Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genome, Microbial: The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genome Components: The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.INDEL Mutation: A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Inverted Repeat Sequences: Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Segmental Duplications, Genomic: Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.GC Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.DNA Copy Number Variations: Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Mutation Rate: The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Untranslated Regions: The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Genes, Overlapping: Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.

*  Adagio Teas
Shop online for loose teas sourced directly from farmers who tender them, including finest black, green, oolong, white and herbal tea varieties....
http://adagio.com/signature_blend/group.html?group=631
*  CiNii 論文 - Clinicopathologic study of nasal T...
Detection and localization of Epstein-Barr viral genomes in angiocentric immunoproliferative ... Detection of Epstein-Barr viral RNA in malignant lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract CHAN J ... Frequency of Epstein-Barr viral DNA in "Western" sinonasal and Waldeyer's ring non-Hodgkin's ... Aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphomas containing Epstein-Barr viral DNA: a clinicopathologic and ......
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008336937
*  Commission européenne : CORDIS : Projets et résultats : Applying biotechnology...
... also allows direct access to the viral genome and therefore to the molecular variability of viruses ......
http://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/19881_fr.html
*  Cignal™ Lenti Renilla Control (luc)
Involved in nuclear translocation and integration of transduced viral genome. Renilla (Renilla ... Permits viral packaging and reverse transcription of viral mRNA. Psi; Packaging signal. Allow viral ... Involved in packaging of viral transcript. cppt; Central polypurine tract. ... Modified 3'LTR that allows viral packaging but self inactivates the 5'LTR for biosafety purpose. ......
http://sabiosciences.com/reporter_assay_product/HTML/CLS-RCL.html
*  The hazards of horizontal gene transfer - Biology Online
Viral sequences have also been discovered recently in plant genomes [66]. Viral transgenes are ... Dormant and relict viral sequences have been discovered in the human and other animal genomes at ... may recombine with dormant/relict viral sequences in the genome to regenerate infectious viruses [ ... Geneticists have confirmed that the diseases are due to new viral and bacterial strains that have ......
http://biology-online.org/articles/unregulated-hazards-naked-free-nucleic-acids/hazards-horizontal-gene-transfer.html
*  Venter Institute Builds Longest Sequence of Synthetic DNA (that Doesn't Work) |...
They've named the synthetic genome, Mycoplasma genitalium JCVI-1.0, and it's similar to its ... counterpart in nature, a genital bacterium with the smallest known genome of any free living ... Craig Venter's research team announced that it has constructed a bacterial-length synthetic genome ... The genome of any viral organism on the "select agents" list can be constructed in the laboratory ......
http://etcgroup.org/content/venter-institute-builds-longest-sequence-synthetic-dna-doesn’t-work
*  Getting The Mooney Treatment - The Loom
So, one might filter stardust to see if viral DNA really can be found in space. But overall, I ... that carried the genes for new biological features in their genomes. ......
http://scienceblogs.com/loom/2006/11/13/getting-the-mooney-treatment/
*  JCI - The role of HIV integration in viral persistence: no more whistling past...
Mechanisms of persistence remain uncertain, but integration of the provirus into the host genome ... The role of HIV integration in viral persistence: no more whistling past the proviral graveyard. ... The role of HIV integration in viral persistence: no more whistling past the proviral graveyard. ... including low-level viral persistence during cART, long-term persistence of HIV-infected cells, and ......
http://jci.org/articles/view/80564/pdf
*  Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z List - «R»
Red jungle fowl genome Red jungle fowl genome: The genome of Gallus gallus, the ancestor of ... Viral an... * Red jungle fowl Red jungle fowl: Gallus gallus, the ancestor of domestic chickens ... See: Chicken genome.... * Red Shield Red Shield: Trade name of the insecticide dieldrin. See: ......
http://drugster.info/medic/letter/R/page/15
*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022901/00001
Rep lication of the viral genome by the viral DNA polymerase, encoded by the gene E9L, (Traktma n ... 3.2.3.1 Viral protein synthesis Viral protein synthesis was used as a m easure of overall vi ral ... The viral genome encodes approximately 200 genes and is encapsidated in the core of a complex brick ... 2.1.10 Isolation of Viral DNA Replication Samples Viral DNA was isolated and viral DNA replicati on ......
http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022901/00001
*  Assisted assembly: how to improve a de novo genome assembly by using related species. | Broad Instit
Assisted assembly: how to improve a de novo genome assembly by using related species. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. News & Publications:Scientific Publications Assisted assembly: how to improve a de novo genome assembly by using related species. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental and transcriptional history. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Linking RNA biology to lncRNAs. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors from Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-lipid Raft Microdomains. Read More / View ...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3372
*  Mouse genome sequences reveal variability, complex evolutionary history
... UW-Madison Home. News from UW-Madison. Search term:. Submit search:. UW-Madison > News > Mouse genome sequences reve... Mouse genome sequences reveal variability, complex evolutionary history. Sept. 15, 2011. by Jill Sakai. The genome of even a single organism is packed with information. A new paper, building on recent advances in sequencing capability, now reports the complete genomes of 17 different strains of mice, creating an unparalleled genetic resource that will aid studies ranging from human disease to evolution. An international team of researchers, including University of Wisconsin Madison geneticist Bret Payseur, describe in the Sept. 14 issue of the journal Nature the genome sequencing and comparison of 17 mouse strains, including several of the most common laboratory strains and four recently derived from wild populations. The resulting database, the largest for any vertebrate model organism, documents the range of genetic variation between mouse strains and its effects on phenotypes and gen...
http://news.wisc.edu/19771
*  Genome Biology
... 10.8 Search Genome Biology BioMed Central for. My Genome Biology. Genome Biology covers all areas of biology and biomedicine studied from a genomic and post-genomic perspective. Areas covered include, but are not limited to: sequence analysis; bioinformatics; insights into molecular, cellular and organismal biology; functional genomics; epigenomics; population genomics; proteomics; comparative biology and evolution; systems and network biology; genomics of disease; and clinical genomics. Work on primordial dwarfism provides new insights into links between tRNA modification and inherited conditions in humans Genome Biology 2015, 16 :216 New genes drive evolution. Nanopore MinION sequencing is used to identify isoforms expressed from four different Drosophila genes Genome Biology 2015, 16 :204 Cancer chromatin contacts. Breast cancer cells show altered chromatin interactions, particularly among small, gene-rich chromosomes and at telomeres, compared with epithelial cells Genome Biology 2015, 16 :214 Hetero...
http://genomebiology.com/
*  List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes
... This 'list of sequenced eukaryotic genomes' contains all the eukaryote s known to have publicly available complete nuclear and organelle genome sequence s that have been assembled, annotated and published; draft genomes are not included, nor are organelle-only sequences. In 1996 ' Saccharomyces cerevisiae ' baker's yeast was the first eukaryote genome sequence to be released and in 1998 the first genome sequence for a multicellular eukaryote, ' Caenorhabditis elegans ', was released. Protists Plants Fungi Animals See also References External links. Following are the six earliest sequenced genomes of protists. 'For a more complete list, see the List of sequenced protist genomes .'. Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion. Model organism. Human pathogen malaria. 2 Malaria Genome Project Consortium. Model organism. 6 Joint Genome Institute and the University of Washington. Following are the five earliest sequenced genomes of plants. 'For a more complete ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sequenced_eukaryotic_genomes
*  Itm2b (integral membrane protein 2B) - Rat Genome Database
Itm2b integral membrane protein 2B - Rat Genome Database. Name: integral membrane protein 2B. Latest Assembly: RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0. Position: Map Chr Position Strand Source RGSC Genome Assembly v6.0 15 55,254,703 - 55,277,713 - NCBI. Rat Cytogenetic Map 15 p11. NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0 15 58,977,916 - 59,000,926 - NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v3.4 15 54,005,134 - 54,028,036 - NCBI. Rat Celera Assembly 15 48,194,879 - 48,217,785 - NCBI. Genome Assembly 3.1 15 54,020,916 - 54,021,022 - NCBI. tamoxifen decreases expression ISO RGD:1557698 6480464 Tamoxifen results in decreased expression of ITM2B mRNA CTD PMID:19400957. ISO RGD:1557698 1624291 MGI:MGI:2179928|PMID:12082633 RGD MGI:MGI:2179928 PMID:12082633. ISO RGD:1557698 1624291 MGI:MGI:1890115|PMID:10679242 RGD MGI:MGI:1890115 PMID:10679242. ISO RGD:1557698 1624291 UniProtKB:P10417 RGD MGI:MGI:2179928 PMID:12082633. Comparative Map Data Itm2b Rattus norvegicus Map Chr Position Strand Source RGSC Genome Assembly v6.0 15 55,254,703 - 55,277,713 - NCB...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=620727
*  Decoding the Dog Genome | The Bark
Decoding the Dog Genome. The Bark. Skip to main content. Subscribe. Give A Gift. Renew. Subscriber Services. Advertisers Subscriber Services Newsletter Blog Contests. Search form. Search. News. Wellness. Good Dog. Dog s Life. Culture. Magazine. Shop BarkGoods. DogPatch. Reviews. Stories Lit. Readers Write. Science History. Tributes. The Daily Show. Science History. Print. Email. Text Size:. Decoding the Dog Genome. By. Mark Derr. Pages:. Pages. « first ‹ previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 next › last ». From a certain perspective, the dog is just another mammal, albeit with a genome slightly smaller and “cleaner”—“there is less junk,” Lindblad-Toh said—than that of its human companion or the ubiquitous lab rat, to which the researchers also compared it in Nature. Tucked within the 2.4 billion base pairs of the dog’s DNA are some 19,300 genes. By comparison, the human genome consists of approximately 2.9 billion base pairs of DNA and, at most recent count, approximately 22,000 genes. Approximately 72 percent of the dog ge...
http://thebark.com/content/decoding-dog-genome?page=3&qt-recent_updates_qt=1
*  LOC286960 (preprotrypsinogen IV) - Rat Genome Database
LOC286960 preprotrypsinogen IV - Rat Genome Database. Help. FTP Download. Citing RGD. Contact Us. Keyword. Home Data Genome Tools Diseases Phenotypes & Models. Custom Rats Pathways Community Curation Web. Search RGD Grant Resources Citing RGD About Us Contact Us. Genes. QTLs. Strains. Markers. Maps. Ontologies. Sequences. References. FTP Download. Submit Data. Rat GBrowse. VCMap. Variant Visualizer. GViewer. ACP Haplotyper. Genome Scanner. Genome Conflicts. RatMine. Diabetes. Cardiovascular. Neurological. Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome. Cancer. Respiratory. Phenotypes. Strains & Models. PhenoMiner Database. Molecular Pathways. Physiological Pathways. Nomenclature. Rat Community Forum RCF. Submit Data. Object Edit. Curation Tools. Nomenclature. Score Board. Pipeline Logs. Phenominer. Gene: LOC286960 preprotrypsinogen IV Rattus norvegicus. General. Array IDs. Symbol: LOC286960. Name: preprotrypsinogen IV. Description: ENCODES a protein that exhibits metal ion binding inferred ; INVOLVED IN digestion inferred ; INTE...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=708585
*  Bovine genome
... px left thumb l dominette the hereford who serves as the subject of the bovine genome project the genome of a female hereford cow has been sequenced by the bovine genome sequencing and analysis consortium a team of researchers led by the national institutes of health and the u s department of agriculture it is one of the largest genomes ever sequenced the results published in the journal science on april are likely to have a major impact on livestock breeding they were obtained by more than scientists in countries after six years of effort the size of the bovine genome is gb billion base pair s it contains approximately gene s of which are common to all mammalian species bovine s share percent of their genes with humans cows are less similar to humans than rodents humans and rodents belong to the clade of supraprimates they also have about genes shared with dog s and rodent s but not identified in humans the charting of key dna differences also known as haplotype s between several varieties of cattle cou...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_genome
*  Rat Genome Database
... 5 Data Genome Tools Genome tools developed at RGD. Additional Data and Tools in RGD Phenotypes and Models Portal. Diseases. 6 lists eight types of data stored in the database: Gene s, QTLs, Markers, Maps, Strains, Ontologies, Sequences and References. RGD curators review the literature and manually curate GO, diseases, phenotypes and pathways for rat genes, diseases and pathways for mouse genes, and diseases, phenotypes and pathways for human genes. For rat and human QTLs, curation includes assigning MP and disease ontology annotations. Strain records link to information about related genes and QTLs, associated strains e.g. RGD does not import data for mouse strains. Each reference record links to all of the data curated from that article, including genes, QTLs, strains and ontology annotations. RGD's Genome tools. Genome tools developed at RGD. The Phenotypes and Models portal has five sections: "Phenotypes", "Strains & Models", "Meet Joe Rat", "PhenoMiner" and "Strain Medical Records". The section also...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rat_Genome_Database
*  D12S345 Marker Search Result - Rat Genome Database
... Help. FTP Download. Citing RGD. Contact Us. Keyword. Home Data Genome Tools Diseases Phenotypes & Models. Custom Rats Pathways Community Curation Web. Search RGD Grant Resources Citing RGD About Us Contact Us. Genes. QTLs. Strains. Markers. Maps. Ontologies. Sequences. References. FTP Download. Submit Data. Rat GBrowse. VCMap. Variant Visualizer. GViewer. ACP Haplotyper. Genome Scanner. Genome Conflicts. RatMine. Diabetes. Cardiovascular. Neurological. Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome. Cancer. Respiratory. Phenotypes. Strains & Models. PhenoMiner Database. Molecular Pathways. Physiological Pathways. Nomenclature. Rat Community Forum RCF. Submit Data. Object Edit. Curation Tools. Nomenclature. Score Board. Pipeline Logs. Phenominer. General. Marker: D12S345. Symbol: D12S345. Also known as:. Expected Size: 442 bp. Position Map Chr Position Strand Source RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0 19 27,524,969 - 27,525,411. NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v3.4 19 15,715,104 - 15,715,545. UniSTS. Rat Celera Assembly 19 14,521,553 - 14,...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/marker/main.html?id=5507715
*  Hk3 (hexokinase 3 (white cell)) - Rat Genome Database
Molecular Pathways. Physiological Pathways. Description: ENCODES a protein that exhibits enzyme binding; hexokinase activity; hormone binding; INVOLVED IN negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated programmed cell death; PARTICIPATES IN amino sugar metabolic pathway; butirosin and neomycin biosynthetic pathway; fructose and mannose metabolic pathway; ASSOCIATED WITH Long QT Syndrome ortholog ; FOUND IN protein complex; mitochondrion ortholog ; INTERACTS WITH 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene; ammonium chloride; bisphenol A. RefSeq Status: PROVISIONAL. Latest Assembly: RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0. Position: Map Chr Position Strand Source RGSC Genome Assembly v6.0 17 10,134,921 - 10,152,976 + NCBI. Rat Cytogenetic Map 17 q12. NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0 17 12,243,962 - 12,261,662 + NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v3.4 17 15,651,953 - 15,669,109 + NCBI. Rat Celera Assembly 17 9,677,906 - 9,692,837 + NCBI. Genome Assembly 3.1 17 15,651,952 - 15,669,109 + NCBI. Molecular Pathway Annotations Term Qualifier Evidence Wi...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=2798
*  Arse (arylsulfatase E) - Rat Genome Database
Position: Map Chr Position Strand Source RGSC Genome Assembly v6.0 2 122,876,645 - 122,884,673 + NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0 2 142,502,520 - 142,510,533 + NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v3.4 2 122,663,037 - 122,670,111 + NCBI. Genome Assembly 3.1 2 122,607,698 - 122,615,073 + NCBI. Comparative Map Data Arse Rattus norvegicus Map Chr Position Strand Source RGSC Genome Assembly v6.0 2 122,876,645 - 122,884,673 + NCBI. ARSE Homo sapiens Map Chr Position Strand Source Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 X 2,934,632 - 2,968,310 - NCBI. 631198 Cm22 Cardiac mass QTL 22 4.3 .0008 Cardiac mass left ventricle 2 98037122 177517146 Rat. 61374 Edpm2 Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 2 4.42 .86 Gland mass pituitary 2 98037122 235592880 Rat. Kidney mass left kidney mass adjujsted for tibia length 2 103494092 262435073 Rat. 1554319 Bmd2 Bone mineral density QTL 2 13.4 .0001 Bone mineral density spine area by pQCT 2 138120342 247933461 Rat. 1581578 Cm49 Cardiac mass QTL 49 4.9 .01 Cardiac mass left ventricle 2 88595515 169047256...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=1304917
*  Ins2 (insulin 2) - Rat Genome Database
Ins2 insulin 2 - Rat Genome Database. Help. FTP Download. Citing RGD. Contact Us. Keyword. Home Data Genome Tools Diseases Phenotypes & Models. Custom Rats Pathways Community Curation Web. Search RGD Grant Resources Citing RGD About Us Contact Us. Genes. QTLs. Strains. Markers. Maps. Ontologies. Sequences. References. FTP Download. Submit Data. Rat GBrowse. VCMap. Variant Visualizer. GViewer. ACP Haplotyper. Genome Scanner. Genome Conflicts. RatMine. Diabetes. Cardiovascular. Neurological. Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome. Cancer. Respiratory. Phenotypes. Strains & Models. PhenoMiner Database. Molecular Pathways. Physiological Pathways. Nomenclature. Rat Community Forum RCF. Submit Data. Object Edit. Curation Tools. Nomenclature. Score Board. Pipeline Logs. Phenominer. Gene: Ins2 insulin 2 Rattus norvegicus. General. Array IDs. Symbol: Ins2. Name: insulin 2. Description: ENCODES a protein that exhibits protease binding; protein complex binding; hormone activity ortholog ; INVOLVED IN activation of MAPK activity ort...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=2916
*  UCSC Genome Browser: User's Guide
You must have JavaScript enabled in your web browser to use the Genome Browser. Genome Data. The Genome Browser offers several ways to highlight gaps in alignments of query sequences usually transcripts to the genome. Gaps result from sequences in the genome or query or both that cannot be aligned. double horizontal line = : both the genome and query have unalignable sequence between regions of aligned sequence, a double-sided insertion. If this option is not selected, it will display as a single horizontal line. orange lines or purple lines : unalignable query sequence, orange for the middle of a sequence and purple for the beginning or end. green lines : poly-A tail or poly-T head that does not align to the genome. The priority of display, from most important to least important, is: different mRNA base/nonsynonymous codon coloring if enabled or. different item bases if enabled, unalignable query sequence orange or purple, an insertion in both genome and query double horizontal line, and a poly-A tail green....
http://genome.ucsc.edu/goldenPath/help/hgIndelDisplay.html
*  Genome Biology | Full text | DNA vaccination against autoimmune disease
genome biology full text dna vaccination against autoimmune disease genomebiology com article gb spotlight bottom top biomed central journals gateways search genome biology biomed central for go advanced search genome biology biomed central go home articles authors reviewers about this journal my genome biology top research news references genome biology volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf associated material article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar weitzman jb related articles pages on google on google scholar tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mendeley share this article tweet more options citeulike linkedin del icio us email...
http://genomebiology.com/2000/1/3/spotlight-20000922-01?fmt_view=mobile
*  Abcc9 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (CFTR/MRP), member 9) - Rat Genome Database
Description: ENCODES a protein that exhibits drug binding; identical protein binding; potassium channel activity; INVOLVED IN potassium ion import; response to drug; signal transduction; ASSOCIATED WITH abnormal vasodilation; ASSOCIATED WITH Hypertension; Parkinsonian Disorders; Tachycardia, Ventricular; FOUND IN ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex; mitochondrion; plasma membrane; INTERACTS WITH 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Latest Assembly: RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0. Position: Map Chr Position Strand Source RGSC Genome Assembly v6.0 4 176,806,098 - 176,928,540 - NCBI. NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v5.0 4 241,019,980 - 241,139,051 - NCBI. RGSC Genome Assembly v3.4 4 180,165,979 - 180,236,791 - NCBI. Rat Celera Assembly 4 164,064,977 - 164,186,502 - NCBI. Genome Assembly 3.1 15 33,877,146 - 33,883,992. NCBI. ISS RGD:735726 8554872 match by term: Cardiomyopathy, Dilated ClinVar PMID:20474083. glyburide decreases activity ISO RGD:11362 6480464 Glyburide results...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=3787
*  RGD Annotation Report for MAPK import into nucleus - Rat Genome Database
rgd annotation report for mapk import into nucleus rat genome database help ftp download citing rgd contact us keyword home data genome tools diseases phenotypes models custom rats pathways community curation web search rgd grant resources citing rgd about us contact us genes qtls strains markers maps ontologies sequences references ftp download submit data rat gbrowse vcmap variant visualizer gviewer acp haplotyper genome scanner genome conflicts ratmine diabetes cardiovascular neurological obesity metabolic syndrome cancer respiratory phenotypes strains models phenominer database molecular pathways physiological pathways nomenclature rat community forum rcf submit data object edit curation tools nomenclature score board pipeline logs phenominer view as list view as table gene term annotation report annotations found an association has been curated linking mapk and mapk import into nucleus in rattus norvegicus the association was inferred from direct assay ida the annotation was made from rosenblum k etal j ...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/annotation/main.html?term=GO:0000189&id=70500
*  Genome Biology | Abstract | Articles selected by Faculty of1000: bacterial ORFans: ORFs with no know
genome biology abstract articles selected by faculty of bacterial orfans orfs with no known homologs fluorescent marker of histone phosphorylation genome wide chromatin analysis protein macroarrays clinically relevant trichomonas variation genomebiology com article gb bottom top biomed central journals gateways search genome biology biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my genome biology genome biology volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf associated material article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar related articles pages on google on google scholar tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mendeley share this article tweet more options citeulike linkedin del icio us email...
http://genomebiology.com/2004/5/7/336/abstract
*  Genome Biology | Full text | Step-by-step account of HIV-1 infection
genome biology full text step by step account of hiv infection genomebiology com article gb spotlight bottom top biomed central journals gateways search genome biology biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my genome biology top research news references genome biology volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf associated material article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar toma t related articles pages on google on google scholar tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mendeley share this article tweet more options citeulike linkedin del icio us email...
http://genomebiology.com/2001/2/6/spotlight-20010620-03
*  Genome Biology | Full text | Bacterial insecticides
genome biology full text bacterial insecticides genomebiology com article gb spotlight bottom top biomed central journals gateways search genome biology biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my genome biology top research news references genome biology volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf associated material article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar holding c related articles pages on google on google scholar tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mendeley share this article tweet more options citeulike linkedin del icio us email...
http://genomebiology.com/2003/4/10/spotlight-20031006-02
*  Genome Biology | Full text | Diphtheria exposed during comeback
genome biology full text diphtheria exposed during comeback genomebiology com article gb spotlight bottom top biomed central journals gateways search genome biology biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my genome biology top research news references genome biology volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf associated material article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar holding c related articles pages on google on google scholar tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mendeley share this article tweet more options citeulike linkedin del icio us email...
http://genomebiology.com/2003/4/11/spotlight-20031107-01
*  Genome Biology | Abstract | Correction: Human fetal neuroblast and neuroblastoma transcriptome analy
genome biology abstract correction human fetal neuroblast and neuroblastoma transcriptome analysis confirms neuroblast origin and highlights neuroblastoma candidate genes genomebiology com article gb bottom top biomed central journals gateways search genome biology biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my genome biology genome biology volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf kb additional files associated material article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar de preter k vandesompele j heimann p yigit n beckman s schramm a eggert a stallings rl benoit y renard m de paepe a laureys g påhlman s speleman f related articles pages on google on google scholar tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mendeley share this article tweet more options citeulike linkedin del icio us email...
http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/1/401/abstract
*  RGD Annotation Report for GO:0009749 - Rat Genome Database
rgd annotation report for go rat genome database help ftp download citing rgd contact us keyword home data genome tools diseases phenotypes models custom rats pathways community curation web search rgd grant resources citing rgd about us contact us genes qtls strains markers maps ontologies sequences references ftp download submit data rat gbrowse vcmap variant visualizer gviewer acp haplotyper genome scanner genome conflicts ratmine diabetes cardiovascular neurological obesity metabolic syndrome cancer respiratory phenotypes strains models phenominer database molecular pathways physiological pathways nomenclature rat community forum rcf submit data object edit curation tools nomenclature score board pipeline logs phenominer view as list view as table go back to source page continue to ontology report contact us about us jobs at rgd bioinformatics program hmgc at the medical college of wisconsin rgd is funded by grant hl from the national heart lung and blood institute on behalf of the nih...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/annotation/main.html?term=GO:0009749&id=734345
*  Genome Biology | Abstract | Counting vertebrate microRNAs
genome biology abstract counting vertebrate micrornas genomebiology com article gb spotlight bottom top biomed central journals gateways search genome biology biomed central for go advanced search home articles authors reviewers about this journal my genome biology genome biology volume issue viewing options abstract full text pdf associated material article metrics open badges readers comments related literature cited by google blog search other articles by authors on google scholar weitzman jb related articles pages on google on google scholar tools download references download xml order reprints post a comment download to papers mendeley download to papers mendeley share this article tweet more options citeulike linkedin del icio us email...
http://genomebiology.com/2003/4/3/spotlight-20030310-01/abstract
*  RGD Annotation Report for CTD:0001234 - Rat Genome Database
rgd annotation report for ctd rat genome database help ftp download citing rgd contact us keyword home data genome tools diseases phenotypes models custom rats pathways community curation web search rgd grant resources citing rgd about us contact us genes qtls strains markers maps ontologies sequences references ftp download submit data rat gbrowse vcmap variant visualizer gviewer acp haplotyper genome scanner genome conflicts ratmine diabetes cardiovascular neurological obesity metabolic syndrome cancer respiratory phenotypes strains models phenominer database molecular pathways physiological pathways nomenclature rat community forum rcf submit data object edit curation tools nomenclature score board pipeline logs phenominer view as list view as table go back to source page continue to ontology report contact us about us jobs at rgd bioinformatics program hmgc at the medical college of wisconsin rgd is funded by grant hl from the national heart lung and blood institute on behalf of the nih...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/annotation/main.html?term=CTD:0001234&id=67378
*  Combo: a whole genome comparative browser. | Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Combo: a whole genome comparative browser. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Home. News & Publications:Scientific Publications Combo: a whole genome comparative browser. Recent Broad Publications A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with multiple sclerosis risk affects the EVI5 interactome. Read More / View Supplemental Materials An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental and transcriptional history. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Linking RNA...
http://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3634
*  People Who’ve Had Their Genomes Sequenced
People Who ve Had Their Genomes Sequenced. People Who ve Had Their Genomes Sequenced by Dr. Craig Venter James Watson Stephen Quake George Church Marjolein Kriek Hermann Hauser Han Chinese Seong-Jin Kim Korean AK1 Yoruban African NA18507 14 others sequenced by Complete Genomics Unknown number sequenced by Knome 6 genomes sequenced at high depth by the 1000 Genomes Project 180 genomes sequenced at low coverage by the 1000 Genomes Project Two acute myeloid leukemia patients Know any I’ve missed. Amazon.com Widgets RSS feed 8 Comments Comment by The DNAcowboy. Kim JI, Ju YS, Park H, Kim S, Lee S, Yi JH, Mudge J, Miller NA, Hong D, Bell CJ, Kim HS, Chung IS, Lee WC, Lee JS, Seo SH, Yun JY, Woo HN, Lee H, Suh D, Lee S, Kim HJ, Yavartanoo M, Kwak M, Zheng Y, Lee MK, Park H, Kim JY, Gokcumen O, Mills RE, Zaranek AW, Thakuria J, Wu X, Kim RW, Huntley JJ, Luo S, Schroth GP, Wu TD, Kim H, Yang KS, Park WY, Kim H, Church GM, Lee C, Kingsmore SF, Seo JS. Ahn SM, Kim TH, Lee S, Kim D, Ghang H, Kim DS, Kim BC, Kim SY, Kim ...
http://eyeondna.com/2009/09/21/people-whove-had-their-genomes-sequenced/
*  Institute for Integrative Genome Biology: Microscopy Core
... Institute for Integrative Genome Biology. Breadcrumbs UCR Home. Institute for Integrative Genome Biology. Microscopy Core. Campus Map. Microscopy Core Main Navigation Home Our People Faculty and Academics. How to Use the Core Facilities. Microscopy Core Location & Floorplan. Genomics Core Bioinformatics Core Proteomics Core Centers & Focus Areas. Educational and Career Development. Resources. The mission of the Institute for Integrative Genome Biology is to: Foster and support interdisciplinary collaborations among researchers on campus and in the scientific community utilizing a systems-based 1 approach to science Develop novel approaches and technologies to solve complex biological problems Train students and postdocs in interdisciplinary research Explore the translational development of potentially commercial technologies and projects. Microscopy Instruments. Keen Hall Microscopy Core, there are five confocal microscopes. Instrument Room Description. Pathway HT. High throughput automated confocal. Hig...
http://genomics.ucr.edu/facility/microscopy/instrument-list.html
*  RAT draft genome annotations fgenesh++
rat draft genome annotations fgenesh rat draft genome annotations fgenesh victor solovyev victor at softberry com fri jan est next message nd cfp workshop on learning graphical messages sorted by rat draft genome annotations fgenesh we re pleased to announce the release of fgenesh gene annotation on the nov rat assembly produced by the baylor college of medicine rat genome sequencing center and the rat genome sequencing consortium you can see get gene annoation at ucsc genome browser on rat nov freeze http genome ucsc edu cgi bin hggateway org rat or alternatively in genomeexplorer http www softberry com berry phtml topic ratexp fgenesh annotated genes includes genes supported by nr proteins among them genes correponding rat refseq mrna id and name of similar protein added after in name line of fasta files pro refseq corresponding proteins additionally marked nm fgenesh predictions are based on complex fully automatic script that mapped known refseq rna predict genes and refine predicted genes that have prote...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/genstruc/2003-January/000372.html
*  Genome Biology | Full text | How ubiquitin silences genes
Genome Biology. Full text. How ubiquitin silences genes. genomebiology.com/article/10.1186/gb/spotlight/20041109/01 Bottom,Top BioMed Central. Journals. Gateways. . 10.8 Search Genome Biology BioMed Central for. Go. Advanced search Home. Articles. Authors. Reviewers. About this journal. My Genome Biology. Top. Research news. References. Genome Biology Volume 5. Issue 11. Viewing options Abstract. Full text. PDF. Associated material Article metrics. Open Badges. Readers' comments. Related literature Cited by. Google blog search Other articles by authors on Google Scholar. Holding C. Related articles/pages on Google. on Google Scholar. Tools Download references. Download XML. Order reprints. Post a comment. Download to ... Papers. Mendeley. Download to ... Papers. Mendeley. Share this article. Tweet. More options... Citeulike. LinkedIn. Del.icio.us. Email. ....
http://genomebiology.com/2004/5/11/spotlight-20041109-01
*  CTD:0004487 - Ontology Search - Rat Genome Database
ctd ontology search rat genome database help ftp download citing rgd contact us keyword home data genome tools diseases phenotypes models custom rats pathways community curation web search rgd grant resources citing rgd about us contact us genes qtls strains markers maps ontologies sequences references ftp download submit data rat gbrowse vcmap variant visualizer gviewer acp haplotyper genome scanner genome conflicts ratmine diabetes cardiovascular neurological obesity metabolic syndrome cancer respiratory phenotypes strains models phenominer database molecular pathways physiological pathways nomenclature rat community forum rcf submit data object edit curation tools nomenclature score board pipelin...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/annot.html?acc_id=CTD:0004487
*  CTD:0005344 - Ontology Search - Rat Genome Database
ctd ontology search rat genome database help ftp download citing rgd contact us keyword home data genome tools diseases phenotypes models custom rats pathways community curation web search rgd grant resources citing rgd about us contact us genes qtls strains markers maps ontologies sequences references ftp download submit data rat gbrowse vcmap variant visualizer gviewer acp haplotyper genome scanner genome conflicts ratmine diabetes cardiovascular neurological obesity metabolic syndrome cancer respiratory phenotypes strains models phenominer database molecular pathways physiological pathways nomenclature rat community forum rcf submit data object edit curation tools nomenclature score board pipelin...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/annot.html?acc_id=CTD:0005344
*  CTD:0006042 - Ontology Search - Rat Genome Database
ctd ontology search rat genome database help ftp download citing rgd contact us keyword home data genome tools diseases phenotypes models custom rats pathways community curation web search rgd grant resources citing rgd about us contact us genes qtls strains markers maps ontologies sequences references ftp download submit data rat gbrowse vcmap variant visualizer gviewer acp haplotyper genome scanner genome conflicts ratmine diabetes cardiovascular neurological obesity metabolic syndrome cancer respiratory phenotypes strains models phenominer database molecular pathways physiological pathways nomenclature rat community forum rcf submit data object edit curation tools nomenclature score board pipeline logs phenominer ontology general search results you can tune up search now by modifying the list of search words above or you can use wildcard character if you don t know the exact name of the term like blo d no terms found contact us about us jobs at rgd bioinformatics program hmgc at the medical college of wisc...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/annot.html?acc_id=CTD:0006042
*  CTD:0006150 - Ontology Search - Rat Genome Database
ctd ontology search rat genome database help ftp download citing rgd contact us keyword home data genome tools diseases phenotypes models custom rats pathways community curation web search rgd grant resources citing rgd about us contact us genes qtls strains markers maps ontologies sequences references ftp download submit data rat gbrowse vcmap variant visualizer gviewer acp haplotyper genome scanner genome conflicts ratmine diabetes cardiovascular neurological obesity metabolic syndrome cancer respiratory phenotypes strains models phenominer database molecular pathways physiological pathways nomenclature rat community forum rcf submit data object edit curation tools nomenclature score board pipeline logs phenominer ontology general search results you can tune up search now by modifying the list of search words above or you can use wildcard character if you don t know the exact name of the term like blo d no terms found contact us about us jobs at rgd bioinformatics program hmgc at the medical college of wisc...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/annot.html?acc_id=CTD:0006150
*  Genome Medicine | Latest comments
Genome Medicine. My Genome Medicine. read full comment Comment on: Greninger et al. Genome Medicine, 7 :99. Translational bioinformatics in the cloud sara sota, 20 August 2015 There has been a little talk about cloud computing on Bioinformatics at the BackupMag. read full comment Comment on: Dudley et al. Genome Medicine, 2 :51. read full comment Comment on: Wiklund Genome Medicine, 2 :45. Confusion between false positives and read throughs in Table 2 Matt Zhaohui, 10 June 2015 Actually, the column "False Positives" from Table 2 shows which tools report read throughs i.e. Basically, in Table 2, the read throughs are counted as false positives even that in Table 1 they are not. read full comment Comment on: Davidson et al. Genome Medicine, 7 :43. read full comment Comment on: Robinette et al. Genome Medicine, 4 :30. read full comment Comment on: Knoppers et al. Genome Medicine, 3 :46. read full comment Comment on: Dudley et al. Genome Medicine, 2 :51. read full comment Comment on: Stephens et al. Genome Medici...
http://genomemedicine.com/latestcomments
*  SH3 domain binding - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Database
... ONTOLOGY REPORT - ANNOTATIONS Term: SH3 domain binding go back to main search page. Definition: Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a SH3 domain Src homology 3 of a protein, small protein modules containing approximately 50 amino acid residues found in a great variety of intracellular or membrane-associated proteins. SH3 domain binding. 9 67,048,998 67,098,841 RGD:1624291. G Abl1 ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase. 3 15,401,182 15,504,438 RGD:1624291. 6 58,515,986 58,531,100 RGD:1625292. G Adam10 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10. 8 75,842,118 75,974,564 RGD:1600115. 1 212,899,587 213,227,846 RGD:1600115 RGD:1624291. 2 208,071,874 208,082,531 RGD:1600115 RGD:1624291. 6 60,268,228 60,315,989 RGD:1600115. 16 71,459,144 71,536,608 RGD:1600115 RGD:1624291. 14 79,558,456 79,622,351 RGD:625602. 1 285,110,704 285,206,347 RGD:1600115 RGD:1624291. G Arhgap17 Rho GTPase activating protein 17. 1 200,297,800 200,387,169 RGD:1600115. G Arhgap27 Rho GTPase activating protein 27. 10 91,184,970...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/annot.html?acc_id=GO:0017124&species=Rat
*  .. Can we keep our genomes quiet? Some suggestions from the US .. Post navigation .. Rate this: ..
Whole Genome Sequencing. So for example if clinicians suspect a particular disease with a known genetic cause, such as Huntington’s disease, they can order a genetic test looking at one specific gene among the more than 20,000 genes in the human genome.  As more information about our genomes becomes available, variants that might be revealed by whole genome sequencing include:. specific known disease variants variants of unknown significance e.g., an unknown variant in the region that increases risk for heart disease nonmedical genetic traits, including hair and eye colour carrier status variants, including variants that do not cause disease in the individual but could be passed on, such as mutations for hemophilia or cystic fibrosis susceptibility genes, such as those that slightly increase susceptibility to diabetes, heart disease, or some cancers genes for conditions with late onset that will not affect an individual until much later in life, such as Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s WGS also dramati...
http://ukhumanrightsblog.com/2012/10/18/can-we-keep-our-genomes-quietsome-suggestions-from-the-us/?like=1&_wpnonce=d19428bcb3
*  .. Please Donate: My dream is to have my genome sequenced! .. Share this: .. Like this:
please donate my dream is to have my genome sequenced by dr bertalan meskã on september i know i m not a craig venter misha angrist or anybody else in the list of the subjects of the personal genome project pgp whose genomes will be sequenced and published but as i plan to pledge my life to personalized genetics i d love to know more about my genetic destiny so i ve created this chipin widget to try to make my dream come true and of course any donation would be welcome click here to see the progress according to the pgp or venter the genome is going to be reality somewhen in the next few years i believe it s not going to be so easy that s why some snps single nucleotide polymorphism of mine would be enough to know about i want to try to prevent some diseases i have elevated risk for e g proper diet in case i have elevated risk for obesity or diabetes and even i don t say i would make my genome public i would like to take part in constructing the future of personalized medicine like that if i can raise some mo...
http://scienceroll.com/2007/09/15/please-donate-my-dream-is-to-have-my-genome-sequenced/
*  Ensembl genome browser 82: Homo sapiens - Frequently Asked Questions - Help
ensembl genome browser homo sapiens frequently asked questions help human help search help topics frequently asked questions video tutorials glossary contact helpdesk faqs how do i get alignments of homologous proteins can i get the cds coding sequence alignments as well i m using the api how can i obtain the constrained elements i e the conserved sequences for multiple species can i get the conservation scores gerp scores for nucleotides in whole genome alignments if you have any other questions about ensembl please do not hesitate to contact our helpdesk you may also like to subscribe to the developers mailing list...
http://ensembl.org/Help/Faq?cat=compara_api
*  .. Support Me to Have My Genome Sequenced! .. Share this: .. Like this:
Support Me to Have My Genome Sequenced. by Dr. Bertalan Meskó on October 10, 2007. I’ve already written a post about it, but this time Attila told me about an even more useful service, Justgiving.com, where I try to promote my mission more efficiently. I know I’m not a Craig Venter, Misha Angrist or anybody else in the list of the 10 subjects of the Personal Genome Project PGP whose genomes will be sequenced and published, but as I plan to pledge my life to personalized genetics, I’d love to know more about my genetic destiny. So I’ve created this fundraising page to try to make my dream come true. According to the PGP or Venter, the 1000$ genome is going to be reality somewhen in the next few years. I believe it’s not going to be so easy, that’s why some SNPs Single nucleotide polymorphism of mine would be enough to know about. I want to try to prevent some diseases I have elevated risk for e.g. proper diet in case I have elevated risk for obesity or diabetes. And even I don’t say I would make m...
http://scienceroll.com/2007/10/10/support-me-to-have-my-genome-sequenced/
*  Bio-IT World
What had taken 13 years to produce for humans had taken just 13 months for the mouse. There are some glaring differences between the genomes of mouse and man: Mice have three fewer pairs of chromosomes and about 0.5 billion fewer bases of DNA than humans. Over the course of 75 million years of evolution since the last common ancestor, the mouse and human genomes have been shuffled such that there are 342 conserved sequence blocks between the species, with fewer than 300 chromosomal rearrangements required to produce the current human genome. At 96 percent, the published sequence of mouse strain C57/BL6 — available from the same three Web portals as the human sequence see Paper View, November 2002 Bio·IT World, page 56 — is far more complete than the human sequence was at its unveiling two years ago. Using the Ensembl gene prediction pipeline featuring GenWise and Genscan, the consortium estimates the mouse genome contains 22,011 genes, including about 40 percent predicted transcripts that are related to prote...
http://bio-itworld.com/archive/021003/paperview.html
*  Syngap1 (synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1) - Rat Genome Database
Name: synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1. Description: ENCODES a protein that exhibits GTPase activator activity; protein kinase binding; INVOLVED IN negative regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; positive regulation of GTPase activity; regulation of synaptic plasticity; PARTICIPATES IN calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase 2 signaling pathway; ASSOCIATED WITH Mental Retardation, Autosomal Dominant 5 ortholog ; FOUND IN postsynaptic density; synapse; dendritic shaft ortholog ; INTERACTS WITH ammonium chloride; bisphenol A; cadmium dichloride. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3511175 RGD MGI:MGI:3510474 PMID:15470153. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3511175 RGD MGI:MGI:3590468 PMID:15733080. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3580631 RGD MGI:MGI:3614311 PMID:16452659. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3576223 RGD MGI:MGI:3575363 PMID:12598599. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3576223 RGD MGI:MGI:3576792 PMID:15781580. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3580631 RGD MGI:MGI:3580530 PMID:12427827. ISO RGD:1617...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=621090
*  Syngap1 (synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1) - Rat Genome Database
Name: synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1. Description: ENCODES a protein that exhibits GTPase activator activity; protein kinase binding; INVOLVED IN negative regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; positive regulation of GTPase activity; regulation of synaptic plasticity; PARTICIPATES IN calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase 2 signaling pathway; ASSOCIATED WITH Mental Retardation, Autosomal Dominant 5 ortholog ; FOUND IN postsynaptic density; synapse; dendritic shaft ortholog ; INTERACTS WITH ammonium chloride; bisphenol A; cadmium dichloride. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3511175 RGD MGI:MGI:3510474 PMID:15470153. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3511175 RGD MGI:MGI:3590468 PMID:15733080. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3580631 RGD MGI:MGI:3614311 PMID:16452659. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3576223 RGD MGI:MGI:3575363 PMID:12598599. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3576223 RGD MGI:MGI:3576792 PMID:15781580. ISO RGD:1617329 1624291 MGI:MGI:3580631 RGD MGI:MGI:3580530 PMID:12427827. ISO RGD:1617...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=RGD:621090
*  GenProp0103
genprop genome properties jcvi home genome properties home tigrfams genome properties list top level genome properties search cmr genome properties genome property definition page accession genprop name percent s ser type calculated description the fraction of amino acids found in all of the called open reading frames of the genome which are serine expressed as a percentage parent property genprop amino acid abundance order parent properties accession name genprop amino acid abundance order sibling properties accession name genprop percent a ala genprop percent c cys genprop percent d asp genprop percent e glu genprop percent f phe genprop percent g gly genprop percent h his genprop percent i ile genprop percent k lys genprop percent l leu genprop percent m met genprop percent n asn genprop percent p pro genprop percent q gln genprop percent r arg genprop percent t thr genprop percent v val genprop percent w trp genprop percent y tyr genome properties home j craig venter institute privacy statement data discl...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/genome-properties/GenomePropDefinition.cgi?prop_acc=GenProp0103
*  GenProp0094
genprop genome properties jcvi home genome properties home tigrfams genome properties list top level genome properties search cmr genome properties genome property definition page accession genprop name percent h his type calculated description the fraction of amino acids found in all of the called open reading frames of the genome which are histidine expressed as a percentage parent property genprop amino acid abundance order parent properties accession name genprop amino acid abundance order sibling properties accession name genprop percent a ala genprop percent c cys genprop percent d asp genprop percent e glu genprop percent f phe genprop percent g gly genprop percent i ile genprop percent k lys genprop percent l leu genprop percent m met genprop percent n asn genprop percent p pro genprop percent q gln genprop percent r arg genprop percent s ser genprop percent t thr genprop percent v val genprop percent w trp genprop percent y tyr genome properties home j craig venter institute privacy statement data di...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/genome-properties/GenomePropDefinition.cgi?prop_acc=GenProp0094
*  This Machine Can Sequence a Genome in Just Two Days
......
http://gizmodo.com/5948891/this-machine-can-sequence-a-genome-in-just-two-days?tag=science
*  MetaRef: a pan-genomic database for comparative and community microbial genomics. | Broad Institute
MetaRef: a pan-genomic database for comparative and community microbial genomics. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Home. News & Publications:Scientific Publications MetaRef: a pan-genomic database for comparative and community microbial genomics. Recent Broad Publications A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with multiple sclerosis risk affects the EVI5 interactome. Read More / View Supplemental Materials An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental an...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad5341
*  100K Genome Project
... :'Not to be confused with the 100,000 Genomes Project run by Genomics England .' The '100K Pathogen Genome Project' was launched in July 2012 by Bart Weimer UC Davis as an academic, public, and private partnership. It aims to sequence the genomes of 100,000 infectious microorganisms to create a database of bacterial genome sequences for use in public health, outbreak detection, and bacterial pathogen detection. This will speed up the diagnosis of foodborne illness es and shorten infectious disease outbreaks. The 100K Pathogen Genome Project is a public-private collaborative project to sequence the genomes of 100,000 infectious microorganisms. The 100K Genome Project will provide a roadmap for developing tests to identify pathogens and trace their origins more quickly. Partners announced at the launch of the project were UC Davis, Agilent Technologies, and the US Food and Drug Administration, with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Department of Agriculture noted as collaborators...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100K_Genome_Project
*  Data download - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Mouse. Zebrafish. Talks training Data download As one of the largest sequencing centres in the world for more than 15 years, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute has produced more than 100 finished genomes. Please read our Data-sharing policy and Guidelines on the use of data in publications. Bacterial genomes The Institute produces many bacterial genome sequences: access information about these projects and search or download genome sequences more. Virus genomes Access to genomes of human and other animal viruses and bacterial viruses bacteriophages more. Protozoan genomes Our protozoan sequencing effort is concentrated on pathogens and model organisms. Access a list of all our current, past and forthcoming projects more. Disease vector genomes Data for genomes of organisms that transmit pathogens between hosts more. Plasmid genomes Access genome sequence information for plasmid genomes more. Fungal genomes Our fungal sequencing effort is concentrated on pathogens and model organisms. Access a list of pr...
http://sanger.ac.uk/resources/downloads/
*  JCVI: PanOCT: Automated Clustering of Orthologs Using Conserved Gene Neighborhood for Pan-genomic An
jcvi panoct automated clustering of orthologs using conserved gene neighborhood for pan genomic analysis of bacterial strains and closely related species home about research sustainable lab publications education giving press careers contact listing about publications citation fouts de brinkac l beck e inman j sutton g panoct automated clustering of orthologs using conserved gene neighborhood for pan genomic analysis of bacterial strains and closely related species nucleic acids research dec e external citation abstract pan genome ortholog clustering tool panoct is a tool for pan genomic analysis of closely related prokaryotic species or strains panoct uses conserved gene neighborhood information to separate recently diverged paralogs into orthologous clusters where homology only clustering methods cannot the results from panoct and three commonly used graph based ortholog finding programs were compared using a set of four publicly available strains of the same bacterial species all four methods agreed on of ...
http://jcvi.org/cms/publications/listing/abstract/article/panoct-automated-clustering-of-orthologs-using-conserved-gene-neighborhood-for-pan-genomic-analysis-1/
*  .. Baby’s genome sequenced before birth .. Post navigation
Baby’s genome sequenced before birth. From MIT Tech Review :. “An infant delivered last week in California appears to be the first healthy person ever born in the U.S. with his entire genetic makeup deciphered in advance. His father, Razib Khan, is a graduate student and professional blogger on genetics who says he worked out a rough draft of his son’s genome early this year in a do-it-yourself fashion after managing to obtain a tissue sample from the placenta.”. Post navigation. ← A vaccination to prevent heart attacks. ‘Bionic pancreas’ for diabetes patients passes test →....
http://soniaarrison.com/2014/06/13/babys-genome-sequenced-before-birth/
*  .. Tag Archives | chemicals .. Better Air at Home .. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic (2013)
Better Air at Home. chemicals, health, home The air inside your home can be much more heavily polluted than the air outside. Read full story •. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2013. chemicals, children, food, health, shopping When it comes to fruits and veggies, there are 4 things the Environmental Working Group EWG wants you to know. Read full story •. Read full story •. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2012. chemicals, children, food, health, shopping Try the 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic for 2013 instead. Read full story •. Read full story •. Comments { 1 }. Read full story •. Comments { 9 }. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2011. chemicals, children, food, health, shopping Try the 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic for 2013 instead. Therefore, it’s best for your health and your family’s to buy organic fruits and vegetables. Read full story •. Comments { 0 }. Red marks = BPA-free. Read full story •. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2010. chemicals, children, food, heal...
http://thisgreenblog.com/tag/chemicals
*  .. Tag Archives | pesticides .. Benefits of Native Gardens .. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organi
Read full story •. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2013. chemicals, children, food, health, shopping When it comes to fruits and veggies, there are 4 things the Environmental Working Group EWG wants you to know. Read full story •. Read full story •. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2012. chemicals, children, food, health, shopping Try the 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic for 2013 instead. Read full story •. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2011. chemicals, children, food, health, shopping Try the 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic for 2013 instead. Read full story •. chemicals, children, drinking water, green living, health, plastic Nowadays, raising healthy children requires more than keeping them safe from germs. Read full story •. Read full story •. Green Eating. chemicals, drinking water, food Local, seasonal, organic, unprocessed, etc. Read full story •. 12 Most Important Foods to Buy Organic 2010. chemicals, children, food, health, shopping Try the 12 Most Important Foods to...
http://thisgreenblog.com/tag/pesticides
*  IBM Research: White House highlights Materials Genome Initiative
... skip to main. skip to sidebar. 5.14.2012. White House highlights Materials Genome Initiative. Editor's note: this article is by David Turek, IBM's vice president of High Performance Computing Scalable Systems. Today, I am participating in a White House event highlighting the first results and next steps of the Materials Genome Initiative MGI, which President Obama announced almost one year ago. The name of this initiative is a riff on the Human Genome Project because it intends to marshal and organize significant scientific resources to gain a deep understanding of the structure and behavior of a vast array of materials. The goal is to help U.S. companies become more economically competitive by the application of discoveries in materials science to the development of new and improved products in a host of industries at a far greater speed and much lower cost than is currently possible. IBM is well aware of the challenges in advancing materials science. IBM Research started the Battery 500 Project in 2009...
http://ibmresearchnews.blogspot.co.uk/2012/05/white-house-highlights-materials-genome.html
*  Home
Dirk Inzé's research ambition is to decipher the complex molecular networks regulating plant organ growth and crop productivity. Under his directorship, the VIB, Department of Plant Systems Biology, currently employing 300 persons, became one of the world leading centers for advanced plant sciences. Scott Jackson H-index 31, WoS has an extensive experience in plant genome structure and evolution of legumes, especially soybean and common bean, but also rice. He is a head of world-class research team leading studies on plant genome evolution using advanced and complex cytogenetic, bioinformatic and epigenomic tools. He is an eminent professor involved in many scientific activities: coordinator of Genome planning session for all Legumes,membership and chairmanship of the International Soybean Sequencing Steering Committee, the International Peanut Genome Initiative, organiser of several international conferences. He is a head of world-class research team leading studies on plant genome evolution using advanced a...
http://igr.poznan.pl/en/home
*  Repetitive DNA in the Plant Genome
... Methods/techniques Methods/techniques home page. Pictures/Plates Journal editing Journal editing. Policy Research exploitation Novel crops GM crops Tropical crops Information/Publications Titles Heslop-Harrison. Repetitive DNA. Most plant and animal genomes consist largely of repetitive DNA - perhaps 30 sequence motifs, typically one to 10 000 nucleotides long, present many hundreds or thousands of times in the genome, which may be located at a few defined chromosomal sites or widely dispersed. The telomeric sequences, added at the ends of most plant and animal chromosomes, allow a linear replication unit to be maintained, protect chromosome ends and overcome the 'end replication problem'. As a result of their transcription into RNA, reverse transcription into DNA and integration into the genome, they have a dispersed distribution along chromosomes. Tandemly repeated sequences normally have characteristic chromosomal locations - sub-telomeric, intercalary or centromeric - with blocks of each motif presen...
http://le.ac.uk/biology/phh4/reptdna.htm
*  PTPN12 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12) - Rat Genome Database
Position: Map Chr Position Strand Source Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 7 77,537,456 - 77,640,071 + NCBI. Human Genome Assembly HuRef 7 71,768,818 - 71,871,494 + NCBI. Human Genome Assembly GRCh37 7 77,166,773 - 77,269,388 + NCBI. Human Celera Assembly 7 71,867,421 - 71,970,039 + NCBI. Human Genome Assembly Build 36 7 77,004,771 - 77,107,322 + NCBI. Human Genome Assembly 7 76,811,485 - 76,914,037. D20S1000 Map Chr Position Strand Source Human Alternate Assembly CRA TCAGchr7v2 7 76,602,288 - 76,602,396. PTPN12 1837 Map Chr Position Strand Source Human Alternate Assembly CRA TCAGchr7v2 7 76,601,606 - 76,602,231. PTPN12 Map Chr Position Strand Source Human Alternate Assembly CRA TCAGchr7v2 7 76,602,068 - 76,602,347. Nucleotide Sequences Nucleotide RefSeqs NG 008394 Get FASTA Search GEO for Microarray Profiles. GenBank Nucleotide AB209524 Get FASTA Search GEO for Microarray Profiles. Position: Map Chr Position Strand Source Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 7 77,537,456 - 77,640,071 + NCBI. Human Alternate Assembly CRA ...
http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/gene/main.html?id=1346224
*  Mapping the Human Reference Genome's Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes. | Br
Mapping the Human Reference Genome s Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. News & Publications:Scientific Publications Mapping the Human Reference Genome s Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes. Recent Broad Publications An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors from Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-lipid Raft Microdomains. Read More / View Supplemental Materials. Scientific Publications Back to Publications Mapping the Human Reference Genome s Missing Sequence by Three-Way A...
http://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad5200
*  Mapping the Human Reference Genome's Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes. | Br
Mapping the Human Reference Genome s Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. News & Publications:Scientific Publications Mapping the Human Reference Genome s Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes. Recent Broad Publications An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors from Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-lipid Raft Microdomains. Read More / View Supplemental Materials. Scientific Publications Back to Publications Mapping the Human Reference Genome s Missing Sequence by Three-Way A...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad5200
*  Cancer Genome Sequencing: Coordinated Effort Includes Data A... : Oncology Times
... Advertisement. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. Oncology Times Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Saved Searches. Recent Searches. You currently have no recent searches. Login. Register. eTOC. Help. Advanced Search. Home Currently selected. Online First. Meeting News. Blogs. Just In... Meeting News. FDA Actions Updates. 3 Questions on... Practice Matters. How Do I Treat.... Musings of a Cancer Doctor. Voices. Nursing News Views. NCORP Updates from Mike Thompson. VIEW ALL BLOGS. Collections. Breast Cancer. CML – Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. Lung Cancer. Multiple Myeloma. Prostate Cancer. Thyroid Cancer. VIEW ALL COLLECTIONS. Archives. Issue Archive. E-newsletter Archive. Info Services. About the Publication. Editorial Board. Editorial Calendar. Subscription Services. OT e...
http://journals.lww.com/oncology-times/Fulltext/2010/10250/Cancer_Genome_Sequencing__Coordinated_Effort.6.aspx
*  Human genome
... The 'human genome' is the complete set of nucleic acid sequence for humans ' Homo sapiens ', encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. Human genome s include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA. Haploid human genomes, which are contained in germ cells the egg and sperm gamete cells created in the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction before fertilization creates a zygote consist of three billion DNA base pair s, while diploid genomes found in somatic cells have twice the DNA content. 3 The Human Genome Project produced the first complete sequences of individual human genomes, with the first draft sequence and initial analysis being published on February 12, 2001. 6 Molecular organization and gene content Completeness of the human genome sequence. noncoding DNA Mutation Rate of Human Genome Coding sequences protein-coding genes Noncoding DNA ncDNA Pseudogenes. Genes for noncoding RNA ncRNA. Genomic variation in...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genome
*  Annotated 20000 Promoters in Human Genome in Genome Explorer
... webmaster webmaster at softberry.com. Previous message: =?windows-1252?Q?IBC=27s Chips to Hits=AE 2001?= Next message: Mendel's lost paper Messages sorted by:. Annotated 20000 Promoters in Human Genome in Genome Explorer Promoters predicted in December draft of human genome are presented in Genome Explorer along with known and predicted genes: http://softberry.com/genomd/chrvis.html Right mouse click on a promoter in Genome Explorer reveals promoter sequence, presented in two blocks for TATA+ promoters and in one block for TATA-less promoters. First block of TATA+ promoter is TATA-box, and the second is a stretch from predicted transcription start site TSS to known 5'-end of mRNA or translation start site. Promoters were predicted by Softberry promoter prediction program TSSW in regions up to 3000 from known starts of coding regions ATG codon or known mapped 5'-mRNA ends. For 20 experimentally verified promoters on Chromosome 22, TSSW predicted 15, placed 12 of them within -150,+150 region from true TSS ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/bioforum/2001-July/032154.html
*  Genomics|Resources|Books|HuGE 2010|Chapter 4
Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options. Public Health Genomics. Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base. Chapter 4 - Navigating the evolving knowledge of human genetic variation in health and disease Marta Gwinn and Wei Yu. During the past several years, the Human Genome Epidemiology Network HuGENet™ has laid out a process for knowledge synthesis and evaluation in human genome epidemiology. HuGE Navigator Since 2001, HuGENet has maintained an online knowledge base in human genome epidemiology known as HuGE Navigator. Human genome epidemiology accounts for only a small fraction of the published scientific literature in human genetics or genomics. In 2001, about 2,500 5% of nearly 50,000 PubMed citations on human genetics or genomics were included in the HuGE Navigator database. In 2007, PubMed added more than 67,000 new articles on human genetics or genomics and more than 5,000 8% met HuGE Navigator inclus...
http://cdc.gov/genomics/resources/books/2010_HuGE/chap04.htm
*  GNN’S NEWS BY TOPIC - Human Genome
gnn s news by topic human genome home about topics show all topics see also genes and genomes what s a genome human genome show per page fewer genes in finished human genome sequence oct mouse study says down syndrome is genetically complex oct the human genome sequence measures up aug large scale differences discovered in dna of healthy people aug strong boy could benefit research on muscular dystrophy jun celera human genome sequence will be public feb spotting the fakes human pseudogenes jan new database provides quick window into protein protein interaction oct mammals have more than genes in common oct unusual mutation leads to extra immune genes oct dna melting map finding rare mutations for common diseases may junk dna creates novel proteins may a thousand new human genes feb pufferfish...
http://genomenewsnetwork.org/categories/index/genome/humangenome.php
*  BBC NEWS | In Depth | Human genome | Will the developing world benefit?
BBC NEWS. Human genome. Will the developing world benefit. Human genome. Middle East. Science/Nature. Health. Talking Point. Country Profiles. Will the developing world benefit. Select and protect However, one area where more knowledge of the human genome can benefit the developing world is in understanding why some individuals and populations are more or less susceptible to particular infectious diseases and more or less well protected by vaccines. Long-term benefit In the long term, the deeper understanding of human health and disease resulting from human genome data will certainly benefit people everywhere on Earth. And if rich countries focus on using the human genome to produce prohibitively expensive drugs designed to meet western ailments then the existing health gap between rich and poor will widen. The code published Reading book of life The genome and you Rights and wrongs. Analysis Genome moneyspinner How code was cracked Help for developing world. From DNA to a human Decoding DNA Race for the geno...
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/sci_tech/2000/human_genome/763972.stm
*  Department of Energy - Chromosomes News Release 4/13/2000
Researchers Decode Three Human Chromosomes Information May Lead to Treatments for Kidney Disease, Diabetes and Prostate and Colorectal Cancer U.S. The chromosomes contain an estimated 10-15,000 genes, including those whose defects may lead to genetically linked diseases such as certain forms of kidney disease, prostate and colorectal cancer, leukemia, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The three chromosomes sequenced by Department of Energy researchers contain more than 300 million base pairs, or an estimated 11 percent of the total human genome. Chromosome 5 contains an estimated 194 million bases, or about 6 percent of the human genome. Chromosome 16 contains about 98 million bases, or about 3 percent of the human genome. Chromosome 19 contains 60 million bases, or about 2 percent of the human genome. Three of the department s national laboratories operate the institute as a consortium: the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley Calif., the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Liver...
http://osti.gov/accomplishments/Genomepr00104.htm
*  .. Human Genome Sciences dissed: Lupus drug disappoints Wall Street .. Human Genome Sciences and Be
Human Genome Sciences dissed: Lupus drug disappoints Wall Street. Wednesday, August 14th, 2013 BY bryanh. Benlysta gives hope to people with Lupus, such as Lada Gaga, but Wall Street isn't so impressed with the drug's profit potential. Image: Wikimedia Commons. Human Genome Sciences has been developing a drug called Benlysta for the treatment of Lupus, a painful, deadly disease. Benlysta has been in trials conducted by the Food and Drug Administration to determine whether the drug is safe and effective. Benlysta has given people with Lupus hope, and the FDA appears to be on the verge of approving the drug. However, Wall Street downgraded Human Genome Sciences’ stock because people with Lupus won’t be charged as much for Benlysta treatment as investors had hoped. Human Genome Sciences and Benlysta. Human Genome Sciences stock was downgraded Wednesday because sales revenue for Benlysta may not be as lucrative as they had once assumed. MarketWatch reports that analysts at Citigroup and Bank of America cut their ...
http://personalmoneystore.com/moneyblog/human-genome-sciences/
*  Sanger Institute - Publications 2001 - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... The physical maps for sequencing human chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20 and X. The Sanger Centre, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. Nature 2001 ; 409 ; 6822 ; 942-3. PUBMED: 11237015 ; DOI: 10.1038/35057165. The European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. @ b .ac. Now that the draft human genome sequence is available, everyone wants to be able to use it. Nature 2001 ; 409 ; 6822 ; 827-8. PUBMED: 11236999 ; PMC: 2658632 ; DOI: 10.1038/35057004. Nature genetics 2001 ; 29 ; 2 ; 133-4. PUBMED: 11586294 ; DOI: 10.1038/ng1001-133. We have placed 7,600 cytogenetically defined landmarks on the draft sequence of the human genome to help with the characterization of genes altered by gross chromosomal aberrations that cause human disease. Nature 2001 ; 409 ; 6822 ; 953-8. PUBMED: 11237021 ; DOI: 10.1038/35057192. Nature genetics 2001 ; 29 ; 1 ; 78-82. PUBMED: 11528397 ; DOI: 10.1038/ng715. Nature 2001 ; 409 ; 6823 ; 1007-11. PUBMED: 11234002 ; DOI: 10.1038/35059006. The Sanger Centre, We...
http://sanger.ac.uk/research/publications/2001.html
*  Function of 80% of the human genome charted - Slashdot
... Slashdot. Search Slashdot. Facebook. Become a fan of Slashdot on Facebook. Password:. Public Terminal Forgot your password. Close. binspam dupe notthebest offtopic slownewsday stale stupid fresh funny insightful interesting maybe offtopic flamebait troll redundant overrated insightful interesting informative funny underrated descriptive typo dupe error. Function of 80% of the human genome charted -. ananyo writes: "In what is likely to be a historic moment in science, ENCODE, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, has published 30 papers in Nature, Genome Research and Genome Biology today, assigning some sort of function to roughly 80% of the genome, including more than 70,000 promoter regions the sites, just upstream of genes, where proteins bind to control gene expression and nearly 400,000 enhancer regions that regulate expression of distant genes. The project was designed to pick up where the Human Genome Project left off. Researchers could identify in its 3 billion letters many of the regions that code f...
http://linux.slashdot.org/submission/2244043/function-of-80-of-the-human-genome-charted
*  Sandwalk: Washington Post: "‘Junk DNA’ concept debunked by new analysis of human genome"
Sandwalk: Washington Post: " Junk DNA concept debunked by new analysis of human genome". Sandwalk. Strolling with a skeptical biochemist. Sunday, September 09, 2012. Washington Post: " Junk DNA concept debunked by new analysis of human genome". The Washington Post is a highly respected newspaper read by millions. It is very influential, especially among politicians in Washington. Here's what David Brown and Hristio Boytchev published a few days ago: Junk DNA concept debunked by new analysis of human genome. Most of a person s genetic risk for common diseases such as diabetes, asthma and hardening of the arteries appears to lie in the shadowy part of the human genome once disparaged as junk DNA. Indeed, the vast majority of human DNA seems to be involved in maintaining individuals well being a view radically at odds with what biologists have thought for the past three decades. Those are among the key insights of a nine-year project to study the 97 percent of the human genome that s not, strictly speaking, made...
http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2012/09/washington-post-junk-dna-concept.html?showComment=1356741162613
*  Analysis Of Human Genome To Predict The Development Of Illnesses -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Analysis Of Human Genome To Predict The Development Of Illnesses. Date: April 6, 2005 Source: Elhuyar Fundazioa Summary: The GARBAN project, drawn up by Navarre University, will enable the identification of therapeutic targets for cancer, depression and hepatitis. "Analysis Of Human Genome To Predict The Development Of Illnesses." ScienceDaily. Analysis Of Human Genome To Predict The Development Of Illnesses. "Analysis Of Human Genome To Predict The Development Of Illnesses." ScienceDaily. RELATED TOPICS. Health Medicine. Medical Topics Diseases and Conditions Human Biology Computers Math. Hepatitis E Hepatitis A Postpartum depression Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Clinical depression. Computers Math News October 5, 2015. read more. read more. What Types of Video Games Improve Brain Function. read more. read more. read more. read more. read more. Fake Video Views by Bots Abound How Online E-Cigarette Vendors Engage Customers What Video Games Improve Brain Function. Your...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/03/050328180009.htm
*  The $4400 Genome
News http://news.sciencemag.org Home The $4400 Genome. Complete Genomics Bargain. A new apprach promises cheaper genome sequencing. Article Title: The $4400 Genome. Tweet. Complete Genomics, a Mountain View, California-based biotechnology company last year claimed it would soon be able to sell full human genome sequences for as little as $5000 apiece. that it sequenced three human genomes for about $4400 each, at least in the cost of reagents. In 2003, the cost of sequencing a human genome was an estimated $300 million. Researchers at Complete Genomics say they owe their success both to speed and low use of reagents. The sequencing technology works by first chopping the genome into single-stranded DNA fragments and combining them with snippets of known synthetic DNA so that they form small circles of about 400 bases. These "DNA nanoballs" are then washed over a slide patterned with sticky spots designed to hold a single ball at each spot. The company uses a modified version of a conventional sequencing techno...
http://news.sciencemag.org/print/scientific-community/2009/11/4400-genome
*  Investigating the Human Genome: Insights into Human Variation and Disease Susceptibility | FT Press
Investigating the Human Genome: Insights into Human Variation and Disease Susceptibility. FT Press. Home. Store View Larger Image. Add To My Wish List. . Share. Share on twitter . Share on facebook . Share on google . Share on email ✉. Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon. Investigating the Human Genome: Insights into Human Variation and Disease Susceptibility By Moyra Smith. Published Jun 9, 2011 by FT Press. Part of the FT Press Science series. Best Value Purchase Book + eBook Bundle Your Price: $57.49 List Price: $99.98 Includes EPUB, MOBI, and PDF. About eBook Formats. This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase: EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices. MOBI The eBook format compatible with the Amazon Kindle and Amazon Kindle applications. PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Adobe Reader software. This eBoo...
http://ftpress.com/store/investigating-the-human-genome-insights-into-human-9780132168144
*  Researchers decode 1st genetic map of a Korean-INSIDE Korea JoongAng Daily
... MSN. dictionary. Researchers decode 1st genetic map of a Korean. Researchers have succeeded in decoding the first genome sequence of a Korean. A joint team from the state-run Korean Bioinformation Center, of Kobic, and Gachon University of Medicine and Science has deciphered the whole personal genome of Kim Seong-jin, a researcher at the institute specializing in cancer and diabetes, it was announced yesterday. With the achievement, Korea becomes the fourth country to succeed in deciphering a human genome, while Kim becomes the fifth person to share his genetic sequence for scientific use. Korean researchers embarked on the project in April 2007 with a 250 million won $169,262 budget. “It is very meaningful that Korea has its own genome sequence map because we’ve been using a reference genome,” said Bhak Jong-hwa, head of Kobic, in a release. With a genome map, an individual can glimpse his genetic disposition, revealing vulnerability to diabetes, cancer and other chronic diseases. Many countries have be...
http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=2898208
*  Power Systems 2010 Comprehensive Catalog A01
... This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book. This content requires Javascript to be enabled, and the Macromedia Flash Player version 8 or later to be installed. Get Flash. SLIDE BOARDS A B. Premium Slide Board. Slide Length Training Level 6' Beginner 8' Intermediate 10' Intermediate to Advanced C. Pro Slide Board. A Ultra Slide. Board Ultra Slide. Board Pro Fitter. Akrowheels A. Our longest slide board. Durable. solid base with nonslip backing provides Achieve better balance, strength, coordination, and overall agility. The A. Twist and roll to target dif f erent muscles. Akrowheels support for the one.numerator eight.denominator sliding surface. Length adjusts from 7' to 10' in 1' increments. Angled side-to-side movement of this unique arc-shaped platform provides help to strengthen the core and tone and stretch the deceleration ramps of premium hardwood maple provide contacts for user to change tremendous functional and core training benef i ts. Build dynamic upper body and abs. Suited for mos...
http://content.yudu.com/Library/A1n43x/PowerSystems2010Comp/resources/56.htm
*  Human Genome Sciences
... |name = Human Genome Sciences |logo = Image:HGSI logo.gif |type = Subsidiary |slogan = |foundation = 1992 |location = Rockville, Maryland, U.S. Belimumab is being developed with GlaxoSmithKline, HGS Press Release, 2005 Abthrax raxibacumab for anthrax disease is the subject of a contract with the US Government under Project BioShield. Belimumab and raxibacumab were created as a result of a technology licensing deal signed with Cambridge Antibody Technology signed in 1999. http://www.hgsi.com/technology-collaborations.html http://www.hgsi.com/belimumab.html http://www.hgsi.com/raxibacumab-2.html. On April 19, 2012, GlaxoSmithKline GSK made a takeover bid for HGS, offering $13.00 per share. http://www.pmlive.com/pharma news/human genome sciences rejects gsk $2.59bn takeover bid 399559 The HGS board "...in consultation with independent financial and legal advisors, has carefully reviewed and considered the GSK offer and has determined that the offer does not reflect the value inherent in HGS." http://www.hgs...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Genome_Sciences
*  Integrated HIV Successfully Cut Out of Human Genome - Slashdot
... Slashdot. Stories. Firehose. All. Popular. Polls. Video. Jobs. Deals Submit. Search Slashdot. Login. or. Sign up. Topics:. Devices. Build. Entertainment. Technology. Open Source. Science. YRO. Follow us:. RSS. Facebook. Google+. Twitter. Newsletter. Slashdot is powered by your submissions, so send in your scoop. Nickname:. Password:. Public Terminal Forgot your password. Close. binspam dupe notthebest offtopic slownewsday stale stupid fresh funny insightful interesting maybe offtopic flamebait troll redundant overrated insightful interesting informative funny underrated descriptive typo dupe error. 208957 story. Integrated HIV Successfully Cut Out of Human Genome. 185 Posted by Zonk on Friday June 29, 2007 @08:43AM from the a-little-hunter-killer-nanotech-goes-a-long-way dept. Chris writes "German scientists have succeeded in snipping HIV out of human cells after it has integrated itself into a patient's DNA. The procedure is a breakthrough in bio-technology and fuels hope of a cure for AIDS. The group i...
http://science.slashdot.org/story/07/06/29/1222231/integrated-hiv-successfully-cut-out-of-human-genome?sdsrc=prevbtmprev
*  Complete Genomics produces a cheap—well, $5,000—human genome | Ars Technica
Complete Genomics produces a cheap well, $5,000 human genome. Ars Technica. . Ars Technica Ars Technica. Ars Technica UK. Register Log in Home. Main Menu. Information Technology Technology Lab. Product News Reviews Gear Gadgets. Business of Technology Ministry of Innovation. Security Hacktivism Risk Assessment. Civilization Discontents Law Disorder. The Apple Ecosystem Infinite Loop. Gaming Entertainment Opposable Thumbs. Science Exploration The Scientific Method. All Things Automotive Cars Technica. Layout:. Grid View. Article View. Unified View. Site Theme Dark on light. Light on dark. Explore Ars Reviews. Video. Staff Blogs. Feature Archive. Staff Directory. Contact Us. My Stories: 0. New Since Last Visit See more news stories. We Recommend My Discussions Log in to track your discussions. Forums. Subscribe. Jobs. Scientific Method / Science Exploration Complete Genomics produces a cheap well, $5,000 human genome A startup company has devised a ligase-based sequencing method that only burns by John Timmer -...
http://arstechnica.com/science/2009/11/complete-genomics-produces-a-cheapwell-5000human-genome/?comments=1&post=396945
*  .. Personalized Genetics: Crystal Ball? .. Share this: .. Like this:
personalized genetics crystal ball by dr bertalan meskã on may the world of personalized medicine must be much more than a crystal ball here are some new articles about the steps that have to be made and some aspects that might help us workman s compensation stereotypes and gattaca the gene sherpa i think this is the best post steve murphy has ever written young person goes to andme navigenics etc they just may add this immediately gets predictive testing indicating that he is at a fold increased risk of herniating a disc in his back avoids manual labor plays video games all day never herniates the disc did we do society a service some would argue yes i say no genomic medicine an educational resource from helix health highlight health a good definition from walter jessen a four part series about personal genomics at condã nast portfolio are genetic tests really useful the genetic genealogist it s not as bloody as you think helping the desert bedouins with genetic testing jeffrey dach very soon the cost for ro...
http://scienceroll.com/2008/05/25/personalized-genetics-crystal-ball/?like=1&_wpnonce=81a70c627a
*  .. The Genome of Craig Venter .. Share this: .. Like this:
the genome of craig venter by dr bertalan meskã on september yes it was published today at plos biology the diploid genome sequence of an individual human we have generated an independently assembled diploid human genomic dna sequence from both chromosomes of a single individual j craig venter comparison with previous reference human genome sequences which were composites comprising multiple humans revealed that the majority of genomic alterations are the well studied class of variants based on single nucleotides snps the existence of a well characterized diploid human genome sequence provides a starting point for future individual genome comparisons and enables the emerging era of individualized genomic information he carries a gene variant linked to moist ear wax production genes linked to both heart disease sorl â and longevity genes linked to alzheimer s apoe macular degeneration high cholesterol carries up to seven gene types linked to tobacco addiction â we don t need to fear our genetic codes â he said...
http://scienceroll.com/2007/09/04/the-genome-of-craig-venter/?like=1&_wpnonce=13170383b7
*  dna - Altering the human genome - Biology Stack Exchange
... Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. Altering the human genome. Is it even theoretically possible to alter human genetics using only an injected substance. heart problems, cancers, high blood pressure, strokes, etc, is it possible to modify human DNA to create these issues in a living person. dna genetics human-genome splicing share. improve this question. add a comment. 2 Answers 2 active oldest votes. To answer specifically to your questions Is it even theoretically possible to alter human genetics using only an injected substance. The immune system would not necessarily kill cells with mutations. heart problems, cancers, high blood pressure, strokes, etc, is it possible to modify human DNA to create these issues in a living person. improve this answer. answered Apr 12 '12 at 16...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/1773/altering-the-human-genome/1775
*  FAIRE-Seq
faire seq faire seq faire seq formaldehyde assisted isolation of regulatory elements is a method in molecular biology used for determining the sequences of those dna regions in the genome associated with regulatory activity the technique was developed in the laboratory of jason d lieb at the university of north carolina chapel hill in contrast to dnase seq the faire seq protocol doesn t require the permeabilization of cells or isolation of nuclei and can analyse any cell types in a study of seven diverse human cell types dnase seq and faire seq produced strong cross validation with each cell type having of the human genome as open chromatin the protocol is based on the fact that the formaldehyde cross linking is more efficient in nucleosome bound dna than it is in nucleosome depleted regions of the genome this method then segregates the non cross linked dna that is usually found in open chromatin which is then sequenced the protocol consists of cross linking phenol extraction and sequencing the dna in aqueous...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FAIRE-Seq
*  .. Broad Institute Taps Complete Genomics to Further Cancer Biomarker Research ..
send to printer gen news highlights mar broad institute taps complete genomics to further cancer biomarker research complete genomics will conduct complete human genome sequencing pilot studies of glioblastoma and melanoma for the broad institute the company will sequence five genomes from samples provided by the institute the first genome sequenced will be a test case that has already been studied extensively by the scientific community the other four genomes are tumor and matched pair normals one pair will be used to study glioblastoma and the other melanoma genetic engineering biotechnology news all rights reserved...
http://genengnews.com/keywordsandtools/print/4/9546/
*  The Broad Institute Joins the Illumina Inc Genome Network
... employer login post jobs job seeker login sign up home news jobs career resources hotbeds career fairs events company profiles investors search life sciences jobs search job title only radius miles km news news by subject news by disease news by date search news get our free industry enewsletter email the broad institute joins the illumina inc ilmn genome network tweet am san diego business wire illumina inc nasdaq ilmn today announced that the broad institute has joined the illumina genome network ign to offer its proprietary sample preparation processes for whole human genome sequencing the broad s pioneering approach enables high quality sequencing of challenging low input dna...
http://biospace.com/News/the-broad-institute-joins-the-illumina-inc-genome/249689
*  GEN News Highlights Related To | GEN
Transitioning from Traditional Assay Formats to HTRF Technology. The Pons Asinorum of Diagnostic Genomics. Wound Care Pipelines Expand with Bioactive Market. Jobs Report: Data, Business, and Regulatory Savvy Driving New Hiring. Transitioning from Traditional Assay Formats to HTRF Technology. The Pons Asinorum of Diagnostic Genomics. Wound Care Pipelines Expand with Bioactive Market. Jobs Report: Data, Business, and Regulatory Savvy Driving New Hiring. GEN News Highlights Related to New Molecular Test Predicts Lung Cancer Mortality Biofilms Linked with Colon Cancer on the Right, but Not the Left OncoGenex Regains Custirsen Rights, as Teva Collaboration Ends Roche Taking Majority Stake in Foundation Medicine Genetic Mutations in Asthma Come into Question Poor Stitching in Patchwork DNA May Explain Mutational Wrinkles Ultra-Fast Software Developed to Scan the Human Genome Exact Sciences, Mayo Clinic Expand Diagnostic Collaboration Gold Nanotubes Show Promise for Diagnosing and Treating Cancer Pancreatic Cancer H...
http://genengnews.com/more/related/gen-news-highlights/4/28899/?page=5
*  .. Post navigation .. Posted by webadmin
lupus has proved effective in a large clinical trial, which could pave the way for approval of the first new treatment for the disease in more than 40 years. In recent years, many other companies have tried but failed to bring a lupus treatment to market. Shares of the drug’s developer, Human Genome Sciences, were up more than 220 percent on Monday on the success of the trial. In the Human Genome Sciences study, a Phase 3 trial, 57.6 percent of patients on the higher dose of Benlysta and 51.7 percent of those on a lower dose had a meaningful improvement in their symptoms after one year. That compared with 43.6 percent of those taking a placebo. The Lupus Foundation of America estimates that 1.5 million Americans have some form of lupus. Among the companies that have had setbacks or outright failures in clinical trials are Roche and. Human Genome Sciences, in consultation with the. Food and Drug Administration, restricted the Phase 3 trials to a subset of patients who seemed to respond better to the drug in ...
http://pemphigus.org/trial-for-new-lupus-treatment-is-called-promising/
*  Why are scientists afraid of god?
Why are scientists afraid of god. Why are scientists afraid of god. Author Topic: Why are scientists afraid of god. Posts: 2397 Darwins +95/-11 Gender:. Re: Why are scientists afraid of god. Reply #58 on: November 19, 2013, 04:14:15 PM. Quote from: skeptic54768 on November 16, 2013, 07:35:48 PM. Logged Quote from: Voter on March 21, 2011, 05:32:05 PM. Posts: 6448 Darwins +806/-24 Gender:. WWGHA Member. Re: Why are scientists afraid of god. Reply #59 on: November 19, 2013, 04:51:48 PM. Posts: 1701 Darwins +138/-2 Gender:. Re: Why are scientists afraid of god. Reply #60 on: November 20, 2013, 02:09:55 AM. Posts: 3956 Darwins +266/-8 Gender:. Re: Why are scientists afraid of god. Reply #61 on: December 04, 2013, 01:21:03 PM. Quote from: skeptic54768 on November 16, 2013, 07:14:02 PM. Posts: 710 Darwins +108/-4 Gender:. Re: Why are scientists afraid of god. Reply #62 on: December 04, 2013, 06:57:47 PM. Here is my own take/perspective on the question Why are scientists afraid of god. As Mod I have removed 2 posts ...
http://whywontgodhealamputees.com/forums/index.php/topic,25342.msg584453.html
*  Human Biology, Introduction to1
human biology introduction to human biology introduction to sci description explanation of the basic principles of medically oriented human biology the course investigates basic biology cell biology and biochemistry as they pertain to human body systems and diseases such as aids cancer and cardiovascular disease as well as other selected topics current research topics are also discussed laboratory sessions are designed to reinforce by a hands on approach the principles discussed in lecture course includes two laboratory hours per week prerequisite none credits currently offered course days time dates instructor seats fall sci tfw am pm seiler register sci tfw pm pm seiler register sci mw pm pm eisenhardt register spring sci mthw am pm abramson register sci tth pm pm staff register sci tbaw tba pm seiler register champlain edu contact champlain maps and directions news events library jobs privacy legal site map...
http://classlist.champlain.edu/course/description/number/sci_115
*  Family Tree DNA - Group General Fund Contribution
... Group General Fund Contribution If you would like to make a contribution to your Surname Project General Fund, there are two ways to do it: by Credit Card or PayPal by Mail. Once Family Tree DNA receives the money, it will be allocated to the surname project of your choice, and the Group Administrator of the project will see it in his Group Administrator's Page. H AND HV MTDNA HG H SUBCLADE DISCOVERY H1 MTGENOME H10 MTGENOME H10E1A H11 MTGENOME H12 MTGENOME H13 MTDNA HAPLOGROUP H14 MTGENOME H15 MTGENOME H16 MTGENOME H17 MTGENOME H18 H1AG AND SUBCLADES H2 MTGENOME H28 MTDNA H2A2B AND SUBCLADES H3 MTGENOME H4 MTGENOME H5 MTGENOME H6 MTGENOME H6A1A WITH 10936T H6A1AW10936T H7 MTGENOME H8 MTGENOME H9 MTGENOME HAAKANA HAAS HABER HABERSTROH HABSBURG HACKER HACKETT HACKETT MANGAN HACKWORTH HADAWAY HADLEY HADLEY-DAY FF HADLEY-ULTZ FF HADLOCK HAESEN HAFEN HAFF HAGAMAN HAGAN S /HAGIN/HAGEN HAGGER HAGGERSTONE HAGGERTY/HEGARTY HAGITBARIS HAGUE HAGY - HEGI HAHN HAIDER HAINS HAIRE HAIRSTON HAJD H KKINEN HALDANE HALDEM...
https://familytreedna.com/group-general-fund-contribution.aspx?g=HungarianBukovina
*  Biology-Online • View topic - strand biases in mitochondrial genomes
Biology-Online View topic - strand biases in mitochondrial genomes. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Biology-Online. General Biology. strand biases in mitochondrial genomes. Reply with quote. strand biases in mitochondrial genomes by smack. Mon Jun 27, 2011 1:07 pm Hi, i have a research in bioinformatics and i need your help in some questions i want to know what's useful in studying strand biases in mitochondrial genomes?. Garter Posts: 3 Joined: Mon Jun 27, 2011 12:50 pm. Reply with quote. Inland Taipan Posts: 5694 Joined: Mon Sep 14, 2009 7:12 pm. Reply with quote. Re: strand biases in mitochondrial genomes by smack. Mon Jun 27, 2011 10:49 pm thnx for your reply, but is there any other ideas?. Garter Posts: 3 Joined: Mon Jun 27, 2011 12:50 pm. Reply with quote. Wed Sep 21, 2011 11:51 am The asymmetric strand biases in the genomes including mitochondrial directly impact the nucleotide composition of the genes, thus leading to different amino acid composition of the encoded proteins. As I understand you c...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-132500.html

List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesGlobal microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.NADH-QDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.PlasmoDB: PlasmoDB is a biological database for the genus Plasmodium. The database is a member of the EuPathDB project.Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Chromosome regionsOpen reading frame: In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the potential to code for a protein or peptide. An ORF is a continuous stretch of codons that do not contain a stop codon (usually UAA, UAG or UGA).CS-BLASTCancer Genome Project: The Cancer Genome Project, based at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, aims to identify sequence variants/mutations critical in the development of human cancers. Like The Cancer Genome Atlas project within the United States, the Cancer Genome Project represents an effort in the War on Cancer to improve cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention through a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease.Coles PhillipsPSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Genetic variation: right|thumbProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.ParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Gene duplication: Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Mac OS X Server 1.0Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionEukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Ty5 retrotransposon: The Ty5 is a type of retrotransposon native to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae organism.Sequence clustering: In bioinformatics, sequence clustering algorithms attempt to group biological sequences that are somehow related. The sequences can be either of genomic, "transcriptomic" (ESTs) or protein origin.Massive parallel sequencing: Massive parallel sequencing or massively parallel sequencing is any of several high-throughput approaches to DNA sequencing using the concept of massively parallel processing; it is also called next-generation sequencing (NGS) or second-generation sequencing. Some of these technologies emerged in 1994-1998 and became commercially available since 2005.Thermal cyclerClonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.PaleopolyploidyDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Adjustable spannerTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Weedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Intergenic region: An Intergenic region (IGR) is a stretch of DNA sequences located between genes. Intergenic regions are a subset of Noncoding DNA.Chromothripsis: Chromothripsis is the phenomenon by which up to thousands of clustered chromosomal rearrangements occur in a single event in localised and confined genomic regions in one or a few chromosomes, and is known to be involved in both cancer and congenital diseases. It occurs through one massive genomic rearrangement during a single catastrophic event in the cell's history.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.DNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.Signature-tagged mutagenesis: Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a genetic technique used to study gene function. Recent advances in genome sequencing have allowed us to catalogue a large variety of organisms' genomes, but the function of the genes they contain is still largely unknown.Restriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Library (biology): In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. There are different types of DNA libraries, including cDNA libraries (formed from reverse-transcribed RNA), genomic libraries (formed from genomic DNA) and randomized mutant libraries (formed by de novo gene synthesis where alternative nucleotides or codons are incorporated).Copy number analysis: Copy number analysis usually refers to the process of analyzing data produced by a test for DNA copy number variation in patient's sample. Such analysis helps detect chromosomal copy number variation that may cause or may increase risks of various critical disorders.Codon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.CTXφ Bacteriophage: The CTXφ bacteriophage is a filamentous bacteriophage that contains the genetic material needed by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium for the production of cholera toxin, or CT. CTXφ is a positive virus with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA).

(1/8283) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis.

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

(2/8283) hnRNP C and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein specifically interact with the pyrimidine-rich region within the 3'NTR of the HCV RNA genome.

Like other members of the Flaviviridae family, the 3' non-translated region (NTR) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to function in the initiation and regulation of viral RNA replication by interacting with components of the viral replicase complex. To inves-tigate the possibility that host components may also participate in this process, we used UV cross-linking assays to determine if any cellular proteins could bind specifically to the 3'NTR RNA. We demonstrate the specific interaction of two host proteins with the extensive pyrimidine-rich region within the HCV 3'NTR. One host protein migrates as a doublet with a molecular weight of 57 kDa and is immunoreactive with antisera specific for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), and the other protein (35 kDa) is recognized by a monoclonal antibody specific for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C). These results suggest that recognition of the large pyrimidine-rich region by PTB and hnRNP C may play a role in the initiation and/or regulation of HCV RNA replication.  (+info)

(3/8283) Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes.

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

(4/8283) Complete genomic sequence of the lytic bacteriophage DT1 of Streptococcus thermophilus.

Streptococcus thermophilus lytic bacteriophage DT1, isolated from a mozzarella whey, was characterized at the microbiological and molecular levels. Phage DT1 had an isometric head of 60 nm and a noncontractile tail of 260 x 8 nm, two major structural proteins of 26 and 32 kDa, and a linear double-stranded DNA genome with cohesive ends at its extremities. The host range of phage DT1 was limited to 5 of the 21 S. thermophilus strains tested. Using S. thermophilus SMQ-301 as a host, phage DT1 had a burst size of 276 +/- 36 and a latent period of 25 min. The genome of phage DT1 contained 34,820 bp with a GC content of 39.1%. Forty-six open reading frames (ORFs) of more than 40 codons were found and putative functions were assigned to 20 ORFs, mostly in the late region of phage DT1. Comparative genomic analysis of DT1 with the completely sequenced S. thermophilus temperate phage O1205 revealed two large homologous regions interspersed by two heterologous segments. The homologous regions consisted of the early replication genes, the late morphogenesis genes, and the lysis cassette. The divergent segments contained the DNA packaging machinery, the major structural proteins, and remnants of a lysogeny module.  (+info)

(5/8283) Interferon-induced human MxA GTPase blocks nuclear import of Thogoto virus nucleocapsids.

Interferon-induced human MxA protein belongs to the dynamin superfamily of large GTPases. It exhibits antiviral activity against a variety of RNA viruses, including Thogoto virus, an influenza virus-like orthomyxovirus transmitted by ticks. Here, we report that MxA blocks the transport of Thogoto virus nucleocapsids into the nucleus, thereby preventing transcription of the viral genome. This interaction can be abolished by a mAb that neutralizes the antiviral activity of MxA. Our results reveal an antiviral mechanism whereby an interferon-induced protein traps the incoming virus and interferes with proper transport of the viral genome to its ultimate target compartment within the infected cell.  (+info)

(6/8283) Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage.

We report DNA and predicted protein sequence similarities, implying homology, among genes of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages and prophages spanning a broad phylogenetic range of host bacteria. The sequence matches reported here establish genetic connections, not always direct, among the lambdoid phages of Escherichia coli, phage phiC31 of Streptomyces, phages of Mycobacterium, a previously unrecognized cryptic prophage, phiflu, in the Haemophilus influenzae genome, and two small prophage-like elements, phiRv1 and phiRv2, in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results imply that these phage genes, and very possibly all of the dsDNA tailed phages, share common ancestry. We propose a model for the genetic structure and dynamics of the global phage population in which all dsDNA phage genomes are mosaics with access, by horizontal exchange, to a large common genetic pool but in which access to the gene pool is not uniform for all phage.  (+info)

(7/8283) Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) deficient in the production of its native coat protein supports long-distance movement of a chimeric TMV.

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) coat protein is involved in systemic infection of host plants, and a specific mutation in this gene prevents the virus from moving into the upper uninoculated leaves. The coat protein also is required for different viral functions during early and late infection. To study the role of the coat protein in long-distance movement of AlMV independent of other vital functions during virus infection, we cloned the gene encoding the coat protein of AlMV into a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector Av. This vector is deficient in long-distance movement and is limited to locally inoculated leaves because of the lack of native TMV coat protein. Expression of AlMV coat protein, directed by the subgenomic promoter of TMV coat protein in Av, supported systemic infection with the chimeric virus in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum MD609, and Spinacia oleracea. The host range of TMV was extended to include spinach as a permissive host. Here we report the alteration of a host range by incorporating genetic determinants from another virus.  (+info)

(8/8283) Sequence heterogeneity within three different regions of the hepatitis G virus genome.

Two sets of primers derived from the 5'-terminal region and the NS5 region of the hepatitis G virus (HGV) genome were used to amplify PCR fragments from serum specimens obtained from different parts of the world. All PCR fragments from the 5'-terminal region (5'-PCR, n = 56) and from the NS5 region (NS5-PCR, n = 85) were sequenced and compared to corresponding published HGV sequences. The range of nucleotide sequence similarity varied from 74 and 78% to 100% for 5'-PCR and NS5-PCR fragments, respectively. Additionally, five overlapping PCR fragments comprising an approximately 2.0-kb structural region of the HGV genome were sequenced from each of five sera obtained from three United States residents. These sequences were compared to 20 published sequences comprising the same region of the HGV genome. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences obtained from different individuals were homologous from 82.9 to 93. 6% and from 90.4 to 99.0%, respectively. Sequences obtained from follow-up specimens were almost identical. Comparative analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the HGV structural proteins and hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins combined with an analysis of predicted secondary structures and hydrophobic profiles allowed prediction of processing sites within the HGV structural proteins. A phylogenetic sequence analysis performed on the 2.0-kb structural region supports the existence of three previously identified HGV genetic groups. However, phylogenetic analysis performed on only small DNA fragments yielded inconsistent genetic grouping and failed to confirm the existence of genetic groups. Thus, in contrast to HCV where almost any region can be used for genotyping, only large or carefully selected genome fragments can be used to identify consistent HGV genetic groups.  (+info)


How can you tell the difference between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis?


I've been diagnosed with viral meningitis but I'm not sure the doctor was right since I've never gotten a spinal tap to check the fluids. I need to know if I can distinguish between the two kinds of meningitis. The faster and more informative the response, the better.
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When did you first become ill if it was 3 days or more ago then it is viral otherwise you would be dead. If it has been less then 3 days go to you local ER asap and tell them what your dr told you. Your dr is an idiot for saying that the only way to see if it is meningitis is to do an LP or grow blood cultures. I think what you have is viral because if it was bacterial you would not be able to be sitting on the computer.

For all you know you don't have Meningitis at all.
Good luck and i hope your feeling better soon


What viral infections can you get in the throat?


I have a viral infection in my throught and they didn't tell me what kind. So I want to know what my possibilities are.
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There are so many viruses that can cause a sore throat.


How long does it take to get over viral meningitis?


My daughter, aged 20 is still feeling ill one week after being diagnosed with viral meningitis. She is nauseous and wants to know if it is normal and how long it takes to go away. She is not eating, feels completely helpless and just wants to sleep all the time. Has anyone been through this and what advice can you give. All advice will be appreciated. Thank you.
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Viral Meningitis can take month's to recover from, as sufferer's can develop a post-viral syndrome that causes severe fatigue, and associated symptoms such as headaches. It is a syndrome like chronic fatigue. The general period of disease of viral meningitis can typically last up to one week, with symptoms gradually lessening. If you believe recovery is not moving fast enough, I would check in with your doctor.


What is the difference between a viral infection and a bacterial infection?


Or just viral and bacterial; I am interested in biology. Unfortunately, I don't know everything =P

Thanks..
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viral infection is caused by a virus and bacterial is caused by bacteria.


When looking at the symptoms of a disease, how can a doctor determine whether it is bacterial or viral?


In other words, what is the difference between how viral infections and bacterial infections affect the body?  How are the symptoms between the two types of diseases different?  After a doctor learns what symptoms a patient has, what further tests or examinations would he/she run to determine whether the disease is bacterial or viral?
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In some cases it can be tough.  But there are several ways to try & sort it out.  First, what is going around?  If a virus is spreading through the area, epidemiology suggests it is a virus.  Furthermore, viral infections tend to cause a wide range of symptoms due to the way the virus attacks the body--fever, muscle aches, headache, rash, joint aches, etc all at once highly suggest a virus.  Bacterial infections tend to be more localized--pneumonia causes respiratory symptoms primarily--not joint pain too.  A bacterial infection that has spread so much to cause a lot of symptoms (called "sepsis") has the person very very ill.  Viruses are also much more common than bacterial infections.  Often time its a educated guess (that's why MDs spend so much time in school--you have to know alot about everything to discard causative agents to make an educated guess).  They can do more tests (a Complete blood count, or CBC, will show more lymphs in a viral infection & more ploys in a bacterial).  There are also antibody tests to specific causes.  However, many times, its too expensive & not worth all the time & effort to make a definitive diagnosis.  If you are going to get better anyway in 5-7 days, most people would not want to spend $500 or more to find out EXACTLY what they had.  That's why you are told to return if not better in x days or suddenly get worse.  Then the testing can be better utilized to find a source.  Some tests would be xrays (chest etc); a spinal fluid exam, blood tests like the CBC or antibody tests, blood, urine, sputum cultures for bacteria, viral cultures, bronchial washings of the airways for tests, TB testing, there are many tests and as they become negative, more exotic & rare things are tested for.  You always start with the most obvious & proceed to the rare.


How long before my viral infection will clear up?


Today i found out that I have a viral infection.
I'm going camping with scouts on Friday until Sunday and can't miss it. Will my viral infection be cleared up by then.
Also I am on paracetamol (flu tablets) and Betnesol (Nose drops).
And I am a 14 year old girl.
Thanks.
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Speak to your doctor, if you...
 "go to work or school in this condition not only risk spreading the virus to their colleagues but also run a higher risk of catching a bacterial infection"

It will last as long as your body takes to deal with it.
eg a cold (viral infection) lasts around a week.


What is the treatment of Anemia causes by viral infection? Is infection can still exist after taken Antibiotic?


What is the treatment of Anemia causes by viral infection? Is the infection can still exist even after taken Antibiotic?

Have any specific symptoms to detect whether it has caused by iron deficiency or viral infection?
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Ok, first off antibiotics don't treat viral infections, only bacterial ones. So sure, it can still exist. 

Anemia symptoms are pretty much the same, no matter what causes the anemia. Unless you have other symptoms that also result from the same underlying problem. I'm assuming that you know from blood tests that you actually have anemia, and not something else. If not, please go see your doctor, since there could be other things going on. For example, you could have a deficiency in your platelets, too, which can be a bigger deal than the anemia. 

To treat anemia caused by a viral infection, assuming it's not severe enough to require a transfusion, you just have to have either an iron-rich diet or take an iron supplement.


How high does the viral count have to be for Hepatitis B to be concerned?


I have a friend who's viral count for hepatitis that's about 40 million. Is this dangerous?
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yes, viral loads above 2000 are worrisome.  The higher the viral load, the more likely you are to get liver cancer, for example.  Also, viral load can correlate with liver damage.  This is in contrast to hepatitis C where it does not correlate.  This person needs evaluation by a hepatologist (liver specialist).  I would start by looking at http://www.hepb.org/resources/liver_specialist_directory.htm