HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Gene Products, vpr: Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Genes, tat: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Gene Products, vif: Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, rev: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Genes, nef: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fusion Proteins, gag-pol: Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genes, vpr: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

*  High Uptake of Postpartum Hormonal Contraception Among HIV-1... : Sexually...
Five hundred ten HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled at 32 weeks of pregnancy and 457 women ... Hormonal Contraception and HIV: Science and Policy. Africa Regional Meeting, Nairobi, 2005. *Cited ... Results: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and ... Prevention of HIV in Infants and Young Children: Review of Evidence and WHO's Activities. Geneva: ......
http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/Fulltext/2007/01000/High_Uptake_of_Postpartum_Hormonal_Contraception.5.aspx
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Time Trends for HIV-1 Antiretroviral Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Experienced and Naive Pregnant ... Time Trends for HIV-1 Antiretroviral Resistance Among Antire... , Image Gallery ......
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/imagegallery.aspx?year=2007&issue=03010&article=00013
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cytidine deaminase genes, APOBEC3H, positive selection, HIV-1 infection, haplotype Abstract APOBEC3 ... Data from: A positively selected APOBEC3H haplotype is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 ... Data from: A positively selected APOBEC3H haplotype is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 ... A positively selected APOBEC3H haplotype is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. ... ... Data from: A positively selected APOBEC3H haplotype is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection - Dryad. Skip navigation mirage Data from: A positively selected APOBEC3H haplotype is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Dryad Repository. About. The organization. Our team. Repository features and technology. Blog: News and views. DryadLab: Research data for educators. Employment opportunities. Membership meeting. FAQs. For researchers. Submit data. Use data. Look up your journal. FAQs. Educational outreach with D...
http://datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.n3373
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Patients and Methods Children with HIV infection from endemic countries were tested for HIV ... Although HIV-NBS could have a different clinical evolution and could respond differently to ... CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HIV-1 NON-B SUBTYPES: PHARMACOGENETICS RESEARCH NEEDS FOR CHILDREN ... CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HIV-1 NON-B SUBTYPES: PHARMACOGENETICS RESEARCH NEEDS FOR CHILDREN ......
http://adc.bmj.com/content/93/Suppl_2/pw316
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The PINT trial analyses the dynamics of different HIV DNA forms during acute and chronic infection ... hiv cure HIV persistence HIV HIV eradication cure eradication HIV latency HIV reservoirs HIV ... Key words: HIV DNA, HIV dynamics, HIV raltegravir, HIV reservoirs, HIV é-LTR ... workshop reservoirs ISHEID hiv eradication HIV cure reservoir hiv reservoirs hiv persistence ......
http://hiv-reservoir.net/index.php/the-news/208-dynamics-of-hiv-1-dna-levels.html
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HIV HIV cure hiv cure eradication HIV persistence reservoir ISHEID HIV workshop HIV eradication hiv ... HIV Functional Cure, HIV Persistence, HIV Reservoirs, HIV cure, HIV eradication, NAIAD, NIH, NIH ... reservoirs hiv eradication hiv persistence HIV reservoirs cure ... HIV Cure by Bone Marrow Transplant.... *6 International Workshop on HIV Persistence, Reservoirs & ......
http://hiv-reservoir.net/index.php/the-news/452-nih-hiv-cure-2014-meeting.html
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HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance in Health Care Settings in Maputo, ... Objectives: To characterize HIV-1 diversity and transmitted drug resistance in persons with access ......
http://repositorio.ul.pt/handle/10451/21663
*  August - 2008 - erv
JustaTech on CAEV vs HIV: But what if it could, tho?. *Dr. PS Duke on CAEV vs HIV: But what if it ... Listen, nobody thinks the guy who 'cured Charlie Sheen of HIV' cured Charlie Sheen of HIV.. Even… ... HIV and Charlie Sheen. ERV-,TMZ?. No, this is an education and outreach opportunity, and I want to ... Finally, an HIV-1 article I can support. Posted by ERV on August 6, 2008 ......
http://scienceblogs.com/erv/2008/08/page/3/
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The objective of this project is to develop a commercially viable point of care Rapid HIV-1 ... Consortium for the Evaluation of Performance of HIV Incidence Assays) program to evaluate HIV ... The assay will be used to generate improved estimates of HIV incidence not only in the U.S., but in ... The proposed Rapid HIV-1 Incidence Assay, once established as suitable for population surveillance ......
http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R43-AI114365-01
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Persistently HIV-1 seronegative Nairobi sex workers are susceptible to in vitro infection. ... Resistance to HIV infection is likely to be multifactorial, and products of CD8+ cells and unique ... PATIENTS: Thirteen individuals from a cohort of sex workers with a similar risk of acquiring HIV ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether resistance to HIV-1 infection in a subset of highly exposed sex ......
http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/11295/18278
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Enfuvirtide T-20 : A Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Fusion Inhibitor. Enfuvirtide T-20 : A Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Fusion Inhibitor. Enfuvirtide T-20 : A Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Fusion Inhibitor. Enfuvirtide T-20; ENF, a synthetic peptide, is the first of a new class of antiretrovirals that block entry of virus into host cells. Infection with HIV-1 occurs after a series of events involving attachment of virus and subsequent entry of virus into host cells. E, Inhibition of HIV fusion and infection. studied fusion inhibition using diverse primary cell types that represent major targets both for direct infection and for trans infection of target cells by virus-bound dendritic cells. Sensitivity of HIV-1 to fusion inhibition is influenced by coreceptor specificity, mutations in the HR1 of gp41, alterations in the V3 loop in gp120, and other determinants in the envelope outside the HR1 domain. analyzed 14 ENF-naive primary HIV isolates for sensitivity to ENF and found...
http://natap.org/2003/oct/100703_1.htm
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... 1 HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes in Acute/Early HIV-1 Infection PDF Download Available. Article Marked Epitope- and Allele-Specific Differences in Rates of Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes in Acute/Early HIV-1 Infection. ABSTRACT During acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection, early host cellular immune responses drive viral evolution. 18 doi:10.1128/JVI.01041-08 Marked Epitope- and Allele-Specific Differences in Rates of Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes in Acute/Early HIV-1 Infection. Indeed, the course of HIV disease is influenced by the strength and specificity of the early CTL response 7, 76, combined with the virus’ ability to adapt to changing immune pressures through the selection of HLA- restricted CTL escape mutations and the reversion of trans- mitted escape mutations from the previous host 14, 22, 36, 38, 39, 52, 58, 59, 67...
http://researchgate.net/publication/5237373_Marked_Epitope-_and_Allele-Specific_Differences_in_Rates_of_Mutation_in_Human_Immunodeficiency_Type_1_(HIV-1)_Gag_Pol_and_Nef_Cytotoxic_T-Lymphocyte_Epitopes_in_AcuteEarly_HIV-1_Infection
*  HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering, Jena Bio
HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins / HIV-1. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins - HIV-1. HIV-type O Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type O Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / biotin conjugated Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / horse radish peroxidase labeled Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. PR-1201-HRP. PR-1201-HRP-1. HIV-1 p24 residues 77-436 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen, nucleocapsid protein recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120/gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. ...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-0ad9bb82dece35acf67bfb90b7a0a2dd/1/catalog/714/?m=1&k=2c
*  HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering, Jena Bio
HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins / HIV-1. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins - HIV-1. HIV-type O Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type O Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / biotin conjugated Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / horse radish peroxidase labeled Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. PR-1201-HRP. PR-1201-HRP-1. HIV-1 p24 residues 77-436 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen, nucleocapsid protein recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120/gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. ...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-35c95c7156d9a37bce33cce81013f878/1/catalog/714/?m=1&k=03
*  HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering, Jena Bio
HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins / HIV-1. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins - HIV-1. HIV-type O Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type O Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / biotin conjugated Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / horse radish peroxidase labeled Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. PR-1201-HRP. PR-1201-HRP-1. HIV-1 p24 residues 77-436 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen, nucleocapsid protein recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120/gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. ...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-87b41f021e15955ec8f65a6d7fa86023/1/catalog/714/?m=1&k=39
*  HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering, Jena Bio
HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins / HIV-1. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins - HIV-1. HIV-type O Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type O Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / biotin conjugated Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / horse radish peroxidase labeled Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. PR-1201-HRP. PR-1201-HRP-1. HIV-1 p24 residues 77-436 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen, nucleocapsid protein recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120/gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. ...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-87b41f021e15955ec8f65a6d7fa86023/1/catalog/714/?m=1&k=3a
*  HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering, Jena Bio
HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins / HIV-1. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins - HIV-1. HIV-type O Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type O Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / biotin conjugated Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / horse radish peroxidase labeled Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. PR-1201-HRP. PR-1201-HRP-1. HIV-1 p24 residues 77-436 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen, nucleocapsid protein recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120/gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. ...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-87b41f021e15955ec8f65a6d7fa86023/1/catalog/714/?m=1&k=7e
*  HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering, Jena Bio
HIV-1, Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins / HIV-1. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins - HIV-1. HIV-type O Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type O Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 Envelope Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / biotin conjugated Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. HIV-1 p24 / horse radish peroxidase labeled Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen recombinant, E. coli. PR-1201-HRP. PR-1201-HRP-1. HIV-1 p24 residues 77-436 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigen, nucleocapsid protein recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120/gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Antigens recombinant, E. ...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-e4e4a7ba4e784f889091e084fea054f9/1/catalog/714/?m=1&k=82
*  Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus - ACOG
... Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Reproductive Health Care for Ad...
http://acog.org/Resources_And_Publications/Committee_Opinions/Committee_on_Adolescent_Health_Care/Reproductive_Health_Care_for_Adolescents_with_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus
*  A Study to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of Darunavir for Treating Human Immunodeficiency Viru
... s-Type I HIV-1 Infection in Filipino Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. A Study to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of Darunavir for Treating Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type I HIV-1 Infection in Filipino Patients This study has been withdrawn prior to enrollment. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of darunavir for the treatment human immunodeficiency virus-type I HIV-1 infection among Filipino adults. Official Title: A Post-Marketing Surveillance Study on the Safety and Effectiveness of Darunavir on Filipino Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type I HIV-1 Infection. For treatment-naive and treatment-experienced adult patients with no darunavir resistance associated substitutions: Darunavir 800 mg will be administered with ritonavir 100 mg once daily with food. For treatment-experienced adult patients with at least one darunavir resistance associated substitution: Darunavir 600 mg will be administered with ritonavir 200 mg twice daily with food. St...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01726348?order=471
*  Changes in Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Rea
... ctivation and Suppression. Changes in Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Reactivation and Suppression. The hypothesis that subclinical herpes simplex virus HSV reactivation was associated, in vivo, with increased plasma human immunodeficiency virus HIV RNA and suppression with a reduced plasma HIV RNA load was investigated. HSV cultures were performed daily on HSV-2positive/HIV-positive patients, and plasma HIV-1 RNA loads were measured at regular intervals. Most 25/27 HSV-2positive/HIV-positive persons reactivated HSV. These data indicate that frequent mucosal HSV reactivation influences HIV replication in vivo and daily HSV suppression may be important in the management of HSV-positive/HIV-positive persons. Suppression of HSV with acyclovir was associated with a reduction in plasma HIV RNA. Because 40% of HSV shedding was subclinical and acyclovir was even more effective in reducing HSV shedding than in reducing lesions, our results suggest that subclinic...
http://natap.org/2002/Dec/121902_2.htm
*  HIV-1 Replication in the Central Nervous System Occurs in Two Distinct Cell Types (PDF Download Avai
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system CNS can lead to the development of HIV-1-associated dementia HAD. Here we show that genetically compartmentalized CCR5-tropic R5 T cell-tropic and macrophage-tropic HIV-1 populations are inde- pendently found in the CSF of subjects diagnosed with HIV-1- associated dementia. Viruses pseudotyped with Env proteins derived from virus in the blood plasma and CSF of these neurologically asymptomatic subjects could only infect cells with high CD4 surface expression Figure 1B; Table S1. Compartmentalized R5 T cell-tropic and macrophage- tropic HIV-1 populations are independently found in the CSF of subjects diagnosed with HIV-1-associated dementia Significant genetic compartmentalization was detected between the blood plasma and CSF HIV-1 populations of eight subjects diagnosed with HIV-1-associated neurological disease Figure 2 and Figure 3; Table 2. Compart- Author Summary Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection o...
http://researchgate.net/publication/51721555_HIV-1_replication_in_the_central_nervous_system_occurs_in_two_distinct_cell_types
*  Misdiagnosis of HIV/AIDS - RightDiagnosis.com
Pneumocystitis carinii pneumonia related HIV Tuberculosis related HIV Toxoplasmosis related HIV Kaposi sarcoma related HIV Cryptosporidiosis related HIV Herpes zoster related HIV Hemophiliacs related HIV HIV-1 HIV-2 HIV-1a HIV-1b HIV-1c HIV-1d HIV-1f HIV-1g HIV-1h HIV-1j HIV-1k HIV-2a HIV-2b HIV-1, CRF01 AE HIV-1, CRF02 AG HIV-1, CRF03 AB HIV-1, CRF04 cpx HIV-1, CRF05 DF HIV-1, CRF06 cpx HIV-1, CRF07 BC HIV-1, CRF08 BC HIV-1, CRF09 cpx HIV-1, CRF010 CD HIV-1, CRF011 cpx HIV-1, CRF012 BF HIV-1, CRF013 cpx HIV-1, CRF014 BG HIV-1, CRF015 01B HIV-1, CRF016 A2D HIV-1, CRF017 BF HIV-1, CRF018 cpx HIV-1, CRF020 BG HIV-1, CRF021 A2D HIV-1, CRF022 01A1 HIV-1, CRF023 BG HIV-1, CRF024 BG HIV-1, CRF025 cpx HIV-1, CRF026 AU HIV-1, CRF027 cpx HIV-1, CRF028 BF HIV-1, CRF029 BF HIV-1, CRF030 0206 HIV-1, CRF031 BC HIV-1, CRF032 06A1 HIV-1, CRF033 01B HIV-1, CRF034 01B HIV-1, CRF035 AD HIV-1, CRF036 cpx HIV-1, CRF037 cpx HIV-1, CRF038 BF HIV-1, CRF039 BF HIV-1, CRF040 BF HIV-1, CRF041 CD HIV-1, CRF042 BF HIV-1, CRF043 02G HI...
http://rightdiagnosis.com/h/hiv_aids/misdiag.htm
*  Interactions of HTF4 with E-box motifs in the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus t
... ype 1 - ResearchGate. For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Article Interactions of HTF4 with E-box motifs in the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Y.I. Zhang. Y.I. Zhang. Remove suggestion. K Doyle. K Doyle. Remove suggestion. Minou Bina. Minou Bina Purdue University Message author. Remove suggestion. Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393. Journal of Virology. Impact Factor: 4.44. 10/1992; 66 9 :5631-4. Source: PubMed. ABSTRACT We have identified three consensus E-box motifs in the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. One of these E boxes interacts selectively with representative members of the class A group of basic helix-loop-helix proteins, including HTF4, E47, and their heterodimers. Our analyses implicate the helix-loop-helix proteins in regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expressi...
http://researchgate.net/publication/21655016_Interactions_of_HTF4_with_E-box_motifs_in_the_long_terminal_repeat_of_human_immunodeficiency_virus_type_1
*  "Establishment of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV" by Alissa G. Bukrinskaya,
"Establishment of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV" by Alissa G. Bukrinskaya, Beda Brichacek et al. Open Access. Open Access Articles. Open Access Articles. Establishment of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 reverse transcription complex involves the cytoskeleton. Bukrinskaya, University of Massachusetts Medical School Beda Brichacek, University of Massachusetts Medical School Angela Mann, University of Massachusetts Medical School Follow Mario Stevenson, University of Massachusetts Medical School Follow. Cell Line; Cytoskeleton; HIV Infections; HIV Reverse Transcriptase; HIV-1; Humans; *Virus Replication. After interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 virions with cell surface receptors, a series of poorly characterized events results in establishment of a viral reverse transcription complex in the host cell cytoplasm. This process is coordinated in such a way that reverse transcription is initiated shortly after formation of the viral reverse transcri...
http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1042/
*  Molecular Insights Into HIV Biology
Reverse transcription yields the HIV preintegration complex PIC , composed of double-stranded viral cDNA, integrase, matrix, Vpr, reverse transcriptase, and the high mobility group DNA-binding cellular protein HMGI Y. Figure 2 Because plus-strand synthesis is discontinuous in reverse transcription, a triple helical DNA domain or "DNA flap" results that may bind a host protein containing a nuclear targeting signal. Transcription of the viral genome results in more than a dozen different HIV-specific transcripts. Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody. Nature. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef functions at the level of virus entry by enhancing cytoplasmic delivery of virions. Establishment of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 reverse transcription complex involves the cytoskeleton. The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in ...
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-00&doc=kb-02-01-01
*  In Vitro Priming Recapitulates In Vivo HIV-1 Specific T Cell Responses, Revealing Rapid Loss of Viru
... s Reactive CD4+ T Cells in Acute HIV-1 Infection. In Vitro Priming Recapitulates In Vivo HIV-1 Specific T Cell Responses, Revealing Rapid Loss of Virus Reactive CD4+ T Cells in Acute HIV-1 Infection. In Vitro Priming Recapitulates In Vivo HIV-1 Specific T Cell Responses, Revealing Rapid Loss of Virus Reactive CD4+ T Cells in Acute HIV-1 Infection. In Vitro Priming Recapitulates In Vivo HIV-1 Specific T Cell Responses, Revealing Rapid Loss of Virus Reactive CD4+ T Cells in Acute HIV-1 Infection. In Vitro Priming Recapitulates In Vivo HIV-1 Specific T Cell Responses, Revealing Rapid Loss of Virus Reactive CD4+ T Cells in Acute HIV-1 Infection. Activation of T cell responses in lymph nodes requires cell-cell contact between T cells and DCs, which can give concurrent activation of T cells and HIV transmission. Methodology: The study aim was to establish whether DCs pulsed with HIV-1 could prime HIV-specific T cell responses and to characterize these responses. Findings: Our findings show that both infectious ...
http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/4891661
*  Molecular evidence that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dissemination in a small Brazilian city
... was already taking place in the early 1990s. . . . Services on Demand. Article. English pdf. English epdf. Article in xml format. Article references. How to cite this article. Automatic translation. Send this article by e-mail. Indicators. Cited by SciELO. Access statistics. Related links. Cited by Google. Similars in SciELO. Similars in Google. uBio. Share. More. More. Permalink. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. On-line version ISSN 1678-8060. Abstract. EYER-SILVA, Walter A ; BELLO, Gonzalo and MORGADO, Mariza G. Molecular evidence that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dissemination in a small Brazilian city was already taking place in the early 1990s. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2007, vol.102, n.5, pp. ISSN 1678-8060. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762007000500018. We recently performed a molecular epidemiology survey of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection in Miracema, a small city in Southeast Brazil, and found multiple monophyletic clusters, consistent with independent introduct...
http://scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0074-02762007000500018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  "Distinction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization and " by Akira Takeda, James E.
... Open Access. Open Access Articles. Open Access Articles. Distinction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization and infection enhancement by human monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein 120. Animals; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Binding, Competitive; Epitopes; HIV Antibodies; HIV Envelope Protein gp120; HIV Infections; HIV-1; Humans; Immunoglobulin G; Neutralization Tests; Rabbits; Radioimmunoassay; Receptors, Fc; Virus Replication. Previous work has demonstrated that complement receptors on T lymphoid cells and Fc receptors for IgG Fc gamma R on monocytic cells are required for enhanced infection by antibody-complexed HIV-1. Characterization of such infection-enhancing antibodies is essential because immunogenic epitopes which induce enhancing antibodies should be excluded from HIV-1 vaccines. This study was conducted to identify enhancing antibodies involved in Fc R-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection employing IgG human monoclonal antibodies HMAbs reactive against gp120 of HIV-1, which were p...
http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1006/
*  HIV Life Cycle: Targets for Anti-HIV Agents - HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design - De C
... lercq - Wiley Online Library. Log in / Register. Password. Register. Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry. Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry. HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design. Summary. BOOK TOOLS. BOOK MENU. Book Home. GET ACCESS. How to Get Online Access. ABOUT THIS BOOK. HIV Life Cycle: Targets for Anti-HIV Agents. Nouri Neamati Erik De Clercq Published Online: 28 SEP 2011. DOI: 10.1002/9781118015377.ch1. Copyright 2011 John Wiley Sons, Inc. Book Title. HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design. De Clercq, E. 2011 HIV Life Cycle: Targets for Anti-HIV Agents, in HIV-1 Integrase: Mechanism and Inhibitor Design ed N. Neamati, John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118015377.ch1. Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, California, USA. Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Published Online: 28 SEP 2011 Published Print: 9 SEP 2011. Book Ser...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118015377.ch1/summary
*  High Maternal HIV-1 Viral Load During Pregnancy Is Associate... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
Maternal CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load, and HIV-1-specific gp41 antibody concentrations were measured antenatally and at delivery. High maternal HIV-1 viral load at 32 weeks' gestation and at delivery was associated with reductions in placental transfer P 0.0001 and P = 0.0056, respectively and infant measles IgG concentrations in cord blood P 0.0001 and P = 0.0073, respectively. It has previously been reported that placental transfer of IgG against measles virus is lower among HIV-1-infected than HIV-1-uninfected women 8 and that concentrations of measles IgG prior to immunization are reduced among HIV-1-exposed infants compared with infants born to HIV-1-seronegative mothers. 12 Women provided blood at delivery for HIV-1 RNA, measles IgG, and HIV-1-specific gp41 IgG. Maternal measles antibody concentrations did not correlate with HIV-1 viral load at 32 weeks' gestation or at delivery P = 0.98 and P = 0.83, respectively Table 2. A similar association was found between maternal HIV-1 viral load measured at the ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2005/12010/High_Maternal_HIV_1_Viral_Load_During_Pregnancy_Is.17.aspx
*  C/EBP proteins activate transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal rep
... eat in macrophages/monocytes. C/EBP proteins activate transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat in macrophages/monocytes. Three binding sites for C/EBP proteins are found in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 long terminal repeat LTR V. We have determined the functional role of C/EBP proteins and C/EBP sites in regulating transcription from the HIV-1 LTR in monocytes/macrophages. Inhibition of endogenous C/EBP proteins, using either an excess of C/EBP binding sites or a trans-dominant negative inhibitor, demonstrated that C/EBP proteins are required for basal and activated levels of HIV-1 LTR transcription in the promonocytic cell line U937. However, transcription from crippled HIV-1 LTRs lacking C/EBP sites can still be induced following activation of U937 cells. 15381907 - Expression pattern of the ccaat/enhancer-binding protein c/ebp-beta in gestational trop... Base Sequence Binding Sites CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins Cell Differentiation Cell Line Chl...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/proteins-activate-transcription-from-human/7636977.html
*  Interpretation for 60357 HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibody Screen for Hemolyzed Specimens, Serum
... Test 60357 : HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibody Screen for Hemolyzed Specimens, Serum Clinical Information. The first virus, HIV-1, has been isolated from patients with AIDS, AIDS-related complex, and asymptomatic infected individuals at high risk for AIDS. Detection of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 antibodies in cadaveric or hemolyzed serum specimens from nonsymptomatic patients with or without risk factors for HIV infection. This assay is FDA-approved for testing cadaveric or hemolyzed blood specimens. A reactive HIV-1/-2 antibody screen result obtained by EIA suggests the presence of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection. Confirmatory testing by HIV-1/-2 antibody differentiation or HIV-1 specific Western blot WB assay is necessary to verify the presence of HIV-1 infection. The presence of HIV-2 infection is screened by HIV-2 antibody-specific EIA with confirmation by HIV-2 antibody-specific immunoblot assay. All EIA-reactive specimens tested will automatically be tested by HIVDI / HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibody Differentiation, Serum at...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/index.html?alpha=H&unit_code=60357
*  Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers as HIV-1 Vaccine Immunogens
Vaccines. Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers as HIV-1 Vaccine Immunogens. Next Article in Journal / Special Issue What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us. Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue Developing Combined HIV Vaccine Strategies for a Functional Cure. MDPI. Open Access Policy. --- Issue. all Erratum Addendum Article Book Review Case Report Comment Commentary Communication Concept Paper Conference Report Correction Creative Data Descriptor Discussion Editorial Essay Interesting Images Letter New Book Received Obituary Opinion Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue. Vaccines. Volume 1, Issue 4. Article Versions Abstract. Full-Text PDF. Article Versions Notes. Google Scholar. Sattentau, QJ. on Google Scholar. Sattentau, QJ. Sattentau, QJ. Vaccines 2013, 1 4, 497-512; doi: 10.3390/vaccines1040497 Review Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers as HIV-1 Vaccine Immunogens Quentin J. Sattentau. Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 Octo...
http://mdpi.com/2076-393X/1/4/497
*  Mutational Alteration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vif Allows for Functional Interaction w
... ith Nonhuman Primate APOBEC3G. For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser. Article Mutational Alteration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vif Allows for Functional Interaction with Nonhuman Primate APOBEC3G. Bärbel Schröfelbauer. Bärbel Schröfelbauer University of California, San Diego Message author. Remove suggestion. Tilo Senger. Tilo Senger. Remove suggestion. Gerard Manning. Gerard Manning. Remove suggestion. Nathaniel R Landau. Nathaniel R Landau. Remove suggestion. Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Journal of Virology. Impact Factor: 4.44. 06/2006; 80 12 :5984-91. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00388-06 Source: PubMed. ABSTRACT Human APOBEC3F hA3F and APOBEC3G hA3G are antiretroviral cytidine deaminases that can be encapsidated during virus assembly to catalyze C-- U deamination of the viral reverse transcripts in the next round of infecti...
http://researchgate.net/publication/7050797_Mutational_Alteration_of_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus_Type_1_Vif_Allows_for_Functional_Interaction_with_Nonhuman_Primate_APOBEC3G
*  HIV Support | Lifescript.com
Related Terms • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS, Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Human immunodeficiency virus HIV is the virus responsible for AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Although research is still preliminary, one double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that a combination of glutamine and antioxidants vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and N-acetyl cysteine led to significant weight gain in people with HIV who had lost weight. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. One-year antioxidant supplementation with beta-carotene or selenium for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a pilot study. Dietary micronutrient intake and risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 -infected homosexual men. Dietary micronutrient intake and risk of progression to ...
http://lifescript.com/health/a-z/alternative-therapies_a-z/bycondition/h/hiv_support.aspx
*  Understanding Why Infection With HIV-2 Is Not As Bad As HIV-1 -- ScienceDaily
... Understanding Why Infection With HIV-2 Is Not As Bad As HIV-1. Individuals infected with HIV-2 progress to AIDS at a dramatically reduced rate compared with individuals infected with HIV-1; in fact, most individuals infected with HIV-2 die of unrelated causes. It is hoped that understanding why individuals infected with HIV-2 rarely progress to AIDS will help with the design of therapeutics and vaccine strategies for the treatment and prevention, respectively, of infection with HIV-1. Individuals infected with HIV-2 progress to AIDS at a dramatically reduced rate compared with individuals infected with HIV-1; in fact, most individuals infected with HIV-2 die of unrelated causes. It is hoped that understanding why individuals infected with HIV-2 rarely progress to AIDS will help with the design of therapeutics and vaccine strategies for the treatment and prevention, respectively, of infection with HIV-1. Journal of Clinical Investigation. "Understanding Why Infection With HIV-2 Is Not As Bad As HIV-1." Sc...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070907105907.htm
*  The neutralizing antibody response against a conserved region of human immunodeficiency virus type
... 1 gp41 amino acid residues 731-752 is uniquely directed against a conformational epitope - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal. Browse Publications service by Year. Browse Publications service by Department. Browse Publications service by Funder. The neutralizing antibody response against a conserved region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 amino acid residues 731-752 is uniquely directed against a conformational epitope. Tools Tools Tools. Ideate RDF+XML BibTeX RIOXX2 XML RDF+N-Triples JSON Dublin Core Atom MODS for NEEO Simple Metadata Refer METS HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote MODS OpenURL ContextObject in Span MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager NEEO RDF+N3 Eprints Application Profile. 1998 The neutralizing antibody response against a conserved region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 amino acid residues 731-752 is uniquely directed against a conformational epitope. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 79 Part 11. The humoral response in infected patients a...
http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/15242/
*  DISEASES - Human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease
diseases human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease diseases disease gene associations mined from literature search downloads about human genes for human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease a viral infectious disease that results in destruction of immune system leading to life threatening opportunistic infections and cancers has material basis in human immunodeficiency virus or has material basis in human immunodeficiency virus which are transmitted by sexual contact transmitted by transfer of blood semen vaginal fluid pre ejaculate or breast milk transmitted by congenital method and transmitted by contaminated needles the virus infects helper t cells cd t cells which are directly or indirectly destroyed macrophages and dendritic cells the infection has symptom diarrhea has symptom fatigue has symptom fever has symptom vaginal yeast infection has symptom headache has symptom mouth sores has symptom ...
http://diseases.jensenlab.org/Entity?network=10&textmining=10&type1=-26&type2=9606&id1=DOID:526
*  Interpretation for 83628 HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibodies for Cadaveric or Hemolyzed Specimens, Serum
... My Account Report Portal Client Price Portal Additional Test Report Quality Report Portal Reportable Disease Portal Electronic Invoices Supply Catalog. Test 83628 : HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibodies for Cadaveric or Hemolyzed Specimens, Serum Clinical Information. The first virus, HIV-1, has been isolated from patients with AIDS, AIDS-related complex, and asymptomatic infected individuals at high risk for AIDS. Detection of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 antibodies in cadaveric or hemolyzed serum specimens from symptomatic patients with or without risk factors for HIV infection. This assay is FDA-approved for testing cadaveric or hemolyzed blood specimens. A reactive HIV-1/-2 antibody screen result obtained by EIA suggests the presence of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection. Confirmatory testing by HIV-1/-2 antibody differentiation or HIV-1 specific Western blot WB assay is necessary to verify the presence of HIV-1 infection. The presence of HIV-2 infection is screened by HIV-2 antibody-specific EIA with confirmation by HIV-2 ant...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/index.html?alpha=H&unit_code=83628
*  PLOS Medicine: Antiretroviral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Prevents Vaginal Transmission of HIV-1 in Hum
... anized BLT Mice. Other Article Types. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Article. Systemic CD4 + T Cell Loss Resulting from Intravaginal HIV-1 Infection in Humanized BLT Mice A Comparison of the levels of CD4 + or CD8 + human T cells in the indicated tissues in representative BLT mice that were either naive, HIV-1 infected, or that received FTC/TDF for pre-exposure prophylaxis prior to exposure to HIV-1. B and C Box plots depicting the levels of CD4 + B or CD8 + C T cells in the indicated tissues for naive green, HIV-1 infected white, and FTC/TDF-treated plus HIV-1–exposed red BLT mice. Changes in CD4 + CCR5 + and CD8 + CCR5 + Human T Cell Levels Resulting from HIV-1 Infection A Comparison of the levels of human CD4 + CCR5 + T cells in the indicated tissues in a representative naive BLT mouse, an HIV-1–infected, and an HIV-1–exposed BLT mouse that received FTC/TDF for pre-exposure prophylaxis. B Box plot depicti...
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050016
*  Marked Epitope- and Allele-Specific Differences in Rates of Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Ty
. Marked Epitope- and Allele-Specific Differences in Rates of Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes in Acute/Early HIV-1 Infection - Microsoft Research. . Our research Connections Careers About us. Microsoft Translator. All Downloads Events Groups News People Projects Publications Videos. Marked Epitope- and Allele-Specific Differences in Rates of Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes in Acute/Early HIV-1 Infection Zabrina L. Brumme, Chanson J. Brumme, Jonathan M. Carlson, Hendrik Streeck, Mina John, Quentin Eichbaum, Brian L. Block, Brett Baker, Carl Kadie, Martin Markowitz, Heiko Jessen, Anthony D. Kelleher, Eric Rosenberg, John Kaldor, Yuko Yuki, Mary Carrington, Todd M. Allen, Simon Mallal, Marcus Altfeld, David Heckerman, and Bruce D. Walker 2008. Abstract During acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection, early host cellular immune responses drive viral evolution. The r...
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=80546
*  Patent US5667964 - Rapid, direct, and qualitative method for the determination of the number of ...
Also, stimulation of patients' PBMCs with PHA in combination with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate has resulted in augmentation of p24 antigen level expression, as described in Tetali, et al., Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I RNA Detection in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell by Polymerase Chain Reaction: Enhanced Sensitivity after Mitogenic Stimulation, AIDS Res. Example 6 Quantitation of HIV Cell Infection Using HIV Chronically Infected Cell Lines Invention The number of cells infected with HIV was determined by comparing the amounts of p24 antigen detected in experimental samples with the p24 amounts produced in chronically infected U1 monocytes and ACH-2 T cells. The amounts of p24 antigen produced by known numbers of these chronically HIV infected cells were used to generate a standard curve, whereby the number of HIV-infected patient PBMCs was determined. Table 1 presents the relationships between patients' clinical stage of HIV infection, the detection of p24 antigen and numbers of HiV-infected cells...
http://google.com/patents/US5667964?dq=12/011,425
*  Anti -HIV-1 gp41 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1) - United States Biological
Anti -HIV-1 gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 - United States Biological. Antibodies. Antibodies. Anti -HIV-1 gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Anti -HIV-1 gp41 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1. Please contact your distributor for pricing. Grade Applications Polyclonal Goat Highly Purified B. Human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a retrovirusthat can lead to a condition in which the immune systembegins to fail, leading to opportunistic infections. HIV primarily infects vital cells in the humanimmune systemsuch as helper T cells specifically CD4+ T cells, macrophagesand dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through three main mechanisms: firstly, direct viral killing of infected cells; secondly, increased rates of apoptosisin infected cells; and thirdly, killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytesthat recognize infected cells. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation peri...
http://usbio.net/item/H6003-03A
*  A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of rgp120/HIV-1IIIB Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjec
... ts NOTE: Study Extended ONLY for Subjects Who Have Previously Received rgp120/HIV-1IIIB or rgp120/HIV-1MN on VEU 006 or VEU 006 Rollover Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of rgp120/HIV-1IIIB Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects NOTE: Study Extended ONLY for Subjects Who Have Previously Received rgp120/HIV-1IIIB or rgp120/HIV-1MN on VEU 006 or VEU 006 Rollover Study This study has been completed. Information provided by Responsible Party : National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID. ORIGINAL DESIGN: To evaluate the safety clinical and immunologic of rgp120/HIV-1IIIB vaccine gp120 vaccine immunization in healthy HIV-1 seronegative adult subjects. Biological: rgp120/HIV-1IIIB Biological: rgp120/HIV-1MN. Official Title: A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of rgp120/HIV-1IIIB Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects NOTE: Study Extended ONLY for Subjects Who Have Previously Received rgp120/HIV-1IIIB or rgp120/HIV-1MN on VEU 006 or ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001020
*  Host CCL3L1 Gene Copy Number in Relation to HIV-1-Specific C... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
Host CCL3L1 Gene Copy Number in Relation to HIV-1-Specific C... Host CCL3L1 Gene Copy Number in Relation to HIV-1-Specific C... Given the role of CCL3 in HIV-1 protective immunity and attenuation of disease progression and the described roles of CD4 + 13-18 and CD8 + 19-39 T cells in control of HIV-1 infection, we questioned whether gene duplications of CCL3L1 , selected as a measure of host CCL3 chemokine production capacity, 10,40,41 influenced the integrity of HIV-1-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell responses and viral load in HIV-1-infected women. Article Outline CCL3L1 Copy Number, Markers of Disease Progression, and HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Responses CCL3L1 gene copy number has been shown to be directly correlated with CCL3 production 10,40,41 and to influence disease progression in HIV-1 infection. Article Outline DISCUSSION In light of recent data highlighting the important role of gene duplications of CCL3L1 in HIV protective immunity 10,40,50 and disease progression, 10 we sought to establish the relatio...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2008/07010/Host_CCL3L1_Gene_Copy_Number_in_Relation_to.3.aspx
*  PLOS Pathogens: HIV-1 Replication in the Central Nervous System Occurs in Two Distinct Cell Types
Other Article Types. Manuscript Review and Publication. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Published: October 6, 2011 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002286. Article. , Viruses pseudotyped with Env proteins derived from virus in the blood plasma and CSF of these neurologically asymptomatic subjects could only infect cells with high CD4 surface expression Figure 1B ; Table S1. B Single-cycle infection of HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses on CD4 low CCR5 high 293-Affinofile cells. Significant genetic compartmentalization was detected between the blood plasma and CSF HIV-1 populations of eight subjects diagnosed with HIV-1-associated neurological disease Figure 2 and Figure 3 ; Table 2. Phylogenetic analyses of the blood and CSF-derived virus in these subjects revealed significant compartmentalization and genetic distance between the blood plasma and CSF viral populations Table 2 ; Figure 2A and Figure 3 , indicating t...
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002286
*  BioSpace - Naturally-Occurring Genetic Variants in Human DC-SIGN Increase HIV-1 Capture, Cell-Tra
... nsfer and Risk of Mother-To-Child Transmission. Employer:. Login. Post Jobs. Job Seeker:. Login. Sign Up. Home. News. Jobs. Career Resources. Hotbeds. Career Fairs. Events. Company Profiles. Investors. Search Life Sciences Jobs. Search Job Title Only. Radius: Miles. Km 80.5. PLoS By Category. Recent PLoS Articles. Immunology - Infectious Diseases - Microbiology - Obstetrics - Urology - Virology. Naturally-Occurring Genetic Variants in Human DC-SIGN Increase HIV-1 Capture, Cell-Transfer and Risk of Mother-To-Child Transmission Published: Tuesday, July 10, 2012 Author: Geneviève Boily-Larouche et al. by Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Miroslav P. Milev, Lynn S. Zijenah, Annie-Claude Labbé, Djimon M. Zannou, Jean H. Humphrey, Brian J. Ward, Johanne Poudrier, Andrew J. Mouland, Éric A. Cohen, Michel Roger Background Mother-to-child transmission MTCT is the main cause of HIV-1 infection in children worldwide. Dendritic cell–specific ICAM-3 grabbing-nonintegrin DC-SIGN, also known as CD209 is an HIV-1 receptor that e...
http://biospace.com/PLos_Article.aspx?id=17999
*  HZF16 related genes - GeneCards Search Results
... Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license. Keywords. Keywords. Symbols. Symbols/Aliases. Symbols/Aliases/Identifiers. Advanced. Home. User Guide. Analysis Tools. GeneAnalytics. VarElect. GeneAlaCart. GenesLikeMe. News And Views. About. Our Publications. Weizmann Institute. LifeMap Sciences Inc. Academic License Agreement. GeneCards Team. Log In /. Sign Up. My Genes. . Explanation. Showing 25 of 424 Results for HZF16 Search Time: 6 ms. Export. Action. Another action. Something else here. Separated link. Show:. 25 50 100 200 500 See All. Symbol. Description. Category. GIFtS. GC id. Score. 1. ZNF124. Zinc Finger Protein 124. Protein Coding. 46. GC01M247121. 5.35. 2 HIVEP3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 3. Protein Coding. 50. GC01M041506. 1.38. 3 HKR1. HKR1, GLI-Kruppel Zinc Finger Family Member. Protein Coding. 45. GC19P037312. 1.38. 4 HIVEP2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 2. Protein Coding. 49. GC06M142695....
http://genecards.org/index.php?path=/Search/keyword/HZF16/0/20/Gene.GIFTS/asc
*  HZF16 related genes - GeneCards Search Results
... Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license. Keywords. Keywords. Symbols. Symbols/Aliases. Symbols/Aliases/Identifiers. Advanced. Home. User Guide. Analysis Tools. GeneAnalytics. VarElect. GeneAlaCart. GenesLikeMe. News And Views. About. Our Publications. Weizmann Institute. LifeMap Sciences Inc. Academic License Agreement. GeneCards Team. Log In /. Sign Up. My Genes. . Explanation. Showing 25 of 424 Results for HZF16 Search Time: 6 ms. Export. Action. Another action. Something else here. Separated link. Show:. 25 50 100 200 500 See All. Symbol. Description. Category. GIFtS. GC id. Score. 1. ZNF124. Zinc Finger Protein 124. Protein Coding. 46. GC01M247121. 5.35. 2 HIVEP3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 3. Protein Coding. 50. GC01M041506. 1.38. 3 HKR1. HKR1, GLI-Kruppel Zinc Finger Family Member. Protein Coding. 45. GC19P037312. 1.38. 4 HIVEP2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 2. Protein Coding. 49. GC06M142695....
http://genecards.org/index.php?path=/Search/keyword/HZF16/0/20/Gene.GIFTS/desc
*  HZF16 related genes - GeneCards Search Results
... Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license. Keywords. Keywords. Symbols. Symbols/Aliases. Symbols/Aliases/Identifiers. Advanced. Home. User Guide. Analysis Tools. GeneAnalytics. VarElect. GeneAlaCart. GenesLikeMe. News And Views. About. Our Publications. Weizmann Institute. LifeMap Sciences Inc. Academic License Agreement. GeneCards Team. Log In /. Sign Up. My Genes. . Explanation. Showing 25 of 424 Results for HZF16 Search Time: 7 ms. Export. Action. Another action. Something else here. Separated link. Show:. 25 50 100 200 500 See All. Symbol. Description. Category. GIFtS. GC id. 1. ZNF124. Zinc Finger Protein 124. Protein Coding. 46. GC01M247121. 5.35. 2 HIVEP3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 3. Protein Coding. 50. GC01M041506. 1.38. 3 HKR1. HKR1, GLI-Kruppel Zinc Finger Family Member. Protein Coding. 45. GC19P037312. 1.38. 4 HIVEP2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 2. Protein Coding. 49. GC06M142695. 1.38. ...
http://genecards.org/index.php?path=/Search/keyword/HZF16/0/20/Gene.CategoryName/asc
*  Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis Among Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus:
... Principles of Therapy and Revised Recommendations. Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis Among Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Principles of Therapy and Revised Recommendations Summary These guidelines update previous CDC recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tuberculosis TB among adults and children coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus HIV in the United States. INTRODUCTION These guidelines update previous CDC recommendations for treating and preventing active tuberculosis TB among adults and children coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus HIV 1-3. Copathogenicity of TB and HIV Disease Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 and M. Isoniazid preventive therapy regimens of 6 and 12 months' duration have not been compared with each other in the same study conducted among HIV-infected persons. Duration of TB Preventive Therapy A.II Daily isoniazid regimens should consist of at least 270 doses to be administered for 9 months or up to 12 month...
http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00055357.htm
*  Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública - Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, and drug consumption in
Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, and drug consumption in South America and the Caribbean: epidemiological evidence and initiatives to curb the epidemic. Key words: South America; Caribbean; drug use; cocaine, human immunodeficiency virus; AIDS. The relevance of the shared injection of illicit drugs especially cocaine has been increasing in the AIDS epidemic in Nicaragua 7. Among adults persons 14 years of age or older in the Brazilian National AIDS Register SINAN-AIDS, 22.9% of all cases of AIDS in men reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health as of the end of 2003 were IDUs. Of the sub-regions of South America and the Caribbean, the Southern Cone together with Brazil has reported the largest number of AIDS cases among IDUs. Injection drug use accounted for 29% of all reported AIDS cases in the Southern Cone in the late 1990s 41. Efforts to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic: drug policies and prevention in South America In 2000 the HIV Prevention among Injecting Drug Users in the Southern Cone regional project...
http://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892005000900011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Virus interactions in HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infection
... Hutch News. Articles Virus interactions in HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infection. Virus interactions in HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infection. When a patient is co-infected with HSV-2 during chronic HSV-1 infection, median HIV-1 viral loads are higher compared to HSV-2 negative patients, and antiviral therapy for HSV-2 reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma and genital compartments by about 50%. Joshua Schiffer of the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division utilized data from prior HIV viral dynamic studies to compare viral clearance rates in ART-treated HSV-2-positive or negative subjects. The study used data from 149 total clinical trial patients from three antiviral treatment studies, and included samples obtained at enrollment and six time points throughout the first eight weeks of antiretroviral therapy. However, HSV-2 co-infection had no impact on the first or second phase clearance rates of HIV-1 during chronic therapy. Schouten and Schiffer hypothesize that because HSV-2 co-infection does not impact the clearance of HIV-1 in...
http://fredhutch.org/en/news/spotlight/imports/virus-interactions-in-hiv-1-and-hsv-2-co-infection.html
*  Antibodies with distinct specificities neutralize diverse HIV-1 variants
... Hutch News. Articles Antibodies with distinct specificities neutralize diverse HIV-1 variants. Antibodies with distinct specificities neutralize diverse HIV-1 variants. Neutralization breadth and potency of monoclonal antibodies against 45 recently transmitted HIV-1 variants. Julie Overbaugh Human Biology Division and two of their colleagues show how a combination of monoclonal antibodies mAbs recognizing distinct regions or 'epitopes' of gp120 may help pave a way toward the eventual creation of a vaccine against HIV-1. tested a battery of seven mAbs for their effectiveness in neutralizing 45 HIV-1 envelope variants representing diverse viral subtypes, all of which had been isolated from patients soon after heterosexual transmission. The investigated mAbs included those targeting the CD4 binding site of gp120 e.g., PGT121 and PGT128. Using this neutralization assay, the authors found that the single most effective mAb was NIH45-46W, which neutralized 91% of HIV-1 variants at a mean effective concentratio...
http://fredhutch.org/en/news/spotlight/imports/antibodies-with-distinct-specificities-neutralize-diverse-hiv-1-.html
*  Anti -HIV-1 vif, Strain IIIB (Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1) - United States Biological
anti hiv vif strain iiib human immunodeficiency virus united states biological login email password forgot your password new user remember me home distributors technical about register antibodies biochemicals culture media custom services growth factors bioassay kits lectins molecular biology serum tissues protocols newsletter about us contact you are here home antibodies antibodies infectious disease hiv anti hiv vif strain iiib human immunodeficiency virus anti hiv vif strain iiib human immunodeficiency virus pricing for pricing information usa customers sign in outside usa please contact your distributor for pricing specifications clone host grade applications monoclonal mouse purified e b ip ic n catalog h applications suitable for use in elisa western blot immunoprecipitation immunocytochemistry and virus neutralization other applications not tested recommended dilution elisa ng ml virus neutratlization neutralizes vif dependent hiv replication in infected monocytic cells...
http://usbio.net/item/H6008-74
*  A Study to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of Darunavir for Treating Human Immunodeficiency Viru
... s-Type I HIV-1 Infection in Filipino Patients - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov B...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01726348
*  Maki Nakayama, National Institutes of Health - ResearchGate
... In Vitro Selection of Highly Darunavir-Resistant and Replication-Competent HIV-1 Variants by Using a Mixture of Clinical HIV-1 Isolates Resistant to Multiple Conventional Protease Inhibitors. We conducted selection using a mixture of 8 highly multi-protease inhibitor PI -resistant, DRV-susceptible clinical HIV-1 variants HIV-1MIX containing 9 to 14 PI resistance-associated amino acid substitutions in protease. HIV-1MIX became highly resistant to DRV, with a 50% effective concentration EC50 ∼333-fold greater than that against HIV-1NL4-3. HIV-1MIXP51 had a resemblance with HIV-1C of the HIV-1MIX population, and selection using HIV-1C was also performed; however, its DRV resistance acquisition was substantially delayed. HIV-1MIXP51 should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to DRV and related agents. Masayuki Amano Maki Nakayama. GRL-02031 was highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates, including subtypes A, B, C, and E 50% effective concentration ra...
http://researchgate.net/researcher/15042622_Maki_Nakayama
*  Preservation HIV-1–Specific IFNγ+ CD4+ T-Cell Responses in B... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Im
2 In the present study, we investigated innate and adaptive immune responses during primary HIV-1 infection in women who acquired HIV-1 although using either tenofovir gel or placebo in the CAPRISA004 trial. Article Outline Preservation of HIV-1–Specific IFNγ CD4+ T Cells During Primary Infection Previous studies have shown that HIV-1 Gag and Nef are targeted by HIV-1–specific T cells during primary infection, and that virus-specific CD4+ T-cell responses are rapidly lost after infections. Gag-specific and Nef-specific IFN-γ+ CD8+ T-cell responses were also higher in the tenofovir arm compared with placebo though those differences did not reach statistical significance Gag: average 1.1% IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells ± 1.0% in tenofovir arm vs. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the HIV-1–specific CD8+ T-cell responses in women with breakthrough infection during tenofovir microbicide use did not significantly differ from those that used placebo, but that Gag-specific IFNγ+ CD4+ T cells responses were significan...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2012/06010/Preservation_HIV_1_Specific_IFN___CD4__T_Cell.3.aspx
*  JCI - Antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus in homosexual men. Relation of antibody spec
... ificity, titer, and isotype to clinical status, severity of immunodeficiency, and disease progression. About For authors Alerts Advertise Subscribe Contact. Current Issue. Past Issues. Videos Conversations with Giants in Medicine Author's Takes. Reviews. Reviews View all reviews... Review Series Cancer Immunotherapy Sep 2015 Autoimmunity Jun 2015 Enteric Nervous System Mar 2015 Autophagy Jan 2015 Gut Microbiome Oct 2014 Nephrology Jun 2014 Lymphatic Vasculature Mar 2014 View all review series... Clinical Medicine JCI This Month Current issue Past issues. About For authors Current issue Past issues By specialty Subscribe Alerts Advertise Contact us Videos Conversations with Giants in Medicine Author's Takes Collections Commentaries Editorials Hindsight Review series Reviews The Attending Physician First Author Perspectives Scientific Show Stoppers Top read articles. Antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus in homosexual men. Relation of antibody specificity, titer, and isotype to clinical ...
http://jci.org/articles/view/113075/pdf
*  Change in size of the envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1) strain. - Re
Change in size of the envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus 1 HIV 1 strain. Article Change in size of the envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus 1 HIV 1 strain. "The successful refolding and solution of the crystal structure of HA57–264 have further shown that glycosylation sites are not necessary for HA globular head folding as the protein crystallized here has one potential N-linked glycosylation site Asn94 which was confirmed by our previous fulllength 2009-pandemic HA trimer structure Zhang et al., 2010. In fact the unglycosylated protein has its own advantage for inducing a stronger antibody response as the sugar cover can mask the immune recognition in many enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV Vitale et al., 1991; Kubo et al., 2007. Erratum to: Structural vaccinology: structure-based design of influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype-specific subunit vaccines. DOI:10.1007/s13238-012-2030-9 3.25 Impact Factor Source Available from: Haixia Xiao. "...
http://researchgate.net/publication/21089442_Change_in_size_of_the_envelope_glycoprotein_of_a_human_immunodeficiency_virus_1_(HIV_1)_strain
*  Central role of reverting mutations in HLA associations with Human Immunodeficiency Virus set poi
... nt - Microsoft Research. Microsoft Translator. All Downloads Events Groups News People Projects Publications Videos. Central role of reverting mutations in HLA associations with Human Immunodeficiency Virus set point Philippa C. Walker, David Heckerman, and Philip J. Abstract Much uncertainty still exists over what T-cell responses need to be induced by an effective human immunodeficiency virus HIV vaccine. Previous studies have hypothesized that the effective CD8+ T-cell responses are those driving the selection of escape mutations that reduce viral fitness and therefore revert posttransmission. In this study, we adopted a novel approach to define better the role of reverting escape mutations in immune control of HIV infection. This analysis of sequences from 710 study subjects with chronic C-clade HIV type 1 infection demonstrates the importance of mutations that impose a fitness cost in the control of viremia. Consistent with previous studies, the viral set points associated with each HLA-B allele are ...
http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=80543
*  anti-CD30 antibody exerts suppression on HIV replication
... ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. anti-CD30 antibody exerts suppression on HIV replication. Author Topic: anti-CD30 antibody exerts suppression on HIV replication Read 2595 times. anti-CD30 antibody exerts suppression on HIV replication on: January 23, 2007, 08:16:18 PM. MDX-1401 is anti-CD30 antibody High serum level of the soluble form of CD30 molecule in the early phase of HIV-1 infection as an independent predictor of progression to AIDS Elevated serum levels of soluble s CD30 as well as following infection with human immuno-deficiency virus HIV. CD30 induces HIV expression in chronically infected T cells independent prognostic indicator of disease progression, and the suggested role of CD30 in HIV-1 infection Role for CD30 in HIV expression. Thus, CD30 triggering may play an important role in both HIV replication and the death of HIV-infected CD4+ T cells anti-CD30L antibody also exerted a suppressive effect on the spontaneous HIV replication occurring in lymph node cells, fres...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=8208.0
*  Herpes therapy does not select for HIV-1 resistance
... Home. Labs / Projects. Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division. News. Publication Spotlight Herpes therapy does not select for HIV-1 resistance. Share. Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division. Herpes therapy does not select for HIV-1 resistance. Stephen Voght. Herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV-2 is a common co-infection among HIV-infected persons, and co-infection has been linked to increased risk of HIV transmission. A number of recent clinical trials have assessed the effect of herpes-suppressive therapy on HIV-1 in dually-infected persons, and found that anti-HSV drugs reduce levels of HIV virus in the bloodstream of co-infected people, but do not significantly reduce HIV transmission. However, in vitro studies have raised concerns that the drug used in these studies, acyclovir, can directly inhibit replication of HIV-1, in turn potentially leading to selection in the human host for a specific resistance mutation V75I within the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase protein and loss of acyclovir’s anti-HIV-1 effe...
http://fredhutch.org/en/labs/vaccine-and-infectious-disease/news/publication-spotlight/herpes-therapy-does-not-select-for-hiv-1-resistance.html
*  IRF-3: a key target for global immune disruption by HIV-1
... Publication Spotlight IRF-3: a key target for global immune disruption by HIV-1. IRF-3: a key target for global immune disruption by HIV-1. HIV-1 efficiently promotes infection through its ability to evade and disable the first anti-viral immune responses provided by the innate immune system. However, researchers do not understand how HIV-1 hinders innate immune responses. To better understand how HIV evades immune defenses, University of Washington senior fellow Dr. examined cellular signaling components of the innate immune system during HIV infection of CD4+ T cells a type of immune cell that is the primary target of HIV infection . Doehle and colleagues found that HIV-1 globally disrupts innate immune signaling by suppressing interferon regulatory factor 3 IRF-3 , a key protein in the innate immune response that allows cells to recognize the presence of pathogens. Using cultures of human CD4+ T cells, the authors found that cells infected with HIV had reduced amounts of the IRF-3 protein and disrupte...
http://fredhutch.org/en/labs/vaccine-and-infectious-disease/news/publication-spotlight/irf-3--a-key-target-for-global-immune-disruption-by-hiv-1.html
*  Category:HIV - Wikimedia Commons
... Category:HIV From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Jump to: navigation, search Domain : Viruses • Group : Group VI viruses • Familia : Retroviridae • Genus : Lentivirus • Unranked : HIV. Deutsch: Das Humane Immundefizienz-Virus HIV, engl. : Human immunodeficiency virus – auch Menschliches Immunschwäche-Virus – ist ein Virus, das zur Familie der Retroviren und zur Gattung der Lentiviren gehört. English: Human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a retrovirus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Français : Le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine VIH, HIV en anglais est un rétrovirus infectant l' homme et le conduisant à plus ou moins long terme au syndrome d'immunodéficience acquise Sida, qui est un état affaibli du système immunitaire qui le rend vulnérable à de multiples infections opportunistes. Acute HIV infection ‎ 5 F. AIDS ‎ 20 C, 1 P, 111 F. HIV in Indones...
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:HIV
*  Vpx
'Vpx' is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus SIV strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. 1 It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1. 2 Vpx is one of five accessory proteins Vif, Vpx, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef carried by lentiviruses that enhances viral replication by inhibiting host antiviral factors. Vpx enhances HIV-2 replication in humans by counteracting the host factor SAMHD1. 3 SAMHD1 is a host factor found in human myeloid cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, that restricts HIV-1 replication by depleting the cytoplasmic pool of deoxynucleoside triphosphates needed for viral DNA production. 4 SAMHD1 does not, however, restrict HIV-2 replication in myeloid cells due to the presence of viral Vpx. Vpx counteracts restriction by inducing the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of SAMHD1. Vpx-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 therefore decreases deoxynucleoside tri...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vpx
*  Barbara Keys - ResearchGate
V3 Sequences of Paired HIV-1 Isolates from Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cluster According to Host and Show Variation Related to the Clinical Stage of Disease. The genetic distance between paired CSF and blood sequences was more pronounced in the group of patients with AIDS than in asymptomatic virus carriers. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of a majority of infected individuals. ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid CSF specimens from 63 patients with different severities of human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 infection, including asymptomatic virus carriers, were examined for the presence of HIV-1 by using polymerase chain reaction PCR and virus isolation. Lack of autologous neutralizing antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-1 infected individuals. Francesca Chiodi Barbara Keys. ABSTRACT: The cerebrospinal fluids CSF and sera from HIV-1-infected individuals at different clinical stages were monitored for neutralizing activity against CSF-derived HIV-1 isolates. Brain-...
http://researchgate.net/researcher/38518360_B_Keys
*  AIDS slower to develop in people infected with 2 HIV types - Vitals
... Top Ongoing TV Nightly News. AIDS slower to develop in people infected with 2 HIV types By Vitals Wednesday Jul 18, 2012 3:28 PM. Becoming infected with both of the two main types of HIV actually slows the progression of the disease, a new study says. In the study, people infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 took three years longer on average to show symptoms, compared with people infected with only HIV-1. The slowest disease progression was seen in people who were infected with HIV-2 before becoming infected with HIV-1, the researchers said. The findings suggest that HIV-2 infection hinders the advancement of HIV-1 disease, and future studies of exactly how this might work could aid in the development of HIV-1 vaccines or other therapies, the researchers said. While nearly everyone infected with HIV-1 eventually develops full-blown AIDS, only 20 to 30 percent of those infected with HIV-2 develop AIDS, the researchers said. In West Africa, up to 3.2 percent of people are estimated to be infected with both HIV-1...
http://vitals.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/07/18/12817343-aids-slower-to-develop-in-people-infected-with-2-hiv-types
*  Antiretroviral drugs protect against HIV-1 infection in heterosexuals
... Hutch News. Articles Antiretroviral drugs protect against HIV-1 infection in heterosexuals. Antiretroviral drugs protect against HIV-1 infection in heterosexuals. Image courtesy of authors In a result that will fundamentally change approaches to HIV prevention in Africa, an international study has demonstrated that individuals at high risk for HIV infection who took a daily tablet containing an HIV medication – either the antiretroviral medication tenofovir TDF or tenofovir in combination with emtricitabine FTC/TDF – experienced significantly fewer HIV infections than those who received a placebo pill. Seronegative partners were assigned to one of three study groups: TDF, TDF-FTC, or placebo. Couples were in the study for up to three years; seronegative participants had monthly visits for HIV-1 testing, dispensation of study medication, and other HIV-1 prevention services and counseling. During the study, a total of 82 HIV-1 infections occurred in seronegative participants: 17 in the TDF group incidence,...
http://fredhutch.org/en/news/spotlight/imports/antiretroviral-drugs-protect-against-hiv-1-infection-in-heterose.html
*  HLA-B*35-Px–mediated Acceleration of HIV-1 Infection by Increased Inhibitory Immunoregulatory Impu
... lses. HLA-B*35-Px–mediated Acceleration of HIV-1 Infection by Increased Inhibitory Immunoregulatory Impulses. DASH Home. HLA-B*35-Px–mediated Acceleration of HIV-1 Infection by Increased Inhibitory Immunoregulatory Impulses. Citable link to this page. HLA-B*35-Px–mediated Acceleration of HIV-1 Infection by Increased Inhibitory Immunoregulatory Impulses. Goedert, James J. ; Cung, Thai Duong Hong ; Burke, Patrick S. ; Preiss, Liliana ; Lifson, Jeffrey ; Carrington, Mary ; Huang, Jinghe ; Martin, Maureen P. Huang, Jinghe, James J. Goedert, Eric J. Sundberg, Thai Duong Hong Cung, Patrick S. Burke, Maureen P. Martin, Liliana Preiss, et al. HLA-B*35-Px–mediated acceleration of HIV-1 infection by increased inhibitory immunoregulatory impulses. A subset of HLA-B*35 alleles, B*35-Px, are strongly associated with accelerated HIV-1 disease progression for reasons that are not understood. Thus, the differential impact of these alleles on HIV-1 disease progression may be unrelated to interactions with HIV-1–specific C...
http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/8160874
*  A Study of an Investigational Regimen Combining FDA Approved HIV Drugs in HIV-Infected Subjects - Fu
This is a 24-week study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a once-daily ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir regimen 1400mg/100mg QD to a 200mg ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir regimen administered either twice-daily or once-daily. Drug: Half-boosted Fosamprenavir Drug: Full Boosted Fosamprenavir. Secondary Outcome Measures: Percentage of Participants With Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Type 1, Ribonucleic Acid HIV-1 RNA 400 Copies/mL at Week 24, Time to Loss of Virologic Response TLOVR Analysis A blood sample was drawn to determine the amount of plasma HIV-1 RNA virus in copies/mL at week 24. Percentage of Participants With Plasma HIV-1 RNA 50 Copies/mL at Week 24, TLOVR Analysis A blood sample was drawn to determine the amount of plasma HIV-1 RNA virus in copies/mL at week 24. Mean Change From Baseline of log10 Copies/mL Plasma HIV-1 RNA Levels at Week 24, Observed Analysis A blood sample was drawn to determine the amount of plasma HIV-1 RNA virus in copies/mL at week 24. Change from baseline was define...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00363142?order=1
*  HIV I: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Clinical Applications | 978-0-12-373601-7 | Elsevier
HIV I: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Clinical Applications. Elsevier. HIV I: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis: Clinical Applications Edited by Kuan-Teh Jeang, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A. Although it is one of the most-widely studied viruses, many mysteries still remain about HIV. Covering the latest advances and challenges associated with clinical application of new antiviral drugs and vaccines, this revised edition is a companion to Murad: HIV-1: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis, 2E. Leading investigators in HIV research present a timely picture of the molecular mechanisms which guide HIV-1 expression and replication and provide the most current clinical strategies for combating this virus. Audience Graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and senior researchers in virology and pharmacology, as well as clinicians and clinical fellows in infectious diseases. Table of Contents HIV Therapeutics: Past, Present, and Fut...
http://elsevier.com/books/hiv-i-molecular-biology-and-pathogenesis-clinical-applications/jeang/978-0-12-373601-7
*  "Pediatric HIV-1 infection: advances and remaining challenges" by Katherine Luzuriaga and John L. S
... earch. Digital Commons Network™. eScholarship@UMMS. Pediatrics. Immunology/Infectious Disease. Immunology/Infectious Disease. Pediatric HIV-1 infection: advances and remaining challenges. Katherine Luzuriaga, University of Massachusetts Medical School Follow John L. Sullivan, University of Massachusetts Medical School Follow. Adolescent; Anti-HIV Agents; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; *HIV Infections; *HIV-1; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Disciplines. Immunology and Infectious Disease. Pediatrics. HIV-1 infection is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality globally and mother-to-child transmission MTCT is the major mode of infection. This has resulted in the development of effective preventive strategies to reduce new infections and therapeutic strategies to improve outcome following infection. However, successful implementation of these preventive and the...
http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/peds_immunology/70/
*  Depletion in antibodies targeted to the HR2 region of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 in sera of HIV-1-serop
... ositive patients treated with T20. Article Depletion in antibodies targeted to the HR2 region of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 in sera of HIV-1-seropositive patients treated with T20. Impact Factor: 4.56. ABSTRACT The anti-HIV drug T20 is a synthetic peptide derived from the HR2 region of HIV-1 gp41. Analysis of sera obtained before and after administration of T20 indicated that the levels of antibodies directed to T20, to MBP44, a maltose binding protein representing the HR2 region, and to 4765, a synthetic peptide containing the sequence ELDKWA, fell following administration of T20, while the levels of antibodies directed to other regions of gp41 ectodomain and to gp120 remained stable. Follow-up studies with sera obtained from HIV-1-seropositive patients naive to T20 indicated no decline in the level of antibodies directed to HR2 and other regions of gp160. However, administration of these peptides may lead to the production of antibodies against these peptides, which may attenuate their anti-HIV-1 activity....
http://researchgate.net/publication/7999301_Depletion_in_antibodies_targeted_to_the_HR2_region_of_HIV-1_glycoprotein_gp41_in_sera_of_HIV-1-seropositive_patients_treated_with_T20
*  Induction of HIV-1 Replication in Latently Infected CD4+ T Cells Using a Combination of Cytokines |
Abstract. This study demonstrates that the in vitro combination of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin IL -6 and tumor necrosis factor TNF -α together with the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-2 are potent inducers of viral replication in highly purified, latently infected, resting CD4 + T cells derived from HIV-infected individuals who are antiretroviral therapy–naive as well as those who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART. In this study, we demonstrate that the in vitro combination of cytokines IL-2, IL-6, and TNF- α has a profound effect on reactivation of HIV-1 replication in latently infected, resting CD4 + T cells both from antiretroviral naive patients and from patients who were receiving HAART and in whom plasma viremia was markedly suppressed, including some patients in whom plasma viremia was below detectable levels. Induction of HIV-1 Replication by the Combination of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α in Latently Infected, Resting CD4 + T Cells from Antiretroviral Drug–naive Pati...
http://jem.rupress.org/content/188/1/83
*  Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri® In Treatment Experienced Patients With CCR5-Tropic HIV-Infec
Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri In Treatment Experienced Patients With CCR5-Tropic HIV-Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri In Treatment Experienced Patients With CCR5-Tropic HIV-Infection This study has been completed. Sponsor: ViiV Healthcare Collaborator: Pfizer Information provided by Responsible Party : ViiV Healthcare. Official Title: Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri In Treatment Experienced Patients Infected With CCR5 Tropic HIV-1. Further study details as provided by ViiV Healthcare:. Primary Outcome Measures: Change From Baseline in Log 10 Transformed Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Ribonucleic Acid HIV-1 RNA at Month 3 Change From Baseline in Log 10 Transformed Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Ribonucleic Acid HIV-1 RNA at Month 6 Change From Baseline in Log 10 Transformed Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Ribonucleic Acid HIV-1 RNA at Month 12 Change From Baseline in Cluster of Differentiation 4 CD4+ Cell Counts at Month 3 Change From Baseline ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00850395
*  Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri® In Treatment Experienced Patients With CCR5-Tropic HIV-Infec
Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri In Treatment Experienced Patients With CCR5-Tropic HIV-Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri In Treatment Experienced Patients With CCR5-Tropic HIV-Infection This study has been completed. Sponsor: ViiV Healthcare Collaborator: Pfizer Information provided by Responsible Party : ViiV Healthcare. Official Title: Non-Interventional Study Of Celsentri In Treatment Experienced Patients Infected With CCR5 Tropic HIV-1. Further study details as provided by ViiV Healthcare:. Primary Outcome Measures: Change From Baseline in Log 10 Transformed Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Ribonucleic Acid HIV-1 RNA at Month 3 Change From Baseline in Log 10 Transformed Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Ribonucleic Acid HIV-1 RNA at Month 6 Change From Baseline in Log 10 Transformed Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Ribonucleic Acid HIV-1 RNA at Month 12 Change From Baseline in Cluster of Differentiation 4 CD4+ Cell Counts at Month 3 Change From Baseline ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00850395?order=478
*  Committee Opinions - ACOG
2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Number 389. ABSTRACT Because human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection often is detected through prenatal and sexually transmitted disease testing an obstetriciangynecologist may be the first health professional to provide care for a woman infected with HIV Universal testing with patient notification and rig... 4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Women of Color Number 536 Replaces Committee Opinion No. 414, August 2008 ABSTRACT In the United States most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS occur among women of color primarily African American and Hispanic women Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact often from a partner who... 5 Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Number 572 Reaffirmed 2015 ABSTRACT Adolescents make up an increasing percentage of the US population with human immunodeficiency virus HIV Adolescentfo...
http://acog.org/Resources_And_Publications/Committee_Opinions?Sources=a3aa91dd-ab92-46d9-a06a-b8fc316179a0&Topics=4d341ff2-191f-4acc-acb4-f867cbfe2a57&SortBy=ascending&SortOrder=publishdate
*  Two condom failures now on PEP
Logged 5/15/2011 - Exposure 5/17/2011 - PEP started 65 hours 6/15/2011 - PEP completed 7/14/2011 - Blood Rapid Test Nonreactive 7/28/2011 - HIV-1/2 + EIA HIV-1 RNA Nonreactive. Logged 5/15/2011 - Exposure 5/17/2011 - PEP started 65 hours 6/15/2011 - PEP completed 7/14/2011 - Blood Rapid Test Nonreactive 7/28/2011 - HIV-1/2 + EIA HIV-1 RNA Nonreactive. Logged 5/15/2011 - Exposure 5/17/2011 - PEP started 65 hours 6/15/2011 - PEP completed 7/14/2011 - Blood Rapid Test Nonreactive 7/28/2011 - HIV-1/2 + EIA HIV-1 RNA Nonreactive. Logged 5/15/2011 - Exposure 5/17/2011 - PEP started 65 hours 6/15/2011 - PEP completed 7/14/2011 - Blood Rapid Test Nonreactive 7/28/2011 - HIV-1/2 + EIA HIV-1 RNA Nonreactive. Logged 5/15/2011 - Exposure 5/17/2011 - PEP started 65 hours 6/15/2011 - PEP completed 7/14/2011 - Blood Rapid Test Nonreactive 7/28/2011 - HIV-1/2 + EIA HIV-1 RNA Nonreactive. Logged 5/15/2011 - Exposure 5/17/2011 - PEP started 65 hours 6/15/2011 - PEP completed 7/14/2011 - Blood Rapid Test Nonreactive 7/28/2011 -...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=38181.msg477340
*  Association of Race and Gender With HIV-1 RNA Levels and Imm... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
... e Deficiency Syndromes. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Association of Race and Gender With HIV-1 RNA Levels and Imm... A A JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: July 1, 2000 CLINICAL SCIENCE: PDF Only. Association of Race and Gender With HIV-1 RNA Levels and Immunologic Progression. Objective: To assess racial and gender differences in HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4+ lymphocyte decline. After adjustment for differences in measurement method, baseline CD4+ cell count, age, and clinical symptoms, HIV-1 RNA levels were 32% to 50% lower in women than in men at CD4+ counts 200 cells/mm3 p .001 but not at CD4+ cell counts 200 cells/mm3. Women had more rapid declines in CD4+ cell...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2000/07010/Association_of_Race_and_Gender_With_HIV_1_RNA.4.aspx
*  HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
hiv human immunodeficiency virus font size a a a hiv human immunodeficiency virus hiv human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks the immune system the body s natural defense system without a strong immune system the body has trouble fighting off disease hiv is treated with medicines that slow or stop the damage to the immune system if it s not treated in time hiv will cause aids acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by healthwise staff primary medical reviewer e gregory thompson md internal medicine specialist medical reviewer peter shalit md phd internal medicine current as of november webmd medical reference from healthwise last updated november this information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information healthwise incorporated healthwise healthwise for every health decision and the healthwise logo are trademarks of healthwise incorporated continue reading below...
http://webmd.com/hw-popup/hiv-human-immunodeficiency-virus
*  UCL Centre for Virology - Homepage
... UCL DIVISION OF INFECTION AND IMMUNITY ROYAL FREE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE MEDICAL SCHOOL. UCL Online. Infection & Immunity. Centre for Virology. Groups. Kellam. Pillay. Towers. Tools. STAR. HIVdb. BLAST. Quick Links. Downloads & Data. Divisional Home Page. UCL Home Page. Medical School Home Page. Divisional Intranet. WebCT. Site Map. STAR is a distance based tool for rapid and accurate determination of HIV-1 and HBV subtype according to an underlying statistical model. STAR assigns HIV-1 subtypes using either nucleotide or protein sequences of the protease PR and reverse transcriptase RT genes, and HBV subtypes using nucleotide sequences of any genomic region. Click here for information on the subtyping process. Submit Pol, surface coding region or entire genome sequence. Choose dataset: HIV Hepatitis B Choose Sequence type: Nucleotide Amino acid Paste sequences in FASTA format Example sequence in the box below. Or upload a file containing maximum 500 sequences. STAR is developed and maintained by Richard E. ...
http://vgb.ucl.ac.uk/starn.shtml
*  PLOS Pathogens: Species-Specific Activity of HIV-1 Vpu and Positive Selection of Tetherin Transmembr
... ane Domain Variants. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Species-Specific Activity of HIV-1 Vpu and Positive Selection of Tetherin Transmembrane Domain Variants. Published: February 13, 2009 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000300. 2009 Species-Specific Activity of HIV-1 Vpu and Positive Selection of Tetherin Transmembrane Domain Variants. A, B Western blot analysis anti HIV-1 capsid, p24 of cell and virion lysates following transfection of cells with WT and Vpu deleted delVpu proviral plasmids, alone none or in combination with 50 ng of the indicated human hu rhesus monkey rh African green monkey agm tetherin-HA expression plasmids A or 50 ng of hu- or mouse mo HA-tetherin expression plasmids B. A, B Western blot analysis anti HIV-1 capsid, p24 of cell and virion lysates following transfection of cells with WT and Vpu deleted delVpu proviral plasmids, either alone none or in combination with 50 ng of plasmids expressing chimeric human tetherin-HA proteins encoding monkey-derived TM d...
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1000300&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000300.g001
*  Continued Production of Drug-Sensitive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Children on Combinatio
The geometric mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels before HAART were 257,833 copies/ml range, 5,389 to ?750,000 copies/ml for the late- treated group Table 1 and 840,000 copies/ml range, 517,384 to ?1,500,000 copies/ml for the early-treated group Table 1. Patient characteristics Group and patient Age yr Sex/ racea Nonsuppressive therapySuppressive therapy Plasma HIV RNA at start of sup pressive therapy copies/ml Plasma HIV RNA at first analysis copies/ml Regimen s b Duration of therapy yr Age at initiation yr Regimensb Duration of suppression yr 1A C2c C7c C8c 5.5 12.9 11.3 F/AA F/AA M/C None ZDV/DDI ZDV DDC ZDV/DDI ZDV/3TC ZDV/DDI ZDV ZDV/3TC ZDV/3TC/RTV ZDV/3TC/NFV None 4.8 2 0.5 0.2 0.5 4.5 2.4 0.6 0.3 0.8 1.0 7.9 5.6 ZDV/3TC/RTV D4T/3TC/NFV ZDV/3TC/RTV 5.4 5.0 6.3 117,506 2,874 207,554 ?50 148 ?50 C10c C22d 12.6 9.3 F/AA F/AA 7.5 4.8 D4T/3TC/NFV DDI/DLV/RTV/SQV 5.0 4.5 12,017 246,499 ?50 124 1B C40c 6.4M/AAZDV/3TC/NVP D4T/3TC/NVP None ZDV ZDV/DDI D4T/3TC/NFV ZDV/DDI ZDV ZDV/DDI ZDV/3TC D4T/3TC/RTV ZDV/DDI/APV 0.6...
http://researchgate.net/publication/8943696_Continued_Production_of_Drug-Sensitive_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus_Type_1_in_Children_on_Combination_Antiretroviral_Therapy_Who_Have_Undetectable_Viral_Loads
*  Phase I Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of HIV-1 Immunogen in Children With HIV-1 In
... fection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. About the Results Databas...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001445?order=17
*  The level of persistent HIV viremia does not increase after... : AIDS
Top Cited Articles. Results: Median plasma HIV-1 RNA values at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 were not significantly different between the LPV/r alone and the SOC arms, being 5.1 versus 3.0 P = 0.29, 4.5 versus 2.9 P = 0.44, 3.3 versus 2.9 P = 0.99, 1.9 versus 1.0 P = 0.68, 3.7 versus 3.6 P = 0.49, and 2.8 versus 1.6 copies/ml P = 0.78, respectively. In the 17 of 21 subjects who maintained virus suppression 50 copies/ml on LPV/r alone, median HIV-1 RNA values did not increase significantly from baseline at any time point after discontinuing NRTI, in comparison to the three subjects with virologic failure whose median HIV-1 RNA levels began to rise at week 8. Article Outline Baseline and longitudinal HIV-1 RNA levels across treatment arms Fifty-seven of 82 69.5% samples tested from study entry 41 subjects had detectable HIV-1 RNA OD450 0.200 with a median value of 3.1 copies/ml. Specifically, median HIV-1 RNA values for subjects who remained suppressed in the LPV/r arm versus the SOC arm at baseline an...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2006/11280/The_level_of_persistent_HIV_viremia_does_not.9.aspx
*  Maren Helwig: Transport von HIV-1 durch epitheliale Zellen Identifizierung einer neuen funktion
... alen Dom ne auf gp120. Maren Helwig: Transport von HIV-1 durch epitheliale Zellen Identifizierung einer neuen funktionalen Dom ne auf gp120. Kapitel: 1. 2. 3. 4 Zitierabschnitt: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101. Literaturverzeichnis Aiken C, Konner J, Landau NR, Lenburg ME, Trono D 1994 Nef induces CD4 endocytosis: requirement for a critical dileucine motif in the membrane-proximal CD4 cytoplasmic domain. Cell 76 5, 853-864 Alfsen A, Iniguez P, Bouguyon E, Bomsel M 2001 Secretory IgA specific for a conserved epitope on gp41 envelope glycoprotein inhibits epithelial transcytosis of HIV-1. J Immunol 166, 6257-6265 Alkhatib G, Combadiere C, Broder CC, Feng Y, Kennedy PE, Murphy PM, Berger EA 1996 CC CKR5: a RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta receptor as a...
http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/helwig-maren-2006-12-13/HTML/N14169.html
*  .. Post navigation .. One for all, all for one .. Share this: .. Related
By Astrid Gall. HIV-1 genome sequences generated by our new method for universal HIV-1 genome sequencing. The tree illustrates the application across the breadth of the HIV-1 genetic diversity. New sequences identified by our method are shown in colour.Credit: Doi: 10.1128/JCM.01516-12. And why do we only have ~2000 HIV-1 genome sequences available to analyse the pandemic, when we have ~90,000 genome sequences of human influenza viruses. The HIV-1 diversity within just one infected person at any one time is as great as the diversity of influenza viruses worldwide in an entire year. For example, there are as many as four genetic groups of HIV-1, nine subtypes and 55 circulating recombinant forms, or forms that have swapped their genetic material. Recently, we have developed the first universal method for HIV-1 genome sequencing. We designed and validated one set of primers that bind to the genetic material, RNA, of all HIV-1 subtypes. Coupled with advanced sequencing and computational tools, this allowed us to...
https://sangerinstitute.wordpress.com/2012/11/23/one-for-all-all-for-one/
*  Search Results
... Journals The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1 less. 1 Brown, Elizabeth R. 1 Emery, Sandy 1 Farquhar, Carey 1 John-Stewart, Grace C. 1 Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy A. 1 Obimbo, Elizabeth M. HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality. Brown, Elizabeth R. Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy A. Obimbo, Elizabeth M. John-Stewart, Grace C. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006;195 2 :220-229. Background There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers. Results Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women h...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/solr/reg?term=author:("Brown, Elizabeth")&filterQuery=year_sint:79942006&sortby=score desc
*  AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses Volume 9 Issue 7 | DeepDyve
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses Volume 9 Issue 7. DeepDyve. Journals. DeepDyve. Journal. Journals. Follow. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses Volume 9 Issue 7. Volume 31. Issue 9 Sep. Issue 8 Aug. Issue 7 Jul. Issue 6 Jun. Issue 5 May. Issue 4 Apr. Issue 3 Mar. Issue 2 Feb. Issue 1 Jan. Early Access. ja Jan. Issue 0 Jan. Volume 30. S1 Oct. Issue 12 Dec. Issue 11 Nov. Issue 10 Oct. Issue 9 Sep. Issue 8 Aug. Issue 7 Jul. Issue 6 Jun. Issue 5 May. Issue 4 Apr. Issue 3 Mar. Issue 2 Feb. Issue 1 Jan. Early Access. ja Jan. Issue 0 Jan. Volume 29. Issue 12 Dec. Issue 11 Nov. Issue 10 Oct. Issue 9 Sep. Issue 7 Jul. Issue 6 Jun. Issue 5 May. Issue 4 Apr. Issue 3 Mar. Issue 2 Feb. Issue 1 Jan. Early Access. ja Jan. Issue 0 Jan. Volume 28. Issue 12 Dec. Issue 11 Nov. Issue 10 Oct. Issue 9 Sep. Issue 8 Aug. Issue 7 Jul. Issue 6 Jun. Issue 5 May. Issue 4 Apr. Issue 3 Mar. Issue 2 Feb. Issue 1 Jan. Early Access. ja Jan. Issue 0 Jan. ja Jan. Volume 27. Issue 12 Dec. Issue 11 Nov. Issue 10 Oct. Issue 9 Sep. Issue 8 Au...
https://deepdyve.com/browse/journals/aids-research-and-human-retroviruses/1993/v9/i7
*  Herpes & HIV
More than 30 epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that prevalent HSV-2 is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 continues throughout Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe, with the rate of new HIV-1 infections again increasing in the United States and Europe after a decade of decline. Incident HSV-2 infection was also associated with several-fold increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition among MSM in Peru. Notably, the per-contact HIV-1 acquisition rate of an HSV-2-seropositive person with a partner who has plasma HIV-1 RNA 35 studies conducted over the past decade in 4 continents Europe, Africa, Asia, and South and North America, which includes heterosexual men, women, and MSM, consistently shows at least 2-fold increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in persons with HSV-2 infection. demonstrated HIV-1 RNA in 25 of 26 genital herpes lesions. These data on the mucosal interactions of HIV and HSV-2 suggest that HIV-1-seropositive, HSV-2-seropositive persons may tr...
http://natap.org/2004/HIV/041204_09.htm
*  Maraviroc Once-Daily Nucleoside Analog-Sparing Regimen in Tr... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
Objective: This study was performed to evaluate a once-daily dual-therapy regimen, maraviroc MVC + atazanavir/ritonavir ATV/r, in treatment-naive patients. Results: At week 48, 44 74.6% and 51 83.6% patients in the MVC and TDF/FTC treatment groups, respectively, had plasma HIV-1 RNA 50 copies per milliliter. Back to Top. Back to Top. Article Outline Study Medication Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive MVC 150 mg once daily + ATV/r 300/100 mg once-daily or TDF/FTC 300/200 mg once daily + ATV/r 300/100 mg once daily. Article Outline Virological Outcomes At week 48, 44/53 74.6%; 95% CI: 63.5% to 85.7% and 51/54 83.6%; 95% CI: 74.3% to 92.9% patients in the MVC and TDF/FTC treatment groups, respectively, achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA 50 copies per milliliter. The proportions of patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA 50 copies per milliliter at week 48 in both treatment groups were similar to those observed from week 16 onward Fig. Nine patients in the MVC group and 3 patients in the TDF/FTC group were not considered trea...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2013/02010/Maraviroc_Once_Daily_Nucleoside_Analog_Sparing.6.aspx
*  Human immunodeficiency virus infection
... redirect hiv...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_immunodeficiency_virus_infection
*  Research - research*eu - N°59 March 2009 - AIDS, a quarter of century later ...
AIDS, a quarter of century later ... One of the first photographs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1, discovered by Luc Montagnier’s team in 1983. A new type of virus What was this new virus. Macrophages and antigen-presenting cells were later added to the list," explains Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Director of the Regulation of Retroviral Infections Unit at Institut Pasteur and member of the team that isolated the virus in France. "The immune depression mechanism triggered by HIV has turned out to be much more complex than was originally thought," explains Luc Montagnier, the virologist who headed the French team at Institut Pasteur back then. According to Luc Montagnier: "Any activation of the immune system is a boon for the virus. This close link between the virus and the human immune system, combined with HIV's capacity to alter its own membrane structure to trick our natural defences, explains why after two decades of research we have yet to come up with an HIV vaccine. After restoring the immune...
http://ec.europa.eu/research/research-eu/59/article_5910_en.html
*  Host Cells Starve HIV-1 of Building Blocks to Prevent Viral Replication | GEN News Highlights | G
Host Cells Starve HIV-1 of Building Blocks to Prevent Viral Replication. Linking Phenotypes and Modes of Action Through High-Content Screen Fingerprints. Linking Phenotypes and Modes of Action Through High-Content Screen Fingerprints. Market & Tech Analysis. Linking Phenotypes and Modes of Action Through High-Content Screen Fingerprints The Use of High-Content Screening as... GEN News Highlights More » Feb 13, 2012 Host Cells Starve HIV-1 of Building Blocks to Prevent Viral Replication Page 1 of 1 Scientists have identified a protein that effectively strips dendritic cells DCs and monocyte-derived macrophages MDMs of the intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphates dNTPs needed by invading HIV-1 to synthesize its own DNA and replicate. An international team led by researchers at the Institut Cochin in Paris, New York University School of Medicine, and the University of Rochester Medical Center sites say SAMHD1 expressed by HIV-1 s target myeloid cells hydrolyzes intracellular dNTP, essentially starving the vir...
http://genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/host-cells-starve-hiv-1-of-building-blocks-to-prevent-viral-replication/81246354/?kwrd=HIV/AIDS
*  PLOS Pathogens: Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Viru
... s Escape. Journal Archive. Other Article Types. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Virus Escape. Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Virus Escape Katharine J. 2012 Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Virus Escape. Autologous plasma Nabs against the T/F virus were first detected for subject CH40 111 days after seroconversion with titers of 1:1400 Figure S1 ; Table 1. By day 159, plasma Nab titers against the T/F virus had risen to 1:100, and the V2 mutations continued to confer some degree of escape. For CH40, SGA sampling 14 sequences of day 45 plasma revealed only T/F sequences in V1, whereas PASS detected 1.1% 5/492 of sequences with the E146K Nab escape mutation and 0.4% 2/492 of sequences with an M147L mutation Figure 2B ; Table S1., To our kn...
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002721
*  Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly
... Toggle navigation. BORA - UiB BORA. English. norsk. English. English. norsk. Login. Toggle navigation. View Item. BORA Home. Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry. Centre for Pharmacy. View Item. BORA Home. Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry. Centre for Pharmacy View Item. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly. Type. Peer reviewed; Journal article. Peer reviewed. publishedVersion. View/ Open. Published version 1.585Mb. 1742-4690-8-11.xml 95.16Kb. Date 2011-02-16. Author. Votteler, J rg. Neumann, Liane. Hahn, Sabine. Hahn, Friedrich. Rauch, Pia. Schmidt, Kerstin. Studtrucker, Nicole. Solbak, Sara Marie ie. Fossen, Torgils. Henklein, Peter. Ott, David E. Holland, Gudrun. Bannert, Norbert. Schubert, Ulrich. Share. . Metadata. Show full item record. RDF. Abstract. Background: The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from t...
https://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/5555
*  AIDS slower to develop in people infected with 2 HIV types - Vitals
... . NBC News. Home. Top Videos. More. Ongoing:. Oregon College Shooting. ISIS Terror. Search. Search. Primary Navigation U.S. World. Local. Politics. Health. Tech. Science. Pop Culture. Business. Investigations. Sports. More. Nightly News. Today. Meet the Press. Dateline. Secondary Navigation Sections U.S. World. Local. Politics. Investigations. Health. Tech. Science. Pop Culture. Lifestyle. Business. Sports. Latino. Asian America. NBCBLK. Top Ongoing TV Nightly News. Meet The Press. Dateline. Today. Featured The Freshman Year Experience. Long Story Short. 101. Show Me. Flashback. 30 Seconds to Know. Debunker. Ask a Doctor. Multimedia Video. Photo. More From NBC Sports. CNBC. MSNBC.com. NBC.com. Breakingnews.com. NBC Learn. Re/Code. Peacock Productions. Next Steps for Vets. Parent Toolkit. Vitals. Discuss as:. AIDS slower to develop in people infected with 2 HIV types By Vitals Wednesday Jul 18, 2012 3:28 PM. Email. By Rachael Rettner MyHealthNewsDaily. Becoming infected with both of the two main types of ...
http://vitals.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/07/18/12817343-aids-slower-to-develop-in-people-infected-with-2-hiv-types?lite
*  The HIV Life Cycle - HowStuffWorks
... HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is shown budding out of a human immune cell. How AIDS Works. In this article, we will show you how the HIV virus attacks the immune system and how it causes AIDS. Slowly, the number of immune cells in the body dwindles and AIDS develops. HIV invades and destroys the immune system -- the system that would normally protect the body from a virus. To replicate, the virus creates new virus particles inside a host cell and those particles carry the virus to new cells. This cell is called the CD4+T cell, also know as a T-helper cell see How the Immune System Works for details on T cells. HIV will slowly reduce the number of T-cells until the person develops AIDS. Embedded in the viral envelope are proteins from the host cell. p17 protein - The HIV matrix protein that lies between the envelope and core Viral core - Inside the envelope is the core, which contains 2,000 copies of the viral protein, p24. Like all viruses, HIV replicates inside host cells. Let's look at how the HIV v...
http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/cellular-microscopic/aids2.htm/printable
*  GS HIV-1 Western Blot | Clinical Diagnostics | Bio-Rad
GS HIV-1 Western Blot. Clinical Diagnostics. Bio-Rad. Home > Clinical Diagnostics > Products > Blood Virus > Reagents > Retrovirus HIV > Retrovirus HIV Western Blot > GS HIV-1 Western Blot. GS HIV-1 Western Blot Print. Email. GS HIV-1 Western Blot Representation of HIV-1 and GS HIV-1 Western Blot Results...
http://bio-rad.com/en-us/product/retrovirus-hiv-mdash-western-blot/gs-hiv-1-western-blot?pcp_loc=lnav
*  Structure and genome of HIV
... Structure Genome organization Viral structural proteins. Accessory regulatory proteins. 2002 HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus. thumb|350px|right|Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles The single-strand RNA is tightly bound to p7 nucleocapsid proteins, late assembly protein p6, and enzymes essential to the development of the virion, such as reverse transcriptase and integrase. Also enclosed within the virion particle are Vif, Vpr, Nef, and viral protease. thumb|600px|Structure of the RNA genome of HIV-1 HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses as well as several nonstructural "accessory" genes unique to HIV. The HIV genome contains three major genes, 5'gag-pol-env-3', encoding major structural proteins as well as essential enzymes. HIV-1 has two important regulatory elements: Tat and Rev and few important accessory proteins such as Nef, Vpr, Vif and Vpu which are not essential for replication in certain tissues. HIV has a 9.2kb...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure_and_genome_of_HIV
*  NIF | Searching in Literature
NIF. Searching in Literature. SciCrunch relies heavily on JavaScript. Many functions on the site will not work if you continue with JavaScript disabled. Login. Register. NIF LinkOut Portal. About. Add a Resource. Literature. Go. X. Sign In. Log In. X Forgot Password. If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email. Send. X. Leaving Community. Are you sure you want to leave this community. Leaving the community will revoke any permissions you have been granted in this community. No. Yes. Literature. Home Literature. A B-box 2 surface patch important for TRIM5alpha self-association, capsid binding avidity, and retrovirus restriction. TRIM5alpha is a tripartite motif TRIM protein that consists of RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil, and B30.2 SPRY domains. The TRIM5alpha rh protein from rhesus monkeys recognizes the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 capsid as it enters the host cell and blocks virus infection prior to reverse transcription. HIV-1-r...
https://scicrunch.org/19656869/resource/nif-0000-00432
*  Search of: "x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency" OR "severe combined immunodeficiency" - List
51 studies found for : x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency OR severe combined immunodeficiency Modify this search. Subscribe to RSS Create an RSS feed from your search for: x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency OR severe combined immunodeficiency Need help. Download Download the search results for: x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency OR severe combined immunodeficiency 51 records Need help. Rank Status Study 1 Recruiting Lentiviral Gene Transfer for Treatment of Children Older Than Two Years of Age With X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency XSCID. Conditions: X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; XSCID; SCID-X1; Gamma C-Deficient SCID. Interventions: Other: Gene-modified CD34+ Hematopoietic stem cells; Drug: Busulfan. Conditions: Growth Failure; X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency XSCID ; Growth Hormone Resistence. 3 Active, not recruiting Gene Therapy for X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency. 4 Recruiting Gene Therapy for X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency SCID-X1. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond="x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency" OR "severe combined immunodeficiency"&show_down=Y
*  BioSpace - Pre-Clinical Development of BCG.HIVACAT, an Antibiotic-Free Selection Strain, for HIV-
... TB Pediatric Vaccine Vectored by Lysine Auxotroph of BCG. Post Jobs. Jobs. Pre-Clinical Development of BCG.HIVACAT, an Antibiotic-Free Selection Strain, for HIV-TB Pediatric Vaccine Vectored by Lysine Auxotroph of BCG Published: Tuesday, August 21, 2012 Author: Narcís Saubi et al. by Narcís Saubi, Alice Mbewe-Mvula, Ester Gea-Mallorqui, Maximillian Rosario, Josep Maria Gatell, Tomáš Hanke, Joan Joseph In the past, we proposed to develop a heterologous recombinant BCG prime-recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara MVA boost dual pediatric vaccine platform against transmission of breast milk HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb. coli -mycobacterial shuttle plasmid pJH222.HIVA CAT expressing HIV-1 clade A immunogen HIVA. This shuttle plasmid was electroporated into parental lysine auxotroph safer strain of BCG to generate vaccine BCG.HIVA CAT. We demonstrated that the episomal plasmid pJH222.HIVA CAT was stable in vivo over a 20-week period, and genetically and phenotypically characterized the BCG.HIVA...
http://biospace.com/PLos_Article.aspx?id=20770
*  Evolutionsdynamik des pol-Gens bei HIV-1 infizierten Patienten unter geändertem selektiven Druck Pa
... tienten unter geändertem selektiven Druck - Kölner UniversitätsPublikationsServer. Evolutionsdynamik des pol-Gens bei HIV-1 infizierten Patienten unter geändertem selektiven Druck Patienten unter geändertem selektiven Druck. Balduin, Melanie 2008 Evolutionsdynamik des pol-Gens bei HIV-1 infizierten Patienten unter geändertem selektiven Druck Patienten unter geändertem selektiven Druck. HIV-strains with resistance associated mutations, developed under antiretroviral therapy, had frequently lower replication capacities and were displaced by viral populations with a higher fitness during TI.In this work, cessation of treatment leads to a significant reduction in the number of resistance associated mutations. The emergence of newly detected resistant associated mutations, which were not visible before TI, needs to be addressed. K70R is one early mutation visible during resistance development in this pathway and can fade after the selection of other resistance mutations. During TI, after losing these additiona...
http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/2479/
*  Short-term antiviral activity of TMC278 – a novel NNRTI – in... : AIDS
Top Cited Articles. Objective: To evaluate antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and safety of TMC278, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NNRTI, when given as a 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg once-daily dose for 7 days to antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected subjects. Back to Top. Article Outline Methods Study population Eligible patients were antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected men of at least 18 years of age who had a plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load above 5000 copies/ml and a CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count between 75 and 500 cells/μl. Article Outline Study design The TMC278-C201 study was a phase IIa, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose-escalating trial to compare the antiviral effect, tolerability and safety of a 7-day treatment with one of four doses of TMC278 given as monotherapy. IAS–USA resistance-associated mutations in RT were detected in 6/47 12.8% subjects one from the 50, 100 and 150 mg TMC278 groups, respectively, and three from the placebo group but no NNRTI resi...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2006/08220/Short_term_antiviral_activity_of_TMC278___a_novel.5.aspx
*  HIV-1 Peptide Immunisation of Individuals in West Africa to Prevent Disease - Full Text View - Clini
... calTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. About the Results Database. History, Policies, and Laws. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01141205?order=155
*  LEONIDAS A STAMATATOS
... Summary Affiliation: Seattle Biomedical Research Institute Country: USA. Publications Neutralizing antibodies generated during natural HIV-1 infection: good news for an HIV-1 vaccine. Leonidas Stamatatos 1Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA Nat Med 15:866-70. Research Grants VACCINE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED HIV ENVELOPES Leonidas Stamatatos; Fiscal Year: 2000 Monitoring the development of anti-Env Abs during HIV infection LEONIDAS A STAMATATOS; Fiscal Year: 2010 VACCINE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED HIV ENVELOPES Leonidas Stamatatos; Fiscal Year: 2009 VACCINE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED HIV ENVELOPES Leonidas Stamatatos; Fiscal Year: 2007 VACCINE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED HIV ENVELOPES Leonidas Stamatatos; Fiscal Year: 2006 VACCINE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED HIV ENVELOPES Leonidas Stamatatos; Fiscal Year: 2005 Protection from SHIV-infection by CTL and Antibodies Leonidas Stamatatos; Fiscal Year: 2006 Protection from SHIV-infection by CTL and Antibodies Leonidas Stamatatos; Fiscal Year: 2005 VACCINE EFFICACY...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/seattle/stamatatos/leonidas-a-stamatatos-1134295.html
*  Pregnancy & Prenatal Testing: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Pregnancy Prenatal Testing: Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV. . Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising Sponsorship: Policy. Opportunities. PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript, your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. Home Visit Global Sites. Search Help. Tests List of all tests and synonyms Test not listed. 5-HIAA 17-Hydroxyprogesterone A/G Ratio A1c Absolute neutrophils ACE Acetaminophen Acetylcholinesterase AChR Antibody ACR ACT ACTH Adenosine Deaminase ADH AFB Testing AFP Maternal AFP Tumor Markers Albumin Aldolase Aldosterone ALK Mutation Gene Rearrangement Allergy Blood Testing ALP Alpha-1 Antitrypsin ALT AMA Amikacin Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANA ANCA Androstenedione Anti-CCP Anti-DNase B Anti-dsDNA Anti-LKM-1 Anti-Mullerian Hormone Antibody ID, RBC ...
https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/wellness/pregnancy/pre-conception/hiv/

Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Envelope glycoprotein GP120: Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. The 120 in its name comes from its molecular weight of 120 kDa.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Statnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.CCR5 receptor antagonist: CCR5 receptor antagonists are a class of small molecules that antagonize the CCR5 receptor. The C-C motif chemokine receptor CCR5 is involved in the process by which HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, enters cells.Coles PhillipsAdult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.KeliximabPol (HIV): Pol (DNA ymerase) refers to a gene in retroviruses, or the protein produced by that gene.CXC chemokine receptors: CXC chemokine receptors are integral membrane proteins that specifically bind and respond to cytokines of the CXC chemokine family. They represent one subfamily of chemokine receptors, a large family of G protein-linked receptors that are known as seven transmembrane (7-TM) proteins, since they span the cell membrane seven times.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.Co-option (biology)Nef (protein): coordinates.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Viral infectivity factor: Viral infectivity factor, or Vif, is a protein found in HIV and other retroviruses. Its role is to disrupt the antiviral activity of the human enzyme APOBEC (See also APOBEC3G) by targeting it for ubiquitination and cellular degradation.Vpr: Vpr is a Human immunodeficieny viral gene and protein product.Cro repressor family: In molecular biology, the Cro repressor family of proteins includes the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Host tropism: Host tropism is the name given to a process of tropism that determines which cells can become infected by a given pathogen. Various factors determine the ability of a pathogen to infect a particular cell.Natural transfer: The natural transfer (hypothesis or theory), in reference to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, states that humans first received HIV by contact with primates, presumably from a fight with a Chimpanzee during hunting or consumption of primate meat, and became contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the 'Hunter Theory', the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.Cognitive effects of HIVPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Rev (HIV): Rev is a transactivating protein that is essential to the regulation of HIV-1 protein expression. A nuclear localization signal is encoded in the rev gene, which allows the Rev protein to be localized to the nucleus, where it is involved in the export of unspliced and incompletely spliced mRNAs.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.CyclophilinNevirapineReaction coordinateDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.APOBEC4: C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-4, also known as Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC4 gene.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Genetic variation: right|thumbThermal cyclerCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.

(1/23412) Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

(2/23412) Structural basis for the specificity of the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription.

Initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription requires specific recognition of the viral genome, tRNA3Lys, which acts as primer, and reverse transcriptase (RT). The specificity of this ternary complex is mediated by intricate interactions between HIV-1 RNA and tRNA3Lys, but remains poorly understood at the three-dimensional level. We used chemical probing to gain insight into the three-dimensional structure of the viral RNA-tRNA3Lys complex, and enzymatic footprinting to delineate regions interacting with RT. These and previous experimental data were used to derive a three-dimensional model of the initiation complex. The viral RNA and tRNA3Lys form a compact structure in which the two RNAs fold into distinct structural domains. The extended interactions between these molecules are not directly recognized by RT. Rather, they favor RT binding by preventing steric clashes between the nucleic acids and the polymerase and inducing a viral RNA-tRNA3Lys conformation which fits perfectly into the nucleic acid binding cleft of RT. Recognition of the 3' end of tRNA3Lys and of the first template nucleotides by RT is favored by a kink in the template strand promoted by the short junctions present in the previously established secondary structure.  (+info)

(3/23412) High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector.

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

(4/23412) Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE).

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

(5/23412) Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

(6/23412) Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism.

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

(7/23412) Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain.

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

(8/23412) HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection.

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)


What's the difference between HIV 1 and HIV 2?


Most people get tested for one or the other. For example I noticed the home testing kits are for type 2 (I think, or else type 1).So if they test negative for one type, could they still have the other so what's the point of the home test kit testing for only one type giving someone a false sense of security? Or does it mean if you're negative for type 2 then you are also neg for type 1?
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* they both lead to AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
*Some antibiotics that are used for HIV-1 does not effect HIV-2

.................................................
but if you have HIV you can only have one of them...
if the HIV is Negative it is Negative.
if it is positive, You have one of them.


What is the difference in testing between HIV-1 and HIV-2?


Is there a certain test I need to get JUST for HIV-2 and JUST for HIV-1 or does the ELISA and other HIV tests cover both?!?! I'm confused ... Please help & God Bless.
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HIV-2 infection is mainly prevalent in West Africa. It is less infectious than HIV-1 and progresses more slowly towards disease.  In a recent autopsy report, 93% of HIV-2-positive individuals died of an HIV-related disease and there was no detectable difference in pathology between HIV-1 and HIV-2 patients, except that severe multiorgan cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, HIV encephalitis and cholangitis were all significantly more frequent in HIV2-infected persons.

One possible explanation for this finding is that the patients survived longer in the terminal stage of their disease. However, there is still no clear physiopathological explanations.

Yes, there are serological tests available for specific HIV-2 testing? Usually, the routines ones test only for HIV-1. You have to ask for a combination test with HIV-2 or a specific one, otherwise, the testing centers will not bother testing for HIV-2. 
 


Whats the difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2 ?


Besides one or the other being the predominant type in certain regions .... Are there symptom and or progression differences in these two types of HIV?
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I just did a quick websearch on HIV1 and HIV2, and I got the link below (as well as a lot of other good ones - you might try doing this web search yourself.)

The punchline is 

"There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both types are transmitted by sexual contact, through blood, and from mother to child, and they appear to cause clinically indistinguishable AIDS. However, it seems that HIV-2 is less easily transmitted, and the period between initial infection and illness is longer in the case of HIV-2. 

Worldwide, the predominant virus is HIV-1, and generally when people refer to HIV without specifying the type of virus they will be referring to HIV-1. The relatively uncommon HIV-2 type is concentrated in West Africa and is rarely found elsewhere."

Good question.



Possible exposure to HIV 1.5 years ago, have had swollen glands for about 6 months, should i be worried?


Anser to flowerman..Only just found out that i could have been exposed to it (was protected sex)
Answer to flowerman..Only just found out that i could have been exposed to it (was protected sex)
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You said you had protected sex. Condoms are very efficient way to prevent HIV infection. Condom work. You did not have a risk for contracting HIV if you did use a condom.

Symptoms are NEVER indicators for HIV infection and the reason is that they are not HIV specific. Even classical symptoms of early infection could be related to million other things.

Relax. You were not at risk. Get tested to get a piece of mind. It will be negative if you did not have any other risky exposure.


What's the difference between HIV 1 and HIV 2? Which type is more deadly? How are they managed?


Just different categories of the disease HIV .. and both have the similar manifistation ..


what does "non reactive" on a hiv 1 2 screen rflx wb screen mean?


Does it mean positive or negative? What are the terms for positive and negative for this screen?
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if i got nonreactive result in hiv 1 and 2 after 6 months is it means that i dont have hiv?


i have been tested during early weeks of exposure then the result is nonreactive  after 6 months i took test in hiv and the result is nonreactive is that mean that i dont have hiv?
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What is the process of HIV 1 testing. Do they test it only once before giving result or more than once?


There are three main types of HIV test.

The first type of test is the HIV antibody test. This test shows whether a person has been infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Information on this page concentrates mainly on HIV antibody testing. Antibody tests are also known as ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) tests.

The second type of test is an antigen test. Antigens are the substances found on a foreign body or germ that trigger the production of antibodies in the body. The antigen on HIV that most commonly provokes an antibody response is the protein P24. Early in the infection, P24 is produced in excess and can be detected in the blood serum by a commercial test (although as HIV becomes fully established in the body it will fade to undetectable levels). P24 antigen tests are sometimes used to screen donated blood, but they can also be used for testing for HIV in individuals, as they can detect HIV earlier than standard antibody tests. Some of the most modern HIV tests combine P24 and other antigen tests with standard antibody identification methods to enable earlier and more accurate HIV detection.

    Blood supplies in most developed countries are screened for HIV using an RNA PCR test, which can produce positive results several days before a DNA test.

The third type of test is a PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction test). The whole process of extracting genetic material and testing it with a PCR test is referred to as Nucleic Acid-amplification Testing or 'NAT'. PCR tests detect the genetic material of HIV itself, and can identify HIV in the blood within two or three weeks of infection.

PCR tests come in two forms: DNA PCR and RNA PCR. Babies born to HIV positive mothers are usually tested using a DNA PCR because they retain their mother's antibodies for several months, making an antibody test inaccurate. Blood supplies in most developed countries are screened for HIV using an RNA PCR test, which can produce positive results several days before a DNA test. When a person already knows that she or he is infected with HIV, they may also have a viral load test to detect HIV genetic material and estimate the level of virus in the blood. This can be performed using either an RNA or DNA PCR test. PCR tests are not often used to test for HIV in adults, as they are very expensive and more complicated to administer than a standard antibody or P24 test. However they may be offered in special circumstances, or by private clinics where patients are willing to pay.
HIV testing