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*  Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization
. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization. About the ALS. ALS@20. .. ... Science Highlights Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal ... Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization. Science Highlights Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization. Polyketides are synthesized in bacteria and fungi by a protein megacomplex with multiple domains called polyketide synthase PKS, which initially assembles a long carbon chain as an intermediate on the way to a wide variety of ring-shaped bioactive structures. shows that PT has an interior pocket that promotes a specific folding pattern of the linear chain, which subsequently is cyclized in the pocket. Instead, the linear intermediate enters PT, where it is stabilized and transformed into a specific bicyclic intermediate with a highly specific cyclization pattern exclusive to fungi, an amazing feat of origami. Once the full-length, ...
*  Chitin: A Structural Biopolysaccharide with Multiple Applications
Chitin: A Structural Biopolysaccharide with Multiple ... to cite Chitin: A Structural Biopolysaccharide with Multiple ... biological structures i.e. Because of its abundance in nature...
*  Publication : USDA ARS
Projects. Title: Structural variation of trichothecene mycotoxins ... processes in the fungal order Hypocreales Author. Submitted to ... : Fungal Genetics Conference/Asilomar...
*  A Combination Therapy Approach to Treating Drug Resistant Fungal Infections - Mitchell Mutz
Drug Resistant Fungal Infections - Mitchell Mutz. A ... Drug Resistant Fungal Infections Mutz, Mitchell W. Amplyx ... , invasive fungal infections IFI's including invasive...
*  Info Center -
, viral, or fungal infection, as well as by structural...
*  .. .. CLOTRIMAZOLE CREAM .. Yeast Infection, How to Get Relief in 24 Hours .. Yeast Infection and
of the facts about fungal infections. Vaginal fungus is an ... the vaginal wall structure. It can be an irritating and ... CLOTRIMAZOLE CREAM. Yeast Infection, How to Get Relief in 24 Hours. Genital fungus attacks can usually be treated with antifungal medicines such as clotrimazole which are introduced directly into your vagina as tablets, creams, ointments or suppositories. However, these can be harsh treatments for people that are particularly sensitive. There are many effective home remedies that deal with fungus infections and their symptoms. Yeast Infection and its Treatment. The active ingredient of Clotrimazole Cream 1% is the chemical Clotrimazole. Clotrimazole is used to treat fungal conditions and yeast infections. The fungi and yeasts are eliminated by this active ingredient because it acts upon their cell membranes and inhibits the fungi from producing an essential component of the fungal cell membrane called ergosterol. If there are holes in the fungal cell wall then it is impossible fo...
*  Li-Jun Ma | Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | UMass Amherst
Biology. Focus Fungal comparative genomics, eukaryotic genome ... that sustain structural and functional flexibility while ... using the model fungal system Fusarium oxysporum. Comparative...

No data available that match "Fungal Structures"

(1/28) A novel gene, CBP1, encoding a putative extracellular chitin-binding protein, may play an important role in the hydrophobic surface sensing of Magnaporthe grisea during appressorium differentiation.

The conidial germ tube of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, differentiates a specialized cell, an appressorium, required for penetration into the host plant. Formation of the appressorium is also observed on artificial solid substrata such as polycarbonate. A novel emerging germ tube-specific gene, CBP1 (chitin-binding protein), was found in a cDNA subtractive differential library. CBP1 coded for a putative extracellular protein (signal peptide) with two similar chitin-binding domains at both ends of a central domain with homology to fungal chitin deacetylases and with a C-terminus domain rich in Ser/Thr related extracellular matrix protein such as agglutinin. The consensus sequence of the chitin-binding domain found in CBP1 has never been reported in fungi and is similar to the chitin-binding motif in plant lectins and plant chitinases classes I and IV. CBPI was disrupted in order to identify its function. Null mutants of CBP1 failed to differentiate appressoria normally on artificial surface but succeeded in normally differentiating appressoria on the plant leaf surface. Since the null mutant Cbp1- showed abnormal appressorium differentiation only on artificial surfaces and was sensitive to the chemical inducers, CBP1 seemed to play an important role in the recognition of physical factors on solid surfaces.  (+info)

(2/28) Two novel fungal virulence genes specifically expressed in appressoria of the rice blast fungus.

The PMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase gene regulates appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth in the rice blast fungus. To further characterize this mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we constructed a subtraction library enriched for genes regulated by PMK1. Two genes identified in this library, GAS1 and GAS2, encode small proteins that are homologous with gEgh16 of the powdery mildew fungus. Both were expressed specifically during appressorium formation in the wild-type strains, but neither was expressed in the pmk1 mutant. Mutants deleted in GAS1 and GAS2 had no defect in vegetative growth, conidiation, or appressoria formation, but they were reduced in appressorial penetration and lesion development. Interestingly, deletion of both GAS1 and GAS2 did not have an additive effect on appressorial penetration and lesion formation. The GAS1-green fluorescent protein and GAS2-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were expressed only in appressoria and localized in the cytoplasm. These two genes may belong to a class of proteins specific for filamentous fungi and function as novel virulence factors in fungal pathogens.  (+info)

(3/28) Evidence for carbon source regulated protein kinase A and protein kinase C signaling in the duplication cycle, polarization and septum formation in Aspergillus nidulans.

The effects of glucose and of a pectic substrate in the duplication cycle, spore polarization and septation of Aspergillus nidulans were tested in poor and rich media. Growth on poor conditions and on sodium polypectate slowed nuclear duplication and reduced the coupling of polarization to mitosis. Coupling of septation to the third mitosis was also reduced by changing growth conditions. When protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) activators were added to the media the results suggested a role for PKA in slowing the duplication cycle, while allowing polarization. Addition of a PKC activator to poor media uncoupled the first septum formation from the third mitosis in a carbon source-regulated manner, suggesting a role for PKC in coordinating cell cycle signals, growth and cytokinesis.  (+info)

(4/28) A mitogen-activated protein kinase gene (MGV1) in Fusarium graminearum is required for female fertility, heterokaryon formation, and plant infection.

Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of small grains and maize in many areas of the world. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins harmful to humans and animals. During the past decade, F. graminearum has caused several severe epidemics of head scab in wheat and barley. In order to understand molecular mechanisms regulating fungal development and pathogenicity in this pathogen, we isolated and characterized a MAP kinase gene, MGV1, which is highly homologous to the MPS1 gene in Magnaporthe grisea. The MGV1 gene was dispensable for conidiation in F. graminearum but essential for female fertility during sexual reproduction. Vegetative growth of mgv1 deletion mutants was normal in liquid media but reduced on solid media. Mycelia of the mgv1 mutants had weak cell walls and were hypersensitive to cell wall degrading enzymes. Interestingly, the mgv1 mutants were self-incompatible when tested for heterokaryon formation, and their virulence was substantially reduced. The ability of the mutants to accumulate trichothecene mycotoxins on inoculated wheat was also greatly reduced. Our data suggest that MGV1 in F. graminearum is involved in multiple developmental processes related to sexual reproduction, plant infection, and cell wall integrity.  (+info)

(5/28) The AVR4 elicitor protein of Cladosporium fulvum binds to fungal components with high affinity.

The interaction between tomato and the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum complies with the gene-for-gene system. Strains of C. fulvum that produce race-specific elicitor AVR4 induce a hypersensitive response, leading to resistance, in tomato plants that carry the Cf-4 resistance gene. The mechanism of AVR4 perception was examined by performing binding studies with 125I-AVR4 on microsomal membranes of tomato plants. We identified an AVR4 high-affinity binding site (KD = 0.05 nM) which exhibited all the characteristics expected for ligand-receptor interactions, such as saturability, reversibility, and specificity. Surprisingly, the AVR4 high-affinity binding site appeared to originate from fungi present on infected tomato plants rather than from the tomato plants themselves. Detailed analysis showed that this fungus-derived, AVR4-specific binding site is heat- and proteinase K-resistant. Affinity crosslinking demonstrated that AVR4 specifically binds to a component of approximately 75 kDa that is of fungal origin. Our data suggest that binding of AVR4 to a fungal component or components is related to the intrinsic virulence function of AVR4 for C. fulvum.  (+info)

(6/28) The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene MAF1 is essential for the early differentiation phase of appressorium formation in Colletotrichum lagenarium.

Colletotrichum lagenarium, the causal agent of cucumber anthracnose, invades host plants by forming a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. In this fungus, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene CMK1 is involved in several steps of the infection process, including appressorium formation. In this study, the goal was to investigate roles of other MAPKs in C. lagenarium. The MAPK gene MAF1, related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPK1 and Magnaporthe grisea MPS1, was isolated and functionally characterized. The maf1 gene replacement mutants grew normally, but there was a significant reduction in conidiation and fungal pathogenicity. The M. grisea mps1 mutant forms appressoria, but conidia of the C. lagenarium maf1 mutants produced elongated germ tubes without appressoria on both host plant and glass, on which the wild type forms appressoria, suggesting that MAF1 has an essential role in appressorium formation on inductive surfaces. On a nutrient agar, wild-type conidia produced elongated germ tubes without appressoria. The morphological phenotype of the wild type on the nutrient agar was similar to that of the maf1 mutants on inductive surfaces, suggesting repression of the MAF1-mediated appressorium differentiation on the nutrient agar. The cmk1 mutants failed to form normal appressoria but produced swollen, appressorium-like structures on inductive surfaces, which is morphologically different from the maf1 mutants. These findings suggest that MAF1 is required for the early differentiation phase of appressorium formation, whereas CMK1 is involved in the maturation of appressoria.  (+info)

(7/28) Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) resistance in melon is selectable at the haploid level.

The major cause of powdery mildew in melons (Cucumis melo L.) is the fungus Sphaerotheca fuliginea. There are several cultivar- and season-specific races of this fungus. In order to control powdery mildew, it is important to introduce resistance to fungal infection into new cultivars during melon breeding. Haploid breeding is a powerful tool for the production of pure lines. In this study, it was investigated whether powdery mildew resistance could be manifested at the haploid level from two disease-resistant melon lines, PMR 45 and WMR 29. the effects of various races of S. fuliginea on diploid and haploid plants of PMR 45 and WMR 29 and of a disease-susceptible line, Fuyu 3 were measured. The responses of haploid and diploid plants to powdery mildew were identical. In addition, haploids that were generated from hybrids between Fuyu 3 and disease-resistant lines were examined. Seven out of 13 haploids from a Fuyu 3xPMR 45 cross and 10 out of 12 haploids from a Fuyu 3xWMR 29 cross were classified as resistant plants because they showed the same responses as their disease-resistant diploid parents to the various fungal races. These results indicate that resistance in PMR 45 and WMR 29 is selectable at the haploid level. All of the plant responses were observed by microscopy. A possible mechanism for generating powdery mildew resistance in two different melon lines is discussed.  (+info)

(8/28) A diffusible factor from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induces symbiosis-specific MtENOD11 expression in roots of Medicago truncatula.

Using dual cultures of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Medicago truncatula separated by a physical barrier, we demonstrate that hyphae from germinating spores produce a diffusible factor that is perceived by roots in the absence of direct physical contact. This AM factor elicits expression of the Nod factor-inducible gene MtENOD11, visualized using a pMtENOD11-gusA reporter. Transgene induction occurs primarily in the root cortex, with expression stretching from the zone of root hair emergence to the region of mature root hairs. All AM fungi tested (Gigaspora rosea, Gigaspora gigantea, Gigaspora margarita, and Glomus intraradices) elicit a similar response, whereas pathogenic fungi such as Phythophthora medicaginis, Phoma medicaginis var pinodella and Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli do not, suggesting that the observed root response is specific to AM fungi. Finally, pMtENOD11-gusA induction in response to the diffusible AM fungal factor is also observed with all three M. truncatula Nod(-)/Myc(-) mutants (dmi1, dmi2, and dmi3), whereas the same mutants are blocked in their response to Nod factor. This positive response of the Nod(-)/Myc(-) mutants to the diffusible AM fungal factor and the different cellular localization of pMtENOD11-gusA expression in response to Nod factor versus AM factor suggest that signal transduction occurs via different pathways and that expression of MtENOD11 is differently regulated by the two diffusible factors.  (+info)