Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Secretory Pathway: A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Mice, Inbred C57BLEpithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bethanechol CompoundsInterleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Protein PrecursorsLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CGlycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.TriglyceridesJejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Bumetanide: A sulfamyl diuretic.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Exosomes: A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.

*  FAVORIT BOOK Case Management Nurse Exam Flashcard Study System: Case Management Nurse Test - Video D
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*  Job :: Pathologist | DocLynk
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*  URMC Research Network - Tears
Concepts The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid ... the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA. Descriptor ID D013666. MeSH ... Tears". Anatomy. Fluids and Secretions. Bodily Secretions. ... URMC Research Network - Tears. About URMC. URMC Research Network URMC. URMC Research Network. Find People Keyword. Tears. "Tears" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH Medical Subject Headings. More General Concepts. Related Concepts. Concept/Terms Tears Tears Tear. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Tears". Tears. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Tears". Tears. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more specific than "Tears". Most Recent This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Tears" by people in the URMC Research Network by year, and whether "Tears" was a major or minor topic of these publication. Below are the most recent publications written about "Tears" by people in Profil...
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*  Cytopathology - RightDiagnosis.com
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*  Human CST4 / Cystatin S Recombinant (6His,C-terminus) Protein - LS-G38863
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*  Body Fluids from a TCM Perspective
... Home. Basic Principles. The Fundamental Substances: Qi,Blood and Body Fluids. Body Fluids from a TCM Perspective. Body Fluids from a TCM Perspective Body fluids refer to the different kinds of physiological fluids found in the body, including fluids in the organs and tissues, gastric fluid, intestinal fluid, semen and tears. Classified as one of the fundamental substances, body fluids are essential to life's activities. The Origin, Distribution and Excretion of Body Fluids According to TCM theory, body fluids originate from food and water. They are formed during digestion in the stomach and by transformation in the spleen. The small intestine extracts body fluids by further separating the pure fluids from the impure fluids contained in the food, and the large intestine contributes to the formation of body fluids by absorbing water from the stool. Body fluids are distributed and excreted via different pathways. First, they are distributed through the spleen's transportation function to the lungs. In the l...
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*  Genome Biology | Full text | High-accuracy proteome maps of human body fluids
Genome Biology. Full text. High-accuracy proteome maps of human body fluids. genomebiology.com/article/10.1186/gb/2006/7/11/242 Bottom,Top BioMed Central. Journals. Gateways. . 10.8 Search Genome Biology BioMed Central for. Go. Advanced search Home. Articles. Authors. Reviewers. About this journal. My Genome Biology. Top. Abstract. Minireview. Improvements ... Proteomics an... A comparison ... Looking to th... Acknowledgements. References. Genome Biology Volume 7. Issue 11. Viewing options Abstract. Full text. PDF 75KB. Associated material PubMed record. Article metrics. Open Badges. Readers' comments. Related literature Cited by. Google blog search Other articles by authors on Google Scholar. Schmidt A. Aebersold R. on PubMed. Schmidt A. Aebersold R. Related articles/pages on Google. on Google Scholar. on PubMed. Tools Download references. Download XML. Order reprints. Post a comment. Download to ... Papers. Mendeley. Download to ... Papers. Mendeley. Share this article. Tweet. More options... Citeulike. Lin...
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*  Blended Oil Compositions Useful As Dielectric Fluid Compositions And Methods Of Preparing Same (E I
Blended Oil Compositions Useful As Dielectric Fluid Compositions And Methods Of Preparing Same E I Du Pont De Nemours And. FreshPatents Stats. 1. views for this patent on FreshPatents.com. 2015: 1 views. Updated: October 05 2015. TOP 200 Companies filing patents this week. Advertise Here Promote your product, service and ideas. Free Services MONITOR KEYWORDS Enter keywords we'll notify you when a new patent matches your request weekly update. ORGANIZER Save & organize patents so you can view them later. RSS. Create custom RSS feeds. Track keywords without receiving email. ARCHIVE View the last few months of your Keyword emails. COMPANY DIRECTORY Patents sorted by company. Follow us on Twitter @FreshPatents Browse patents: Next Previous. Search. Industry. Companies. Inventors. Blended oil compositions useful as dielectric fluid compositions and methods of preparing same. Blended oil compositions useful as dielectric fluid compositions and methods of preparing same. In the present invention, compositions that a...
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*  SM 445-2-H Appendix 25-4
Geological Survey USGS employees from occupational exposure to human blood and/or other potentially infectious materials OPIM. According to the concept of Universal Precautions, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens. Employees will be told that the vaccine and vaccination will be offered free of charge; and that the reporting and follow-up procedures following a first aid response or an actual exposure incident include: information on the appropriate actions to take and persons to contact in an emergency involving blood or other potentially infectious materials; an explanation of the procedure to follow if an exposure incident occurs including the method of reporting the incident and the medical follow-up that will be made available ; and information on the post-exposure evaluation and follow-up that the employer is required to provide for the employee following an exposure incident. According to the concept of Unive...
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*  In which body fluids does HIV occur? | Health24
In which body fluids does HIV occur. Health24. Health 24. HIV/Aids. Featured sponsor. News. Public health. Fitness. Sex. Natural health. Heart. Diabetes. Mental Health. Cancer. Win. Newsletters. Medical. ADHD. Cancer. Depression. Diabetes. Eye Health. Heart. HIV/Aids. Incontinence. Liver Health. Medical Schemes. Sports Injuries. Vaginal infections. View all. Lifestyle. Fitness. Sex. Diet and nutrition. Healthy You. Health and your money. Pet health. Natural Health. All Lifestyle. Ask an expert. Sexologist. ADHD. Cancer. Depression. Diabetes. Digestive Health. Erectile Dysfunction. Fitness Biokinetics. HIV/Aids. Incontinence. Liver Health. Oral Health. Skin. All experts. HIV has been identified in various body fluids but it is especially highly concentrated in blood, sexual fluids semen and vaginal fluids, and in breast milk. HIV has been identified in various body fluids but it is especially highly concentrated in blood, sexual fluids semen and vaginal fluids, and in breast milk. Although HIV is present in sa...
http://health24.com/Medical/HIV-AIDS/Basic-disease-information/In-which-body-fluids-does-HIV-occur-20120721
*  .. NIH Common Fund Extracellular RNA Communication Funding Opportunities .. Post navigation
NIH Common Fund Extracellular RNA Communication Funding Opportunities. The program seeks to discover fundamental biological principles of the mechanisms of exRNA generation, secretion and transport; to identify and develop a catalog of exRNA found in normal human body fluids; and to investigate the potential for using exRNAs in the clinic as therapeutic molecules or as disease biomarkers. Purpose: Stimulate multidisciplinary research projects to determine the principles that guide the selection of regulatory RNA molecules for extracellular transport, determine the function of these exRNAs, and focus on the role of exRNA communication in human health and disease Letter of intent due date: October 12, 2012 Application due date: November 13, 2012 NIH contact: T. Reference Profiles of Human Extracellular RNA U01 RFA-RM-12-011. Purpose: Develop reference profiles for noncoding regulatory exRNAs from healthy human blood and other body fluid samples Letter of intent due date: October 12, 2012 Application due date: N...
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*  Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by Ionizing Radiation in Body Fluids and Serologi
Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV by Ionizing Radiation in Body Fluids and Serological Evidence. This document is part of your ASTM Compass subscription. Abstract A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Author Information: Thornton, A Deputy director, chemist, and biological laboratory technician, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Adams, DE Special agents, Scientific Analysis Section, FBI Laboratory, Washington, DC Hocken, DG Physicist, calibration technician, and physicist, Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD Sun, D Deputy director, chemist, and biological laboratory technician, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Humphreys, JC Phy...
http://astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/JOURNALS/FORENSIC/PAGES/JFS12770J.htm
*  Pathologist
... PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript, your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. Glossary. Pathologist. A physician who diagnoses and characterizes disease by examining a patient’s tissues, blood, and other body fluids. Pathologists work in two broad areas: Anatomic pathology is the examination of the physical appearance and microscopic structure of tissues. Anatomic pathologists look at biopsies and organs removed at surgery surgical pathology as well as cells that are collected from brushings or body fluids cytology. They also perform autopsies to investigate the cause of death autopsy pathology. Clinical pathology deals with the measurement of chemical constituents of blood and other body fluids clinical chemistry, analysis of blood cells hematology, identification of microorganisms microbiology, and the collection, preparation and use of blood for transfusion transfusion medicine. Clinical pathologists dire...
https://labtestsonline.org/glossary/pathologist
*  analis laboratorium kesehatan: March 2010
... skip to main. skip to sidebar. analis laboratorium kesehatan. bekerja sebagai seorang analis kesehatan laboratorium klinik sangat membanggakan buat saya. 20 tahun berkecimpung dengan pesatnya ilmu dan teknologi. sampai akhirnya saya kehilangan pekerjaanpun saya tetap memaksakan diri untuk terus hidup dalam dunia keanalisan saya, salah satunya dengan media blog ini.. Pages. Home. LABORATORY SAFETY. Posted by Yossi Trixie 3 comments. Labels: Lab safety, Protap, Referensi berbahasa Inggris, SOP. Safety is vitally important for the laboratory. It is imperative that the entire laboratory staff understands the importance of safety training and the proper implementation of safety policies and procedures. By following a few simple precautions, potentially dangerous accidents can be prevented. Maintain training records demonstrating that all laboratory staff have been trained in safety procedures, including infectious waste disposal, fire safety, electrical hazards, and general personal and technical safety proce...
http://analislaboratoriumkesehatan.blogspot.com/2010_03_01_archive.html
*  Body Fluids Everywhere
... ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. HIV Prevention and Testing. Body Fluids Everywhere. HIV Prevention and Testing Am I Infected. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits Questions About Treatment Side Effects Insurance, Benefits Programs HIV Mental Health HIV Lipodystrophy Metabolic Problems Nutrition HIV Research News Studies. Off Topic Forums Off Topic Forum Forums Gatherings. Stats Total Posts: 675742 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 185 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Click here for posting guidelines pertaining to all other POZ/AIDSmeds community forums. Welcome to the "Am I Infected?" POZ forum. Ongoing participation in the "Am I Infected?" forum -- posting more than three questions or responses -- requires a paid subscription. A seven-day subscription is $9.99, a 30-day subscription is $14.99 and a 90-day subscription is $24.99. Anyone who needs to post more than three messages in the "Am I Infected?" forum -- including past, present and future POZ Forums members -- will nee...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=10988.0
*  Neonatal Infections
... Signs to Look for Many infections cause similar symptoms. Some of the most common are sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. To diagnose GBS, doctors run blood tests and take cultures of blood, urine, and, if necessary, cerebrospinal fluid to look for bacteria. Infections caused by GBS are treated with antibiotics, as well as careful care and monitoring in the hospital. Babies can acquire bacteria from their mothers if the mother contracts listeriosis while pregnant. Babies born with listeriosis may show signs of infection similar to those of GBS. A blood or spinal fluid culture can reveal the presence of the bacteria, and infected babies will be treated with antibiotics in the hospital. coli is another bacterial culprit behind some common neonatal infections, and can lead to urinary tract infections, sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia. coli infection by culturing blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid and treat the infection with antibiotics. Meningitis , particularly bacterial meningitis, is a serious infecti...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=S_S_M_CardinalGlennon_ChildrensMedicalCenter&lic=377&ps=107&cat_id=20029&article_set=20811
*  Cytomegalovirus | Overview
People are usually infected by the time they are 2 years old or during their teenage years and carry the virus for life usually in a dormant or inactive state. Many people are infected with CMV and don't even know it because the virus rarely causes symptoms and usually does not cause long-term problems. However, CMV can cause problems in people who have weak immune systems and in a newborn if the mother gets the infection during pregnancy. Symptoms. What are the symptoms of CMV. Usually, CMV does not cause symptoms or only causes mild symptoms. A few people will have symptoms that are similar to. Symptoms of CMV can include:. People who have weakened immune systems due to conditions like. Blindness Pneumonia Diarrhea Bleeding ulcers in the esophagus windpipe or intestines Inflammation of the brain encephalitis Seizures CMV is more likey to cause vision problems in people who have weakened immune systems, so if you have conditions such as HIV or AIDS, your doctor may recommend that you visit an eye doctor to f...
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/cytomegalovirus.printerview.all.html
*  Physiological chemistry
... redirect biochemistry physiological chemistry is the chemistry of the organs and tissues of the body and of the various physiological processes incident to life physiological chemistry is essentially the precursor to modern biochemistry in the nineteenth century physiological chemistry dealt primarily with extracellular chemistry such as the chemistry of digestion and other body fluids modern biochemical methods have allowed a much broader study including the chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids references category chemistry category biochemistry ar كيمياء فسيولوجية...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiological_chemistry
*  Transcellular fluid
... is the portion of total body water contained within epithelial lined spaces it is the smallest component of extracellular fluid which also includes interstitial fluid and plasma it is often not calculated as a fraction of the extracellular fluid but it is about of the total body water or of extracellular fluid examples of this fluid are cerebrospinal fluid ocular fluid and joint fluid composition physiological function references external links composition due to the varying locations of transcellular fluid the composition changes dramatically some of the electrolytes present in the transcellular fluid are sodium ions chloride ion s and bicarbonate ions physiological function there are also varied functions for the trans cellular fluid in the joints it serves a lubrication function while the urine allows for the removal of electrolytes and molecules from the body references external links category physiology category cell anatomy category body fluids...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcellular_fluid
*  Men's Skin Care Body Products
... Home : Men : Body : Other Body. Other Body. Do you have issues with your skin chafing during a workout. Or maybe you need a skincare solution for your feet. Having trouble with aches and pains. Could your skin use a little smoothing here and there. If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, then you’re in the right place for answers. Skincare products designed to help with those concerns are available here. For help with chafing and to keep your skin dry, fresh and clean, try a friction-free powder with moisture-regulating, anti-itch, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties for silky-smooth skin all day long. Read More About Other Body. Other Body Reviews. Other Body Products. Wound Care. Sort results by: Best Selling Price Low to High Price High to Low Natural New Customer Rating Ships Free Special. Page 1. Display:. Jack Black Mr. Fix It Antimicrobial Wound Rescue. Quickly heal cuts, scrapes, minor abrasions and irritations. $20.00. 1 oz. JA074. In Stock. ADD TO BAG. Page 1. Display:. Addi...
http://skinstore.com/men-body-other-body-products.aspx?avs=Concern|Wound Care&avn=category|cat_8|92|Other Body&as=Ships Free (Descending)
*  Men's Skin Care Body Products
... Home : Men : Body : Other Body. Other Body. Do you have issues with your skin chafing during a workout. Or maybe you need a skincare solution for your feet. Having trouble with aches and pains. Could your skin use a little smoothing here and there. If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, then you’re in the right place for answers. Skincare products designed to help with those concerns are available here. For help with chafing and to keep your skin dry, fresh and clean, try a friction-free powder with moisture-regulating, anti-itch, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties for silky-smooth skin all day long. Read More About Other Body. Other Body Reviews. Other Body Products. 30 To 39.99. Sort results by: Best Selling Price Low to High Price High to Low Natural New Customer Rating Ships Free Special. Page 1. Display:. Lab Series AB Rescue Body Sculpting Gel. Helps tighten, tone and smooth the look of skin on the abdomen. $33.00. 6.7 oz. LS020. In Stock. ADD TO BAG. Page 1. Display:. Additio...
http://skinstore.com/men-body-other-body-products.aspx?avnr=Price|30|39.99|<= <=&avn=category|cat_8|92|Other Body
*  Men's Skin Care Body Products
... Home : Men : Body : Other Body. Other Body. Do you have issues with your skin chafing during a workout. Or maybe you need a skincare solution for your feet. Having trouble with aches and pains. Could your skin use a little smoothing here and there. If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, then you’re in the right place for answers. Skincare products designed to help with those concerns are available here. For help with chafing and to keep your skin dry, fresh and clean, try a friction-free powder with moisture-regulating, anti-itch, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties for silky-smooth skin all day long. Read More About Other Body. Other Body Reviews. Other Body Products. Firming. Sort results by: Best Selling Price Low to High Price High to Low Natural New Customer Rating Ships Free Special. Page 1. Display:. Lab Series AB Rescue Body Sculpting Gel. Helps tighten, tone and smooth the look of skin on the abdomen. $33.00. 6.7 oz. LS020. In Stock. ADD TO BAG. Page 1. Display:. Additional ...
http://skinstore.com/men-body-other-body-products.aspx?avs=Concern|Firming&avn=category|cat_8|92|Other Body&as=Special (Descending)
*  Course Content and Outcomes Guides | PCC
Course Content and Outcomes Guides. PCC. Skip to page content. Home. Search. Contacts. About PCC. Academic Programs. Calendars. Class Schedule. Resources. MyPCC. PCC / CCOG / MLT. Course Content and Outcome Guide for MLT 230 Effective Fall 2015. Course Number: MLT 230 Course Title: Body Fluids Credit Hours: 2 Lecture Hours: 15 Lecture/Lab Hours: 0 Lab Hours: 15 Special Fee: $0.00. Course Description. Introduces the composition, testing procedures, and the clinical correlation of results for cerebrospinal, synovial, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal, seminal, and amniotic fluids. Prerequisites: Acceptance into the Medical Laboratory Technology Program. Audit available. Addendum to Course Description. The anatomy and physiology of body cavities and the production of body fluids will be reviewed. Collection, laboratory testing of cerebrospinal, synovial, pericardial, plural, peritoneal, seminal, and amniotic fluids, sources of error, and clinical correlation with various disease states will be presented. Provides...
http://pcc.edu/ccog/default.cfm?fa=ccog&subject=MLT&course=230
*  Hydraulic fracturing proppants
... In addition, fluids may be used in low-volume well stimulation of high-permeability sandstone wells 20k to 80k gallons per well to the high-volume operations such as shale gas and tight gas that use millions of gallons of water per well. Other than proppant, slickwater fracturing fluids are mostly water, generally 99% or more by volume, but gel-based fluids can see polymers and surfactants comprising as much as 7 vol%, ignoring other additives. Proppant permeability and mesh size Proppant weight and strength Proppant deposition and post-treatment behaviours Proppant costs Other components of fracturing fluids See also References. Proppant permeability and mesh size. Sand used for fracturing, USGS, 2012 Proppants used should be permeable or permittive to gas under high pressures; the interstitial space between particles should be sufficiently large, yet have the mechanical strength to withstand closure stresses to hold fractures open after the fracturing pressure is withdrawn. Large mesh proppants have gr...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_fracturing_proppants
*  Complex fluid
... 'Complex fluids' are binary mixture s that have a coexistence between two phase s: solid–liquid suspension s or solutions of macromolecules such as polymers, solid–gas granular, liquid–gas foam s or liquid–liquid emulsion s. They exhibit unusual mechanical responses to applied stress or strain due to the geometrical constraints that the phase coexistence imposes. The mechanical response includes transitions between solid-like and fluid-like behavior as well as fluctuations. Their mechanical properties can be attributed to characteristics such as high disorder, caging, and clustering on multiple length scales. Example. Shaving cream is an example of a complex fluid. Without stress, the foam appears to be a solid: it does not flow and can support very light loads. However, when adequate stress is applied, shaving cream flows easily like a fluid. On the level of individual bubbles, the flow is due to rearrangements of small collections of bubbles. On this scale, the flow is not smooth, but instead consists ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_fluid
*  Formation fluid
... refers to the naturally occurring liquids and gases contained in geologic formations fluids introduced during the drilling process are called drilling fluid s fluids in an oil or gas reservoir are called reservoir fluids the fluids flowing from the wellhead of an oil or gas well are called production fluid s references category oilfield terminology...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formation_fluid
*  I gave my mini daschund his vacination shot and now there is a lump there? [Archive] - Pet forum f
I gave my mini daschund his vacination shot and now there is a lump there. - Pet forum for dogs cats and humans - Pets.ca. Pet forum for dogs cats and humans - Pets.ca. Vet time. I gave my mini daschund his vacination shot and now there is a lump there. I gave my mini daschund his vacination shot and now there is a lump there. ninjaboy76 August 21st, 2005, 11:18 PM. I gave my mini daschund his vacination shot last thursday, and now there is a swollen lump there. Prin August 21st, 2005, 11:22 PM. ninjaboy76 August 21st, 2005, 11:27 PM. Prin August 21st, 2005, 11:28 PM. ninjaboy76 August 21st, 2005, 11:55 PM. This is very common and the lump should start to fade away over the next few weeks. This is very common and the lump should start to fade away over the next few weeks. Prin August 23rd, 2005, 12:10 AM. This is very common and the lump should start to fade away over the next few weeks. Karin August 23rd, 2005, 07:56 PM. Prin August 23rd, 2005, 08:04 PM. Just wondering, because we gave a really old kitty flu...
http://pets.ca/forum/archive/index.php/t-18686.html
*  Iberian rock lizard
... {{Taxobox name = Iberian rock lizard image = Benny Trapp Iberolacerta monticola.jpg status = VU status system = IUCN3.1 status ref = regnum = Animalia. familia = Lacertidae. monticola' binomial = 'Iberolacerta monticola' binomial authority = Boulenger, 1905. synonyms = 'Archaeolocerta monticola' Boulenger, 1905 'Lacerta monticola': Boulenger, 1905 range map = Iberolacerta monticola range Map.png}}. The 'Iberian rock lizard' 'Iberolacerta monticola' or 'Lacerta monticola' is a species of lizard in the Lacertidae family. It is found in Portugal and Spain. Description Distribution and habitat Biology Status References. The colour varies in different parts of its range. The general colour is light brown variously patterned with longitudinal bands of colour or longitudinal rows of dots and small patches. Unlike some other wall lizards, the stripe along the spine is less dark than other bands. 1 A 2008 field study reported the underparts of Iberian rock lizards turn green with maturity, and the upperparts grad...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iberian_rock_lizard
*  Safe handling of bodily fluids after cancer therapy | Oncolink - Cancer Resources
Safe handling of bodily fluids after cancer therapy. Cancer Types. Cancer Types. Bone Cancers. Breast Cancer. Head and Neck Cancers. Leukemia. Pediatric Cancers. Skin Cancers. Cancer Treatment. Getting Treatment. Cancer Treatment Options. Safe handling of bodily fluids after cancer therapy Last Modified: January 19, 2007. Dear OncoLink "Ask The Experts," After chemotherapy treatment, are there recommendations for safe handling of patient secretions, urine, etc after the patient returns home. Contaminated linens should be washed separately, and one should consider keeping the toilet lid closed if pets or children are likely to drink or play in the water. Zevalin emits radiation in the form of short-distance beta rays, and therefore the radiation is mostly confined to the body. These include: sleeping alone for 5 days, no kissing or sexual intercourse 7 days, minimization of time with pregnant women and children 5 days, and minimization of close contact with others 5 days. One other special case is the treatmen...
http://oncolink.org/experts/article.cfm?id=2361&aid=3316
*  Safe handling of bodily fluids after chemotherapy | Oncolink - Cancer Resources
Safe handling of bodily fluids after chemotherapy. Oncolink - Cancer Resources. Tipos de Cancer. Tipos de Cancer. Metastatic Cancer. Head and Neck Cancers. C nceres de la Piel. Tumores del Cerebro. Tratamiento del Cancer. Getting Treatment. El fumar y el cancer. Medicamentos, Salud Historia y el riesgo de cancer. Nutrition and Cancer. Coping With Cancer. Dear OncoLink "Ask The Experts," After chemotherapy treatment, are there recommendations for safe handling of patient secretions, urine, etc for when they return home. These include: sleeping alone 5 days, no kissing or sexual intercourse 7 days, minimize time with pregnant women and children 5 days, and minimize close contact with others 5 days. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone efficacious, safe in castration-resistant disease May 17, 2011 Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone efficacious, safe in castration-resistant disease. Study finds elderly and frail colorectal cancer patients able to handle lower drug doses May 16, 2011 Study finds elderly and frail ...
http://es.oncolink.org/experts/article1.cfm?id=1891
*  Precious Bodily Fluids: Saline versus Ringer's Solution. Fight!
Precious Bodily Fluids: Saline versus Ringer's Solution. Wednesday, October 31, 2012. Saline versus Ringer's Solution. During the experimental period, chloride rich solutions were restricted to specific clinical conditions: hyponatremia, traumatic brain injury and cerebral edema. The primary outcome was the change in creatinine and incidence of AKI, using RIFLE criteria. The study consisted of 1644 admissions to the ICU, 760 in the control period and 773 in the experimental period. The authors demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the change in serum creatinine, increase of 0.25 in the control group vs 0.16 experimental group which is of questionable clinical significance. More impressive was the decrease in AKI by RIFLE criteria. As a refresher for those of you sleeping in AKI class here is how the RIFLE criteria grades AKI:. The most important finding was a decreased need for acute dialysis: 78 patients during control versus 49 with the low chloride bundle P=0.005. They point out that chlor...
http://pbfluids.com/2012/10/saline-versus-ringers-solution-fight.html
*  Steepster Honeydew Mate from DAVIDsTEA reviewed by CHAroma | April 01, 2013
Steepster Honeydew Mate from DAVIDsTEA reviewed by CHAroma. April 01, 2013. Steepster. Teas. Places. Discussions. Explore. Learn More Sign Up Log in. People. CHAroma Tealog. CHAroma select Send Message. 221 Followers. / 251 Following. Tealog. Tea Ratings. Cupboard. Wishlist. Place Ratings. 81. CHAroma. drank Honeydew Mate by DAVIDsTEA. 611 tasting notes. In exactly three weeks at precisely this time, I will be a newly married woman. I can’t believe the wedding is so close. I’ve waited my whole life for this moment, and now it’s almost here. Eeeeeeehhh!!. Well, on to the task at hand. This was a free sample with my latest DAVIDsTEA order. I recently broke my favorite travel mug: a double-walled glass tumbler from DAVIDsTEA. Luckily, it was in stock on the website. So, I was able to buy a replacement immediately. While I was at it, I figured I might as well pick up some tea. Shhh, just don’t tell the fiancé. I’m technically not allowed to buy any more tea. :P But I only picked up a small package of Love Tea #7,...
http://steepster.com/CHAroma/posts/166601
*  How to choose, prepare, and store Honeydew - Perfect Produce | SparkPeople
How to choose, prepare, and store Honeydew - Perfect Produce. SparkPeople. Join Now for Free. Help. Welcome Guide. Site Tour Videos. Frequently Asked Questions. Log In. Search. site recipes. Start. My Trackers. Start. my Nutrition. my Fitness. my Weight. Other Goals. SparkStreaks. Reports. SparkMail. my SparkPoints. Web Search. Articles Videos. Articles & Videos Home. Nutrition. Nutrition Basics. Smart Snacking. Power Foods. Healthy Cooking. Dining Out Guide. Fitness. Exercise Basics. Workout Ideas. Motivation to Move. Cardio. Strength & Toning. Motivation. Get Back on Track. Staying Motivated. Goal Setting. Inspiring Stories. Health & Wellness. Health A-Z. Arthritis. Cold Flu. Depression. Diabetes. GERD Heartburn. Healthy Heart. High Blood Pressure. High Cholesterol. Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS. Weight Loss. Pregnancy & Family. Videos. Instant Inspiration. Lifestyle Centers. Beauty & Style. Brides To-Be. Family Wellness. Gardening. Healthy Home. Pet Health. Senior Health. More. SparkRecipes.com. The SparkPe...
http://sparkpeople.com/resource/perfect_prod_detail.asp?ppid=49
*  What Roles Does Protein Play in the Body? | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
What Roles Does Protein Play in the Body. Healthy Eating. SF Gate. SF Gate. News. Sports. Business. A E. Food. Living. Travel. Columns. More. Less. Cars. Jobs. Real Estate. Find Save. Skip to main content. Healthy Eating. by Demand Media. Healthy Eating. Nutrition. Protein. What Roles Does Protein Play in the Body. What Roles Does Protein Play in the Body. by Elle Paula. Email. Facebook. Twitter. Pinterest. Reddit. Google+ Protein has more physiological roles than any other nutrient. Protein is considered a macronutrient, which means that your body needs it in large amounts every day to function properly. When you eat protein, your body breaks it down into amino acids that are used for several purposes. Protein can provide your body with energy when necessary, but you should not rely on protein as a primary energy source because it has more important physiological roles to play, according to Nutrition and You by Joan Salge Blake. Immune Function. Your immune system relies heavily on proteins. When your body i...
http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/roles-protein-play-body-3918.html
*  Talkin' Broadway Off-Broadway - Intimacy - 1/29/14
... Intimacy. Theatre Review by Matthew Murray. Daniel Gerroll Photo by Monique Carboni. I first encountered the machinations of Thomas Bradshaw in late 2011, when The New Group presented his Burning, a tragicomic cluster-collage about the confluence of art, gay sex, and neo-Nazism in... Though its unchecked tonal confusion was not to my taste, it at least seemed as though Bradshaw was trying, however flailingly, to comment on the world or the human condition. Now his new work, Intimacy, being presented again by The New Group at the Acorn Theatre, has oozed open free of even that minuscule burden. But the word "art" doesn't belong within 100 light years of what Bradshaw and director Scott Elliott have rendered. Foremost among the fragments: Matthew, an aspiring teenage filmmaker, becomes obsessed with the concept of "frottage," or sexual intercourse without traditional penetration, as a method of protecting the virginity of his girlfriend, Sarah; Matthew's born-again dad James mourns his two-years-dead wife ...
http://talkinbroadway.com/ob/1_29_14.html
*  Digestion of Nucleic acids | Homework Help | Assignment Help | Digestion
Digestion of Nucleic acids. Homework Help. Assignment Help. Digestion. +1-530-264-8006. info@tutorsglobe.com. Live Chat. Signup. Login. . Home. Digestion of Nucleic acids - Digestion of Nucleic acids. Digestion of Nucleic acids Digestion of Nucleic acids : Digestion in mouth and stomach : In the mouth there are no enzymes to digest nucleic acids. The extremely acidic medium in the stomach destabilizes the nucleoprotein structure and the proteolytic enzymes break down them into nucleic acids and proteins. Digestion in duodenum : Pancreatic juice consists of 2 enzymes that are ribonuclease and deoxylribonuclease which can hydrolyze the nucleic acids to mononucleotides. Relies on the site of action, nucleases can be either endonuclease which attacks the interior linkages or exonuclease that which attacks the terminal linkages. The intestinal juice or succus entericus consists of the following two enzymes which digest nucleic acids. a Nucleotidases which hydrolyze nucleotides to nuclosides and phosphoric acid. b ...
http://tutorsglobe.com/homework-help/biochemistry/digestion-of-nucleic-acids-71894.aspx
*  Intestinal gland
In histology, an 'intestinal gland' also 'crypt of Lieberkühn ' and 'intestinal crypt' is a gland found in the epithelial lining of the small intestine and large intestine colon. The glands and intestinal villi are covered by epithelium which contains multiple types of cell s: enterocytes absorbing water and electrolytes, goblet cells secreting mucus, enteroendocrine cells secreting hormones, tuft cells and, at the base of the gland, Paneth cells secreting anti-microbial peptides and stem cell s. Structure Function Intestinal juice. Intestinal glands are found in the epithelia of the small intestine, namely the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and in the large intestine colon where they are sometimes called 'colonic crypts'. Intestinal glands of the small intestine contain a base of replicating stem cell s, Paneth cell s of the innate immune system, and goblet cell s, which produce mucus. 1 In the colon, crypts do not have Paneth cells. Intestinal juice. 4 Colonic crypts. Image:Colonic crypts within four tissue se...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intestinal_gland
*  WordNet Search - 3.1
... - WordNet home page - Glossary - Help. Word to search for:. Display Options: Select option to change Hide Example Sentences Hide Glosses Show Frequency Counts Show Database Locations Show Lexical File Info Show Lexical File Numbers Show Sense Keys Show Sense Numbers Show all Hide all Key: "S:" = Show Synset semantic relations, "W:" = Show Word lexical relations. Display options for sense: gloss "an example sentence" Noun. S: n enterokinase enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin. direct hypernym / inherited hypernym / sister term....
http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&s=enterokinase&i=0&h=0
*  http://www.undergroundhiphop.com/store/results.asp?PageType=Discount&Category=Clothing&Label=Flying+Coffin&InStock=Yes&Null=1&PreOrder=Yes&PageLetter=F
... => http://www.undergroundhiphop.com/store/1080...
http://undergroundhiphop.com/store/results.asp?PageType=Discount&Category=Clothing&Label=Flying Coffin&InStock=Yes&Null=1&PreOrder=Yes&PageLetter=F
*  Assembly of the Bacterial Type VI Secretion System
... Browser does not support script. Browser does not support script. University of Birmingham. Alumni. Working here. Events. Visit. Menu. Study. Research. International. Business. News. About us. Alumni. Working here. Events. Visit. Search. Search for:. Search Popular pages Order a prospectus. Register for an open day. Search for vacancies. Contact us. Maps and directions. Browse our libraries. Buy from our online shop. Home > Schools and Departments > School of Biosciences > News, events seminars > Assembly of the Bacterial Type VI Secretion System. Assembly of the Bacterial Type VI Secretion System Location Lecture Theatre NG08 - Biosciences Building Category Life and Environmental Sciences, Research. Dates Tuesday 23rd 13:00 - Thursday 25th October 2012 14:00. Download the date to your calendar .ics file. IMI Global Infection Seminar Speaker: Dr Eric Cascales, LISM - CNRS, France Host: Prof. Ian Henderson. Take a virtual tour of one of our teaching labs Take the tour Download our Undergra...
http://birmingham.ac.uk/schools/biosciences/news/2012/seminar-231012.aspx?download=DownloadasPDFlink_pdf
*  TIGR03925
... . TIGRFAMs. JCVI Home. TIGRFAMs Home. Genome Properties. TIGRFAMs Home. TIGRFAMs Terms. TIGRFAMs Complete Listing. TIGRFAMs FTP site. TIGRFAMs Resources. TIGR03925 Seed Alignment. HMM Summary Page: TIGR03925. Accession. TIGR03925. Name. T7SS EccC b. Function. type VII secretion protein EccCb. Gene Symbol. eccCb. Trusted Cutoff. 346.55. Domain Trusted Cutoff. 346.55. Noise Cutoff. 251.05. Domain Noise Cutoff. 251.05. Isology Type. equivalog domain. HMM Length. 564. Author. Haft DH. Entry Date. Feb 2 2010 4:44PM. Last Modified. Feb 14 2011 3:27PM. Comment. This model represents the C-terminal domain or EccCb subunit of the type VII secretion protein EccC as found in the Actinobacteria. Type VII secretion is defined more broadly as including secretion systems for ESAT-6-like proteins in the Firmicutes as well as in the Actinobacteria, but this family does not show close homologs in the Firmicutes. References. DR PFAM; PF01580; FtsK/SpoIIIE family RN RM PMID:19876390 RT Systematic genetic nomenclature for ty...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/tigrfams/HmmReportPage.cgi?acc=TIGR03925
*  KEGG PATHWAY: map03070
Description Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose functions include biogenesis of organelles, such as pilli and flagella, nutrient acquisition, virulence, and efflux of drugs and other toxins. Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted proteins are commonly translocated across the single membrane by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine Tat pathway. alpha-Hemolysin/cyclolysin transport system. Title Revisiting the chlamydial type III protein secretion system: clues to the origin of type III protein secretion. Title Bacterial pathogenesis: the answer to virulence is in the pore. Title Type IV secretion: intercellular transfer of macromolecules by systems ancestrally related to conjugation machines. Title Towards a systems biology approach to study type II/IV secretion systems. ...
http://genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?path:map03070
*  Phys.org - secretion systems
... Home secretion systems. News tagged with secretion systems. 1 week. 1 month. 1 week. 1 month. 1 week. 1 month. Researchers report on hardware Trojans that are undetectable. Phys.org —Worries that the security of integrated circuits used in critical systems by the military and industry can be compromised are all the more real with the release of a research paper titled "Stealthy Dopant-Level ... Sep 19, 2013 in Hi Tech & Innovation. 'Remote Control' for Cholesterol Regulation Discovered in Brain. PhysOrg.com -- Circulation of cholesterol is regulated in the brain by the hunger-signaling hormone ghrelin, researchers say. PhysOrg.com -- Research scientists in California and elsewhere are deliberately setting out to compromise the mobile phone system used by around three billion people. Sep 23, 2014 in Biochemistry. Many pathogenic bacteria use special secretion systems to deliver toxic proteins into host cells. Jun 20, 2014 in Cell & Microbiology. Spread of antibiotic resistance understood by unravelling ba...
http://phys.org/tags/secretion systems/sort/rank/all/
*  Type three secretion system
... 'Type three secretion system' often written 'Type III secretion system' and abbreviated 'TTSS' or 'T3SS', also called 'Injectisome' or 'Injectosome' is a protein appendage found in several Gram-negative bacteria. The term Type III secretion system was coined in 1993. 1 This secretion system is distinguished from at least five other secretion systems found in Gram-negative bacteria. Technically speaking, type III secretion is used both for secreting infection-related proteins and flagellar components. The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system. Bacterial proteins that need to be secreted pass from the bacterial cytoplasm through the needle directly into the host cytoplasm. Three membrane s separate the two cytoplasms: the double membrane inner and outer membranes of the Gram-negative bacterium and the eukaryotic membrane. 8 T3SS proteins. Structures similar to Type3SS injectisomes have been proposed to rivet gram negative bacterial outer and inner membranes to help...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_three_secretion_system
*  GenProp0845
Genome Properties. Genome Properties Home. Genome Properties List. Top Level Genome Properties. Search CMR Genome Properties. Genome Property Definition Page Accession GenProp0845. Name protein sorting system, KxYKxGKxW class. Type SYSTEM. Description Analogous to YSIRK, this property describes a subclass of N-terminal signal sequence in Firmicutes low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. As with YSIRK, many proteins with this N-terminal domain have an LPXTG C-terminal anchor. However, most of these proteins have extended regions of low-complexity sequence, usually serine-rich. JCVI Role Protein and peptide secretion and trafficking. Parent Property GenProp0179 : protein transport. Components Step Name Step Num Required Evidence Method Evidence Go Terms KxYKxGKxW motif signal peptide KxW sig YES TIGR03715 HMM : KxYKxGKxW signal peptide. putative linked putative esterase TIGR03729 hypot 1 NO TIGR03729 HMM : putative phosphoesterase. Parent Properties Accession Name GenProp0179 protein transport. Sibling Properties Acces...
http://jcvi.org/cgi-bin/genome-properties/GenomePropDefinition.cgi?prop_acc=GenProp0845
*  Secretion
The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes. Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or toxin s such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example ' Vibrio cholerae ' from across the interior cytoplasm or cytosol of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion in eukaryotic cells Mechanism. Secretion in Gram negative bacteria Type I secretion system T1SS or TOSS. Type II secretion system T2SS. Type V secretion system T5SS. Type VI secretion system T6SS. Release of outer membrane vesicles. Secretion in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells, including human cells, have a highly evolved process of secretion. Many human cell types have the ability to be secretory cells. Secretion in Gram negative bacteria. The Sec system constituting the Sec Y-E-G complex see Type II secretion system T2SS, below is another conserved secretion system, homologous to the translocon in...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secretion
*  Bacterial Effector proteins
... redirect bacterial effector protein...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_Effector_proteins
*  http://www.neti.ee/visiitkaart/10509288/Aktsiaselts%20Schl%C3%B6ssle%20Hotel%20Group.html
... => http://www.neti.ee/visiitkaart/10509288...
http://neti.ee/visiitkaart/10509288/Aktsiaselts Schlössle Hotel Group.html
*  Loss of Pulsatile Insulin Secretion: A Factor in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes?
Loss of Pulsatile Insulin Secretion: A Factor in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. Loss of Pulsatile Insulin Secretion: A Factor in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. John Wahren. To compensate for decreased β-cell mass, the remaining β-cells produce high levels of insulin, but the pulsatile secretion pattern is modified in that the insulin pulses are markedly attenuated 4. These findings provide the first direct evidence that the loss of pulsatile insulin secretion leads to intrahepatic molecular changes and altered gene expression consistent with the development of hepatic insulin resistance. Moreover, pulsatile insulin administration was accompanied by a modest decrease in plasma glucose levels, whereas both the constant infusion and the type 2 diabetes–mimicking infusion resulted in increased plasma glucose levels in the fasting state. Compared with age-matched Sprague-Dawley control rats, the HIP rats exhibited a progressive loss of β-cell mass, decreased mass of insulin pulses, elevated fasting lev...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/9/2228.full
*  Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose
... Insulin signal transduction pathway Insulin secretion. Feedback mechanism Positive feedback. Insulin signal transduction pathway. Insulin secretion mechanism is a common example of signal transduction pathway mechanism. In the beta-cells of the pancreas, glucose enters through the GLUT 2 receptors process described below. Feedback mechanism. Feedback mechanism might involve negative feedback and positive feedback. An example of positive feedback mechanism in the insulin transduction pathway is the activation of some enzymes that inhibit other enzymes from slowing or stopping the insulin transduction pathway which results in improved intake of the glucose. Some of these enzymes constrict the pathway causing a negative feedback like the GSK-3 pathway. Other enzymes will push the pathway forward causing a positive feedback like the AKT and P70 enzymes. Therefore, the process of insulin secretion is an example of a trigger mechanism in a signal transduction pathway because insulin is secreted after glucose e...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_signal_transduction_pathway_and_regulation_of_blood_glucose
*  Long Acting Insulin
... Information. Long Acting Insulin. Fresh Comments. Recent Comments admin on Fresh Comments admin on Fresh Comments jhanvirajput on Fresh Comments admin on Super Long Acting Insulin Developed in India pritesh on Super Long Acting Insulin Developed in India. Long Acting Insulin News. long acting insulin 23. insulin injections 39. Insulin Injections 21. islet cells 1. < < Researchers Bioengineer Cells from Testicles to Produce Insulin Blood Glucose and the Glycemic Index >> Islet Transplantation Eliminates the Need for Insulin Injections December 15th, 2010 by. Islet cells are sugar-sensing cells in the pancreas that release insulin in order to maintain normal blood sugar levels in the body. Type 1 diabetics must take daily insulin injections, usually a complex combination of short and long acting insulin. Over ten years later, islet transplantation is still an experimental procedure. The procedure is normally restricted to type 1 diabetics between the ages of 18 and 65 who have had diabetes for more than 5 ...
http://longactinginsulin.com/index.php/2010/12/islet-transplantation-eliminates-the-need-for-insulin-injections/
*  Insulin Augmentation of Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Impaired in Insulin-Resistant Humans
... Diabetes. Skip to main page content. Home. Current Issue. Archive. Contact Us. Subscribe. Help. Alerts. Podcasts. Search. GO. Advanced Search ». User Name. Password. Sign In. . Insulin Augmentation of Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Impaired in Insulin-Resistant Humans. Florencia Halperin. 1, 2, 3,. Ximena Lopez. 1, 2, 4,. Raquel Manning. 1,. C. Ronald Kahn. 1, 3,. Rohit N. Kulkarni. 1, 3 and. Allison B. Goldfine. 1, 2, 3. ⇓. 1 Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts;. 2 Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts;. 3 Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts;. 4 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Corresponding author: Allison B. Goldfine, allison.goldfine{at}joslin.harvard.edu. . Next Section. Abstract. Type 2 diabetes T2D is characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, the latter possibly caused by a defect in insulin signaling in β-cells. We hypothesized that insulin’s effect to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secre...
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/2/301.full
*  How to test insulin levels at home?
How to test insulin levels at home. Forums. Live Chat. Type 1. Type 2. Recipes. Diabetes cookbooks. Top-rated recipes. Thriving with Diabetes. Forum. Pre-Diabetes. How to test insulin levels at home. 2 Post By furball64801. 1 Post By karena. 1 Post By Nan-OH. How to test insulin levels at home. Seeking. Join Date November 2012 Posts 16. How to test insulin levels at home. I saw some older threads in here about people who were testing their own blood insulin and glucose at the same time and I believe they were doing it at home. I know how to test blood glucose at home but how do you test your blood insulin levels at home. Is there a meter for that too. Reply With Quote. Join Date February 2012 Location Eurasia Posts > 100. Reply With Quote. Join Date December 2009 Location Mo Posts > 100. Most of us only check blood glucose not insulin. Reply With Quote. Family Moderator T2 insulin resistant Using Basal/Bolus Therapy Age 68. Join Date February 2008 Location Ohio USA Posts > 100. Help us out here, pumpers, can'...
https://diabetesdaily.com/forum/pre-diabetes/67694-how-test-insulin-levels-home/
*  Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle/Carbs will lead to better pumps - AnabolicMinds.com
... Nutrition News. Weight Loss News. Training News. Forum. Nutrition Forum. Weight Loss Forum. Training Forum. Main Forum. Nutrition Forum. Weight Loss Forum. Training Forum. Mind & Muscle. Strong Supplements. Forum. Nutrition Forum. Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle/Carbs will lead to better pumps. Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle/Carbs will lead to better pumps. 03-30-2007, 02:15 PM. Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle/Carbs will lead to better pumps. will lead to better pumps, particularly if accompanied by high intensity training. Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle. Mind and Muscle Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle/Carbs will lead to better pumps. 03-30-2007, 02:26 PM. 03-30-2007, 03:43 PM. Originally Posted by Quinc. will lead to better pumps, particularly if accompanied by high intensity training. Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle. Mind and Muscle Insulin Causes Vasodilation in Muscle/Carbs will lead to better pumps. There is also a strong relationship between insulin-mediated va...
http://anabolicminds.com/forum/nutrition-health/62671-insulin-causes-vasodilation.html
*  Insulin and diabetes treatment round 2
... Health. SheKnows Media Beauty and Style 14614 North Kierland Boulevard S150 Scottsdale, AZ 85254. Type 2 diabetes is a state of severe insulin resistance — when a person’s body has become more and more resistant to the effects of insulin, to the point that blood glucose levels cannot be brought down into a safe range. The result is that both glucose and insulin levels in the blood are too high. Conventional medicine only treats the high blood glucose, and does so with drugs that further elevate insulin levels. Insulin resistance is caused by a diet that raises blood glucose levels too high and for too long. A diet that constantly elevates blood glucose levels requires increasing secretion of insulin to lower glucose levels to a safe range. Over time, the elevated levels of insulin cause the insulin receptors to down-regulate — the onset of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance means that more insulin must be secreted to control blood glucose levels, and over time, that extra insulin leads to more insuli...
http://sheknows.com/health-and-wellness/articles/993043/more-on-insulin-and-diabetes-treatment
*  .. Type 2 Insulin Rx .. When you have diabetes, you may need to take insulin. .. This section expl
Type 2 Insulin Rx. Insulin Basics » « Amylin Analog Treatment. When you have diabetes, you may need to take insulin. When you understand how insulin therapy works in your body, you can more easily control your blood sugar. When you have type 2 diabetes, and diet, exercise and other medications cannot control the blood sugar, or if you cannot use the medicines, it will be necessary to take insulin. This is known as insulin therapy, which your medical provider will prescribe for you. When you understand how insulin therapy works in your body, you can more easily control your blood sugar. Things you’ll need to know are:. What type of insulin are you using. When is that insulin active in your body. What is your dose. Is the insulin doing what it is supposed to do. This section explains how to use insulin therapy to treat diabetes. It focuses on:. Insulin Basics: Background information about the principles of insulin replacement. Types of Insulin: Action and characteristics of the different, commercially availab...
http://dtc.ucsf.edu/types-of-diabetes/type2/treatment-of-type-2-diabetes/medications-and-therapies/type-2-insulin-rx/
*  Medical Xpress - insulin sensitivity
... Home insulin sensitivity. News tagged with insulin sensitivity. Related topics: diabetes · type 2 diabetes · insulin resistance · metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. HealthDay —Caloric restriction CR improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, possibly by lowering insulin-stimulated thioredoxin-interacting protein TXNIP levels and enhancing non-oxidative glucose disposal, according ... Overweight and Obesity. Sleep affects HOMA-IR in overweight, obese teens. HealthDay —Overweight and obese adolescents have persistently higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance HOMA-IR , with significant contributors including total sleep time and sleep efficiency, according ... Medical research Sleep apnea. Reducing high concentrations of a fatty molecule that is commonly found in people with diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rapidly improves insulin sensitivity, UT Southwestern Medical Center diabetes researchers ... Insulin resistance. Insulin resistance IR is the condition in which normal amounts of...
http://medicalxpress.com/tags/insulin sensitivity/
*  ORBi: Paolisso G. - Pulsatile insulin delivery has greater metabolic effects than continuous hormone
- Pulsatile insulin delivery has greater metabolic effects than continuous hormone administration in man: importance of pulse frequency. User guide. Legal guide. Library Network. Reference : Pulsatile insulin delivery has greater metabolic effects than continuous hormone admi... To cite this reference: http://hdl.handle.net/2268/14035. Title : Pulsatile insulin delivery has greater metabolic effects than continuous hormone administration in man: importance of pulse frequency. Author, co-author : Paolisso, G. Journal title : Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Keywords : Adult ; Blood Glucose/metabolism ; C-Peptide/blood ; Glucagon/blood ; Glucose Clamp Technique ; Humans ; Infusions, Intravenous ; Insulin/administration dosage ; Insulin Infusion Systems/standards ; Kinetics ; Male ; Pancreatic Hormones/metabolism ; Pulsatile Flow. Abstract : The aim of this study was to see if the greater effect of insulin on hepatic glucose output when insulin is given using 13-min pulses in man remains when th...
http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/14035
*  Whole Health Source: Fat Tissue Insulin Sensitivity and Obesity
... Tuesday, September 13, 2011. Fat Tissue Insulin Sensitivity and Obesity. In this post, I'll discuss a few more facts pertaining to the idea that elevated insulin promotes the accumulation of fat mass. Insulin Action on Fat Cells Over the Course of Fat Gain. The idea that insulin acts on fat cells to promote obesity requires that insulin suppress fat release in people with more fat or people who are gaining fat to a greater extent than in lean people. As I have written before, this is not the case, and in fact the reverse is true. The fat tissue of obese people fails to normally suppress fatty acid release in response to an increase in insulin caused by a meal or an insulin injection, indicating that insulin's ability to suppress fat release is impaired in obesity 1, 2, 3. The reason for that is simple: the fat tissue of obese people is insulin resistant. There has been some question around the blogosphere about when insulin resistance in fat tissue occurs. Is it only observed in obese people, or does it ...
http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2011/09/fat-tissue-insulin-sensitivity-and.html?showComment=1316213123653
*  Compounds that increase insulin secretion
... Press Room. Site Map. About the Summit. Program. Advisory Boards. About TechConnect. 2011 Summit. June 13-16, Boston, Massachusetts. Producing Sponsor. Platinum Sponsor. Press Sponsor. Summit News Press Room. Compounds that increase insulin secretion. Brief: A class of compounds which are useful for increasing insulin secretion in Type II diabetic patients. In particular, these investigators have discovered a class of compounds that are inhibitors of UCP2 Uncoupling Protein 2, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein involved in energy metabolism. Summary of I.P.: Cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. UCP2 mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. UCP2 knockout mice were shown to have higher islet ATP levels and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, establishing that UCP2 negatively regulates insulin secretion. Importantly, mice lacking leptin ob/ob and also lacking UCP2 had restored firs...
http://techconnect.org/Summit2006/program/showabstract.html?absno=11068
*  Regular insulin
... legal AU = legal CA = legal UK =. CAS number Ref = CAS number =. UNII = KEGG Ref = KEGG =. ChemSpiderID Ref = ChemSpiderID = none. 'Regular insulin' includes 'regular human insulin' also known as 'human insulin regular ' and is a short acting insulin. It is primarily used to treat high blood sugar levels in conditions like diabetes mellitus. Medical uses Side effects Society and culture Manufacture. Side effects. Side effects may include: low blood sugar levels, skin reactions at the site of injection and low potassium levels among others. Society and culture. Humulin one brand name for a group of biosynthetic human insulin products, developed by Arthur Riggs, working with Genentech in 1978 Generic names regular insulin, insulin isophane and the Lente series consisting of Lente known generically as insulin zinc suspension is actually a mixture of Ultralente and Semilente and later acquired by Eli Lilly and Company, the company who arguably facilitated the product's approval with the U.S. Prior to the dev...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regular_insulin
*  Insulin action in the brain can lead to obesity: How insulin in hypothalamus controls body's energy
... balance -- ScienceDaily. Your source for the latest research news. Insulin action in the brain can lead to obesity: How insulin in hypothalamus controls body's energy balance. Behind this simple equation lie complex signalling pathways, through which the neurotransmitters in the brain control the body's energy balance. The interaction between the insulin and the target cells in the brain also plays a crucial role in the control of the body's energy balance. As the scientists have shown, insulin in the SF-1 neurons -- another group of neurons in the hypothalamus -- triggers a signalling cascade. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. "Insulin action in the brain can lead to obesity: How insulin in hypothalamus controls body's energy balance." ScienceDaily. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Insulin action in the brain can lead to obesity: How insulin in hypothalamus controls body's energy balance. "Insulin action in the brain can lead to obesity: How insulin in hypothalamus controls body's energy balance." ScienceDaily. RELATED ...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110606121839.htm
*  Medical Xpress - insulin sensitivity(... continued page 3)
Medical Xpress - insulin sensitivity ... Home insulin sensitivity. News tagged with insulin sensitivity. New research published in Diabetologia the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes suggests that training with alternating levels of walking intensity interval training could be better than walking ... HealthDay —For obese adolescents, glucose sensitivity deteriorates progressively across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, according to a study published online June 19 in Diabetes. HealthDay —A genetic score for insulin resistance is associated with lower body mass index BMI and with incident type 2 diabetes T2D even among individuals of normal weight, according to a study published online June ... HealthDay —Exercise training induces hypothalamic cell proliferation in adult mice and improves insulin sensitivity, but blocking cell proliferation does not prevent insulin action, according to an experimental study published ... Insulin resistance. Insulin resistance IR is the condition in...
http://medicalxpress.com/tags/insulin sensitivity/page3.html
*  Insulin Pump Supplies: Order a Sugar Meter & Other Insulin Supplies
Insulin Pump Supplies: Order a Sugar Meter Other Insulin Supplies. Diabetes Wellness Supplies Online or by Phone. 800 633-7167. Home. Customer Service. My Account. Cart. Testing Supplies. Batteries. Blood Glucose Meters. Blood Glucose Test Strips. Control Solution. Lancets. Lancing Devices. Lancing Supplies. Software. Urine Glucose Test Strips. Insulin Supplies. Diabetes Carrying Cases. Glucose Supplies. Insulin. Insulin Accessories. Insulin Devices. Insulin Needle Free Devices. Insulin Pen Needles. Insulin Pump Supplies. Syringes. Wellness Supplies. Bathroom Safety Products. Blood Pressure Kits. Braces and Pain Relief Management. Cough & Cold Suppressants. Diabetes Accessories. Diabetes Socks. Drug Delivery Products. Foot Care. Gift Certificates. Heating Pads. Home Diagnostics Products. Medical Identification. Medication Management. Mobility Products. Nail Care Products. Nutritionals and Foods. Pedometers. Personal Care. Sexual Healthcare. Skin Care Products. Sugar Free Candy. Sugar Free Foods. Sugar Free Su...
http://diabeticcareservices.com/Content/ProductHome.aspx?CategoryID=20
*  Insulin oscillation
thumb|right|250px|Insulin release from pancreas is pulsatile with a period of 3-6 minutes. 1 The oscillations are believed to be important for insulin sensitivity by preventing downregulation of insulin receptor s in target cells. Such downregulation underlies insulin resistance, which is common in type 2 diabetes. Insulin originates from beta cells located in the islets of Langerhans. Since each islet contains up to 2000 beta cells and there are one million islets in the pancreas it is apparent that pulsatile secretion requires sophisticated synchronization both within and among the islets of Langerhans. thumb|right|250px|Pulsatile insulin release from single beta cells is synchronized in each islet of Langerhans as well as among all islets in the pancreas. Mechanism Clinical significance See also References. Pulsatile insulin secretion from individual beta cells is driven by oscillation of the calcium concentration in the cells. However, within an islet of Langerhans the oscillations become synchronized by ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_oscillation
*  Insulin requirements in insulin-dependent and insulin-requiring GDM women during final month of preg
... nancy. Insulin requirements in insulin-dependent and insulin-requiring GDM women during final month of pregnancy. MedLine Citation:. OBJECTIVE: To determine the significance of falling insulin requirements after the 36th wk of gestation in insulin-requiring pregnant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Insulin requirements of women with IDDM and IRGDM were assessed from the 36th wk of pregnancy, with evaluation of maternal characteristics and fetal outcomes. RESULTS: In 32 pregnancies of women with IDDM, there was a 5 +/- 2% decrease in insulin requirements, and in 19 pregnancies of women with IRGDM, there was a 28 +/- 10% increase. Of the 62% of women whose insulin requirements declined, the decrement was 12 +/- 2% and was associated with longer duration of diabetes 12 +/- 2 vs. 6 +/- 1 yr, P less than 0.05 but not with age, prepregnancy BMI, weight gain, or maternal or fetal complications. Only 3 pregnancies in IRGDM women were associated with a decrease in insulin requirements. Although maternal paramet...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Insulin-requirements-in-insulin-dependent/1425097.html
*  Evaluating the array of insulin products for companion animals
>> Mobile Site Home of dvm360 magazine Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Economics Firstline The CVC Group. CVC. News. Practice news. Q Please review insulin products for use in dogs and cats. Structure and action. Mammalian insulin is a protein consisting of a 21-amino-acid A chain and 30-amino-acid B chain, folded into a tertiary structure, with some amino-acid variations between species. The exact functional surface of insulin's tertiary structure is not known, but the differences in amino-acid structure of beef, pork and human insulin are not important with respect to receptor-binding affinity. The difference between the different products is due to liberation and absorption. Insulin is absorbed in the subcutaneous space into the blood predominantly as monomers and dimers, and the different products liberate insulin monomers and dimers at various rates. Compared to more slowly absorbed insulin, more rapidly absorbed insulin will have an earlier glycemic effect. For any given quantity of insulin, if the insul...
http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/evaluating-array-insulin-products-companion-animals
*  The Role of FTO Gene Polymorphism and Insulin Preparation in Obesity in Children With Type 1 Diabete
... s Mellitus - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. The Role of FTO Gene Polymorphism and Insulin Preparation in Obesity in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus FTO T1DM This study has been completed. The project aims at assessment of the effect of the FTO gene polymorphism and the type of treatment on the development of overweight/obesity and features of metabolic syndrome in children with type 1 diabetes. Patients: The study will include 1500 children with type 1 diabetes, aged 6-18 years. Results: The authors of the project expect that the effect of the FTO gene polymorphism on overweight/obesity and features of metabolic syndrome in children with type 1 diabetes will be shown. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Official Title: The Role of FTO Gene Polymorphism and Insulin Preparation in Overweight/Obesity in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Primary Outcome Measures: Identification of the effect of the FTO gene polymorphism on the development of overweight/obesity in insulin treated children. Identificat...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01279161
*  Prandin and Starlix (Rapid Insulin Releasers)
Prandin and Starlix Rapid Insulin Releasers. googletag.slots = googletag.slots |. {}; //-->. Skip to main content. Advertisement. Home About Us Contact Us. SHOP WITH US ABOUT DIABETES. Newly Diagnosed. Risk/Diagnosis Types of Diabetes. Monogenic Diabetes Diabetes Care. Talking To Your Docto Blood Sugar Testing. HbA1c Diet and Nutrition Plans Insulins Diabetes Medications. HealthTap RateRx Help From New Drugs Invokana Healthcare Team Motivation People Diabetes. Diabetes MoToMove. Shall We Dance. I Run On Insulin Pioneer Woman of Diabetes And Exercise At This Time of Year Moving From There To Here The Way Missy Moves Become Inspired Diabetes Reflected in the Mirror Moving Patiently Where Has Diabetes and Exercise Gone. As Time Goes By Dreams Begin with Baby Steps ADA Scientific 75th Sessions Observations Women Diabetes Men Diabetes Children Diabetes Air Travel Diabetes Types of Diabetes. What Type. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1.5 Type 2. The Apple Figure Insulin Sensitivity Prediabetes Syndrome X Polycystic Ovary Dise...
http://diabetesnet.com/about-diabetes/diabetes-medications/prandin-and-starlix
*  Exercise sub-cluster 20
It is not known whether the beneficial effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity are due to changes in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity or whether the changes in insulin sensitivity can be explained by adaptive changes in fatty acid metabolism, changes in visceral fat or changes in liver and ... Effect of prior moderate exercise on postprandial metabolism in men with type ... This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate exercise on postprandial metabolism in men with type 2 diabetes. The present study was undertaken to determine whether improved vasodilatory function accompanies increased insulin sensitivity in overweight, insulin-resistant subjects OW and type 2 diabetic patients T2DM who participated in an 8-wk exercise training regimen. Before and after training, subjects had euglycemic clamps to determine insulin sensitivity. Effects of short-term training on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism ... The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects...
http://biomedsearch.com/cluster/75/Exercise/sub-20-p5.html
*  Insulin in the UK
... Join the Forum » Diabetes Discussions. Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes. Blood glucose monitoring. Insulin pump forum. Complications. Insulin resistance. Weight loss. Prediabetes Forum. Type 1 Diabetes. Causes of type 1 diabetes. Diet for type 1 diabetes. How to test your blood glucose. Video guide on testing your blood glucose with a blood glucose meter. How to inject insulin. Watch our video guide on how to inject insulin. Type 2 Diabetes. Diet for type 2 diabetes. Weight loss. Blood glucose testing. Get a blood glucose meter, test strips and a structured testing program. Get an instant and free travel insurance quote - kids under 23 go free, too. Insulin ranges can be withdrawn Insulin may be a key part of your treatment if you suffer from diabetes. The vials are used with syringes, whereas the cartridges are used with pen injectors. List of insulins The table highlights the various insulin types, their manufacturers, the insulin source and how it's available. Long - acting analogue Lantus Sanofi anal...
http://diabetes.co.uk/insulin-in-the-uk.html
*  Diabetes: Giving Yourself an Insulin Shot
... UW Health. Skip to Content UW Health SMPH. American Family Children's Hospital Home. Online Services. Bill Pay. Classes and Support Groups. Prescription Refill. Services. Clinics Hospitals. Search. Health Information. Health Information Home. Insulin Syringes. Steps for Preparing a Single Dose of Insulin. Steps for Preparing a Mixed Dose of Insulin. Giving an Insulin Injection Into the Belly. Giving an Insulin Injection Into the Belly Using an Insulin Pen. Diabetes: Giving Yourself an Insulin Shot. Insulin can help lower blood sugar too. Remember these key tips for giving insulin shots: Make sure you have the right dose of insulin, especially if you are giving two types of insulin in the same syringe. How to prepare and give an insulin injection Your health professional or certified diabetes educator CDE will help you learn to prepare and give your insulin dose. You will need an insulin syringe. If you are using an insulin pen, you will need a needle that works with your pen. Prepare the shot How you pre...
http://uwhealth.org/health/topic/actionset/giving-yourself-insulin-shots/aa91119.html
*  Genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired insulin secretion but does no
... t modify insulin resistance or secretion in response to an intervention to lower dietary saturated fat - CentAUR. Accessibility navigation Genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired insulin secretion but does not modify insulin resistance or secretion in response to an intervention to lower dietary saturated fat. Wordle Link RDF+XML BibTeX RIOXX2 XML RDF+N-Triples JSON Dublin Core Atom Simple Metadata Refer METS HTML Citation with IDs HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Dublin Core Reference Manager RDF+N3. 2012 Genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired insulin secretion but does not modify insulin resistance or secretion in response to an intervention to lower dietary saturated fat. We composed a genetic predisposition score T2D-GPS by summing the T2D risk-increasing alleles of the 25 SNPs and tested for association with insulin secretion and sensitivity at baseline, and w...
http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/27763/
*  Two types of insulin: human and analog | Inquirer Business
Two types of insulin: human and analog. Inquirer Business. NEWS. GLOBAL NATION. News. Global Nation. INQUIRER.net. NEWS. GLOBAL NATION. Changing Diabetes Two types of insulin: human and analog. @inquirerdotnet. Philippine Daily Inquirer By: Leorino M. To be efficiently utilized by the body, glucose in the bloodstream needs to enter the body’s cells. If glucose is unable to enter the cells, blood glucose levels rise leading to hyperglycemia. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. The beta cells release more insulin whenever there is a rise in blood glucose levels. Insulin enables glucose to enter the cells, thereby restoring normal blood glucose levels and allowing efficient glucose metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin because the disease has destroyed the beta cells of their pancreas. Insulin therapy replaces or supplements the body’s own insulin, thereby restoring normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Human insulin is available in three types: re...
http://business.inquirer.net/128355/two-types-of-insulin-human-and-analog
*  FRIO Insulin Cooling Wallet - Small
... The FRIO Insulin Cooling Wallet - Small keeps insulin and other temperature-sensitive medications cool while you are traveling. Insulin View more FRIO Insulin Cooling Wallet - Small The FRIO Insulin Cooling Wallet - Small keeps insulin and other temperature-sensitive medications cool while you are traveling. If you want to travel without worrying about your medication, buy the FRIO Insulin Cooling Wallet - Small from ActiveForever.com today. Insulin Cooling Wallet Features: Cools insulin for 45 hours each immersion period Requires immersion in cold water only, no refrigeration Lightweight, designed to withstand travel Cools in temperatures above 100° F 37.8°C Prevents insulin from freezing in cold environment Completely reusable Compatible with various insulin pumps, pens, and cartridges Also cools other sensitive medication. Customer Reviews Write Your Own Review You're reviewing: FRIO Insulin Cooling Wallet - Small How do you rate this product. FRIO Insulin Cooling Wallet - Small The FRIO Insulin Cooli...
https://activeforever.com/frio-insulin-cooling-wallet-small
*  Gastrointestinal cells made to produce insulin
... Pasco Press. Pasco Sports. Pinellas Sports. Pasco Newspaper Ads. Pinellas Newspaper Ads. Pasco Press. Gastrointestinal cells made to produce insulin. Researchers have manipulated gastrointestinal tract cells from people with type 1 diabetes so that they produce insulin in the lab. This technique may prove superior to making insulin-producing cells from stem cells. Published: July 10, 2014 NEW YORK — By switching off a single gene, scientists at Columbia University’s Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person’s GI tract to produce insulin. “People have been talking about turning one cell into another for a long time, but until now we hadn’t gotten to the point of creating a fully functional insulin-producing cell by the manipulation of a single target,” said the study’s senior author, Domenico Accili, the Russell Berrie Foun...
http://suncoastnews.com/su/list/pasco-press/gastrointestinal-cells-made-to-produce-insulin-20140710/
*  Diabetics Should Consider Switch To Human Insulin - tribunedigital-chicagotribune
... News. Business. Sports. Opinion. Real Estate. Cars. News. Business. Sports. Opinion. Real Estate. Cars. Diabetics Should Consider Switch To Human Insulin. Q--I am a diabetic, currently using beef and pork insulin to control my disease. Should I switch to human insulin now that it is available. Where does human insulin come from, and are there any advantages over animal insulin. A--Human insulin has been available since 1982. It can be extracted from the human pancreas, but for the most part it is manufactured in the laboratory using recombinant DNA technology. Human insulin has been shown to have significant advantages over beef and pork extracted insulins. Patients who`ve switched to human insulin have shown significant decreases in anti-insulin antibody levels, making it easier to manage insulin allergies. Many people are also able to absorb it better than animal insulins. Right now, recombinant DNA insulin costs about 40 percent of what purified pork insulin costs, although it`s still more expensive t...
http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1986-10-12/features/8603160995_1_human-insulin-animal-insulin-human-pancreas
*  A Study to Assess the Effects of DPP-4 Inhibition on Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes - Full T
... ext View - ClinicalTrials.gov. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Learn About Clinical Studies. Find Studies Study Record Detail. A Study to Assess the Effects of DPP-4 Inhibition on Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes This study has been completed. Sponsor: Novartis Information provided by: Novartis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00351546 First received: July 11, 2006 Last updated: May 4, 2012 Last verified: May 2012 History of Changes. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. Official Title: A Study to Assess the Effects of DPP-4 Inhibition on Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes. MedlinePlus related topics: Diabetes Type 2 Drug Information available for: Insulin Insulin human U.S. Primary Outcome Measures: Effect on insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks. Secondary Outcome Measures: Lipolysis rate after 6 weeks of treatment Plasma free fatty...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00351546
*  Diabetes: Giving Yourself an Insulin Shot - Genesis HealthCare System - Zanesville, Ohio
... Find a Doctor. Health Library Diabetes: Giving Yourself an Insulin Shot. Diabetes: Giving Yourself an Insulin Shot. Insulin Syringes. Steps for Preparing a Single Dose of Insulin. Steps for Preparing a Mixed Dose of Insulin. Giving an Insulin Injection Into the Belly Using an Insulin Pen. Diabetes: Giving Yourself an Insulin Shot. Remember these key tips for giving insulin shots: Make sure you have the right dose of insulin, especially if you are giving two types of insulin in the same syringe. How to prepare and give an insulin injection Your health professional or certified diabetes educator CDE will help you learn to prepare and give your insulin dose. If you are using an insulin pen, you will need a needle that works with your pen. Prepare the shot How you prepare will depend on whether you are giving one type of insulin or mixing two types. To prepare a shot with a single type of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a single dose of insulin. To prepare a shot that has two types of insulin, follow...
http://genesishcs.org/wellness/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=aa91119
*  Effect of glucose on the insulin production and insulin binding of Tetrahymena.
... BioMedSearch. Home. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Create Free Account. Document Detail. Effect of glucose on the insulin production and insulin binding of Tetrahymena. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 23195554 Owner: NLM Status: In-Data-Review. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. As the unicellular ciliate, Tetrahymena has insulin receptors and produces insulin itself, which can regulate its glucose metabolism and other cell functions, in the present experiments the feed-back, the effect of glucose on the insulin binding and insulin production was studied. The cells were kept partly in tryptone-yeast medium, partly in Losina salt solution. The duration of treatment in 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mg/ml glucose in the binding study was 10 min, in the hormone production study 30 min. FITC-insulin binding was significantly decreased only by 0.1 mg/ml glucose treatment in medium and by 10 mg/ml glucose in salt. The insulin production was significantly lower only in cells treated with 10 mg/ml glucose in medium. The insulin...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Effect-glucose-insulin-production-binding/23195554.html
*  High Serum Insulin Levels And Risk Of Prostate Cancer -- ScienceDaily
... High Serum Insulin Levels And Risk Of Prostate Cancer. Date: August 23, 2009 Source: Journal of the National Cancer Institute Summary: Elevated insulin levels in the normal range appear to be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, according to a new study. Elevated insulin levels in the normal range appear to be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, according to a new study published online August 21 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Researchers conducted a prospective case cohort study nested within a cancer prevention study of Finnish men 100 case subjects with prostate cancer and 400 non-case subjects without prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. "High Serum Insulin Levels And Risk Of Prostate Cancer." ScienceDaily. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. High Serum Insulin Levels And Risk Of Prostate Cancer. Retrieved October 4, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090821163511.htm Journal of the National Cancer Institute...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090821163511.htm
*  High Insulin Levels Could Mean Better Blood Vessels | Boston Magazine
High Insulin Levels Could Mean Better Blood Vessels. Boston Magazine. News Restaurants A E Health Home Property Style Weddings Best of Magazine. High Insulin Levels Could Mean Better Blood Vessels. Researchers found that vascular function was significantly improved following weight loss in obese patients with high levels of insulin. By Megan Tripp. Hub Health. September 9, 2013, 1:49 p.m. According to a new study published in the Journal of American College Cardiology, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center have found that obese patients with high insulin levels showed better blood vessel function after undergoing significant weight loss than patients with lower insulin levels. Researchers studied 208 overweight or obese patients who had received medical/dietary or bariatric surgery for one year and measured insulin levels and vascular cell function both before and after weight loss. Researchers discovered that in the patients who experienced more than 10 percent weigh...
http://bostonmagazine.com/health/blog/2013/09/09/high-insulin-levels-mean-better-blood-vessels/print/
*  Diabetes in Children: Giving Insulin Shots to a Child | NorthShore Diabetes in Children: Giving
Diabetes in Children: Giving Insulin Shots to a Child. Site Map. Diabetes in Children: Giving Insulin Shots to a Child. Then, when your child needs insulin, the insulin needle is put into the cannula instead of into the skin. Your doctor or certified diabetes educator CDE will help you and your child learn to prepare and give insulin injections. Get ready To get ready to give an insulin injection using an insulin vial and insulin syringe or an insulin pen, follow these steps. You will need an insulin syringe. If you are using an insulin pen, you will need a needle that works with your pen. Prepare the injection The preparation will depend on whether you are giving one type of insulin or mixing two types of insulin in the injection. To prepare an injection with a single type of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a single dose of insulin. To prepare an injection containing two types of insulin, follow the steps for preparing a mixed dose of insulin. If you are using an insulin pen, follow the manufacturer'...
http://northshore.org/healthresources/encyclopedia/encyclopedia.aspx?DocumentHwid=uq2666
*  Pulsatile insulin
... 'Pulsatile insulin', sometimes called 'metabolic activation therapy', or 'cellular activation therapy' describes in a literal sense the intravenous injection of insulin in pulses versus continuous infusions. Injection of insulin in pulses mimics the physiological secretions of insulin by the pancreas into the portal vein which then drains into the liver. The pancreas will secrete variable amounts of insulin based upon the amount of food consumed basically speaking, the more food that is consumed, the more insulin the pancreas will secrete among other factors. Continuous exposure to insulin and glucagon is known to decrease the hormones’ metabolic effectiveness on glucose production in humans due to the body developing an increased tolerance to the hormones. Background Pulsatile Insulin and the Liver Reviews on efficacy Notes. He theorized that end organ damage in diabetes is caused by abnormal hepatic glucose metabolism, inadequate insulin delivery, and insulin resistance. Pulsatile Insulin and the Liver...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsatile_insulin
*  Timesulin: A Cap For Insulin Pens
... googletag.slots = googletag.slots |. {}; //-->. Skip to main content. Advertisement. Home About Us Contact Us. SHOP WITH US ABOUT DIABETES. Newly Diagnosed. Risk/Diagnosis Types of Diabetes. Monogenic Diabetes Diabetes Care. Talking To Your Docto Blood Sugar Testing. HbA1c Diet and Nutrition Plans Insulins Diabetes Medications. HealthTap RateRx Help From New Drugs Invokana Healthcare Team Motivation People Diabetes. Diabetes MoToMove. Shall We Dance. I Run On Insulin Pioneer Woman of Diabetes And Exercise At This Time of Year Moving From There To Here The Way Missy Moves Become Inspired Diabetes Reflected in the Mirror Moving Patiently Where Has Diabetes and Exercise Gone. As Time Goes By Dreams Begin with Baby Steps ADA Scientific 75th Sessions Observations Women Diabetes Men Diabetes Children Diabetes Air Travel Diabetes Types of Diabetes. What Type. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1.5 Type 2. The Apple Figure Insulin Sensitivity Prediabetes Syndrome X Polycystic Ovary Disease Gestational Diabetes Hemochromatosis...
http://diabetesnet.com/about-diabetes/insulin/insulin-delivery/insulin-pens/timesulin
*  .. A-Z Health Topics .. Islet-cell Transplants: The End of Insulin Shots? .. A Possible Treatment .
Islet-cell Transplants: The End of Insulin Shots. Diabetes mellitus results from high blood sugar levels because of the body's inability to produce or effectively use insulin. People with type 1 diabetes produce little or no insulin. The main treatment regimen for type 1 diabetes is insulin injections throughout the day, measuring blood sugar levels, watching one's diet, and planning structured meals and activities. People with type 2 diabetes either do not produce enough insulin or their bodies have difficulty putting the available insulin to work. Some people with type 2 diabetes require insulin injections. One hope for cure of type 1 diabetes lies in transplanting the islet cells that are in the pancreas. Islet cells produce and secret insulin into the bloodstream. Doctors have attempted to transplant insulin-producing islet cells from donated pancreases into people with severe, unstable diabetes. The results were that these recipients were able to maintain normal blood sugar levels without taking insulin ...
http://centegra.org/a-z-health-topics/?chunkid=14700&lang=English&db=hlt
*  PPT – Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Future Directions PowerPoint presentation |
PPT Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Future Directions PowerPoint presentation. free to view - id: 145c2e-NzQ5M. Presentations free-to-view. Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Future Directions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. PPT Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Future Directions PowerPoint presentation. free to view - id: 145c2e-NzQ5M. Title: Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Future Directions. PowerPoint PPT presentation. Title: Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Future Directions. 20 Summary of Key Findings VA CSDM Glycemic control achievable with intensive insulin treatment control maintained gt2 years Intensive treatment not associated with severe hypoglycemia, weight gain, hypertension, or dyslipidemia Kumamoto trial Intensive insulin treatment reduced microvascular complications Established glycemic threshold to prevent onset and progression of complications UKPDS Diet therapy alone inadequate in two thirds of patients Pharmacologic t...
http://powershow.com/view/145c2e-NzQ5M/Insulin_Therapy_in_Type_2_Diabetes_Current_and_Future_Directions_powerpoint_ppt_presentation
*  Intensive insulin provides survival benefit in patients with type 2 diabetes after heart attack
... 09 May 2014 The Lancet Under embargo until 12 May 2014 23:01 GMT. Long-term follow-up of the DIGAMI 1 trial – a landmark study of type 2 diabetes in Sweden – shows that intensive insulin treatment prolonged life by more than 2 years in patients with diabetes after a heart attack, compared with standard treatment for diabetes, reports Dr Viveca Ritsinger from the Unit of Cardiology of the Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden and colleagues in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. The trial, involving 620 patients with type 2 diabetes, began in 1990. Patients who were admitted to hospital with a suspected heart attack received either intensive insulin treatment an insulin-glucose infusion for at least 24 h, followed by insulin injection four times a day for at least 3 months or standard glucose-lowering treatment involving insulin only rarely for one year. Those who received intensified insulin treatment during the trial survived an average median of 2·3 years longer compared with...
http://alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=141697&CultureCode=en
*  "South Africa Diabetes Care Devices Market Outlook to 2018 - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Del
South Africa Diabetes Care Devices Market Outlook to 2018 - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Del. South Africa Diabetes Care Devices Market Outlook to 2018 - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Delivery - New Market Report New Medical Devices market report from GlobalData: South Africa Diabetes Care Devices Market Outlook to 2018 - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Delivery. Boston, MA -- SBWIRE -- 10/23/2012 -- GlobalData's new report, "South Africa Diabetes Care Devices Market Outlook to 2018 - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Delivery" provides key market data on the South Africa Diabetes Care Devices market. The report provides value USD million, volume units and average price USD data for each segment and sub-segment within two market categories - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Delivery. - Market size and company share data for Diabetes Care Devices market categories - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Delivery. - Middle East and Africa Diabetes Care Devices Market Outlook to 2018 - Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Deliv...
http://sbwire.com/press-releases/south-africa-diabetes-care-devices-market-outlook-to-2018-glucose-monitoring-and-insulin-delivery-new-market-report-172900.htm
*  Is Inhaled Insulin A Viable Alternative For Patients With Diabetes?
Is Inhaled Insulin A Viable Alternative For Patients With Diabetes. Published on Podiatry Today http://www.podiatrytoday.com Home Is Inhaled Insulin A Viable Alternative For Patients With Diabetes. Is Inhaled Insulin A Viable Alternative For Patients With Diabetes. Controlling blood glucose levels via subcutaneous injections of insulin has been a key clinical intervention for many people. Exubera is short-acting inhaled insulin and can be absorbed faster than subcutaneous injection of insulin. Another study reported in the Archives of Internal Medicine confirmed similar results in people with type 2 diabetes who took either a combination of short-acting inhaled insulin and long-acting injected insulin, or took injected insulin alone. 3 One treatment group took inhaled insulin pre-meal along with one dose of long-acting injected insulin at bedtime and the other took two daily shots of injected insulin alone. As a possible alternative to avoiding injections before every meal, the short-acting inhaled insulin de...
http://podiatrytoday.com/print/468
*  Insulin - RightDiagnosis.com
... About Us Bookmark this page. HOME SYMPTOMS DISEASES DIAGNOSIS VIDEOS TOOLS COMMUNITY MISDIAGNOSIS DOCTORS HOSPITALS DRUGS. Assessment Questionnaire. Have a symptom. See what questions a doctor would ask. Choose... Rash Fever Pain Headache Fatigue Diarrhea All checklists. Next. Organs Insulin. Insulin. Descriptions of Insulin. Insulin: A hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood by moving it into the cells, where it can be used by the body for energy. Source: National Institute of Health. Insulin: A short-acting form of insulin. Regular insulin is obtained from animal or recombinant sources. The onset of action of regular insulin occurs at 30-90 minutes after injection; its effect lasts for 6 to 8 hours. Endogenous human insulin, a pancreatic hormone composed of two polypeptide chains, is important for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats; it has anabolic effects on many types of tissues. NCI04 Source: Diseases Database. Insulin...
http://rightdiagnosis.com/organ/insulin.htm
*  CeQur SA Announces Positive Results From Study Evaluating Simple Insulin Delivery Device Among Pe
... ople With Type 2 Diabetes. CeQur SA Announces Positive Results From Study Evaluating Simple Insulin Delivery Device Among People With Type 2 Diabetes. 28, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- CeQur SA, a company focused on the development and commercialization of simple insulin delivery devices, announced that initial data from a study of the company's PaQ ® Insulin Delivery Device were presented today at the 6 th International Conference on Advanced Technologies Treatments for Diabetes ATTD in Paris, France. The data suggest that PaQ is a safe, highly satisfying alternative to multiple daily insulin injections MDI for people with type 2 diabetes many of whom need new tools to help them achieve better glycemic control. "This study demonstrated that simple infusion with a device such as PaQ is a valid approach for people with type 2 diabetes who are dependent on multiple daily insulin injections," said Dr. "This study provides encouraging initial evidence that simple devices such as PaQ may help us reduce the incidence an...
http://biospace.com/News/cequr-sa-announces-positive-results-from-study/289080
*  Insulin regular, concentrated (U-500) medical facts from Drugs.com
Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 2: Note: Regular human insulin is available in 2 concentrations: 100 units of insulin per mL U-100 and 500 units of insulin per mL U-500 Individualize dose based on metabolic needs and frequent monitoring of blood glucose -Initial doses are often in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 units/kg/day -Use HbA1c values to guide therapy; consult current guidelines for optimal target ranges Multiple-daily insulin MDI injections U-100 or U-500 insulin: -Administer U-100 insulin subcutaneously 3 or more times a day approximately 30 minutes prior to start of a meal -Administer U-500 insulin subcutaneously 2 to 3 times a day approximately 30 minutes prior to start of a meal -May be used in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents or longer-acting basal insulin Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Insulin Pump U-100 insulin only: -Initial programming should be based on the total daily insulin dose of previous MDI regimen; check with pump labeling to ensure pump has been evaluated with sp...
http://drugs.com/mtm/insulin-regular-concentrated-u-500.html
*  Insulin on Board (IOB): What It Means for Diabetes Control
Insulin on Board IOB : What It Means for Diabetes Control. Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Mine. Advertisement. Healthline. Diabetes. Diabetes Mine. Ask D'Mine: On the Way to Insulin + An IOB Insulin on Board Pump Question. Ask D'Mine: On the Way to Insulin + An IOB Insulin on Board Pump Question. Written by Wil Dubois. Email us at AskDMine@diabetesmine.com } Jerry from California, type 2, writes: I was diagnosed five years ago and at the time I had an A1c of 11.2. All the current pumps assume that insulin given to cover food will get sucked up by the food, and the only spare insulin is the insulin taken for corrections. For more information about Healthline's partnership with Diabetes Mine, please click here. 2012-04-07 "All the current pumps assume that insulin given to cover food will get sucked up by the food, and the only spare insulin is the insulin taken for corrections. So they only track insulin from corrections."That's definitely not true for the Minimed--IOB includes food boluses. 2012-04-07 On the home ...
http://healthline.com/diabetesmine/ask-dmine-on-the-way-to-insulin-an-iob-insulin-on-board-pump-question

Hydraulic fracturing proppants: A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. It is added to a frac'ing fluid which may vary in composition depending on the type of fracturing used, and can be gel, foam or slickwater–based.Erepsin: Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas.Secretion: Secretion is the process of elaborating, releasing, and oozing chemicals, or a secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland. In contrast to excretion, the substance may have a certain function, rather than being a waste product.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Secretagogue: A secretagogue is a substance that causes another substance to be secreted. One example is gastrin,secretagogue at eMedicine Dictionary which stimulates the H/K ATPase in the parietal cells (increased gastric acid production by the stomach).Pine Islet LightGlucose transporterFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.BicarbonateHyperchloremiaCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Pancreatic bud: The ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds (or pancreatic diverticula) are outgrowths of the duodenum during human embryogenesis. They join together to form the adult pancreas.Coles PhillipsTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Saliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).PentagastrinExocytosisSecretin receptor: Human secretin receptor (gene name SCTR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds secretin and is the leading member (i.e.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Amylase: An amylase () is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. Amylase is present in the saliva of humans and some other mammals, where it begins the chemical process of digestion.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Gastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.Dilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Prolactin cellEva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Mucus: In vertebrates, mucus ( ; adjectival form: "mucous") is a slippery secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes. Mucous fluid is typically produced from cells found in mucous glands.Little gastrin IBiocell Center: Biocell Center is an international company specializing in the cryopreservation and private banking of amniotic fluid stem cells. The company is headquartered in Italy with several international locations and is involved with numerous partnerships and research studies of amniotic fluid stem cells,.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Bile: Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).Proinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.Glucagon rescueSquamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.Bombardier Challenger 300: The Bombardier BD-100 Challenger 300 is a super-mid-sized jet capable of traversing transcontinental distances. It is not developmentally related to the similarly named Challenger 600 series, or the 600-derived Challenger 800 series.Mediated transportBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Somatostatin family: A:99-116Crosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue: A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). A GnRH analogue is designed to interact with the GnRH receptor and modify the release of pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH for therapeutic purposes.Estradiol cypionate: Estradiol cypionate (INN, USAN) (brand names Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin, Estradep, and many others), or estradiol cipionate, is a synthetic ester, specifically the 3-cyclopentylpropanoyl ester, of the natural estrogen, estradiol. It was first introduced in 1952 by Upjohn in the United States, and has been in widespread use since.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Retrograde perfusion: Retrograde perfusion is an artificial method of providing blood supply to an organ by delivering oxygenated blood through the veins. It may be performed during surgery that interrupts the normal arterial supply of blood to that organ.Mycobacterium immunogenum: ATCC 700505Glucagon-like peptide-2: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see Proteinogenic amino acid) in humans. GLP-2 is created by specific post-translational proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon in a process that also liberates the related glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).Leopoldo NobiliG-CSF factor stem-loop destabilising elementAnterior pituitary: A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The anterior pituitary regulates several physiological processes including stress, growth, reproduction and lactation.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Cell membraneSomatotropic cellMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.New Zealand rabbitHistamine dihydrochloride: Histamine dihydrochloride (INN, trade name Ceplene) is a salt of histamine which is used as a drug for the prevention of relapse in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is an FDA approvedhttp://www.Specific granule: Specific granules are secretory vesicles found exclusively in cells of the immune system called granulocytes.Transudate: Transudate is extravascular fluid with low protein content and a low specific gravity (< 1.012).Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.

(1/9) DIFFERENTIAL FERRIOXAMINE TEST FOR MEASURING CHELATABLE BODY IRON.

The differential ferrioxamine test is a simple method for the measurement of chelation of body iron by desferrioxamine. A single six-hour specimen of urine is obtained after intravenous Desferal, accompanied by (59)Fe-ferrioxamine. Two values are measured: F(d), the excretion of ferrioxamine derived from body iron by chelation, and F(ex), the proportion of ferrioxamine excreted from a known intravenous dose. The data enables F(v), chelation of iron in vivo, to be calculated by simple proportion. Desferrioxamine chelation proceeds for about half an hour after injection. The results in normal subjects, in cases with known high iron stores, and in cases of iron-deficiency anaemia are described. High, normal, and low body iron states have been differentiated. F(v) values in the higher ranges obtained in iron-storage diseases and in haemolytic states are differentiated by the pattern of excretion, high F(d) values and low F(ex) values respectively. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THERE ARE TWO MAIN SOURCES OF CHELATABLE BODY IRON: as ferritin-haemosiderin and as iron newly released from haem in a more readily chelatable form. The significance of variable chelation susceptibility in iron metabolism is briefly discussed. It is suggested that variable chelatability of different sources of body iron may explain the preferential utilization of iron released from red cells or absorbed from the intestine, rather than storage iron, in the biosynthesis of haem.  (+info)

(2/9) THE HEPATIC UPTAKE AND EXCRETION OF SULFOBROMOPHTHALEIN AND BILIRUBIN.

Experimental evidence bearing on the hepatic uptake and excretion of sulfobromophthalein and bilirubin is considered. From this examination it is postulated that the hepatic handling of each compound consists of three steps: the uptake at the sinusoidal surface of the parenchymal cell by a concentrative membrane transport system of high capacity; the conjugation within the cell with glutathione and glucuronic acid, respectively; and the excretion into the biliary canaliculus of the respective conjugates by a second concentrative system of relatively low capacity. Two of the operating characteristics of this linked system, the easy attainment of saturation of the biliary excretory transport system and the presence of an intracellular storage phenomenon, have been shown to result from the disproportionate capacities of the two sequentially placed concentrative membrane transport systems. The disorders which may occur in the three steps underlying the handling of each of these compounds are also considered.  (+info)

(3/9) PORPHOBILINOGEN AND DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID EXCRETION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.

The excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in the urine of 31 patients with multiple sclerosis did not differ significantly from that of 51 hospitalized control patients or eight patients with poliomyelitis. There was no relationship between exacerbations, remissions or duration of the illness, and levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid or of porphobilinogen. These assays therefore appear to be of no value in the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or in following the severity or stage of this illness. Whereas demyelination does occur in acute porphyria where the levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen are elevated, the converse is not true; that is, demyelination is not always associated with an increase in the excretion of porphobilinogen or delta-aminolevulinic acid.  (+info)

(4/9) BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF TOXIC AGENTS. THE METABOLISM OF IODOMETHANE.

1. The metabolism of iodomethane has been studied after the administration of the compound to rats by subcutaneous injection. 2. The urinary excretion of S-methylcysteine, methylmercapturic acid, methylthioacetic acid and N-(methylthioacetyl)glycine has been demonstrated by paper chromatography. 3. Methylmercapturic acid and N-(methylthioacetyl)glycine have been isolated from the urine of the dosed animals. 4. The methylthio compounds detected represented about 2% of the iodomethane administered.  (+info)

(5/9) ISOTOPIC STUDIES OF UREA METABOLISM IN RABBITS.

1. The half-life of [(15)N]urea was found to be significantly longer than that of [(14)C]urea injected at the same time, the differences being due to endogenous catabolism of urea, which is accompanied by little or no reutilization of (14)C but is approx. 20% for (15)N. [(15)N]Urea therefore appears to be valueless as an indicator of nitrogen metabolism unless the extents of endogenous catabolism of urea and of fractional reutilization of (15)N can be separately estimated. 2. Though measurements of the radioactivity of expired (14)CO(2) confirmed the existence of considerable urea catabolism these could not be used for quantitative assessments. 3. Alternative graphical methods based on [(14)C]urea specific activities in plasma and urine samples were used to calculate the fraction of urea production that is excreted. Values by the two methods were in good agreement and showed that some animals excrete less than half the urea that they produce. 4. Specific activity differences between simultaneous samples of urinary and plasma urea reflect the presence of a pool of urea in the kidney that is not in equilibrium with the body urea pool. Calculations indicate the presence of urea in the kidney that in some cases may represent as much as 15% of the body pool, and in two animals in which post-mortem renal analyses were performed the masses of urea found agreed closely with the calculated values. 5. A model for urea metabolism is proposed that includes this pool in the excretory pathway. The related theory is shown to be adequate to explain the shape of the specific activity curves of urinary urea from the time of injection and the constant delay of the specific activity of urinary urea, relative to that of plasma urea, that is observed after a short preliminary equilibration period. 6. The body urea pool was calculated from the activity retained at 1.5hr. by excluding renal activity and the corrected specific activity of plasma urea at the same time. The urea pool was calculated to be distributed at the plasma concentration in a substantially smaller water volume than that found by injecting tritiated water in five animals. Reasons for this are discussed. 7. Urea synthesis rates calculated from the pool values are in close agreement with rates calculated from the mass of urea recovered in the urine and the fraction of newly synthesized urea that is excreted.  (+info)

(6/9) URINARY EXCRETION OF C-20-REDUCTION PRODUCTS OF CORTICOSTERONE.

1. A 200 mg. portion of corticosterone was ingested by a healthy man and the urine collected. Part of the urine was treated with the gastric juice of Helix pomatia and extracted with ethyl acetate, and the extract fractionated with Girard T. Paper-chromatographic separation of the non-ketonic fraction in the Bush (1952) system B(5) revealed the presence of two unknown polar components. 2. The unknown compounds did not possess a reducing (blue tetrazolium) or a reducible (potassium borohydride) grouping. Both contained a terminal alpha-glycollic fragment as shown by the formation of formaldehyde, and of a non-volatile aldehyde on oxidation with sodium bismuthate. 3. Unknown compound (I) had paper-chromatographic mobilities identical with those of 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,11beta,20beta,21-tetraol. The oxidation product of compound (I) had a retention time (gas-liquid chromatography) on an SE30 column identical with that of 3alpha,11beta-dihydroxy-21-nor-5beta-pregnan-20-al. The retention times of various derivatives agreed with those produced in an identical manner on the standard, and accordingly compound (I) is formulated as 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,11beta,20xi,21-tetraol. 4. Unknown compound (II) had a higher R(F) than compound (I), and its oxidation product had a longer retention time than that of compound (I). From the group effects observed in paper and gas-liquid chromatography, compound (II) is tentatively formulated as 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha,11beta,20xi,21-tetraol. The 5alpha/5beta ratio found was about 2.0.  (+info)

(7/9) THE REGULATION OF UREA-BIOSYNTHESIS ENZYMES IN VERTEBRATES.

1. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, the arginine-synthetase system and arginase were measured in the livers of ammoniotelic, ureotelic and uricotelic animals. The chelonian reptiles, whose nitrogen excretory patterns vary according to the habitat, and the Mexican axolotl, a neotenic species, were also studied. 2. The levels of the activities of the first three enzymes mentioned correlate with the amount of nitrogen excreted as urea. 3. The terrestrial turtle, which excretes mainly uric acid, maintains a high arginase activity but has very low levels of the activities of the other three enzymes. 4. The first three enzymes of the urea cycle vary in the phylogenic scale in a co-ordinated manner, which suggests that they are under the same regulatory mechanism. 5. Urea formation from endogenous arginine in vitro has a low efficiency in the Mexican axolotl. 6. The induction of metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl by the administration of l-tri-iodothyronine, which causes a shift from ammonio-ureotelism to complete ureotelism, is accompanied by an increase mainly in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and also by an improvement in the efficiency of hydrolysis of endogenous arginine in vitro to give urea. 7. The results obtained by differential centrifugation of the urea-cycle enzymes in rat and Mexican-axolotl livers are presented. The location requirements for the integration of a metabolic cycle are discussed.  (+info)

(8/9) The prevention of the fluid-electrolyte "problem" by simple means.

Proper fluid balance may be maintained in patients after operation by the employment of simple, inexpensive procedures which may be carried out even in the smallest hospitals. Daily weighing of patients, measurement of fluid intake and output, and knowledge of the probable electrolyte content of fluid losses are adequate guides for replacement of fluids and electrolytes. An increase in body weight is a warning of overhydration.The content of the solution used for replacement is dictated by the route of fluid output-whether from the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, or the kidneys. Insensible losses (by perspiration and respiration) are fairly static. Except to replace extrarenal losses, parenteral administration of normal saline solution in the immediate postoperative period is contraindicated. Mistakes in replacement methods, especially those causing overhydration, are particularly hazardous for elderly patients.  (+info)

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Why does my body produce so much secretions and bodily fluids?


I know it's hereditary maybe. However, when I sweat I sweat more than a lot of other people. People ask me did you go running, I tell them no I just sweat very easily. We play basketball after the first game my shirt is like a washrag, everybody elses' maybe a few sweat spots. My scalp produces a lot of oil. I have a bald head and I rub my head and it's so oily for some reason with no hair on top it produces this much oil. It's oily skin really bad not sweat. Also, I don't stink but when I do it's a pungent smell especially around the genital areas. I'm not trying to be funny or nothing. This is a serious health question. I'm not fat but in the genital area is not much room for air in between my thighs because of the size. I take a shower, after a while it begins to smell because of lack of air. I can't walk around like a bow legged cowboy in order to have air circulating. It's not my fault my testicles have extra size on them. Is there something I can do about my overall problem?
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UnderArmour compression shorts will help with keeping your thighs apart.  They also help wick moisture away from your skin.  But, being mostly nylon they will tend to pick up smell fairly quickly.

Obviously showering frequently and using a good soap to cut through the oil would help.  Use a loufa pad to scrape your skin and work the soap in.  Possibly try a sauna (after soaping well) to help force the excess oil and sweat out.  Then shower again.  That may help you gain some extra time before the oil becomes a problem again.


blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions spills what should HCW use?


i need this today

What solution should be used to clean up spilled blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions? 

Write the name and include a drawing or diagram of the symbol that is universal for indicating a source of infection.
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When I sleeps its always fluids comes out my mouth what is the reason for that?


When I sleeps its always fluids comes out my mouth what is the reason for that? what is the remedy for it ? secondly my mouth secretions troubles me in speaking even I have to stop during speaking to swallows my mouth secretions why it is so and what is the rmedy for it?
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It is saliva, you may have a loose or "perturbed" gland.  It sounds like it's getting out of control.  And being a dentist, I have seen this many times! It can get worse if you don't see your doctor OR dentist ASAP.  Please, please go do this!


Does eating pineapples REALLY make genital secretions taste better?


I've hear, read and been told that the addition of pineapples to your diet makes semen/vaginal fluids taste "sweeter". Is this an urban myth or some golden rule I've just been to skeptical to adhere to?
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I know people who have tried and it really does not work all that well.


Please explain how fluids are exchanged during unprotected sexual intercourse.?


Please explain the mechanism of how fluids are exchanged during unprotected intercourse.  I understand how semen can infect you with an STI (sexually transmitted infection) or STD, but what about pre-cum?  Is the risk lower with exposure to only pre-cum?  And do vaginal secretions/fluids enter the man's penis through the skin of the penis along the full length of the penis, like a sponge that soaks up liquid, or only through the whole at the top of the penis?

Also, if the withdrawal (pull-out) method is used without the use of any barriers (unprotected sex), so that most of or all of the semen is ejaculated outside, does this reduce the risk of transmission of an STD or STI?
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Its very simple if a penis is inserted in a vagina without a condom (unprotected) there is an exchange of fluid..
there will be precum first & later during orgasm semen..
& for women ther will be vaginal discharge..
The fuilds will enter a man via the opeening on the tip of the penis or any cuts or bruises on the penis...& for women thru vagina itself...

So even if u have pull out method perhaps u might not get pregnant but u can surely get STD's


Is it true that some men must ingest vaginal secretions to maintain mental and emotional balance?


I was told that if a man doesn't ingest vaginal fluids (the ones that are produced in the vagina before having sexual intercourse) a man will not be able to function normally. He will not be able to concentrate on normal tasks, and will become disoriented and suffer mental anxiety, untill he does ingest vaginal fluids. Some even experience headaches, nausea, vomitng, and sometimes ulcers, or worse. A few slip into comas.. Is ths true?
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I would love to find a man who believed that!


is it possible for a man to have an allergic reaction to vaginal secretions?


my boyfriend and i have been together for a little over a yr. in december he developed some itching in his groin area...he went to doctor and had every test done. and his doctor told him its probably because of my fluid.  we had already been together for 8 months and nothing had happened...now all of a sudden after we have sex he gets this itch...i went and got tested for everything too and everything was negative.
help!
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Yes ,that happened to me:i got even allergic to touching me.
Awfull
Sky.
Am on anti-histamine twice a day for years now:it stopped.


why do women get vaginal secretions? is it a sign of a disease or is it normal?


I'm asking this because there are times I have vaginal secretion or fliud come out, which smells funny. In order to solve this issue, I wear tampons or pantyliners. I was wondering why this happen and what it is. I'm thinking its a yeast infection, but I may be wrong. It's a white milky looking fluid by the way and I'm scared to talk to my OBGYN about it.
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Why be scared to talk about it, its normal.    If it smells strong or is very itchy, its a yeast or other infection, usually yeast.   Regular yellowish, small amount is normal.  Clear thin and stretchy means you are ovulating at the moment.   You will have more if you are sexually active because of the stimulation and you will have more when you are younger than when you get old.   Use pantyliners if it becomes annoying, as long as there is no itchiness or pain or really bad odor you are ok.