors, or TLRs, act as one of the first lines of defense. Two of these sensors, known as TLR7 and TLR9, specifically recognize and respond to microbial RNA and DNA, respectively. In their study, published March 14 in Cell Host & Microbe , the team identified 190 proteins that contribute to our ability to detect and respond to microbial infection. "Our cells use TLR7 and TLR9 as policemen to inspect the endosomes, a critical gateway for a microbe's border crossing into the cell," said Chanda, associate professor in Sanford-Burnham's Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center and senior author of the study. Many pathogens, including HIV, Group A streptococcus, and the influenza virus, elicit a response from TLR7 or TLR9 in the endosomes of cells. ...
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-03-genome-wide-reveals-key-immune-sensors.html
*  Early life response to infection.
... Document Detail. Early life response to infection. MedLine Citation:. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sepsis is a serious complication in preterm and term infants, yet our understanding of how neonates respond to infection remains poorly defined. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe our current clinical, cellular and molecular understanding of the neonatal host systemic response to infection. We find that host resilience essentially relies on innate immune mechanisms despite there being a complete repertoire of cellular components of the adaptive immune arm. The functional interplay between metabolism, immunity and microbiome further suggests that neonatal vulnerability to infection is not simply due to immaturity of the immune system but how immune homeostasis is regulated. Further research is required for exploring regulatory homeostatic mechanisms between innate and adaptive responses and microbiome colonization at birth, but which can impart an adverse trajectory to infection. SUMMARY: The vulnerability and resilience ag...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Early-life-response-to-infection/23449137.html
*  Myocardial ischaemic tolerance following heat stress is abolished by blockade of the ATP-sensitive
... potassium channel - UCL Discovery. UCL Discovery. UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery Enter your search terms. Advanced search. Browse by:. Department. Year. UCL Theses. Latest. For everyone Open Access. About UCL Discovery. UCL Press. Statistics. FAQs. For UCL authors Deposit your research. UCL Publications Policy. REF 2020. How to deposit. Re-formatting deposits. Open Access funding. Funder requirements. UCL e-theses guidelines. Contact us. Bookmark Share. . Myocardial ischaemic tolerance following heat stress is abolished by blockade of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Pell, TJ ; Yellon, DM ; Goodwin, RW ; Baxter, GF ; 1997. Myocardial ischaemic tolerance following heat stress is abolished by blockade of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 11 pp. 679-686. Full text not available from this repository. Type: Article. Title: Myocardial ischaemic tolerance following heat stress is abolished by blockade of the ATP-sensitive potassium cha...
http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/74933/
*  Immune tolerance
... Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally induced—in the thymus and bone marrow central or in other tissues and lymph node s peripheral. Oral tolerance and hypersensitivity. Peripheral tolerance. In these cases, there is a differentiation of naïve CD4+ helper T cells into induced Treg cells iTreg cells in the peripheral tissue or nearby lymphoid tissue lymph nodes, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue, etc. Treg cells are not the only cells that mediate peripheral tolerance. iTreg cells. nTreg cells develop in the thymus; iTreg cells develop outside the thymus in chronically inflamed tissue, lymph node s, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue GALT. nTreg cells develop from Foxp3- CD25+ CD4+ cells while iTreg cells develop from Foxp3+ CD25- CD4- cells both become Foxp3+ CD25+CD4+. nTreg cells are specific, modestly, for self-antigen while iTreg cells recognize allergens, commensal bacteria, tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-an...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_tolerance
*  Tolerance to Self and Other Antigens Flashcards - Cram.com
... Tolerance to Self and Other Antigens. Tolerance To Self And Other Antigens by. Shuffle Toggle On Toggle Off Alphabetize Toggle On Toggle Off Front First Toggle On Toggle Off Both Sides Toggle On Toggle Off Read Toggle On Toggle Off. At what stage of immunological development does tolerance occur. What is central tolerance. Immature T cells that recognize self MHC receive signals for survival. When T cells do have T cell receptors which recognize less than low affinity, they are said to be. If their T-cells are not tolerant to self, then any deviation in peptide density could activate mature T-cells and initiate an autoimmune response. Peripheral B cell tolerance occurs because there is improper co-stimulation by Th-cells and the B-cell receptors are low affinity and cannot crosslink enough. In the absence of stromal or cytokine signals, what occurs to high affinity B-cells. What is the difference in self-recognition in the central tolerance of B-cells and T-cells. Clonal deletion of B-cells require the r...
http://cram.com/flashcards/tolerance-to-self-and-other-antigens-1304577
*  tolerance induction in mice
... mark mark haynes at mail tju edu mon oct est previous message tolerance induction in mice next message tolerance induction in mice messages sorted by christiane hollmann wrote mimemultipartboundary content type text plain charset iso content transfer encoding bit hallo everybody i just discovered this discussion forum and i am delighted about the tolerance discussion i am a newcomer in the tolerance field hoping that someone knows an answer to my questions is it true that b cell tolerance can be induced by immunizing mice with haptens whereas immunizing with peptides doesnot affect the b cell system peptides are meant to induce t cell tolerance but there must be some influence on the b cells via the cd t cells does anybody know some literature or is experienced in this fields thank s for any help christiane hollmann mimemultipartboundary that is such a broad topic peruse the review journals i like annual reviews of immunology on tolerance jsut to get an idea of how much is out there good luck markh previ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1998-October/013301.html
*  Short course immune induction therapy
... 'Short Course Immune Induction Therapy' or 'SCIIT', is a therapeutic strategy employing rapid, specific, short term-modulation of the immune system using a therapeutic agent to induce T-cell non-responsiveness, also known as operational tolerance., ' Nature Reviews Immunology ' 3 March 2003 As an alternative strategy to immunosuppression and antigen-specific tolerance inducing therapies, the primary goal of SCIIT is to re-establish or induce peripheral immune tolerance in the context of autoimmune disease and transplant rejection through the use of biological agents compare also tolerogenic therapy. Due to the adverse risks associated with immunosuppressive drugs, it became apparent that the ideal strategy would be antigen-specific: a therapy that was able to inhibit the antigen-specific T-cell response, but would still leave the remainder of the immune system intact to defend against infection. Thus, at any given stage of disease or rejection, the T-cell response is likely to be heterogenic, involving m...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_course_immune_induction_therapy
*  Helen Su, M.D., Ph.D, Human Immunological Diseases, Host Defenses Lab
... You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Skip Navigation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health Search Text Field. Search Button. Advanced Search. NIAID Home. Health Research Topics. Labs Scientific Resources. Funding. About NIAID. News Events. NIAID. Labs & Scientific Resources. Labs at NIAID. Info about NIAID Labs. Host Defenses. Human Immunological Diseases. Skip Website Tools. Website Tools Print this page. Order publications. Contact Info Helen Su, M.D., Ph.D. Featured Research Study findings explain why DOCK8-deficient patients are susceptible to infections. ​​ Related Links Division of Intramural Research Overview. Postdoctoral Positions Available. Training Experience. ​​. Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn J...
http://niaid.nih.gov/labsandresources/labs/aboutlabs/lhd/humanimmunologicaldiseasesunit/Pages/default.aspx
*  Carol Langford, MD, MHS, FACP - Rheumatologic and Immunologic Disease, Cleveland Clinic
Contact Online Services. Health Information. Ask a Doctor Q A. Find a Doctor. Search by Institute or Department Use filters to find a doctor in a particular department. Carol Langford, MD, MHS, FACP Department: Rheumatologic and Immunologic Disease Director, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research Location: Cleveland Clinic Main Campus Mail Code A50 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44195 Work Appointment: 216.444.5632 Desk Desk: 216.445.6056 Work Fax: 216.445.7569. She was a fellow in rheumatology at Duke University Medical Center from 1990 to 1994. Langford was a senior investigator within the Immunologic Diseases Section of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID at the National Institutes of Health NIH. Langford joined Cleveland Clinic to become Director of the Center for Vasculitis Care and Research within the Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases. A frequently invited lecturer at national and international medical meetings, Dr. Professional Highlights Research Contract ...
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/staff_directory/staff_display.aspx?doctorid=5879
*  Chad Deal, MD - Rheumatologic and Immunologic Disease, Cleveland Clinic
... Ask a Doctor Q A. Find a Doctor. Search for a Primary Care Doctor Use filters to find a family doctor, internist or pediatrician. Chad Deal, MD Department: Rheumatologic and Immunologic Disease Location: Cleveland Clinic Main Campus Mail Code A50 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44195 Work Appointment: 216.444.5632 Desk Desk: 216.444.6575 Work Fax: 216.445.7569. Chad Deal, MD Department: Rheumatologic and Immunologic Disease Solon Location: Solon Family Health Center Mail Code S0-40 29800 Bainbridge Road Solon, OH 44139 Work Appointment: 440.519.6800 Desk Desk: 216.444.6575 Work Fax: 216.445.7569. Chad Deal, MD Department: Orthopaedic Surgery Location: Cleveland Clinic Main Campus Mail Code A50 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44195 Work Appointment: 216.444.5632 Work Fax: 216.445.7569. Chad Deal, MD Department: Center for Geriatric Medicine Location: Cleveland Clinic Main Campus Mail Code A50 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44195 Work Appointment: 216.444.5632 Work Fax: 216.445.7569. Biographical Sketc...
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/staff_directory/staff_display.aspx?DoctorID=2950
*  Stem Cell and IVIG - Immune Disorders Message Board - HealthBoards
... health boards health message boards. Health Centers. Message Boards. Posting Policy. New Posts. Advanced Search. FAQ. Find a Board. Best Entries. Best Blogs. Search Blogs. Register FAQ Posting Policy Today's Posts Mark Boards Read Advanced Search Find A Board Site Map. Immune Disorders Message Board. HealthBoards. Immune Autoimmune. Immune Disorders > Stem Cell and IVIG. Subscribe To Immune Disorders. LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread. Join Date: Jul 2011 Location: California Posts: 1. Stem Cell and IVIG Does anyone know if IVIG is given to patients even after receiving stem cell treatment. I'm wondering if receiving IVIG would harm the new cells trying to regenerate and mature. Similar Threads. Thread Thread Starter Board Replies Last Post. kelli1b Immune Disorders 91 06-26-2011 12:37 AM. CVID -11 year old son 1st IVIG tomorrow triplets4me Immune Disorders 5 01-12-2011 09:17 PM. 2010susu Immune Disorders 13 09-30-2010 07:09 AM. IVIG being used for autoimmune disease and MS knightshotter Immune Di...
http://healthboards.com/boards/immune-disorders/858899-stem-cell-ivig.html
*  B F Mandell
2001 Polymyalgia rheumatica: clinical presentation is key to diagnosis and treatment Brian F Mandell Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA Cleve Clin J Med 71:489-95. 2004 Three rheumatologic emergencies: a sore toe, a cough, hypertension Brian F Mandell Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research, Division of Education, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA Cleve Clin J Med 72:50-6. 2005 Clinical manifestations of hyperuricemia and gout Brian F Mandell Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA Cleve Clin J Med 75:S5-8. 2008 Results of the Avonex Combination Trial ACT in relapsing-remitting MS J A Cohen Mellen Center U 10, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA Neurology 72:535-41. Polymyalgia rheumatica: clinical presentation is key to diagnosis and treatment Brian F Mandell Department...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/cleveland/mandell/b-f-mandell-269640.html
*  Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, inter
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of transforming growth factor TGF - 1, TGF- 2, interleukin IL -4 and IL-13 after segmental allergen challenge and their effects on -smooth muscle actin and collagen III synthesis by primary human lung fibroblasts - Batra - 2004 - Clinical Experimental Allergy - Wiley Online Library. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of transforming growth factor TGF - 1, TGF- 2, interleukin IL -4 and IL-13 after segmental allergen challenge and their effects on -smooth muscle actin and collagen III synthesis by primary human lung fibroblasts Authors V. Batra, Department of Medicine, Division of Critical Care, Pulmonary, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. I Musani, Department of Medicine, Division of Critical Care, Pulmonary, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Khurana, Department of Medicine, Division of Critical Care, Pulmonary, Allergic and Immunologic Diseases, Thomas ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01885.x/full?wol1URL=/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01885.x/full®ionCode=US-VA&identityKey=1611ff3b-4da5-441a-a6f1-651e98070d94
*  Soumya Chatterjee, MD, MS, FRCP - Rheumatologic and Immunologic Disease, Cleveland Clinic
Online Services. My Practice Community Find phone numbers and email addresses for Cleveland Clinic Online Services:. Contact Online Services. Health Information. Ask a Doctor Q A. Find a Doctor. Search by Doctor's Name Enter the first letters of a doctor's last name. Search by Institute or Department Use filters to find a doctor in a particular department. Search for a Primary Care Doctor Use filters to find a family doctor, internist or pediatrician. He is board-certified in rheumatology and is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the American College of Rheumatology, and the Royal College of Physicians of the United Kingdom. Chatterjee joined the medical staff in the Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases at the Cleveland Clinic in 2004, following a faculty appointment at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. Chatterjee brings with him extensive clinical experience in rheumatology and internal medicine. His former training in rheumatology was also in the United Kingdom, where he co...
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/staff_directory/staff_display.aspx?doctorid=5408
*  What is the difference between immune disorders and autoimmune diseases-Disease Questions answered
... An autoimmune disease occurs when the body s immune system attacks its own cells. Q: 1.What is the difference between an immune disorder and an autoimmune disease?A.When an immune disorder becomes very severe, it becomes an autoimmune disease.B.An immune disorder occurs when the immune system does not function properly. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body s immune system attacks its own cells.C.An immune disorder is the overreaction of the immune system to substances that are not dangerous. An autoimmune disease occurs when germs affect the immune system.D.An immune disorder is a disease caused by germs, such as pollen or dust. What is the difference between an immune disorder and an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body s immune system attacks its own cells.C. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body s immune system attacks its own cells....
http://themedicalquestions.com/disease/what-is-the-difference-between-immune-disorders-and-autoimmune-diseases.html
*  List of new Immune Diseases patents & technologies
Immune Diseases patents. The present invention also relates to pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound, a use of the compound in treating or preventing auto immune diseases, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases, or cancer diseases.. 09/17/15 20150259397 Long acting trial receptor agonists for treatment of auto immune diseases Methods of treating an autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, methods of increasing apoptosis of pro-inflammatory immune cells or synoviocytes, methods of increasing the quantity of the anti-inflammatory regulatory t cells, and methods of slowing the progression of inflammation in a subject include systemically administering to the subject a pharmaceutical composition including an effective amount of a trail-conjugate. Such antibodies, fusion proteins and fragments thereof are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of various b-cell disorders, including b-cell malignancies and auto immune diseases. 08/27/15 20150238445 Composition using metformin for preventing ...
http://tgs.freshpatents.com/Immune-Diseases-bx1.php
*  "Auto Immune Disease": Self Harm Community - Support Group
Auto Immune Disease : Self Harm Community - Support Group. Children's Health. WebMD Health Experts and Community. WebMD Communities Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life. MandyCake posted: BB, Did you know AID Auto Immune Disease is prevalent in those of us with European bloodlines. The Auto Immune System is strongly connected to the production of white blood cells within the spinal column. This show an over production of white blood cells which results in auto immune disease, as the white cells attack my body, treating the body as an enemy. Interesting to note: Back in the 70's when the Federal Government used me and other unwanted's for lab rats, testing drugs on us... Share this: Auto Immune Disease BB, Did you know AID Auto Immune Disease is prevalent in those of us with European bloodlines. The Auto Immune System is strongly connected to the production of white blood cells within the spinal column. This show an over production of white blood cells which results in...
http://forums.webmd.com/3/self-harm-exchange/forum/4879/2
*  Immune Disorders [Archive] - Page 3 - HealthBoards
Immune Disorders - Page 3 - HealthBoards. Immune Autoimmune Immune Disorders PDA. View Full Version : Immune Disorders Pages : 1 2 4 5. Is ANA titer of 1:320 insignificant?. Lab Results for IgA. Someone please help me!!. Anyone with an immune disorder ever experience something like this. Do autoimmune disorders run in the family. How do you deal with people who don't understand and/or don't care. Do I have an autoimmune disease. Really need advice. ANY and ALL help will be greatly appreciated !!!!. help immune problems. unbalanced immune system. Autoimmune diease of some kind. Super high IGG...anyone else. diagnosed with Collagen Vascular Disease. What does a low IGM result mean. Help, My Husband Just Diagnosed With Wegener's Grandulomatosis. if my ANA labs come back positive and the rest of my bloodwork is within ranch does t. 13 year old son. high ANA titer. what is elevated anti serum beta 2 glycoprotein. swollen lymph nodes. low IgM what does it mean. c3,c4 low,why. chest infection cold and swollen lymph ...
http://healthboards.com/boards/sitemap/f-73-p-3.html
*  immunologic
... Home. Biology. Medicine. Technology. Products. News. Definition. Dictionary. Movies. Links. Tags. Search. RSS Navigation Links Biology News Medicine News Biology Products Medicine Products Biology Definition Medicine Definition Biology Technology Medicine Technology Biology Dictionary Medicine Dictionary. immunologic in Medical News. NCCN Updates Infection Guidelines to Include Information About H1N1 Virus Swine Flu ...treatment-related infections. The NCCN Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Cancer-Related Infections characterize the major categories of immunologic deficits in persons with cancer and the major pathogens to which they are susceptible. Specific recommendations are provided on the prevention, diagno... PDL BioPharma Elects Barry Selick to Its Board of Directors ... pioneered the humanization of monoclonal antibodies and, by doing so, enabled the discovery of a new generation of targeted treatments for cancer and immunologic diseases. PDL is focused on maximizing the value of its anti...
http://bio-medicine.org/tag/Immunologic/
*  Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/MUGEN NoE
... 'Please do not modify it.' Subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page such as the article's talk page or in a deletion review. 10:51, 1 December 2006 UTC MUGEN NoE. 23:11, 23 November 2006 UTC 'delete' - Not enough notable. There are a huge list of consortia of the various of the european research framework programmes. The results are maybe relevant in the relevant wiki-article. -- Cate 18:49, 27 November 2006 UTC. :'Comment 1': You should write *'Keep' - Your comments... Cate 08:52, 29 November 2006 UTC. 'Reasons for keep it' :the MUGEN network of Excellence aims to structure and shape a world-class framework of European scientific and technological excellence in the field of “murine models for immunological disease”, to advance understanding of the genetic basis of disease and to enhance innovation and translatability of research efforts. MUGEN’s specific mission is to bring together different expertise from academic and industrial laboratories in order to study human immunol...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/MUGEN_NoE
*  Autoimmune disease? - Immune Disorders Message Board - HealthBoards
Autoimmune disease. - Immune Disorders Message Board - HealthBoards. health boards health message boards. Message Boards. Posting Policy. New Posts. Advanced Search. Find a Board. Search Blogs. Register FAQ Posting Policy Today's Posts Mark Boards Read Advanced Search Find A Board Site Map. Immune Disorders Message Board. HealthBoards. Immune Autoimmune. Immune Disorders > Autoimmune disease. LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread. 05-06-2010, 01:13 PM # 1. Senior Member male. Join Date: Apr 2004 Location: Maine Posts: 285. Autoimmune disease. All the tests the Gastro doc took always came out negative. Junior Member male. Join Date: Jun 2006 Location: Vienna, Austria Posts: 12. Re: Autoimmune disease. 05-18-2010, 08:01 PM # 3. Junior Member female. Join Date: May 2010 Posts: 15. Re: Autoimmune disease. Senior Member male. Join Date: Apr 2004 Location: Maine Posts: 285. Re: Autoimmune disease. 05-23-2010, 08:35 PM # 5. Junior Member female. Join Date: May 2010 Posts: 15. Re: Autoimmune disease. It too is an ...
http://healthboards.com/boards/immune-disorders/747931-autoimmune-disease.html
*  Immune Disorders in Dogs
... Ask A Vet. Join PetWave. Log In. Contact Us. Toggle navigation. Dogs current. Dog Breeds. Dog Health. Dog Care Ownership. Dog Behavior Training. Cats. Cat Breeds. Cat Health. Cat Care Ownership. Cat Behavior Training. Emergency. Ask a Vet. First Aid Center. Community. Discussions. Dog Immune Disorders. Home. Dogs. Health. Immune Disorders. The Immune System consists of a number of physiological processes that protect the body against disease. Immune disorders often compromise the body's ability to fight disease or distinguish between healthy cells and potentially harmful pathogens. Search Listing. Search. ALL. A B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. A Anaphylactic Shock. L Lupus. 1. Sort by. Gallery View. List View. Health Disorders. Bone, Joint & Muscle. Brain, Spinal & Nerve. Digestive Health. Ear & Eye Disorders. Heart & Blood Health. Hormonal & Metabolic. Immune Disorders. Kidney & Urinary Tract. Mental Disorders. Multiple Body System. Reproductive. Skin & Fur. . ...
http://petwave.com/Dogs/Health/Immune-Disorders.aspx
*  Ivig and weight gain!! Please help.. - Immune Disorders Message Board - HealthBoards
Ivig and weight gain!. Please help.. - Immune Disorders Message Board - HealthBoards. To Sign Up for free, please click here.... health boards health message boards. Message Boards. Posting Policy. New Posts. Advanced Search. FAQ. Find a Board. Sign Up. Password. Register Forget Password. Recent Entries. Best Entries. Best Blogs. Search Blogs. Register FAQ Posting Policy Today's Posts Mark Boards Read Advanced Search Find A Board Site Map. Immune Disorders Message Board. HealthBoards. Immune Autoimmune. Immune Disorders > Ivig and weight gain!. Please help.. Subscribe To Immune Disorders. LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread. 02-15-2011, 02:04 PM # 1. Itsbeenawhile. Ivig and weight gain!. Please help.. I have had three monthly ivig treatments so far and I have gained around two lbs per infusion. This was around a month ago and I have completed a three week antibotic treatment which relieved the symptoms but I am starting to experience some mild symptoms. My question is...it is normal to gain weight after ...
http://healthboards.com/boards/immune-disorders/835916-ivig-weight-gain-please-help.html
*  SEICAP
'Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica, Alergología y Asma Pediátrica' 'SEICAP', the Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology, is a scientific, non-profit organization, whose aims are to develop and disseminate the knowledge of allergic and immunologic diseases that affect children. As the most important part of their field of study we can include childhood asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis, anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, urticaria and angioedema, food allergy, drug allergy, allergy to latex, allergy to insect stings, primary immunodeficiency, and other disorders. In 1972 the Section of Pediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergology was created, although its actual implementation took place in 1976, during the National Congress of Pediatrics held in Barcelona. Leading the knowledge about the diagnosis, assessment, treatment and prevention of allergic and immunological diseases in children, in order to provide the best care for those who have or are at risk ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SEICAP
*  Oxford Immunotec Limited and Lophius Biosciences GmbH Sign Licensing and Collaboration Agreements
... 1/29/2013 10:10:37 AM Oxford, UK and Regensburg, Germany, January 29, 2013 / B3C newswire / - Oxford Immunotec, a medical diagnostic company developing tests in the fields of infectious and immunological disease and Lophius Biosciences, a leader in the field of novel T-cell based diagnostic test systems, announced today that the companies have signed agreements under which both companies will have access to certain intellectual property from the other party. Oxford Immunotec will be able to develop and commercialize novel T-cell based assays using Lophius´ proprietary UREA technology in certain territories. Lophius Biosciences will be able to develop and commercialize novel T-cell based assays under a license to Oxford Immunotec's proprietary T-SPOT® technology. “We are very pleased with this partnership with Oxford Immunotec, a leading company in the development of T-cell based assays, which provides us access to the T-SPOT® technology. About Lophius Biosciences Lophius Biosciences GmbH develops and mar...
http://biospace.com/News/oxford-immunotec-limited-and-lophius-biosciences/286035
*  Savannah Allergy Associates, P.C.
savannah allergy associates p c menu home our practitioner appointments contact us office locations patient forms billing and insurance faq in the news links pollen count savannah allergy associates p c would like to welcome you as a patient waters avenue savannah ga for over years savannah allergy associates p c has delivered the best care for allergy asthma and immunologic diseases this website will introduce you to dr melvin l haysman and provide you with information about our services and office procedures our staff is professionally trained and we take pride in working together as a team we have been actively involved in conducting clinical research so that we can provide you the latest in treatment options and sound evidence based medical care you deserve a doctor patient relationship based on mutual trust and respect and one that provides the best care available for your allergies asthma and immunologic diseases we strive to develop this type of relationship with all of our patients and we look forward...
http://savannahallergy.com/

Immunomics: Immunomics is the study of immune system regulation and response to pathogens using genome-wide approaches. With the rise of genomic and proteomic technologies, scientists have been able to visualize biological networks and infer interrelationships between genes and/or proteins; recently, these technologies have been used to help better understand how the immune system functions and how it is regulated.OdulimomabPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Proinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.Cell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Raji cell: Raji cell line is the first continuous human cell line from hematopoietic origin. The cell lines produce an unusual strain of Epstein-Barr virus which will both transform cord blood lymphocytes and induce early antigens in Raji cells.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Toll-like receptor 11: Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the gene TLR11. TLR11 belongs to the toll-like receptor (TLR) family and the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor superfamily.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Intraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.KLRD1: CD94 (Cluster of Differentiation 94), also known as killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily D, member 1 (KLRD1) is a human gene.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Immunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.Autologous immune enhancement therapy: Autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) is a treatment method in which immune cells are taken out from the patient's body which are cultured and processed to activate them until their resistance to cancer is strengthened and then the cells are put back in the body. The cells, antibodies, and organs of the immune system work to protect and defend the body against not only tumor cells but also bacteria or viruses.ImmunotherapyGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Autoimmune diseaseColes PhillipsImmunizationProtective autoimmunity: Protective autoimmunity is a condition in which cells of the adaptive immune system contribute to maintenance of the functional integrity of a tissue, or facilitate its repair following an insult. The term ‘protective autoimmunity’ was coined by Prof.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Pattern recognition receptor: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are a primitive part of the immune system. They are proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with cell components that are released during cell damage or death.Suppressor-inducer T cell: Suppressor-inducer T cells are a specific subset of CD4+ T helper cells that "induce" CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to become "suppressor" cells. Suppressor T cells are also known as CD25+–Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (nTregs), and reduce inflammation.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Biological response modifiers: Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances that modify immune responses. They can be both endogenous (produced naturally within the body) and exogenous (as pharmaceutical drugs), and they can either enhance an immune response or suppress it.Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.CD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Lars Larsen Forsæth: Lars Larsen Forsæth (baptized 9 December 1759 – 12 February 1839) was a Norwegian farmer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Tallak Lindstøl: Stortinget og Statsraadet, Kristiania, 1914.Inferior mesenteric lymph nodes: The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes consist of:Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent.SeroconversionG-CSF factor stem-loop destabilising elementVaccinationGustav GaudernackAntigen processing: Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways.Phagocytosis: In cell biology, phagocytosis ( (phagein) |to devour||, (kytos) |cell||-osis|process}}) is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome. Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler, and later studied by Élie Metchnikoff.CTL-mediated cytotoxicityReverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.Immunosuppression: Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingImmunity (medical): In biology, immunity is the balanced state of having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.Monoclonal antibody therapyEscheriosome: Escheriosomes are liposomes prepared from polar lipids extracted from Escherichia coli. Such kinds of delivery vehicles have been shown to elicit high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.Primary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.