Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Cephalopoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Implosive Therapy: A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Foraminifera: An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Oxepins: Compounds based on a 7-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered a medium ring ether. A natural source is the MONTANOA plant genus. Some dibenzo-dioxepins, called depsidones, are found in GARCINIA plants.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.PhenoxyacetatesOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus: The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Generalization, Stimulus: The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mammoths: An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.ArtiodactylaBlinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.North AmericaRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Minor Planets: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Overlearning: Learning in which practice proceeds beyond the point where the act can just be performed with the required degree of excellence.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Mice, Inbred C57BLMotivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Desensitization, Psychologic: A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Pacific Ocean

*  Massive Effort Needed to Save Bat Species From Extinction
Bat Species From Extinction. More press releases. For Immediate ... , Center for Biological Diversity, 802 434-2388 office ; 802 ... Bat Species From Extinction Wildlife, Environmental, and Farming ... Massive Effort Needed to Save Bat Species From Extinction. For Immediate Release, May 20, 2009 Contact: Mollie Matteson, Center for Biological Diversity, 802 434-2388 office ; 802 318-1487 cell Nina Fascione, Defenders of Wildlife, 202 682-9400. Massive Effort Needed to Save Bat Species From Extinction Wildlife, Environmental, and Farming Organizations Join Businesses and Scientists in Plea to Congress for Action RICHMOND, Vt. The Center for Biological Diversity and 60 other national and regional organizations sent a letter today to members of Congress requesting increased funding for research on white-nose syndrome, a disease that has been devastating bat populations in the eastern United States over the past two years. The letter was signed by scientists, farmers, and conservation, wildlife, sustainable...
http://biologicaldiversity.org/news/press_releases/2009/bats-05-20-2009.html
*  Biology-Online • View topic - extinction coefficient of resistomycin
Online View topic - extinction coefficient of resistomycin. Login ... Register. Login. extinction coefficient of resistomycin. Debate and ... discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a ... Biology-Online View topic - extinction coefficient of resistomycin. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Please login to access all site features. Create account. 121314 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Articles. Tutorials. Biology-Online. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. General Discussion. Advanced search. Register. Login. extinction coefficient of resistomycin. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a particular topic. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 2 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. extinction coefficient of resistomycin by brundha. Sat Dec 11, 2010 8:03 pm How to calculate extinction coefficient of resistomycin For example,The total carotenoid mg/L culture liquid was calculated according to the following formula ...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about20219.html?p=127634&hilit=Liquid extract
*  DSpace Biblioteca Universidad de Talca (v1.5.2): Stimulus specificity in the acquisition and extinct
the acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversion. About ... the acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversion. Authors ... ; cyclophosphamide; extinction; generalization; stimulus specificity; ... DSpace Biblioteca Universidad de Talca v1.5.2 : Stimulus specificity in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversion. About DSpace Software. DSpace Biblioteca Universidad de Talca v1.5.2. Artículos en publicaciones ISI - Universidad de Talca. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://dspace.utalca.cl/handle/1950/4902. Title: Stimulus specificity in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversion. Abstract: An experiment evaluated whether the acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversion in the rat is stimulus-specific by testing the degree of response transfer between sweet and salty tastes. Animals in the paired-same and paired-different groups received a presentation of a gustatory CS and a cyclophosphamide injection US. Nonco...
http://dspace.utalca.cl/handle/1950/4902
*  Bio-Geo-Engineering Extinction Level Event - RiseEarth
of chemical or biological agents by Department of Defense; ... of chemical or biological agents, the Secretary of Defense shall ... of any chemical or biological agent on civilian populations unless...
http://riseearth.com/2015/08/bio-geo-engineering-extinction-level.html
*  NMR Course in Italy
previous message extinction coefficient next message drying page ... school of biological magnetic resonance nd course ... of recognition in biological macromolecules may ettore...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/proteins/1994-September/001731.html
*  Trexler Library | Muhlenberg College
General Health Biological Sciences History Archaeology Journalism ... Life Encyclopedia: Extinction This supplement to Grzimek’s Animal ... all aspects of extinctions and extinct life. Search 130 years of ... Trexler Library. Muhlenberg College. College: Home. Campus Map. Search the College. Books. Collections. General Collections Main Collection Print. Special Collections Trexler Library Special Collections. Muhlenberg College Collection. Abram Samuels Sheet Music Collection. Muhlenberg Weekly Online. Rare Books Collection. Subject Guides. Available Services: Course Reserves. Services For: Students. Faculty. Alumni. Staff. Library Hours. Facts About Trexler Library. Encompass Search. Subject Guides. Books. Search:. Trexler Library Muhlenberg College. What is Encompass Search. Browse online journal titles by subject. -- Please select a subject category -- Art, Architecture Applied Arts Business Economics Earth Environmental Sciences Engineering Applied Sciences General Health Biological Sciences History A...
http://trexler.muhlenberg.edu/
*  Dr. David Bottjer, University of Southern California – Global Warming and Mass Extinctions | WAMC
warming and mass extinctions by bradley cornelius oct ... warming caused mass extinctions and how similar patterns are appearing ... of earth sciences biological sciences and environmental studies at...
http://wamc.org/post/dr-david-bottjer-university-southern-california-global-warming-and-mass-extinctions
*  Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
... Article Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans. Impact Factor: 5.11. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response SCR recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol synthetic THC or placebo PBO 2 h prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers THC = 14; PBO = 15 and tested extinction retention 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 h after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. Consistent with the role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in the regulation of anxiety and fear learning Chhatwal and Ressler, 2007, THC and other CB 1 agonists have also been shown to modulate subjective anxiety Wachtel et al., ...
http://researchgate.net/publication/229151503_Cannabinoid_facilitation_of_fear_extinction_memory_recall_in_humans
*  Late Devonian extinction
... A major extinction, the Kellwasser Event, occurred at the boundary that marks the beginning of the last phase of the Devonian period, the Famennian faunal stage the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, about 375–360 million years ago. 1 A second, distinct mass extinction, the Hangenberg Event, closed the Devonian period. Some consider the extinction to be as many as seven distinct events, spread over about 25 million years, with notable extinctions at the ends of the Givetian, Frasnian, and Famennian stages. The Late Devonian world Duration and timing of the extinction events The Kellwasser event. The Hangenberg event. Causes of the extinctions Major environmental changes. The Late Devonian world. The Kellwasser event. The Kellwasser event is the term given to the extinction pulse that occurred near the Frasnian/Famennian boundary. Most references to the "Late Devonian extinction" are in fact referring to the Kellwasser, which was the first event to be detected based on marine invertebrate record. The Hangenberg...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Devonian_extinction
*  Correcting for the Effects of Interstellar Extinction
The UV Region CCM noted a correlation between the value of R -1 as determined from IR/optical photometry and the values of A / A V i.e., total extinction at normalized by total extinction at V at UV wavelengths using parametrized extinction curves for a subset of 29 stars from the FM sample. We approach the problem slightly differently and note that the essence of the CCM result is two correlations involving the coefficients of the FM fitting function originally used to parametrize the extinction curves studied by CCM. R -1 filled circles along with a least squares estimate of the linear relationship between the two dashed line. A1 thus simply implies that the slopes of the extinction curves in the UV and optical vary together in a linear manner - as optical extinction steepens, UV extinction steepens. Left Panel: Slope of the UV linear extinction component c 2 plotted against R -1 filled circles for 31 sightlines from the Fitzpatrick & Massa 1990 FM sample plus HD 210121 at R -1 = 0.45. The adopted linear re...
http://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Fitzpatrick/Fitz_appenb.html
*  Human extinction
... 'Human extinction' is the end of the human species. In the near future, anthropogenic extinction scenarios exist: global nuclear annihilation, total global war, dysgenics, overpopulation,. It is important to differentiate between human extinction and the extinction of all life on Earth. Of possible extinction events, only a pandemic is selective enough to eliminate humanity while leaving the rest of complex life on earth relatively unscathed. Perception of human extinction risk Observations about human extinction Omnicide Proposed solutions See also Notes References Further reading. Global catastrophic risks. In around 1 billion years from now, the Sun 's brightness will increase as a result of a shortage of hydrogen and the heating of its outer layers will cause the Earth's oceans to evaporate, leaving only minor forms of life. 7 See Future of the Earth. About 7–8 billion years from now, after the Sun has become a red giant, the Earth will probably be engulfed by an expanding Sun and destroyed. Humans w...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_extinction
*  Olson's Extinction
'Olson's Extinction' was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event. 1 Everett Olson noted that there was a hiatus and a sudden change in between the Early Permian and Middle/Late Permian faunas. Identification Possible causes Extinction patterns On land. Olson noted a hiatus between Early Permian faunas dominated by pelycosaurs and therapsid dominated faunas of the Middle and Late Permian. During the 1990s and 2000s researchers gathered evidence on the biodiversity of plants, marine organism and tetrapods that indicated an extinction pulse preceding the Permian–Triassic extinction event had a profound impact on life on land. On land Sahney and Benton showed that even discounting the sparse fossil assemblages from the extinction period, the event can be confirmed by the stages of time bracketing the event since well preserved sections of the fossil record from both before and after the event have been found and they r...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olson's_Extinction
*  Online Earth History Curriculum - Chapter 8 - The Permian Period, The Permian Extinction, Part 2
... Old Earth Ministries Online Earth History Curriculum Presented by Old Earth Ministries We Believe in an Old Earth...and God. This curriculum is presented free of charge for use by homeschooling families. NOTE: If you found this page through a search engine, please visit the intro page first. Chapter 8 - The Permian Period Lesson 42: The Permian Extinction, Part 2. There are several proposed mechanisms for the extinction event, including both catastrophic and gradualistic processes, similar to those theorized for the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. The former include large or multiple bolide. impact events, increased volcanism, or sudden release of methane hydrates from the sea floor. The latter include sea-level change, anoxia, and increasing aridity. Any causal hypothesis must explain the selectivity of the event, which primarily affected organisms with calcium carbonate skeletons; the long 4-6 million year period before recovery started; and the minimal extent of biological mineralization despite...
http://oldearth.org/curriculum/history/earth_history_c8_permian_extinction2.htm
*  Ecolympics: Extinctions in the 21st Century
... skip to main. skip to sidebar. Visit the Ecolympics Homepage. Wednesday, March 9, 2011. Extinctions in the 21st Century. It s hard to believe that extinction is happening right before our eyes. There are five primary causes: habitat fragmentation, pollution, introduction of invasive species, overexploitation and climate change. Here is a list of ten species that have been declared extinct so far this century. These are masterpieces of nature that we can no longer enjoy. We are running the Ecolympics registration begins on March 21 to raise awareness of exactly this problem. The same information is presented, with a stirring soundtrack and more photos, in the video below, produced by the MotherNatureChannel:. Both of these need to be updated to include the Eastern Cougar, declared extinct this year, though it's last confirmed sighting was in Maine in 1938. You can also find a timeline of extinctions on Wikipedia. Posted by. Eco-Now. at 7:41 PM. Labels: 21st century, extinctions. No comments:. Post a Comme...
http://ecolympics.blogspot.com/2011/03/extinctions-in-21st-century.html
*  Stick in the mud on extinction | smh.com.au
Stick in the mud on extinction. smh.com.au. smh. Sections. Sydney Morning Herald - smh.com.au. NSW. World. Business. Politics. National. Sport. Comment. Technology. Digital Life. IT Pro. Environment. Entertainment. Life & Style. Traveller. Cars. Exec Style. Property. Weather. Photos. Videos. Home. World. Science. Advertisement. Stick in the mud on extinction. Jane Lee - Mar 2, 2012. This was no ordinary birth. The Lord Howe Island stick insect - seen in this video - was presumed extinct for nearly a century. Rats from a shipwreck in 1918 were thought to have killed off the species. In the 1960s, rock climbers on Ball’s Pyramid - an island 23 kilometres from Lord Howe - reported seeing 12-centimetre dead specimens. But it was not until 2001 that a government survey team discovered live stick insects on Ball’s Pyramid. Melbourne Zoo inverterbrate keeper Rohan Cleave, who created the video above, said there were three theories on how the stick insects managed to travel between the two islands. ‘‘The first is tha...
http://m.smh.com.au/world/science/stick-in-the-mud-on-extinction-20120301-1u5s6.html
*  Download Transformers Age of Extinction 2014 HDTS X264 AC3-FooKaS Torrent
... . Download Transformers Age of Extinction 2014 HDTS X264 AC3-FooKaSTorrent. Login. Create account. Advanced - Firefox plugin. Home. Top 100. Cloud. Top Movies. Search. FAQ. Contact. Blog. Categories. Movies. TV Series. Music. Games. Applications. Anime. Miscellaneous. Handheld. Non English. No Category. XXX. Upload. Verified. Applications. Games. Music. Movies. Streaming. Torrent > Movies > Unsorted > Transformers Age of Extinction 2014 HDTS X264 AC3-FooKaS. Recommended FREE Download, Click Here. Download this torrent. Magnet Link. Transformers Age of Extinction 2014 HDTS X264 AC3-FooKaS. Information about Transformers Age of Extinction 2014 HDTS X264 AC3-FooKaS - Download torrent. Seeds 839. Peers 77. Size 2 GB. Date Wednesday, 31 December 1969 at 19:33:34. Comments 0. Category Movies. Unsorted. Hash e8cee25ba1b538266c566ffa888ae7f658d03d55. Reported Verified 0 - Fake 0 - Password 0 - Virus 0. Uploader Anonymous. Comments on Transformers Age of Extinction 2014 HDTS X264 AC3-FooKaS. 0 0 COMMENT S INSIDE....
http://sumotorrent.sx/en/details/13161564/transformers-4-age-of-extinction-(2014).html
*  Different Context IV: A drip full of memes
... To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. FORUM. DIFFERENT CONTEXT IV: A DRIP FULL OF MEMES. Thread: Different Context IV: A drip full of memes. 02-22-2012, 01:39 PM. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Private Message. Join Date Feb 2010 Location Oxford, UK Pronouns he/him/his Posts 5,537. Different Context IV: A drip full of memes. Originally Posted by Squark. show spoiler hide spoiler. Originally Posted by Draykon. Originally Posted by Miff. Originally Posted by Mubbles. 02-22-2012, 01:57 PM. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Private Message. Re: Different Context IV: A drip full of memes This is the Worst Thread and Breakfast I've ever been to. Re: Different Context IV: A drip full of memes Dave: Attempt to grow a moustache. Re: Different Context IV: A drip full of memes We already had Worst Thread And Breakfast, in thread 2 if I recall correctly. Join Date Nov 2010 Location Land Of Curse and Element LOCAE Posts 2,367. Re: Different Context IV: A drip full...
http://mspaforums.com/showthread.php?46181-Different-Context-IV-A-drip-full-of-memes&p=6117793&viewfull=1
*  Pixies/Debaser - The Sad Punk
... Debaser site. Lyrics. The Sad Punk. Pixies - The Sad Punk. Anything to add here. . All rights reserved. I smell smoke That comes from a gun Named extinction x3 It was so long ago Could have happened to anyone He was struck by a bullet And he melted into fluid Named extinction x3 Named extinction One thousand miles an hour I'm just like anyone I want to feel the road of tar Beneath the wheel Named extinction x3 And evolving from the sea Would not be too much time for me To walk beside you in the sun I read something About a son of a gun Named extinction x3 Black Francis p 1991 4-A-D....
http://dag.wiee.rs/debaser/lyrics/thesadpu.php
*  GLOBAL EXTINCTION WITHIN ONE HUMAN LIFETIME?
. GLOBAL EXTINCTION WITHIN ONE HUMAN LIFETIME. Register. Help. Forum. FAQ. Calendar. Forum Actions. Mark Forums Read. Quick Links. View Site Leaders. What's New. Advanced Search. Forum. Politics. Best/Worst of DU/Discussionist. GLOBAL EXTINCTION WITHIN ONE HUMAN LIFETIME. If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. Thread: GLOBAL EXTINCTION WITHIN ONE HUMAN LIFETIME. Page 1 of 2. 1. 2 Last. Jump to page:. Results 1 to 10 of 12. Thread Tools Thread Tools. Show Printable Version. Email this Page. Subscribe to this Thread. Display Display Linear Mode. Switch to Hybrid Mode. Switch to Threaded Mode. #1. GLOBAL EXTINCTION WITHIN ONE HUMAN LIFETIME. SarasotaRepub. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Private Message. . eeeevil Sith Admin. Join Date Mar 2002 Location Sunny,FL Posts 46,021. 12-01-2012, ...
http://conservativeunderground.com/forum505/showthread.php?53674-GLOBAL-EXTINCTION-WITHIN-ONE-HUMAN-LIFETIME&p=541505&viewfull=1
*  evolution - Historical recovery from mass extinction events - Biology Stack Exchange
... Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. Historical recovery from mass extinction events. Is there a way to generally characterize how species "regrew" after the various mass extinction events happening periodically from 450 Ma to 65 Ma. I think the concept of adaptive radiation is what you may be thinking about, since adaptive radiations have been observed following historic mass extinctions. When organisms are placed in environments with low diversity either due to mass extinction or the recent creation of the environment they can undergo adaptive radiation. There is nothing really different about adaptive radiation and the normal process of evolution and speciation except that in an environment with lots of unoccupied niches, the probability of having a trait that gives...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/5618/historical-recovery-from-mass-extinction-events
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num search articles":"20","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=Fish and Other Marine Life&field=des&match=exact
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num search articles":"20","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=Law and Legislation&field=des&match=exact
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num search articles":"20","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=Leopards&field=des&match=exact
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show_header_text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search_query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num_search_articles":"20","show_summary":true,"show_byline":true,"show_pub_date":true,"hide_thumbnails":false,"show_kicker":false,"show_title":false,"show_related_topics":true,"show_rad_links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=Scotland&field=geo&match=exact
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num search articles":"20","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge&field=per&match=exact
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num search articles":"20","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=DINOSAURS&field=des&match=exact
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num search articles":"20","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=Death and Dying&field=des&match=exact
*  Endangered and Extinct Species - News - Times Topics - The New York Times
... Endangered and Extinct Species. Real Estate. Video. News about Endangered and Extinct Species, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. Op-Ed article by scholar and author Deborah Cramer laments dramatically falling numbers of shore birds migrating through United States each year as they are threatened by predators, development, global warming and rising seas; holds it is possible to bring threatened birds back from brink of extinction; calls for conservation efforts like habitat conservation and hunting restrictions, as well as increased funding and research. {"type":"article","show header text":false,"header":"ARTICLES ABOUT ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES","query":" nytddes = \"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","search query":" nytddes:\"Endangered and Extinct Species\" ","num search articles":"20","show summary":true,"show byline":true,"show pub date":true,"hide thumbnails":false,"show kicker":false,"show title":false,"show related topics":true,"show rad links":true...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/endangered_and_extinct_species/index.html?query=Zaini Abdullah&field=per&match=exact
*  .. Archive for ‘Species Extinction’ .. LATEST NEWS .. Popular Posts .. Categories .. Vertebrate
Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Species Extinction. Species Loss. Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Source : Loss of Biodiversity and Extinctions – GlobalIssues.org. Tags: Biodiversity, ecosystem, Endangered, Extinction, Species Extinction. Species Extinction. Species Loss. Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Date : First published 24 January 2004. Tags: Crisis, Solution. Species Extinction. Species Loss. Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Species Extinction. Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Species Extinction. Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Species Extinction. Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Species Extinction. Wednesday, February 24th, 2010. Species Extinction. Tags: Biodiversity, Crisis, Extinction, Solution, Species Extinction. Tags: Biodiversity, Crisis, Extinction, fish, global warming, Solution. Forests, Fisheries, Agriculture: A Vision for Sustainability 2009 Download. Global warming can be kept below 2C affordably through steep reductions in livestock production. Shorter Lived Climate Forcers: Agriculture S...
http://worldpreservationfoundation.org/blog/category/extinction/page/6/
*  Global Extinction Within One Human Lifetime As A Result Of A Spreading Atmospheric Arctic Methane He
... atwave And Surface Firestorm Speaking Truth to Power. Coaching Life Coaching. Carolyn s Articles 20. Carolyn s Interviews 11. Transition Coaching 1. Global Extinction Within One Human Lifetime As A Result Of A Spreading Atmospheric Arctic Methane Heatwave And Surface Firestorm. By carolyn, on December 2nd, 2012 Reposted from Arctic News. Figure 1 shows a huge sudden atmospheric spike like increase in the concentration of atmospheric methane at Svalbard north of Norway in the Arctic reaching 2040 ppb 2.04 ppm ESRL/GMO, 2010 Arctic Methane Emergency Group.org. 15 comments to Global Extinction Within One Human Lifetime As A Result Of A Spreading Atmospheric Arctic Methane Heatwave And Surface Firestorm John December 2, 2012 at 9:13 pm. My comment: The last 7 stories present DEVASTATING news regarding climate change that either we aren’t being told or that we choose to ignore, or both. However, to get a very understandable presentation of the dynamics behind the runaway climate change we are beginning to feel...
http://carolynbaker.net/2012/12/02/global-extinction-within-one-human-lifetime-as-a-result-of-a-spreading-atmospheric-arctic-methane-heatwave-and-surface-firestorm/
*  "The Permian-Triassic mass extinction event in the Sydney basin, Easter" by Megan L. Williams
"The Permian-Triassic mass extinction event in the Sydney basin, Easter" by Megan L. University of Wollongong Thesis Collection. The Permian-Triassic mass extinction event in the Sydney basin, Eastern Australia. Williams, University of Wollongong. School of Earth & Environmental Sciences. Williams, Megan L., The Permian-Triassic mass extinction event in the Sydney basin, Eastern Australia, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, 2012. The primary aim of the thesis was to investigate the Permian-Triassic mass extinction PTME across the Sydney Basin of Eastern Australia, and to gather new evidence for use in determining the nature and cause of the PTME. An examination of the available evidence for the nature and characteristics of the PTME, together with a review of the mechanisms most likely to have been the cause, was undertaken to establish the isotopic, geochemical and physical signatures that characterize each of the possible mechanisms. Carbon isoto...
http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3542/
*  Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event
cambrian ordovician extinction event cambrian ordovician extinction event annotated image extinction annotations d the cambrian ordovician extinction event occurred approximately million years ago m y a this early phanerozoic eon extinction event eliminated many brachiopods and conodonts and severely reduced the number of trilobite species it was preceded by the less documented but probably worse end botomian extinction event around million years ago and the dresbachian event about million years ago the cambrian ordovician event ended the cambrian period and led into the ordovician period in the paleozoic era theories see also further reading references external links theories glaciation depletion of oxygen in marine waters flood basalt event kalkarindji large igneous province australia kravchinsky v a paleozoic large igneous provinces of northern eurasia correlation with mass extinction events global and planetary change see also end botomian extinction event circa m y a dresbachian extinction event circa m ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambrian–Ordovician_extinction_event
*  .. Colloquium .. October 1, 2015 Colloquium .. Colloquium Series will resume Fall 2015 .. June 4th
Colloquium Page 1 of 6 Next Page ». July 9, 2015 Colloquium Series will resume Fall 2015 Please be advised that the UO Physics Department Colloquium Series will resume Fall 2015. Colloquium coordinators for 2015-16 are Jim Brau Fall, Dietrich Belitz Winter, Eric Corwin Spring. Abstract:. This talk will describe efforts in our research group to control the shape and function of soft materials liquid metals, polymers and hydrogels for applications that include stretchable electronics, soft robots, and self-folding polymer sheets. May 22, 2015 May 28th Colloquium. Title: Steering Many-Body Quantum Dynamics. Abstract:. May 15, 2015 May 21st Colloquium. Abstract:. Host: Eric Corwin. May 11, 2015 May 14th Colloquium. Speaker: Heidi Schellman, Oregon State University. Abstract:. April 30, 2015 May 7th Colloquium Click here to preview all Spring Colloquia. Title: Communicating Between Disparate Quantum Systems via Radiation Pressure Force. Abstract:. Notable examples include laser cooling and laser tweezers.  In th...
http://physics.uoregon.edu/category/colloquium/
*  Megafaunal extinctions and fungal spores - fungi case studies
... Case Studies. Case Studies Megafaunal extinctions and fungal spores Within the last 50,000 years or so numerous species of large animals or megafauna became extinct in many parts of the world. What can fungal spores tell us. The Commandini Rinaldi paper listed below summarizes some of the work using fungal spores and notes that studies of a North American site have shown that Sporormiella spores may serve as a proxy for the presence and decline of megagfauna at a given site, and for the subsequent introduction of grazing animals in historic times. That paper also summarizes similar studies on the megafauna of Madagascar and those studies are given in detail in the other paper listed below. These animals were still on the island in the early years of human colonization, with a few giant lemur species seemingly still present as late as the 17th century. Sediment cores from six sites on the island generally showed high numbers of Sporormiella spores until about the year 200, a drop to near zero between the ...
http://anbg.gov.au/fungi/case-studies/megafauna.html
*  Drudge reports methane at “levels only seen during mass extinction events” (PHOTOS) | Revoluti
Drudge reports methane at “levels only seen during mass extinction events” PHOTOS. RevolutionRadio.org. RevolutionRadio.org Your Weapon of Mass Destruction Home. 911 BioWeapon Brave New World China Civil Unrest Civil War II Conspiracy Corruption Earth Changes Economics End Times Energy Facism False Flag. Food Wars For Freedom Free Speech God Help Us Government Evil Gun Rights Health History Humor Incompetance Islam Land Of The Sheep Martial Law Media Lies New World Order North American Union Oil oops Pandemic PlanetX Police State Politics Population Control Privacy Quotes Race Wars Religion RFID Ron Paul Russia Socialism Space Spiritual SURVEILLANCE Survival Technology Terror Uncategorized War Without End Weather World Politics World War 3. Drudge reports methane at “levels only seen during mass extinction events” PHOTOS Monday, July 19, 2010 By Paul Martin FloridaOilSpillLaw.com July 19th, 2010. Oceanographer John Kessler analyzes methane levels from oil spill site, Texas A M University College of Geoscience...
http://revolutionradio.org/?p=3331
*  Species Extinction and Biodiversity - World Preservation Foundation
... HOME. NEWS. ABOUT. ECO-MOVIES. REPORTS. CONTACT. Species Extinction Oceans in Peril. Species Extinction. The human population is set to exceed 9 billion within a few short decades. With this population increase comes an increase in food consumption, which leads to the extinction of many species as we further encroach on their habitats. Some of the main factors responsible for biodiversity loss are deforestation, the highly inefficient use of land and water for animal production, and the pollution of our waters. Livestock production currently uses 70% of all agricultural land. Overstocking and overgrazing leaves the land depleted of all nutrients, which in turn accelerates desertification. 17,000 species are currently under threat of extinction, and almost a quarter of the mammals face extinction within 30 years. With the destruction of the rainforests in Brazil, largely for grazing and feed for livestock, 2,300 Brazilian flora species are also under threat. The mass extinction we are experiencing now is ...
http://worldpreservationfoundation.org/topic.php?cat=biodiversity&vid=22
*  After the biggest mass extinction in Earth's history -- 250 million years ago -- algae and bacteria
after the biggest mass extinction in earth s history million years ago algae and bacteria in the ocean rebounded so fast that they consumed virtually all the oxygen in the sea slowing the recovery of the rest of marine animals for several million years edensavr news user articles featured submit hot login register home top users tag cloud live groups votes vote algae bacteria hogged oxygen after ancient mass extinction slowed marine life recovery posted by external days ago general http feeds sciencedaily com after the biggest mass extinction in earth s history million years ago algae and bacteria in the ocean rebounded so fast that they consumed virtually all the oxygen in the sea slowing the recovery of the rest of marine animals for several million years discuss bury tags algae bacteria hogged oxygen ancient mass extinction slowed marine life recovery all who voted for this story related links mass strandings of marine mammals blamed on toxic algae clues unearthed in ancient whale graveyard ancient ocean d...
http://edensavr.org/General/algae-bacteria-hogged-oxygen-after-ancient-mass-extinction-slowed-marine-life-recovery/
*  OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND MASS EXTINCTIONS
... . Paper No. 5-4. Presentation Time: 9:05 AM-9:25 AM. OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND MASS EXTINCTIONS. WARD, Peter D., Department of Biology, University of Washington, Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, argo@u.washington.edu and BERNER, Robert, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 The newest generation of models computing past oxygen and carbon dioxide levels are providing new views of the history of life on Earth. We have used latest generation findings from GEOCARB and GEOCARBSULF and compared these to times of thirteen major and minor mass extinctions listed in Hallam and Wignall, 1997 to search for possible generalities that may provide new insight into mass extinction processes and causes. One result is that the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic, as well as several of the lesser extinctions Pliensbachian-Toarcian, Cenomanian-Turonian, and Paleocene- Eocene were associated with either rising or high CO 2, dr...
https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2007AM/finalprogram/abstract_127921.htm
*  .. Archive for ‘Plants’ .. LATEST NEWS .. Popular Posts .. Categories .. Over 25% of flowers fa
Comments Off. Tags: Endangered, Extinction, Flora, flowers, nature, Species Extinction. Categories:. News. Plants. Species Extinction. Comments Off. Tags: Bees, Biodiversity, conservation, extreme weather, livestock, wildlife. Categories:. News. Plants. Species Extinction. Species Loss. Comments Off. Tags: Biodiversity, conservation, ecological, Extinction, nature, Species Extinction. Categories:. News. Plants. Species Extinction. Tags: Biodiversity, climate change, conservation, ecosystem, Erosion, Extinction, Flood, Flooding, nature, Species Extinction. Tags: Biodiversity, conservation, ecosystem, Endangered, Endangered Animals, Extinction, fish, nature, Species Extinction. World needs ‘bailout plan’ for species loss: International Union for Conservation of Nature. Source: World needs ‘bailout plan’ for species loss: International Union for Conservation of Nature – France24. Tags: Biodiversity, conservation, Extinction, nature, Species Extinction. Forests, Fisheries, Agriculture: A Vision for Sustainability...
http://worldpreservationfoundation.org/blog/category/extinction/plants/
*  David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation : Species Extinction
... David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation. Join us Become a Friend of the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation... IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Species Extinction Approximately one in four of the world's mammals - no fewer than 1,137 different species altogether - are threatened with extinction, mainly as a result of human activity. Critically endangered: faces extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. Endangered: faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild. Therefore, one in every eight birds, one in every four mammals and one in every three amphibians face a high risk of extinction in the near future. Most threatened species occur in the tropics in Central and South America, in Africa south of the Sahara and tropical South and Southeast Asia not least because these areas contain the tropical and subtropical broadleaf forests within which the majority of the earth's terrestrial and freshwater species live. Mortality amongst seabirds, marine mammals and other marine species is caused dire...
http://davidshepherd.org/education/global-conservation-issues/species-extinction.php
*  Colloquium Archives - Chemistry & Biochemistry
Fall 2013 Colloquium Schedule Refreshments at 3:30 pm, Seminar from 3:45 - 4:45 pm Chemistry Building, Room 134. Speaker. Host. Title and Web Address. Sept 5. John Gorden Auburn University. Vincent Ortiz. Sept 19. Alvin Holder Old Dominion University. David Stanbury. Sept 26. Charles Atwood University of Utah. John Gorden. Oct 3. Lisa McElwee-White University of Florida. Chris Goldsmith. Oct 10. Kathryn Kloepper Mercer University. Michael McKee. Tuesday Oct 15 Special. Oct 17. Jimmy Mills Auburn University. Vincent Ortiz. Oct 24. Joseph Sadighi Georgia Tech. Chris Goldsmith. Oct 31. Marilyn Tourne Tuskegee University. Curtis Shannon. Nov 7. Shanta Dhar University of Georgia. Wei Zhan. Nov 14. Spring 2013 Colloquium Schedule Refreshments at 3:30 pm, Seminar from 3:45 - 4:45 pm Chemistry Building, Room 134. Speaker. Host. Title and Web Address. Jan 10. Vince Ortiz. Jan 17. Vince Ortiz. Jan 24. Vince Ortiz. Jan 31. Vince Ortiz. Feb 7. Jeff Petty Furman University. Chris Easley. Feb 14. Feb 21. Mi Hee Lim Univers...
http://auburn.edu/academic/cosam/departments/chemistry/colloquium/Colloquium-Archives.htm
*  Portal:Extinct and endangered species/Extinct and endangered species topics
portal extinct and endangered species extinct and endangered species topics portal extinct and endangered species extinct and endangered species topics extinction extinction event local extinction list of extinct animals list of extinct plants fossil holocene extinction event cretaceous paleogene extinction event cambrian ordovician extinction events ordovician silurian extinction events triassic jurassic extinction events late devonian extinction permian triassic extinction event signor lipps effect australian megafauna dwarf elephant pseudoextinction extinction vortex prehistoric reptile human overpopulation human extinction voluntary human extinction movement evolution biodiversity invasive species breeding back lazarus taxon endangered species critically endangered vulnerable species least concern data deficient birdlife international iucn red list endangered species act international union for conservation of nature...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Extinct_and_endangered_species/Extinct_and_endangered_species_topics
*  CFP: Autism and Representation Colloquium (UK) (11/1/05; 2/24/06) | cfp.english.upenn.edu
CFP: Autism and Representation Colloquium UK 11/1/05; 2/24/06. cfp.english.upenn.edu. cfp.english.upenn.edu a service provided by penn english subscribe to CFP. search the archive. categories. all recent posts. african-american. american. bibliography and history of the book. childrens literature. classical studies. cultural studies and historical approaches. ecocriticism and environmental studies. eighteenth century. ethnicity and national identity. film and television. gender studies and sexuality. general announcements. graduate conferences. humanities computing and the internet. interdisciplinary. international conferences. journals and collections of essays. medieval. modernist studies. poetry. popular culture. postcolonial. professional topics. religion. renaissance. rhetoric and composition. romantic. science and culture. theatre. theory. travel writing. twentieth century and beyond. victorian. administrative login. Home CFP: Autism and Representation Colloquium UK 11/1/05; 2/24/06. full name / name of...
http://call-for-papers.sas.upenn.edu/node/6508
*  Penn State Berks: HASS Colloquium Series to resume Jan. 28, 2013
Penn State Berks: HASS Colloquium Series to resume Jan. Skip navigation. Home Campus Directory. A-Z Index Search Query. Campus Website Penn State Web Penn State People Penn State Departments. HASS Colloquium Series to resume Jan. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences HASS Colloquium Series will kick-off the semester with two presentations: Fertility on Ice and Online Social Support and Its Impact on the Quality of Life of Those Living with Lupus on Monday, Jan. Lauren Martin, assistant professor of Sociology, will present "Fertility on Ice." She will reveal the preliminary findings of her current research project, involving interviews with women without children. Kesha Morant Williams, assistant professor of Communication Arts and Sciences, will discuss Online Social Support and Its Impact on the Quality of Life of Those Living with Lupus. Williams will share a case study based on a private online social support group that uses in-depth description and explores the self-reported experiences of African Ame...
http://bk.psu.edu/35214.htm
*  Ethan Kleinberg, Wesleyan University | The Harvard Colloquium
ethan kleinberg wesleyan university the harvard colloquium skip to main content the harvard colloquium the harvard colloquium for intellectual history home calendar of events ethan kleinberg wesleyan university date tuesday february all day ethan kleinberg wesleyan university back to where we ve never been heidegger levinas derrida on tradition and history past present and future p m cabot room the minda de gunzburg center for european studies harvard university kirkland street at cabot way cambridge massachusetts export subscribe ical search studying intellectual history at harvard people news calendar of events colloquium listserve useful links what is intellectual history latest news welcome to the website of the harvard colloquium for intellectual history more upcoming events conference in early modern european intellectual history all day aurelian craiutu the lucidity of moderation raymond aron as a committed observer pm to pm admin login openscholar...
http://projects.iq.harvard.edu/harvardcolloquium/event/ethan-kleinberg-wesleyan-university
*  CS Colloquium
... Search CS. Search Cornell. About the Department. Contact Us. Awards. Awards Overview. Research Awards. Education Awards. Service Awards. Publications Overview. Job Postings. Job Postings Overview. Faculty Positions: All. Faculty Positions: Bioinformatics. Research Positions. Events. CS Colloquium. Salton Lecture Series. Seminars / Lectures. 40th Anniv Symposium. Admissions. Ph.D. Faculty. Researchers non-faculty. Staff. Ph.D. Students. Students. CS Alumni. Courses. List of Courses. Summer Courses. Undergrad Program. Admissions. Your First CS Course. CS Major. CS Major Overview. CS Engineering. Rules and Procedures. Checklist. CS Arts & Sciences. Rules and Procedures. Checklist. Minors. CS Minor. Career Information. Career Info Overview. Co-op Program. Ugrad Research Overview. Research Projects. Independent Research CS 4999. Events. Computer Labs. Staff. Philosophy. Graduate Program. M.Eng Program. MEng Overview. Admissions. FAQs. Degree Requirements. Pre-approved non-CS Courses. Info on Course Enrollment...
http://cs.cornell.edu/colloquium/2011sp/index.htm
*  Bioinfrmatics Colloquium
... George Mason University School of Computational Sciences. Bioinformatics Colloquium. The Colloquium meets on Tuesdays, at 4:30 pm in the Auditorium, Building PWII. Refreshments are served before the seminar at 4:00 pm. Directions to Prince William Campus. Fall 2001 Schedule Spring 2002 Schedule Fall 2002 Schedule. Spring 2003 Schedule. Jan 21 James Olds Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study The Need for Neural Informatics in Learning and Memory Research: Making Sense of a Contentious Field. Jan 28 Administrative session. Feb 4 Kenneth A. Jacobson National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases Molecular Recognition in Purine Receptor Choline Ligand Development and Receptor Interactions. Feb 11 Isabel K. Darcy University of Texas at Dallas A First-order Model of Protein-DNA Complexes. Feb 18 postponed Olga Brazhnik Epidemic Outbreak Surveillance Project USAF TBA. Feb 25 Kenneth L. Geoly Medical Director of Clinical Informatics, Inova Health System The Multiple Roles of a Clinical Informaticist. Ma...
http://binf.gmu.edu/colloq/colloq_s03.html
*  BGD - Abstract - Mass extinctions past and present: a unifying hypothesis
... Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. EGU Journals. Articles BG. Articles BGD. Papers in open discussion. Volumes and issues. Full text search. Title and author search. Follow @EGU BioGeo Journal metrics IF 3.978. Current Contents/ABE. Current Contents/PCE. Volume 5, issue 3. Discussion. Metrics. Related articles. Biogeosciences Discuss., 5, 2401-2423, 2008 www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/5/2401/2008/ doi:10.5194/bgd-5-2401-2008 © Author s 2008. Volume 5, issue 3 Article. Discussion. Metrics. Related articles. Review status This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Biogeosciences BG. Mass extinctions past and present: a unifying hypothesis S. Enzymes are often referred to as the "agents of life" a very apt term, since essentially all life processes are controlled by them. Typically, these enzymes only function across a narrow band of environmental conditions, particularly temperature and pH. Here, it is proposed that the pH-dependent ...
http://biogeosciences-discuss.net/5/2401/2008/bgd-5-2401-2008.html
*  ActivistAngler - Journal - Experts Warn of Ocean Degeneration, Species Extinctions
... Journal My books About the Activist Be an Activist Links Guardian Angler: Semi-True Story. Journal My books About the Activist Be an Activist Links Guardian Angler: Semi-True Story. Top Journal My books About the Activist Be an Activist Links Guardian Angler: Semi-True Story. Have a Concern. Contact Me Escape. Gallery. My Facebook pages Robert Montgomery Why We Fish Fish, Frogs, and Fireflies Pippa's Canine Corner. This area does not yet contain any content. Get Updates. and Search Journal RSS. Journal Comments RSS. No RSS feeds have been linked to this section. More Antifishing Bias Feared in Imperial Administration. Main. Learn to Be a Better Steward at Recycled Fish, And Buy Some Flies to Help the Cause. Tuesday Jun 21 2011 Experts Warn of Ocean Degeneration, Species Extinctions Tuesday, June 21, 2011 at 4:08PM. Warming, acidification, and lack of oxygen are creating conditions in the oceans that could lead to a phase of extinction of marine species unprecedented in human history, according to an arti...
http://activistangler.com/journal/2011/6/21/experts-warn-of-ocean-degeneration-species-extinctions.html
*  Recent Articles | Extinct Species, Microbiology And Evolution | The Scientist Magazine®
Recent Articles. Extinct Species, Microbiology And Evolution. The Scientist Magazine. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: extinct species x. microbiology x. evolution x. The Scientist extinct species, microbiology and evolution. Most Recent Microbiome Meals By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. October 1, 2015. Researchers identify a handful of genes that help bacteria in the mouse gut adapt to dietary changes. 0 Comments. Gut Bacteria Linked to Asthma Risk By Jef Akst. October 1, 2015. Four types of gut bacteria found in babies stool may help researchers predict the future development of asthma. 0 Comments. Cultural Riches By Anna Azvolinsky. October 1, 2015. Researchers devise new techniques to facilitate growing bacteria collected from the environment. 0 Comments. Lost Colonies By Anna Azvolinsky. October 1, 2015. Next-generation sequencing has identified scores of new microorganisms, but getting even abundant bacterial species to grow in the lab has proven challenging. 0 Comments. Misla...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/categoryNo/2625/category/The-Scientist/tagNo/3292,10,8/tags/extinct-species,microbiology,evolution/
*  Recent Articles | Extinct Species And Neuroscience | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 19
Recent Articles. Extinct Species And Neuroscience. The Scientist Magazine. Page 19. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: extinct species x. neuroscience x. The Scientist extinct species and neuroscience. Most Recent Capsule Reviews By Bob Grant. May 1, 2014. Madness and Memory, Promoting the Planck Club, The Carnivore Wa y, and The Tale of the Dueling Neurosurgeons 0 Comments. Contributors By Rina Shaikh-Lesko and Jef Akst. May 1, 2014. Meet some of the people featured in the May 2014 issue of The Scientist 0 Comments. Fuel Gauge By Anna Azvolinsky. May 1, 2014. An optical reporter quantitatively measures the ATP demands of presynaptic neurons. 2 Comments. Long-Distance Call By Rina Shaikh-Lesko. May 1, 2014. Neurons may use interferon signals transmitted over great distances to fend off viral infection. 0 Comments. Psychiatry: An SOS Call By Robert E. Becker. May 1, 2014. Social policies shaped the practice of psychiatry in the past. As the discipline becomes ever more scien...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/3292,11/tags/extinct-species,neuroscience/pageNo/19/
*  Overview : INQUA-Morss Workshop and Colloquium : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)
overview inqua morss workshop and colloquium woods hole oceanographic institution whoi inqua morss workshop and colloquium fire ice climate changes of the past and future overview background logistics program workshop participants local notes morss colloquium overview print version e mail to a friend text size related files fire ice colloquium the time was years ago and earth was just out of one of the worst ice ages in its history the planetary rhythms were much the same as they are today the shape of earth s orbit was nearly circular the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere paralleled those of modern times temperatures may have been warm enough for a section of the west antarctic ice sheet to collapse and raise sea level the climate system was quite stable for many years before plunging into another ice age but all the while there was a key difference no human influences on the environment by examining ancient sediments and ice earth scientists are working to figure out what this interval in ...
http://whoi.edu/sbl/liteSite.do?litesiteid=13292&articleId=20694
*  Recent Articles | Extinction Rates And Ecology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 1
Recent Articles. Extinction Rates And Ecology. The Scientist Magazine. Page 1. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: extinction rates x. ecology x. The Scientist extinction rates and ecology. Most Recent One-Third of Cactus Species Threatened By Karen Zusi. October 6, 2015. A global assessment of declining cacti populations places responsibility on increasing human activities. 0 Comments. Butterflies in Peril By Bob Grant. August 12, 2015. Several recent studies point to serious and mysterious declines in butterfly numbers across the globe. 4 Comments. Mimicry Muses By Mary Beth Aberlin. August 1, 2015. The animal world is full of clever solutions to bioengineering challenges. 0 Comments. 1 + 1 = 1 By Jenny Rood. July 1, 2015. Nutrient levels in soil don t add up when food chains combine. 0 Comments. Intelligence Gathering By Mary Beth Aberlin. July 1, 2015. Disease eradication in the 21st century 0 Comments. Ravenous Invasive Worm Now in U.S. By Bob Grant. June 25, 2015. Rese...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/1085,7/tags/extinction-rates,ecology/pageNo/1/
*  Causes of extinction
... Pollution. Pollution. The most important causal anthropogenic activities are habitat destruction, overexploitation, pollution and the introduction of alien species to an environment. See main article: Habitat fragmentation Habitat destruction is the greatest contributor to the extinction of many species; moreover, impacts to biota from habitat fragmentation is a critical mechanism of driving species to extinction. Ehrlich and Ehrlich. In terms of the marine environment, water pollution and trawling a form of fishing in which a net weighted by anchors is dragged across the ocean floor have contributed significantly to habitat destruction; marine ocean pollution consists not only of introduced chemicals, but also thermal pollution and excess turbidity, the latter of which leads to sedimentation and destruction to coral reefs among other marine biotic impacts. Wilson points out that islands which have experienced near total habitat destruction follow this law faithfully; namely the number of reptile and amp...
http://eoearth.org/view/article/150962/
*  .. March 13 Colloquium
March 13 Colloquium. Kwonmoo Lee, Harvard Medical School. Integrating Protein Dynamics and Cell Mechanics: Mechanosensitivity of Dynamic Actin Remodeling During Cell Migration. Migrating cells are mechanochemical machines where biochemistry and mechanics integrate to control cellular motion. The polymerization of the filamentous protein called actin provides force generation for membrane protrusion, an initial step of cell migration. In turn, mechanical force sensed by cells leads to dynamic responses of the intracellular biochemical pathways. The dissection of systems with such mechanochemical pathways has remained a fundamental challenge in biological investigation. To unravel the complex nature of interplay between biochemistry and mechanics in space and time, we developed a novel statistical approach based on local image sampling and registration to directly visualize the dynamics of molecular/cellular events at the subcellular level. This method revealed distinct dynamics of molecular factors and tractio...
http://physics.uoregon.edu/2014/03/07/march-13-colloquium/
*  21-06-2012: e-Infrastructure colloquium Silvia Olabarriaga
... Nationaal instituut voor subatomaire fysica. Over Nikhef. OVERZICHT EVENTS 2015: 51 items. 2014: 56 items. 2013: 55 items. 2012: 79 items. 2011: 44 items. 2010: 50 items. 2009: 20 items. 2008: 27 items. 21-06-2012 21-06-2012: e-Infrastructure colloquium Silvia Olabarriaga. Peopleware for e-Infrastructures and e-Science by Silvia Olabarriaga, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam. Science Park Amsterdam, café-restaurant Polder, Science Park 306, 1098 XH Amsterdam. www.scienceparkamsterdam.nl/en/contact/how-to-find-us. Peopleware for e-Infrastructures and e-Science. Silvia Delgado Olabarriaga staff.science.uva.nl/~silvia/. Silvia D. UFRGS, Brazil in 1982. After working two years in the Brazilian computer industry EDISA as a software engineer, she went back to Informatics at UFRGS to obtain a Master's degree Computer Graphics. Informatics Institute at UFRGS 1990-2002. From 1994 on, her interests moved into Scientific Visualization and Image Processing, with focus on medical applications. Human-Co...
http://nikhef.nl/generalstorage/tt-news/evenementen/article/21-06-2012-e-infrastructure-colloquium-silvia-olabarriaga/165/
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
... Home. Auto. Gadgets. Hardware. Internet. IT. Science. Software. Blogs. Polls. Submit News. Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Blog - December 18, 2012 5:00 PM. Print. 47 comment s - last by drycrust3.. on Jan 9 at 5:54 AM. Recipient E-mail. Sender E-mail. Methane-producing bacteria may have leverage nickel from volcanism to flood the atmosphere with methane It was called The Great Dying. I A Time of Death and Desolation If that title sounds dire it is because it was indeed a grim time for life on Earth. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. Terrestrial life consisted of a rich mix of large amphibians think huge cousins of today's salamanders and scaly reptilian dinosaur predecessors. The seas teemed with life. Then some sort of cataclysm swept the globe. Ninety-six out of every one-hundred marine species 96% went exinct, while seventy out of eve...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827522&threshhold=1&red=170
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
... Home. Auto. Gadgets. Hardware. Internet. IT. Science. Software. Blogs. Polls. Submit News. Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Blog - December 18, 2012 5:00 PM. Print. 47 comment s - last by drycrust3.. on Jan 9 at 5:54 AM. Recipient E-mail. Sender E-mail. Methane-producing bacteria may have leverage nickel from volcanism to flood the atmosphere with methane It was called The Great Dying. I A Time of Death and Desolation If that title sounds dire it is because it was indeed a grim time for life on Earth. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. Terrestrial life consisted of a rich mix of large amphibians think huge cousins of today's salamanders and scaly reptilian dinosaur predecessors. The seas teemed with life. Then some sort of cataclysm swept the globe. Ninety-six out of every one-hundred marine species 96% went exinct, while seventy out of eve...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827550&threshhold=1&red=333
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
... Home. Auto. Gadgets. Hardware. Internet. IT. Science. Software. Blogs. Polls. Submit News. Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Blog - December 18, 2012 5:00 PM. Print. 47 comment s - last by drycrust3.. on Jan 9 at 5:54 AM. Recipient E-mail. Sender E-mail. Methane-producing bacteria may have leverage nickel from volcanism to flood the atmosphere with methane It was called The Great Dying. I A Time of Death and Desolation If that title sounds dire it is because it was indeed a grim time for life on Earth. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. Terrestrial life consisted of a rich mix of large amphibians think huge cousins of today's salamanders and scaly reptilian dinosaur predecessors. The seas teemed with life. Then some sort of cataclysm swept the globe. Ninety-six out of every one-hundred marine species 96% went exinct, while seventy out of eve...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827622&threshhold=1&red=454
*  The Developing Diversity Scam | The Resilient Earth
The Resilient Earth. The Resilient Earth. Submitted by Doug L. AGW Anthropocene anthropogenic Atmosphere Cambrian Climate Change clouds Cretaceous Devonian environmentalist Evolution extinction glacial Global Warming Holocene interglacial IPCC Jurassic methane Ordovician Permian Resilient Earth Triassic. To understand the article, “ The Shifting Balance of Diversity Among Major Marine Animal Groups,” by paleobiologist John Alroy, one needs a little background information about mass extinctions and species diversity over the past half billion years or so. We examined the history of life and mass extinctions in Chapter 6 of The Resilient Earth : Since the advent of complex life on Earth there have been five major mass extinctions. Permian-Triassic 251 mya : extinction of 96% of marine species, including all trilobites and many terrestrial animals—Earth’s biggest extinction. Mostly affecting ocean life killing 57% of marine genera and 23% of marine families. KT or end-Cretaceous Extinction 65 mya : 80% of all sp...
http://theresilientearth.com/?q=content/developing-diversity-scam
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
... Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. The exinction to this day remains the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history and what is believed to be the only mass extinction to feature a major extinction of insects -- traditionally among the Earth's most hardy species. Criticism of this hypothesis has traditionally been that it's improper to assume the markers of climate change -- atmospheric and ocean carbon levels -- as causing ecological changes, when ecological changes can also cause climate change. What Caused Carbon Levels to Spike. Thus Professor Rothman suggests that methanosarcina likely exploited the rising nickel levels to transform carbon dioxide and hydrogen into methane. In fact, Professor Rothman believes that methanosarcina fortuitously acquired the its triple metal-catalyzed methane-pr...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827474&threshhold=1&red=1627
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
... Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. The exinction to this day remains the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history and what is believed to be the only mass extinction to feature a major extinction of insects -- traditionally among the Earth's most hardy species. Criticism of this hypothesis has traditionally been that it's improper to assume the markers of climate change -- atmospheric and ocean carbon levels -- as causing ecological changes, when ecological changes can also cause climate change. What Caused Carbon Levels to Spike. Thus Professor Rothman suggests that methanosarcina likely exploited the rising nickel levels to transform carbon dioxide and hydrogen into methane. In fact, Professor Rothman believes that methanosarcina fortuitously acquired the its triple metal-catalyzed methane-pr...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827607&threshhold=1&red=3846
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
... Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. The exinction to this day remains the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history and what is believed to be the only mass extinction to feature a major extinction of insects -- traditionally among the Earth's most hardy species. Criticism of this hypothesis has traditionally been that it's improper to assume the markers of climate change -- atmospheric and ocean carbon levels -- as causing ecological changes, when ecological changes can also cause climate change. What Caused Carbon Levels to Spike. Thus Professor Rothman suggests that methanosarcina likely exploited the rising nickel levels to transform carbon dioxide and hydrogen into methane. In fact, Professor Rothman believes that methanosarcina fortuitously acquired the its triple metal-catalyzed methane-pr...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827646&threshhold=1&red=1514
*  extinction - definition and meaning
Community. Word of the day. Random word. Log in or Sign up. extinction love. Help Wordnik hunt for a million missing words by backing our Kickstarter. extinction. n The fact of being extinct or the process of becoming extinct: "The most effective agent in the extinction of species is the pressure of other species” Alfred R. n Psychology A reduction or a loss in the strength or rate of a conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus or reinforcement is withheld. n Physiology A gradual decrease in the excitability of a nerve to a previously adequate stimulus, usually resulting in total loss of excitability. The action of making or becoming extinct; annihilation. The act of extinguishing or making extinct; a putting an end to; the act of putting out or destroying light, fire, life, activity, influence, etc. n State of being extinguished or of ceasing to be; destruction; suppression. The act of extinguishing, or the state of being extinguished; a quenching or putting out, as of fire or flame. n Hence A bri...
https://wordnik.com/words/extinction
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. The exinction to this day remains the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history and what is believed to be the only mass extinction to feature a major extinction of insects -- traditionally among the Earth's most hardy species. Criticism of this hypothesis has traditionally been that it's improper to assume the markers of climate change -- atmospheric and ocean carbon levels -- as causing ecological changes, when ecological changes can also cause climate change. What Caused Carbon Levels to Spike. Thus Professor Rothman suggests that methanosarcina likely exploited the rising nickel levels to transform carbon dioxide and hydrogen into methane. In fact, Professor Rothman believes that methanosarcina fortuitously acquired the its triple metal-catalyzed methane-produci...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827501&threshhold=1&red=4632
*  DailyTech - Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History
Science Researcher: Pesky Microbe May Have Caused the Biggest Extinction in History Jason Mick. Occurring about 252 and one-third million years ago, the mass extinction came at a time when life on Earth had become fairly advanced. The exinction to this day remains the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history and what is believed to be the only mass extinction to feature a major extinction of insects -- traditionally among the Earth's most hardy species. Criticism of this hypothesis has traditionally been that it's improper to assume the markers of climate change -- atmospheric and ocean carbon levels -- as causing ecological changes, when ecological changes can also cause climate change. What Caused Carbon Levels to Spike. Thus Professor Rothman suggests that methanosarcina likely exploited the rising nickel levels to transform carbon dioxide and hydrogen into methane. In fact, Professor Rothman believes that methanosarcina fortuitously acquired the its triple metal-catalyzed methane-produci...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=29446&commentid=827552&threshhold=1&red=3114
*  Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event
... The 'Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event', also known as the 'Cenomanian-Turonian extinction event', the 'Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event', and referred to in Europe as the 'Bonarelli Event', was the latter of two anoxic extinction event s early in the Cretaceous period. The event occurred approximately 91.5 ± 8.6 million years ago,. 1 and brought about the extinction of the Spinosauridae, Pliosauridae, and possibly Ichthyosauria ; though coracoids of Maastrichtian age may belong to ichthyosaurs, indicating the survival of the group until the latest Cretaceous. Sven Sachs, Jack A. Grant‐Mackie, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2003. An ichthyosaur fragment from the Cretaceous of Northland, New Zealand. 33 1, 307 - 314 CrossRef. Although the cause is still uncertain, the result starved the Earth's oceans of oxygen for nearly half a million years, causing the extinction of approximately 27 percent of marine invertebrates. 2 This global environmental disturbance increased atmospheric and oceanic...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenomanian-Turonian_boundary_event
*  Colloquium - 'Critics of Religious Higher Learning in Early Modern Iran' | UANews
Colloquium - 'Critics of Religious Higher Learning in Early Modern Iran'. UANews. Jump to navigation The University of Arizona. Apply. Visit. Submit a Story Idea Contact. UANews. Close Search Search form. Search. Submit a Story Idea Contact. Topics. Arts Business Law Campus Health Sci. Tech Social Sciences Sports Students Videos Galleries Blog Calendar UA In the News Press Room UA@Work Sign Up for UANews. Apply Visit Give. Topics. Arts. Business Law. Campus. Health. Sci. Tech. Social Sciences. Sports. Students. Videos. Galleries. Blog. Calendar. Press Room. UA@Work. Sign Up for UANews. Arts Business Law Campus Health Sci. Tech Social Sciences Sports Students Videos Galleries. Colloquium - Critics of Religious Higher Learning in Early Modern Iran Friday, January 18, 2013 - 3:00pm to 4:00pm. MENAS Spring 2013 Colloquim Series presents Maryam Moazzen, from the School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies, discussing "Critics of Religious Higher Learning in Early Modern Iran." Early Safavid rulers needed re...
http://uanews.org/calendar/50217-colloquium-critics-religious-higher-learning-early-modern-iran
*  .. Posts Tagged ‘wifi’ .. Radio Freethinker Episode 160 – Somebodies Watching Me Edition
We talk about how resent research reveals that it seems more likely that the arrival of humans to Australia resulted in a continental climate change that lead to a major shift in the flora on the mega-island which, with the help of human predation, lead to the extinction of the megafauna down-under. Humans killed off Australia’s giant beast Human role in big kangaroo demise Climate ‘key to beasts’ demise’ Aridity, Faunal Adaptations and Australian Late Pleistocene Extinctions The Aftermath of Megafaunal Extinction: Ecosystem Transformation in Pleistocene Australia Australian megafauna Death of the Megafauna Megafauna extinction theories – patterns of extinction Lucy’s Neighbors. Tagged: budget, extinction, hominid, Pink Slime, pirate bay, Privacy, regulation, Satellite, surveillance, uranium dating, wifi. http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2011/08/03/swede-arrested-for-building-nuclear-reactor-in-his-kitchen/ http://blogs.voanews.com/breaking-news/2011/08/08/swede-attempts-to-build-homemade-nuclear-reactor/ http:...
http://radiofreethinker.com/tag/wifi/
*  .. The Daily Telegraph misrepresent a scientist’s work, then refuse to correct it when he writes
That means it will not. www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/323/5910/119. devilskitchen said, January 8, 2009 at 1:40 am “As you will know the Telegraph are a friendly home to climate change denialist bores.”. LadyL said, January 8, 2009 at 12:15 pm I’ve just read the press release and it says nothing of the sort. splittter said, January 8, 2009 at 12:15 pm I don’t really understand the people claiming the press release shares some of the blame. HowardW said, January 8, 2009 at 1:38 pm I agree – the blame lies with the Telegraph article, not with the Birmingham press release. Telegraph headline Filling the atmosphere with Greenhouse gases associated with global warming could push the planet into a new ice age, scientists have warned. hozepipe said, January 9, 2009 at 4:42 pm “There is no scientific debate over whether global warming is happening”. www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2004/12/myths-vs-fact-regarding-the-hockey-stick/ seanie said, January 11, 2009 at 10:25 pm On a more general theme why n...
http://badscience.net/2009/01/the-telegraph-misrepresent-a-scientists-work-on-climate-and-then-refuse-to-correct-it-when-he-writes-to-them/
*  Extirpation
... can refer to local extinction removing solid matter from a part of the body as in thrombectomy or endarterectomy...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extirpation
*  മരണം - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
ഇരപിടുത്തം predation, രോഗം, ആവാസവ്യവസ്ഥയുടെ തകർച്ച habitat destruction, വാർദ്ധക്യം, പോഷകാഹാരക്കുറവ് മൂലമുള്ള രോഗം malnutrition, അപകടം എന്നീ കാരണങ്ങളിൽ ഏതെങ്കിലും ഒന്ന് ഒരു സജീവവസ്തുവിന്റെ മരണത്തിനു കാരണമാ‍കാം. എന്നാൽ ദൈവരാജ്യത്തിൻ കീഴിൽ നീതിമാന്മാരുടെയും, നീതികെട്ടവരുടെയും ദൈവത്തെ അറിയാൻ അവസരം കിട്ടാതെ മരിചുപോയ നല്ല മനുഷ്യർ പുനരുത്ഥാനമുണ്ടെന്ന് വിശ്വസിക്കുന്നു. സ്വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ക്രിസ്തുവിനോടുകൂടെ ഭരിക്കാൻ ദൈവം തിരഞ്ഞെടുത്ത കുറച്ചുപേർ മാത്രമെ പോകുകയുള്ളുവെന്നും അഭിഷിക്തർ, മറ്റുള്ള നല്ലവർ ഭുമിയിലെ പറുദീസയിൽ എക്കാലവും ജീവിക്കും എന്നുമുള്ള വിശ്വാസമാണ് ഇവർക്കുള്ളത്. പിൻവരുന്ന ബൈബിൾ വചനങ്ങളെ ഇവരുടെ ആശയത്തെ പിന്താങ്ങാനായി ഇവർ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നു. തിയതിയ്ക്ക് നൽകിയ വില പരിശോധിക്കുക |archive-date= സഹായം....
https://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/മരണം
*  L-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Fear Conditioning, Fear Extinction, and Amygdala Neurophysi
... ology. L-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Fear Conditioning, Fear Extinction, and Amygdala Neurophysiology. McKinney, Brandon Chad. Abstract: Fear conditioning is a form of learning in which an initially neutral stimulus e.g., tone or context comes to be feared after being paired with an aversive stimulus e.g., shock. The initially neutral stimulus is referred to as the "conditioned stimulus" CS once it is able to bring about fear responses on its own, the aversive stimulus is the "unconditioned stimulus" US , and the fear responses elicited by the CS are the "conditioned responses" CRs. Fear extinction is a process by which the previously conditioned fear responses can be reduced by repeated presentation of the CS alone, in the absence of the aversive US. Interestingly, it has been previously demonstrated that L-type voltage-gated calcium channels L-VGCCs have a role in fear conditioning, fear extinction, and amygdala neurophysiology. All of the studies implicating L-VGCCs in these phenomena used L...
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/75966
*  irrational fear of washing or bathing - traducción de español - Diccionario Inglés-Español de Wo
... rd Magic. Diccionario irrational fear of thinking irrational fear of thunder and lightning irrational fear of time or clocks irrational fear of toads irrational fear of tombstones irrational fear of tornadoes and hurricanes irrational fear of trains, railroads or train travel irrational fear of trees irrational fear of trembling irrational fear of trichinosis irrational fear of trying to speak irrational fear of tuberculosis irrational fear of tyrants irrational fear of ugliness irrational fear of undressing in front of someone irrational fear of urine or urinating irrational fear of vaccination irrational fear of vegetables irrational fear of ventriloquist dummies, animatronic creatures and wax statues irrational fear of vertigo or dizziness when looking down irrational fear of virgins or young girls irrational fear of voids or empty spaces irrational fear of vomiting irrational fear of walking irrational fear of Walloons irrational fear of washing or bathing irrational fear of wasps irrational fear of w...
http://wordmagicsoft.com/diccionario/en-es/irrational fear of washing or bathing.php
*  .. Fear of failure is one of the most common fears that limits your success. .. Fear of Failureâ€
Fear of Failure’s 9 Faces. Fear of failure is one of the most common fears that limits your success. Fear of failure’s a tricky fear though, because it has many faces — some are obvious and some not. Below are nine of the fear of failure faces. Fear of Failure Face #1: Not Giving 100%. This fear of failure face first occurred to me after talking with a women’s college basketball player. A 5 step process to master most fears Master Fear in 5 Easy Yet Powerful Steps Master Fear in 5 Easy Yet Powerful Steps Fear of Failure Face #2: Procrastination. This is a more obvious fear of failure face. Fear of Failure Face #3: Anger. There’s a good chance you don’t even know you have a fear of failure because the anger quickly covers up the fear. Anger in this situation is actually a protective response to fear of failure. Fear is the primary emotional response, and anger is the secondary emotional response. If you find the fear and work to resolve it, your anger disappears. A 5 step process to master most fear...
http://tcnorth.com/fear-of-failures-9-faces/
*  Fear Stock Photos, Images, & Pictures – (115,859 Images) - Page 2
 Fear Stock Photos, Images, & Pictures – 115,859 Images - Page 2. International. Email us. Phone: +1 615-771-5611. Sign up for free or. Username. Password. Sign in. Stock Images. Stock Footage. Free Images. Designers area. Contributors area. Resources. Photo map. Blogs. Prices and download plans. Abstract. Animals. Arts & Architecture. Business. Editorial. Holidays. Industries. IT & C. Nature. Objects. People. Illustrations & Clipart. Web Design Graphics. Technology. Travel. More. Abstract. Animals. 2D 3D Animation. Arts & Architecture. Business. Editorial. Holidays. Industries. IT & C. Nature. Objects. People. Video Production Elements. Technology. Travel. More. Abstract. Animals. Arts & Architecture. Business. Illustrations & Clipart. Industries. IT & C. Nature. Objects. People. Technology. Travel. Web Design Graphics. More. All Content. Photos. Illustrations. only vector/RAW. Photos, Illustrations. Fear Stock Photos & Images Related searches:. overcome fear. fear woman. deep fear businessman. deep fear of...
http://dreamstime.com/photos-images/p2/fear.html
*  And my health fears are back....
... Anxiety Forums, Blogs & Support Groups. Welcome, Guest. Please login or register. Anxiety Zone. Answer Follow us on Twitter @anxietyzone. Tags. Login. Register. Member Groups. Member Blogs. Health News. Anxiety Zone Forums, Blogs Support Groups. Anxiety Disorders. Hypochondria Health Anxiety Moderators: anxiouskathie , kevinjoseph , BuzzBee1 , MobileChucko , docaholic. And my health fears are back.... previous next Print. Author Topic: And my health fears are back.... 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic. aec711 Full Member. Posts: 132 Country:. Rec's: 2 Gender:. And my health fears are back.... on: January 24, 2014, 09:54:52 PM. Hypochondria and anxiety have once again taken over my life This has been going on since I was a little girl - but the panic attacks didn t start until I was 19 - I am 32 now. The problem now is that I have a 3 year old and and 1 year old - I need to be there for them and not spending time and energy worrying about myself. And then I have had a weird headache so it is pr...
http://anxietyzone.com/index.php/topic,82214.msg461895.html
*  I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back :(
I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back :. Anxiety Forums, Blogs & Support Groups. Anxiety Zone. Member Groups. Member Blogs. Health News. Anxiety Zone Forums, Blogs Support Groups. Anxiety Disorders. Hypochondria Health Anxiety Moderators: anxiouskathie, kevinjoseph, BuzzBee1, MobileChucko, docaholic. I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back :. Author Topic: I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back : Read 315 times. Rec's: 1 Gender:. Personal text. I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back : on: April 25, 2014, 08:23:29 PM. I always find new lymph nodes and every time I think ok, this is really lymphoma this time and I m always wrong, considering it s been some time and I d probably be really sick by now if I had lymphoma. Tweet Logged. Posts: 6075 Rec's: 57 Personal text. Re: I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back : Reply #1 on: April 25, 2014, 09:10:43 PM. As you know, it hasn t been lymphoma any of the other times, so it probably isn t now. Twe...
http://anxietyzone.com/index.php/topic,87238.msg487926.html
*  I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back :(
I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back :. Anxiety Forums, Blogs & Support Groups. Anxiety Zone. Member Groups. Member Blogs. Health News. Anxiety Zone Forums, Blogs Support Groups. Anxiety Disorders. Hypochondria Health Anxiety Moderators: anxiouskathie, kevinjoseph, BuzzBee1, MobileChucko, docaholic. I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back :. Author Topic: I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back : Read 314 times. Rec's: 1 Gender:. Personal text. I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back : on: April 25, 2014, 08:23:29 PM. I always find new lymph nodes and every time I think ok, this is really lymphoma this time and I m always wrong, considering it s been some time and I d probably be really sick by now if I had lymphoma. Tweet Logged. Posts: 6075 Rec's: 57 Personal text. Re: I'm a new mom, and my lymphoma fears are coming back : Reply #1 on: April 25, 2014, 09:10:43 PM. As you know, it hasn t been lymphoma any of the other times, so it probably isn t now. Twe...
http://anxietyzone.com/index.php/topic,87238.msg487974.html
*  Effects of the beta-blocker propranolol on cued and contextual fear conditioning in humans.
... Rx drug information, pharmaceutical research, clinical trials, news, and more. Drugs By Name By Condition By Category Most Searched Ratings/Reviews Adverse Events Actives. Related Drugs. Inderal Innopran XL. Effects of the beta-blocker propranolol on cued and contextual fear conditioning in humans. Author s : Grillon C, Cordova J, Morgan CA, Charney DS, Davis M Affiliation s : Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, NIMH/NIH/DHHS National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2670, USA. christian.grillon@nih.gov Publication date source: 2004-09, Psychopharmacology Berl ., 175 3 :342-52. Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial RATIONALE: Beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the consolidation of emotional memories. Yet, a number of studies using Pavlovian cued fear conditioning have been unable to demonstrate an effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on acquisition or retention of fear conditioning. Evidence for the involvement of beta-adrenergic receptors in emotional memories c...
http://druglib.com/abstract/gr/grillon-c_psychopharmacology-berl_20040900.html
*  Fear conditioning
... 'Fear conditioning' is a behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events. 1 It is a form of learning in which an aversive stimulus e.g. an electrical shock is associated with a particular neutral context e.g., a room or neutral stimulus e.g., a tone, resulting in the expression of fear responses to the originally neutral stimulus or context. This can be done by pairing the neutral stimulus with an aversive stimulus e.g., a shock, loud noise, or unpleasant odor. Eventually, the neutral stimulus alone can elicit the state of fear. In the vocabulary of classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus or context is the "conditional stimulus" CS, the aversive stimulus is the "unconditional stimulus" US, and the fear is the "conditional response" CR. File:Fear conditioning for mice.jpeg|thumb|Fear conditioning apparatus for mice equiped with a sound, a foot shock and an activity sensor with photobeams to measure freezing. Environment context can be changed. This apparatus is also used for P...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear_conditioning
*  NARSAD Grantees Gain Insight on Fear Memories, May Help Treat PTSD
... . Published on Brain Behavior Research Foundation Formerly NARSAD. https://bbrfoundation.org. NARSAD Grantees Gain Insight on Fear Memories, May Help Treat PTSD. January 31, 2013. Bo Li, Ph.D. A pair of small almond-shaped structures called the amygdalae are often said to be the human brain’s “fear centers.” Many experiments have shown their involvement in the fear response—a complex series of biological processes that are set in motion when we are, for instance, startled or perceive a threat in our environment. Disorders involving the fear response include post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD, where fear is experienced in the absence of an immediate threat often via the involuntary recall of traumatic memories. But how are fear memories stored and in which nerve cells, exactly. These questions were central to research published this week in Nature Neuroscience, conducted by a team at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, led by NARSAD Young Investigator Grantee Bo Li, Ph.D. and including NARSAD D...
https://bbrfoundation.org/print/1594
*  .. 3 Vital Lessons I Learned From Being Afraid .. 3 Midlife Fears That Keep Men Stuck Doing What Th
You are here: Home / Archives for admitting fear. 3 Vital Lessons I Learned From Being Afraid. July 19, 2015 by. Bob Wilson. Leave a Comment. He was terrified of speaking in public, but he stuck it out and learned how to find his way to ease and flow. Filed Under: Business, Featured Content Tagged With: admitting fear, advice, being in flow, business success, career success, conquering fear, fear of public speaking. 3 Midlife Fears That Keep Men Stuck Doing What They No Longer Enjoy. Kingsley Grant. 2 Comments. Boost your chances by overcoming them. Filed Under: Advice Confessions, Featured Content Tagged With: admitting fear, advice, fear, fear of failure, fear of loss, fear of rejection, Kingsley Grant, masculinity, relationships. Kimanzi Constable. 2 Comments. It took this man 12 years to figure out why he was 170 pounds overweight, stuck in a job he hated, and living a miserable life. — For 12 years I let fear hold me back. I was afraid of change, I was afraid of taking action. I let fear talk me out of ...
http://goodmenproject.com/tag/admitting-fear/
*  The Fear Of Criticism | Think and Grow Rich
The Fear Of Criticism. Criticism will plant FEAR in the human heart, or resentment, but it will not build love or affection. SYMPTOMS OF THE FEAR OF CRITICISM This fear is almost as universal as the fear of poverty, and its effects are just as fatal to personal achievement, mainly because this fear destroys initiative, and discourages the use of imagination. In the main, man fears ill health because of the terrible pictures which have been planted in his mind of what may happen if death should overtake him. He also fears it because of the economic toll which it may claim. It has been shown most convincingly that the fear of disease, even where there is not the slightest cause for fear, often produces the physical symptoms of the disease feared. The seed of fear of ill health lives in every human mind. SYMPTOMS OF THE FEAR OF ILL HEALTH The symptoms of this almost universal fear are: AUTO-SUGGESTION. The habit of negative use of self-suggestion by looking for, and expecting to find the symptoms of all kinds of...
http://psitek.net/pages/PsiTekTAGR37.html
*  .. List of Phobias .. The Author .. Nelson D'Souza
List of Phobias Nelson D'Souza November 9, 2012 Lists. Ablutophobia – Fear of washing or bathing Acarophobia – Fear of itching or of the insects that cause itching Acerophobia – Fear of sourness Achluophobia – Fear of darkness Acousticophobia – Fear of noise Acrophobia – Fear of heights Aerophobia – Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne noxious substances Aeroacrophobia – Fear of open high places Aeronausiphobia – Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness Agateophobia – Fear of insanity Agliophobia – Fear of pain Agoraphobia – Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place Agraphobia – Fear of sexual abuse Agrizoophobia – Fear of wild animals Agyrophobia – Fear of streets or crossing the street Aichmophobia – Fear of needles or pointed objects Ailurophobia – Fear of cats Albuminurophobia – Fear of kidney disease Alektorophobia – Fear of chickens Algophobia – Fear of pain Alliumphobia – Fear of garlic Allodoxaphobia – Fear of opinions Altophobia – Fe...
http://go4quiz.com/866/list-of-phobias/
*  Quotes About fear Find Your Favorite Quote on the Gaiam Blog
... fear. A Quote by Aung San Suu Kyi on prison, freedom, fear, peace, burma, and democracy in. The only real prison is fear, and the only real freedom is freedom from fear. Permalink. Permalink. A Quote by Sumner Davenport on fear, ideas, vision, resilliance self investment, and self help in. Sumner Davenport Source: www.sumnerdavenport.com Contributed by: TommyB. Permalink. A Quote by Sumner Davenport on fear, criticism, personal growth, and support in. criticism fear personal growth support. Sumner Davenport Source: www.selfinvestment.com Contributed by: Sydney. Permalink. A Quote by Elizabeth Cady Stanton on fear, opinion, others, hesitate, truth, motive, silent, speak, divine, light, life, flow, and soul in. divine fear flow hesitate life Light motive opinion others silent soul speak truth. "The moment we begin to fear the opinions of others and hesitate to tell the truth that is in us, and from motives of policy are silent when we should speak, the divine floods of light and life no longer flow into ou...
http://blog.gaiam.com/quotes/topics/fear?page=12
*  Fear
... of death. Fears in culture Death. Fear of death. Death anxiety is multidimensional; it covers "fears related to one's own death, the death of others, fear of the unknown after death, fear of obliteration, and fear of the dying process, which includes fear of a slow death and a painful death". Fear of death was measured by a "Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale" which included the 8 subscales Fear of Dying, Fear of the Dead, Fear of Being Destroyed, Fear for Significant Others, Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, Fear for the Body After Death, and Fear of Premature Death. The avoidance learning of rats is seen as a conditioned response, and therefore the behavior can be unconditioned, as supported by the earlier research. Humans and animals both share these species-specific defense reactions, such as the flight, fight, which also include pseudo-aggression, fake or intimidating aggression, freeze response to threats, which is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Species specific defense...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear
*  Quotes About fear Find Your Favorite Quote on the Gaiam Blog
... fear. A Quote by Ambrose Gwinett Bierce on daughters, fear, hope, ignorance, nature, and religion. daughters fear hope ignorance nature religion. A daughter of Hope and Fear, explaining to Ignorance the nature of the Unknowable. Ambrose Bierce 1842 - 1914. Source: The Devil s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce. Contributed by: Zaady. Permalink. A Quote by Ambrose Gwinett Bierce on death, fear, and longevity. death fear longevity. Ambrose Bierce 1842 - 1914. Source: The Devil s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce. Contributed by: Zaady. Permalink. A Quote by Ambrose Gwinett Bierce on fear. fear. Ambrose Bierce 1842 - 1914. Source: The Devil s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce. Contributed by: Zaady. Permalink. A Quote by Ambrose Gwinett Bierce on dependence, fear, generosity, and support. Ambrose Bierce 1842 - 1914. Source: The Devil s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce. Contributed by: Zaady. Permalink. A Quote by Algernon Charles Swinburne on brevity, death, fear, hope, life, love, and men. brevity death fear hope life love me...
http://blog.gaiam.com/quotes/topics/fear?page=84
*  Masked fears: Are fears that are seemingly overcome only hidden? -- ScienceDaily
Masked fears: Are fears that are seemingly overcome only hidden. -- ScienceDaily. Your source for the latest research news. Mobile. Follow. Subscribe. Breaking News :. Ancient Ocean Alga Was Pre-Set for Life On Land. Volcanic Eruptions Affect Flow of Major Rivers. Ocean Bacteria: Millions of Tons of Hydrocarbons. How the Brain Recognizes Objects. Chernobyl: The Animals Have Returned. Illegal Trade Puts Cacti On Most Threatened List. World's Largest Atom Smashers: Smallest Droplets. Crucial Hurdle Overcome in Quantum Computing. Your Visual Cortex Is Making Decisions. Anorexia Nervosa and Gut Bacteria Linked: Study. Science News from research organizations. Masked fears: Are fears that are seemingly overcome only hidden. Date: March 20, 2011 Source: Albert-Ludwigs-Universit t Freiburg Summary: Fear is a natural part of our emotional life and acts as a necessary protection mechanism. However, fears sometimes grow beyond proportions and become difficult to shed. Scientists have now used computer simulations to un...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110318112018.htm
*  Fear of flying
... "Fear of Flying". other uses Fear of flying disambiguation. The fear of flying may be created by various other phobias and fears:. Fear of closed in spaces claustrophobia, such as that of an aircraft cabin Fear of heights acrophobia Feeling of not being in control Fear of vomiting, where a person will be afraid that they'll have motion sickness on board, or encounter someone having motion sickness and have no control over it such as escaping it Fear of having panic attack s in certain places, where escape would be difficult and/or embarrassing agoraphobia Fear of hijacking or terrorism. SOAR: The Breakthrough Treatment for Fear of Flying. If assessment reveals no threat, executive function dismisses the matter, and signals the amygdala to end stress hormone release. Upon commitment to a plan, either of action or of inaction, executive function signals the amygdala to end stress hormone release. In a non-phobic person, the arousal caused by the release of stress hormones results in a sense of curiosity, n...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear_of_flying
*  Managing Breast Cancer Fears
... Discussion Boards. Breastcancer.org. Search Breastcancer.org. Symptoms Diagnosis. Day-to-Day Matters. Community. Search Breastcancer.org. Symptoms & Diagnosis. Managing Breast Cancer Fears. Managing Breast Cancer Fears. You may be fearful of developing breast cancer for the first time or of receiving a diagnosis after a mammogram or other testing. If you’ve had breast cancer, you may be fearful of a possible recurrence or even of the possibility that breast cancer could take your life. Even though you may have some of these fears, you are not necessarily going to get breast cancer. Don't let the discussion of fear in this section feed into your own fears. Throughout Breastcancer.org, the information our medical experts provide and the support offered by our community members in the Discussion Boards can help you manage the fears instead of letting them manage you. While fears are normal, they are uncomfortable to live with. We'll help you figure out how you can manage fear so you can focus on livi...
http://breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/fears
*  .. My Frenemy Can’tye West .. Stage Fright = Fear of Vulnerability + Fear of Failure + Fear of Su
But this doesn’t mean that I don’t have other fears. People say nice things ’cause they don’t have the heart to hurt your feelings or burst your bubble. I don’t want to be their Can’tye West. lolz and say “I don’t know why this isn’t working!” or more defensive things like “well, their loss!” “whatever, they just don’t know talent when they see it” etc. Filed Under: Confidence, Mental health, perfectionism Tagged With: confidence, fear, irrational fear, paranoia, william hung syndrome, worrying. Stage Fright = Fear of Vulnerability + Fear of Failure + Fear of Success. There’s only one person in my life that I know who doesn’t get stage fright, and that person is my musical writing partner, Andrew. He does not get stage fright. So when I look at who Andrew is, it helps to illuminate what stage fright really is, because it’s everything he isn’t. And of course I’m gonna be all philosophical and extend this not just to literal stage fright in the performing arts sense, but life-stage fright – the fear we feel whe...
http://pancakesforsupper.com/tag/confidence-2/
*  At The Gates | Blinded By Fear lyrics - spa version
At The Gates. Blinded By Fear lyrics - spa version. top 100. top new. updates. submit lyrics # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z *. Advanced search. 'We are blind to the World within us, Waiting to be born' I cast aside my chains Fall from reality Purgatory unleashed Now burn the face of the earth Purgatory unleashed Now burn the face of the earth The face of all your fears All your fears unleashed The face of all your fears Born of the demon sky Twisting reality Sweet nauseating pain Is death the only release. nauseating pain Is death the only release. The face of all your fears All your fears unleashed The face of all your fears I cast aside my chains Fall from reality Suicidal disease The face of all your fears Now covered with sores Humanity exiled Purgatory unleashed Now burn the face of the earth Purgatory unleashed Now burn the face of the earth The face of all your fears All your fears unleashed The face of all your fears. Correct. Mail. Print. Vote Blinded By Fear Lyrics Lyrics. Art...
http://lyricsfreak.com/a/at the gates/spa:blinded by fear_20009821.html
*  Fear Of Squirrels
. Fear Of Squirrels. Phobia List. Medications. Treatment. OCD. Panic Attacks. Links. Search. Members. FAQ. . Current time: 10-06-2015, 03:32 PM Hello There, Guest. Login Register. oFear - Anxiety and Phobia Forum / Phobias by category / Animals. Previous 1 2 3 4 Next. / Fear Of Squirrels. Pages 2 : 1 2 Next. Thread Rating:. 0 Votes - 0 Average. 1 2. 3. 4. 5. Threaded Mode. Linear Mode. Fear Of Squirrels. 12-29-2007, 02:23 AM. Post: #1. Torqueo. Member. Posts: 50 Joined: Dec 2007. Fear Of Squirrels. A friend of mine is absolutely terrorfied of squirrels. Hell, it was looking up a name for that fear that made me find this place. Everytime someone says "Squirrel!" She gets really jumpy. She had a bit of an experience with a squirrel and she's feared them since. Anyone know of a term for it. I'm just curious. Hehehe. Thanks. Torqueo. What is needed, rather than running away or controlling or suppressing or any other resistance, is understanding fear; that means, watch it, learn about it, come directly into contac...
http://ofear.com/t-fear-of-squirrels
*  Lucid Nightmares – Fear, Initiation, and Beyond | dream studies portal
Lucid Nightmares Fear, Initiation, and Beyond. dream studies portal. Dream Studies Press Events Publications About Contact dream studies portal. Store Lucid Dreaming Sleep Paralysis Research Mysteries Resources. You are here: Home / Working with Dreams / Lucid Dreaming / Lucid Nightmares Fear, Initiation, and Beyond Lucid Nightmares Fear, Initiation, and Beyond By. Ryan Hurd. Facebook 31 Twitter 1 LinkedIn 0. Cernunnos by Gary Bonner. Fear as Projection Sometimes there really is nothing to fear but fear itself. Fear plays a huge role in lucid dreams because fear can manifest exactly what we don t want to see. In lucid dreams this well-known phenomenon is called the expectancy effect. When we become self-aware in dreams, we are initially excited, but then we may see something out of the corner of our eyes that we didn t expect. Like the flash of a dark figure moving from behind the door to the other side of the room. Fear blooms, and we may actually promote the scariness of this dream figure by projecting fear...
http://dreamstudies.org/2008/10/13/lucid-nightmares-fear-initiation-and-beyond/
*  How To Draw Out Your Worst Fears | KRVS
How To Draw Out Your Worst Fears. KRVS. skip to main content Radio Acadie. Site Menu. Donate. Menu. Home. Schedule. Programs. NPR News. Playlists. Podcasts. Events. About Us. Support. Become a Member. Planned Giving. Cypress Lake Circle. Underwriters. Donate Your Vehicle. Search. Menu. Home. Schedule. Programs. NPR News. Playlists. Podcasts. Events. About Us. Support. Become a Member. Planned Giving. Cypress Lake Circle. Underwriters. Donate Your Vehicle. Search. How To Draw Out Your Worst Fears By Kainaz Amaria. Aug 15, 2013 Share Twitter Facebook Google+ Email. VIEW SLIDESHOW 1 of 9 Pat, 66, fears losing her memory. Courtesy of Julie Elman. VIEW SLIDESHOW 2 of 9 Nomophobia: Fear of being separated from one's cellphone. Courtesy of Julie Elman. VIEW SLIDESHOW 3 of 9 Bill, 26, has trypophobia, a fear of holes or small clusters of holes. Courtesy of Julie Elman. VIEW SLIDESHOW 4 of 9 Kate, 59, fears being in a nursing home or hospital, and having a TV going all day. Courtesy of Julie Elman. VIEW SLIDESHOW 5 of...
http://krvs.org/post/how-draw-out-your-worst-fears
*  Fear of numbers
... may refer to tetraphobia fear of triskaidekaphobia fear of enigma fear of hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia fear of spiral of silence fear of majority ephebiphobia fear of large numbers of youth mass hysteria fear within large numbers of people nativism politics fear of high numbers of immigrants the population bomb exemplifying fear of a large global population obsessive compulsive disorder often exhibiting the fear of certain numbers phenomenon fear of certain numbers involving the year end time fear of time related numbers surrounding doomsday predictions see also death and culture friday the th illegal prime list of phobias murderous maths numerology self fulfilling prophecy the wrong number thirteenth floor...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear_of_numbers
*  fear Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary
... English UK. English UK. English US. Español. Русский. Português. Deutsch. Français. Italiano. 中文 简体. 正體中文 繁體. The most popular online dictionary and thesaurus for learners of English. Search. More... ×. Recent and Recommended. English. Definition. English. Learner’s Dictionary. Essential British English. Essential American English. Grammar. English Grammar Today. Translation. English-Spanish. Spanish-English. English-French. French-English. English-German. German-English. English-Indonesian. Indonesian-English. English-Arabic. English-Catalan. English-Chinese Simplified. English-Chinese Traditional. English-Italian. English-Japanese. English-Korean. English-Malaysian. English-Polish. English-Portuguese. English-Russian. English-Thai. English-Turkish. English-Vietnamese. Meaning of “fear” in the English Dictionary. British. American. "fear" in British English. See all translations. fear noun. uk. / fɪə r / us / fɪr /. Email this entry. B1 an ​ unpleasant ​ emotion or ​ thought that you have when you are ​...
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/fear
*  CTRN: Change That's Right Now | Symptoms
Compare CTRN Programs. CTRN Media Room. Compare CTRN Programs. CTRN Media Room. Compare CTRN Programs. CTRN Media Room. Fear Of Being Tired Symptoms. Fear of Being Tired Fear of Being Tired Home Page. Understanding Fear of Being Tired. Article: How to Overcome Fear of Being Tired. Compare the 2 Programs. FEAR OF BEING TIRED SYMPTOMS. But while the 'internal representations' as they are called are different from person to person there are a number of symptoms which are common to many kopophobes: A feeling of uncontrollable anxiety when you think about or are exposed to fatigue The feeling that you must do everything possible to avoid fatigue The inability to function normally because of your anxiety Often, the knowledge that your fears are unreasonable or exaggerated but feeling powerless to control them. But because the fear is a physical response to patterns of thinking about fatigue and not the actual fatigue almost all people with fear of being tired can create a very strong reaction just by using their mi...
http://changethatsrightnow.com/fear-of-being-tired/symptoms/
*  Cape Fear Valley Health | About Us | Fayetteville, NC & Ft. Bragg
Cape Fear Valley Health. About Us Mission/Vision/Values Board of Trustees Administration Accreditations. Cape Fear Valley Medical Center Highsmith-Rainey Specialty Hospital Cape Fear Valley Rehabilitation Center Behavioral Health Care Bladen County Hospital Hoke Hospital. About Cape Fear Valley Cape Fear Valley: Fayetteville’s Preferred Hospital & Medical Center For exceptional healthcare in Fayetteville, NC, come to the Cape Fear Valley Health System -- where caring physicians are committed to integrity, patient-centeredness and excellence throughout the entire healthcare process. For over 50 years, Cape Fear Valley Health has been the preferred healthcare provider for thousands of families from Fayetteville, Fort Bragg, Raeford, and beyond. Pediatrics, Cancer Treatment, Surgical Services & More Since Cape Fear Medical Center opened in 1956, it has grown into North Carolina’s 8th largest health system. Today, it is a robust medical center specializing in cardiac care, cancer treatment and surgical services a...
http://capefearvalley.com/about/index.html

Olson's Extinction: Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventFear conditioning: Fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events. It is a form of learning in which an aversive stimulus (e.Conditioned place preference: Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences. This paradigm can also be used to measure conditioned place aversion with an identical procedure involving aversive stimuli instead.Cell envelope antibiotic: A cell envelope antibiotic is an antibacterial that acts primarily at the level of the cell envelope.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Caninia (genus)Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Electroshock (wrestler)Meramec Conservation AreaStatistical relational learning: Statistical relational learning (SRL) is a subdiscipline of artificial intelligence and machine learning that is concerned with domain models that exhibit both uncertainty (which can be dealt with using statistical methods) and complex, relational structure. Typically, the knowledge representation formalisms developed in SRL use (a subset of) first-order logic to describe relational properties of a domain in a general manner (universal quantification) and draw upon probabilistic graphical models (such as Bayesian networks or Markov networks) to model the uncertainty; some also build upon the methods of inductive logic programming.EcosystemAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Information hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementSelf-administration: Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.Avoidance reactionBiosignal: A biosignal is any signal in living beings that can be continually measured and monitored. The term biosignal is often used to refer to bioelectrical signals, but it may refer to both electrical and non-electrical signals.Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Cocaine intoxicationTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTimeline of historic inventionsThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Exercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.China Biologic Products, Inc.SonepiprazoleBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Bodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentDopamine reuptake inhibitor: A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Reuptake inhibition is achieved when extracellular dopamine not absorbed by the postsynaptic neuron is blocked from re-entering the presynaptic neuron.List of largest volcanic eruptions: In a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (volcanic bombs, lapilli, and ash), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. While many eruptions only pose dangers to the immediately surrounding area, Earth's largest eruptions can have a major regional or even global impact, with some affecting the climate and contributing to mass extinctions.Spaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseaseMark IV AmphibianColes PhillipsIndex of geology articles: This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:List of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.ChytridiomycotaCarneau: The Carneau is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. Carneau, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon (Columba livia).Septum (cephalopod)Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
East Sussex Cricket Ground: East Sussex Cricket Ground was a cricket ground in St Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. The ground was located at the site of a racecourse which had moved after 1826 from the Bulverhythe Salts.RhodolithBrachiopodUnited States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories: The U.S.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.TuataraDoob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Interoceptive exposure: Interoceptive exposure is a cognitive behavioral therapy technique used in the treatment of panic disorder. It refers to carrying out exercises that bring about the physical sensations of a panic attack, such as hyperventilation and high muscle tension, and in the process removing the patient's conditioned response that the physical sensations will cause an attack to happen.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Cibicides: Cibicides is a cosmopolitan genus of benthic foraminifera known from at least as far back as the Paleocene (Loeblich & Tappan, 1988) that extends down to the present.Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.AnisomycinIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.

(1/713) Removing the threat of diclofenac to critically endangered Asian vultures.

Veterinary use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug diclofenac in South Asia has resulted in the collapse of populations of three vulture species of the genus Gyps to the most severe category of global extinction risk. Vultures are exposed to diclofenac when scavenging on livestock treated with the drug shortly before death. Diclofenac causes kidney damage, increased serum uric acid concentrations, visceral gout, and death. Concern about this issue led the Indian Government to announce its intention to ban the veterinary use of diclofenac by September 2005. Implementation of a ban is still in progress late in 2005, and to facilitate this we sought potential alternative NSAIDs by obtaining information from captive bird collections worldwide. We found that the NSAID meloxicam had been administered to 35 captive Gyps vultures with no apparent ill effects. We then undertook a phased programme of safety testing of meloxicam on the African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus, which we had previously established to be as susceptible to diclofenac poisoning as the endangered Asian Gyps vultures. We estimated the likely maximum level of exposure (MLE) of wild vultures and dosed birds by gavage (oral administration) with increasing quantities of the drug until the likely MLE was exceeded in a sample of 40 G. africanus. Subsequently, six G. africanus were fed tissues from cattle which had been treated with a higher than standard veterinary course of meloxicam prior to death. In the final phase, ten Asian vultures of two of the endangered species (Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus) were dosed with meloxicam by gavage; five of them at more than the likely MLE dosage. All meloxicam-treated birds survived all treatments, and none suffered any obvious clinical effects. Serum uric acid concentrations remained within the normal limits throughout, and were significantly lower than those from birds treated with diclofenac in other studies. We conclude that meloxicam is of low toxicity to Gyps vultures and that its use in place of diclofenac would reduce vulture mortality substantially in the Indian subcontinent. Meloxicam is already available for veterinary use in India.  (+info)

(2/713) Tracking ancient polyploids: a retroposon insertion reveals an extinct diploid ancestor in the polyploid origin of belladonna.

Polyploidy is a prominent process in plant evolution and adaptation, but molecular phylogenetic studies of polyploids based on DNA sequences have often been confounded by their complex gene and genome histories. We report here a retroposon insertion in the nuclear gene granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI or "waxy") that clearly reveals the ancient hybrid history of the medically important polyploid species belladonna (Atropa belladonna) and resolves the controversy over the taxonomic group to which it belongs, the tribe Hyoscyameae (Solanaceae). Our inferences based on the pattern of presence or absence of the retroposon insertion are corroborated by phylogenetic analyses of the GBSSI gene sequences. This case may suggest that retroposons are promising molecular markers to study polyploid evolution.  (+info)

(3/713) Negative environmental perturbations may improve species persistence.

Among the factors proximally involved in the extinction of small isolated populations, genetic deterioration and temporal variation in environmental quality have been the subjects of intensive research in ecological and evolutionary sciences. However, previous theoretical studies and population viability assessments generally assumed a strict dichotomy between these two types of threat. Yet a number of empirical studies have recently suggested that the effects of genetic deterioration and environmental variation should not be considered independently, by demonstrating that the main effect of inbreeding depression lies with its tendency to exacerbate the deleterious consequences of environmental stress. Capitalizing on these results, I developed a stochastic model to examine the impact of random environmental perturbations on the persistence time of small isolated populations subject to inbreeding depression and mutation accumulation. The model assumes that spontaneous deleterious mutations have more severe effects when perturbations occur, which results in more efficient purging of the mutation load. Under this assumption, I find that negative perturbations may paradoxically improve middle- and long-term species persistence for realistic frequency of occurrence and severity distribution.  (+info)

(4/713) Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species.

The huge ecological and economic impact of biological invasions creates an urgent need for knowledge of traits that make invading species successful and factors helping indigenous populations to resist displacement by invading species or genotypes. High genetic diversity is generally considered to be advantageous in both processes. Combined with sex, it allows rapid evolution and adaptation to changing environments. We combined paleogenetic analysis with continent-wide survey of genetic diversity at nuclear and mitochondrial loci to reconstruct the invasion history of a single asexual American water flea clone (hybrid Daphnia pulexxDaphnia pulicaria) in Africa. Within 60 years of the original introduction of this invader, it displaced the genetically diverse, sexual population of native D. pulex in Lake Naivasha (Kenya), despite a formidable numerical advantage of the local population and continuous replenishment from a large dormant egg bank. Currently, the invading clone has spread throughout the range of native African D. pulex, where it appears to be the only occurring genotype. The absence of genetic variation did not hamper either the continent-wide establishment of this exotic lineage or the effective displacement of an indigenous and genetically diverse sibling species.  (+info)

(5/713) Climate change and the demographic demise of a hoarding bird living on the edge.

Population declines along the lower-latitude edge of a species' range may be diagnostic of climate change. We report evidence that climate change has contributed to deteriorating reproductive success in a rapidly declining population of the grey jay (Perisoreus canadensis) at the southern edge of its range. This non-migratory bird of boreal and subalpine forest lives on permanent territories, where it hoards enormous amounts of food for winter and then breeds very early, under still-wintry conditions. We hypothesized that warmer autumns have increased the perishability of hoards and compromised subsequent breeding attempts. Our analysis confirmed that warm autumns, especially when followed by cold late winters, have led to delayed breeding and reduced reproductive success. Our findings uniquely show that weather months before the breeding season impact the timing and success of breeding. Warm autumns apparently represent hostile conditions for this species, because it relies on cold storage. Our study population may be especially vulnerable, because it is situated at the southern edge of the range, where the potential for hoard rot is most pronounced. This population's demise may signal a climate-driven range contraction through local extinctions along the trailing edge.  (+info)

(6/713) Metapopulation extinction risk is increased by environmental stochasticity and assemblage complexity.

Extinction risk is a key area of investigation for contemporary ecologists and conservation biologists. Practical conservation efforts for vulnerable species can be considerably enhanced by thoroughly understanding the ecological processes that interact to determine species persistence or extinction. Theory has highlighted the importance of both extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic demographic processes. In laboratory microcosms, single-species single-habitat patch experimental designs have been widely used to validate the theoretical prediction that environmental heterogeneity can increase extinction risk. Here, we develop on this theme by testing the effects of fluctuating resource levels in experimental multispecies metapopulations. We compare a three-species host-parasitoid assemblage that exhibits apparent competition to the individual pairwise, host-parasitoid interactions. Existing theory is broadly supported for two-species assemblages: environmental stochasticity reduces trophic interaction persistence time, while metapopulation structure increases persistence time. However, with increasing assemblage complexity, the effects of trophic interactions mask environmental impacts and persistence time is further reduced, regardless of resource renewal regime. We relate our findings to recent theory, highlighting the importance of taking into account both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, over a range of spatial scales, in order to understand resource-consumer dynamics.  (+info)

(7/713) Morphological and molecular phylogenetic context of the angiosperms: contrasting the 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches used to infer the likely characteristics of the first flowers.

Recent attempts to address the long-debated 'origin' of the angiosperms depend on a phylogenetic framework derived from a matrix of taxa versus characters; most assume that empirical rigour is proportional to the size of the matrix. Sequence-based genotypic approaches increase the number of characters (nucleotides and indels) in the matrix but are confined to the highly restricted spectrum of extant species, whereas morphology-based approaches increase the number of phylogenetically informative taxa (including fossils) at the expense of accessing only a restricted spectrum of phenotypic characters. The two approaches are currently delivering strongly contrasting hypotheses of relationship. Most molecular studies indicate that all extant gymnosperms form a natural group, suggesting surprisingly early divergence of the lineage that led to angiosperms, whereas morphology-only phylogenies indicate that a succession of (mostly extinct) gymnosperms preceded a later angiosperm origin. Causes of this conflict include: (i) the vast phenotypic and genotypic lacuna, largely reflecting pre-Cenozoic extinctions, that separates early-divergent living angiosperms from their closest relatives among the living gymnosperms; (ii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct angiosperms are most closely related to gymnosperms; and (iii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct gymnosperms are most closely related to angiosperms, and thus best serve as 'outgroups' dictating the perceived evolutionary polarity of character transitions among the early-divergent angiosperms. These factors still permit a remarkable range of contrasting, yet credible, hypotheses regarding the order of acquisition of the many phenotypic characters, reproductive and vegetative, that distinguish 'classic' angiospermy from 'classic' gymnospermy. The flower remains ill-defined and its mode (or modes) of origin remains hotly disputed; some definitions and hypotheses of evolutionary relationships preclude a role for the flower in delimiting the angiosperms. We advocate maintenance of parallel, reciprocally illuminating programmes of morphological and molecular phylogeny reconstruction, respectively supported by homology testing through additional taxa (especially fossils) and evolutionary-developmental genetic studies that explore genes potentially responsible for major phenotypic transitions.  (+info)

(8/713) Abundance distributions imply elevated complexity of post-Paleozoic marine ecosystems.

Likelihood analyses of 1176 fossil assemblages of marine organisms from Phanerozoic (i.e., Cambrian to Recent) assemblages indicate a shift in typical relative-abundance distributions after the Paleozoic. Ecological theory associated with these abundance distributions implies that complex ecosystems are far more common among Meso-Cenozoic assemblages than among the Paleozoic assemblages that preceded them. This transition coincides not with any major change in the way fossils are preserved or collected but with a shift from communities dominated by sessile epifaunal suspension feeders to communities with elevated diversities of mobile and infaunal taxa. This suggests that the end-Permian extinction permanently altered prevailing marine ecosystem structure and precipitated high levels of ecological complexity and alpha diversity in the Meso-Cenozoic.  (+info)


Do you think there are any biological or evolutionary benefits to spicing our food?


Why do humans need to season their food very much? Is there a biological or evolutionary reason for it?
Do you think it's strange that humans have to season their food with salt, pepper, spices, herbs, etc? I have never seen any other animals season their food before eating it. Do you think there are any biological or evolutionary benefits to spicing our food?
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There are several reasons to spicing up food.
1. In hot climates spice is added to make a person sweat.  As perspiration comes to the skin surface any breeze evaporates the moisture making the skin cool off.  Sort of like air conditioning for the body.

2. As people age the taste buds begin to dull.  Because of this we need more and more spice to taste the foods that we have grown used to.

So I guess the answer is both biological and evolutionary.


Is it hard to petition the courts in Ohio to obtain my biological brother's information?


I am considering petitioning the courts in Ohio to get any information on my biological brother (who was given up for adoption). He is of age, he just turned 22 this year. I wanted to know if anyone ever petition the courts in Ohio? If so, was the processing challenging? How long did it take to finally go to court? If you did receive information, how long did it take for you to get it from the courts?
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I don't know about Ohio specifically, but I do know that in most states the courts will only allow you to get identifying information on an adoptee if you have a compelling reason (i.e. medical condition that requires donation from a biological relative, need to notify him of genetic condition, etc.).  Without a compelling reason, the courts are unlikely to order his identity be revealed because it would violate his right to privacy.  You may be able to get the adoption agency to act as a go between and ask him if he would consent to his contact information being given to you (assuming they know how to locate him).  Or check the adoption reunion registries to see if he has registered as an adoptee who wants to be contacted by birth relatives.


What is the real biological scientific reason as to why teenagers usually get sexually aroused very easily ?


What is the real biological scientific reason as to why most teenagers usually get sexually aroused very easily during puberty? Especially during puberty?
Does this mean that after puberty when they're adults they'll get sexually aroused less easily?
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Cuz they want to have sex


What is the biological vector of typhus?


What is the biological vector of typhus, I am doing a project on Anne Frank and I need to know. Also what is the origin of the actual disease typhus?
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There are a number of diseases that fall under the heading of typhus.  The main ones are epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, endemic or murine typhus and scrub typhus.  Anne probably died of endemic typhus at Bergen-Belsen.  The biologic vector is the body louse (plural is lice) and also fleas.


What are the biological consequences of putting a brain under immense stress for hours at a time?


What are the physical and biological (short term, long term) affects of being stressed and how does it affect an individual physiologically?
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The effects of stress on an individual are always varied; however, chronic stress can permanently change your body's response to hormones. Stress activates the HPA axis in your brain, and the final result is the release of cortisol, and once cortisol levels rise they inhibit the pathway in a negative feedback fashion. So the acute effect of stress is to raise blood cortisol levels. If this person is subjected to chronic levels of response, then cortisol might have an increased inhibitory effect on the pathway, so that even low levels of cortisol can inhibit the pathway. In other words, after chronic stress the body exhibits decreased levels of cortisol and cannot produce cortisol as effectively as before. This is what happens in PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) that is often seen in veterans. People with PTSD don't sleep well, have an increased startle response, and other social problems. If you want to know more, consider looking up the HPA axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) or PTSD.


How may you find out about biological parents after an adoption?


My mother-in law was adopted and according to my sister-in law knows who her biological parents are.  She (rightly so I believe) strongly believes that her adoptive parents are her only parents.  However, because of this she won't let anyone of her children know who their biological grandparents are.  I respect her wishes but at the same time some of her children would like to trace back their family heritage and I think it's important to know for medical reasons.  Is it possible for my husband to uncover this inforamtion on his own without going through his mother?  Please no rude comments.
None of the children know anything except that the mother knows.  They've tried talking to her but they won't budge.  All we know is she was born in the USA and her adoptive parents, who are now deceased, lived Nahaunt, Massachusetts when they adopted.
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It really depends on how much you know.  If you only know your MIL's name, then there's probably not much you can do.  Especially because it was so long ago, they didn't keep the greatest adoption records until somewhat more recent years.  If you know where specifically she was born, what day, etc. you may be able to find out who was at the hospital, (if it was at a hospital)... there are people out there who will investigate it for you, I think you could "google it".   But you need as much information as you can get.  That's really not fair of your MIL to keep it to herself.  Maybe your husband and the others could find a way to let her know how important it is for him to know about his history.  My husband was adopted, and if our children want to find out their biological history, there's no way he would keep it from them.  That's just not right.  
But as far as "for medical reasons", I used to think that, too, because of having kids with my husband.  But really, just because you know what happened to people in the past, it doesn't mean that's what will happen in the future- it's no guarantee that that info will actually do you a bit of good.   Each of us needs to take good care of ourselves anyways, right?    Good luck~


What are the advantages of having a biological child over adopting one?


Does a biological child really bring a couple closer together?Why bring more children into the world when there are millions of orphans in the world?
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Well my husband and I adopted a little girl in September, and we are fostering a little boy born in December.  It is crazy that we have a 6 month and a 3 month old in the house.  It is amazing to have these two children in our lives.  We are now a mixed race family, that is lots of fun!  I tell everyone that I know is even considering to adopt or foster to think of the life you can give to a child the desperately needs you?  Adoption is an emotional process, but sooooo rewarding!  Good luck!


What is the difference between biological age and physiological age?


How can we know our biological ages?
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Aging is a normal biological process in human beings involving the gradual alteration of body structure, function, and tolerance to environmental stress. From approximately age 30, effectiveness of various physiological functions begins a subtle decline that becomes more obvious around age 55-60. 

However, physiological aging does not occur at the same rate throughout the population. 

There is a biological and a chronological age. Biological age focuses on senescent changes in biological and physiological processes, whereas chronological age focuses on elements of calendar time. An individual who is 70 years of age may have a biological age of 45, based on his/her health and fitness status.

Biological age may be reduced by regularly participating in a well-designed physical fitness program

As people age, there is no doubt that there are a certain number of well known changes that take place such as: A reduction of lean muscle mass, an increase in body fat due to loss of lean muscle mass and a slower metabolism,; a decline in maximal heart rate; a decrease in bone density, an increase in blood pressure, a decrease in overall flexibility, a decrease in cardiovascular output (or the amount of nutrient rich blood pumped out of the heart per minute), a decline in maximal oxygen uptake or (VO2 max) and gradual decline in motor skill function and coordination.

What you may not know about all of these "normal" or "well known" changes (biological markers of aging)  is that all of them can be slowed and even downright stopped in their tracks with consistent activity and proper nutrition. There is no denying that we do slow down a bit as we age but many adults go through these changes far too early, frequently and severely due to years of inactivity and poor nutrition. 

In every one of these changes, it has been shown that proper diet and exercise can significantly slow these processes down. Many people have a hard time believing this because with Americans having such bad activity and eating habits, these changes are widely accepted as normal functions of the aging process.

In my experience, I know and work with many people over the age of 65 who defy these changes, still exercise at high levels and have very few if any of these factors that are severe enough to hold them back from a highly active lifestyle. 

These are people who came to me at the age of 65 or older that have been working out/eating right for 40 plus years and have great bodies that function at very high levels. They are true examples of how there is a distinct difference between CHRONOLOGICAL  and BIOLOGICAL age. I am not saying that exercise and diet is the fountain of youth but I don't know of anything else that comes anywhere close to providing such positive benefits for the human body. 

This is because the human body was designed for activity and if you consistently give it what it was designed to do, you will literally preserve it!

What's the difference between chronological age and biological age (RealAge)? 

RealAge Answer: 
Chronological age is how old you are in calendar years. The measured by the time (years and months) that something or someone has existed
The number of years a person has lived, used especially in psychometrics as a standard against which certain variables, such as behavior and intelligence, are measured

Biological age, or RealAge, is how old your body is based on lifestyle, medical history, and genetics. In other words, your body might be younger or older than you think, depending on how well you take care of it and your personal risk of accidents. Calculate your RealAge by taking the RealAge Test. The RealAge Test uses the patented RealAge metric, widely accepted as the gold standard of measuring health status, to calculate your RealAge. 

There are two ages: you have a CHRONOLOGICAL age and you have a BIOLOGICAL  age. Now, sometimes they match and sometimes they go in the wrong direction. There is some part of this anti-aging idea that is totally genetic. However, most people have a great deal of control of how fast they age; by eating and exercising correctly.