Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clonal Evolution: The process of accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes over time in individual cells and the effect of the changes on CELL PROLIFERATION.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)PrimatesFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Genes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Mutation Rate: The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.LizardsDNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.ArtiodactylaCompetitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).INDEL Mutation: A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.

*  Thesis begins! | Molecular Evolution & Developmental Biology Lab | Bates College
We are in the third week of classes, but our...
http://bates.edu/williams-lab/2014/09/19/thesis-begins/
*  Phylogenetics - evolgen
The Implementation of Molecular Evolution for the Masses. A couple of years ago, there was talk in ... Oyun on The Implementation of Molecular Evolution for the Masses. *Louise on This is a Good-bye ......
http://scienceblogs.com/evolgen/category/phylogenetics/page/3/
*  Riley Lab
strict warning: Only variables should be passed by reference in /usr/local/apache2/htdocs-yang/drupal6/sites/all/modules/date/date_api.module on line 866 ......
http://bio.umass.edu/biology/riley/research/publications?order=field_pubeate_value&sort=asc
*  CiNii 論文 - Molecular, Morphological, and...
Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of ... Results of molecular phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that there are three distinct lineages ... Molecular, Morphological, and Behavioral Analyses of Japanese Gerris (Macrogerris) Water Striders ( ... Molecular phylogenetic studies of Japanese fireflies and their mating systems (Coleoptera : ......
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110003374754
*  AmphibiaWeb - Rana pseudodalmatina
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26: 310-327.. © 2015 Parham Beyhaghi (1 of 32). hear call ( ......
http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Rana&where-species=pseudodalmatina
*  Answering Massimo Pigliucci's Critique of <i>Icons of Evolution</i> | Center...
Instead he states that, "Only a few misguided molecular biologists (ignorant of evolution)" have ... Answering Massimo Pigliucci's Critique of Icons of Evolution. Casey Luskin. Evolution News & Views ... through the use of molecular data, for example), again avoiding circularity." (Denying Evolution, p ... Denying Evolution, p. 257). Pigliucci is apparently aware that increased (or decreased) melanin in ......
http://discovery.org/a/23341
*  Proteomes | Free Full-Text | Dynamic New World: Refining Our View of Protein...
Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road,Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ... Dynamic New World: Refining Our View of Protein Structure, Function and Evolution. Ranjan V. ... Mannige, R.V. Dynamic New World: Refining Our View of Protein Structure, Function and Evolution. ... "Dynamic New World: Refining Our View of Protein Structure, Function and Evolution." Proteomes 2, no ......
http://mdpi.com/2227-7382/2/1/128
*  Evolvability of physiological and biochemical traits: evolutionary mechanisms...
Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. Malden, MA: Blackwell. ... Carroll, S. B. (2005). Evolution at two levels: on genes and form. PLoS Biol. 3,1159 -1166. ... Walser, J. C., Chen, B. and Feder, M. E. (2006). Heat-shock promoters: targets for evolution by P ... Oikonomou, P. and Cluzel, P. (2006). Effects of topology on network evolution. Nat. Phys. 2, 532- ......
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/210/9/1653
*  nanoHUB.org - Tags: UIUC
Illinois] Biophysics 401 Lecture 1: Introduction, Dogma of Molecular Biology; Evolution. 17 Sep ... View interesting features of a molecular dynamics trajectory file. http://nanohub.org/resources/ ......
http://nanohub.org/tags/uiuc/resources?active=resources&sort=date&limit=20&limitstart=120
*  native plant - News, Research and Analysis - The Conversation - page 1
Molecular virology, virus ecology and evolution, metagenomics, symbiosis, Murdoch University * ......
http://theconversation.com/au/topics/native-plant-8058
*  Darwin's God: De Novo Genes: The Evolutionary Explanation
... Darwin's God. De Novo Genes: The Evolutionary Explanation. The T-urf13 gene produces another transmembrane protein URF13. It appears that T-urf13 is a de novo gene, having been constructed mostly from two segments in or around a ribosomal RNA gene. Does this not suggest that the vast genome is a source of de novo genes. Even a random DNA sequence the length of the entire corn genome does not contain a single gene that likely would code for a functioning gene. One study, for instance, found that more than a million million random sequences were needed to find a single functioning protein. We may not be able to compute precisely the probability of evolution s explanation for de novo genes such as T-urf13, but we do know the chances are not very good. Cornelius Hunter. November 23, 2009 at 5:45 AM 1- T-urf 13 produces a polypeptide only 183 AA's long 2- It arose as a result of artificial selection of corn 3- It also makes the corn more susceptible to fungal toxins Reply Delete. Reply Delete. Reply Delet...
http://darwins-god.blogspot.com/2009/11/de-novo-genes-evolutionary-explanation.html
*  Molecular evolution
... The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes. Major topics in molecular evolution concern the rates and impacts of single nucleotide changes, neutral evolution vs. Forces in molecular evolution Mutation. Forces in molecular evolution. The content and structure of a genome is the product of the molecular and population genetic forces which act upon that genome. Novel genetic variants will arise through mutation and will spread and be maintained in populations due to genetic drift or natural selection. Among these mutations, some will be neutral or beneficial and will remain in the genome unless lost via Genetic drift, and others will be detrimental and will be eliminated from the genome by natural selection. Genome evolution. Genome size is influenced by the amount of repetitive DNA as well as number of genes in an organism. Neutral explanations for genome size suggest that when population sizes are small, many mutati...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_evolution
*  Computation | Free Full-Text | On Mechanistic Modeling of Gene Content Evolution: Birth-Death Model
On Mechanistic Modeling of Gene Content Evolution: Birth-Death Models and Mechanisms of Gene Birth and Gene Retention. Next Article in Journal Computational Models of the NF- K B Signalling Pathway Next Article in Special Issue Incongruencies in Vaccinia Virus Phylogenetic Trees. MDPI. Computation 2014, 2 3, 112-130; doi: 10.3390/computation2030112 Article On Mechanistic Modeling of Gene Content Evolution: Birth-Death Models and Mechanisms of Gene Birth and Gene Retention Ashley I. No Abstract Characterizing the mechanisms of duplicate gene retention using phylogenetic methods requires models that are consistent with different biological processes. A discussion of the relationship between biological processes, existing models for duplicate gene retention and data is presented. Existing models are then extended in deriving two new birth/death models for phylogenetic application in a gene tree/species tree reconciliation framework to enable probabilistic inference of the mechanisms from model parameterization. ...
http://mdpi.com/2079-3197/2/3/112
*  Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution
... The 'nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution' is a modification of the neutral theory of molecular evolution that accounts for slightly advantageous or deleterious mutation s at the molecular level. The nearly neutral theory was proposed by Tomoko Ohta in 1973. There is a population-size-dependent threshold, called the "drift barrier" by Michael Lynch that determines a critical value of the selection coefficient above which deleterious mutations are efficiently purged. In larger populations, a higher proportion of mutations exceed this threshold for which genetic drift cannot overpower selection, leading to fewer fixation events and so slower molecular evolution. In the early 1970s, evolutionary biologists found that rates of protein evolution the " molecular clock " are fairly independent of generation time, while rates of noncoding DNA divergence are inversely proportional to generation time. Noting that population size is generally inversely proportional to generation time, Tomoko Ohta proposed t...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nearly_neutral_theory_of_molecular_evolution
*  Ka/Ks ratio
... In genetics, the 'K a /K s ratio' or 'ω', 'd' N /'d' S, is the ratio of the number of nonsynonymous substitution s per non-synonymous site K a to the number of synonymous substitution s per synonymous site K s, which can be used as an indicator of selective pressure acting on a protein-coding gene. Maximum-likelihood methods. Methods can be classified into three groups: approximate methods, maximum-likelihood methods, and counting methods. counting the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in the two sequences usually by multiplying the sequence length by the proportion of each class of substitution; counting the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions; and correcting for multiple substitutions. Maximum-likelihood methods. In order to quantify the number of substitutions, one may reconstruct the ancestral sequence and record the inferred changes at sites straight counting likely to provide an underestimate ; fitting the substitution rates at sites into predetermined categories Bayesia...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ka/Ks_ratio
*  Several questions on evolution, and mutation (rate)
Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate. Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate Doug Yanega dyanega at denr1.igis.uiuc.edu. Previous message: Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate. Next message: Several questions on evolution, and mutation rate. In article 96Sep2.121604edt.860 at neuron.ai.toronto.edu, radford at cs.toronto.edu Radford Neal wrote: In article dyanega-0109962027360001 at catalpa.inhs.uiuc.edu, Doug Yanega dyanega at denr1.igis.uiuc.edu wrote: I am NOT redefining evolution, I am instructing the non-biologists here what the accepted biological definition has been for much of this century. Why not go all the way, and declare that evolution is really about changes to an organism's DNA - even if the changes are in a non-coding region, or if the change is from one codon to another that is synonymous. They often reconstruct phylogenies of taxa based on non-coding regions of the genome, so clearly non-coding regions *reflect* the evolutionary process, at the very least....
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/microbio/1996-September/006609.html
*  Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolu
... tion Can Only Go Forward -- ScienceDaily. Your source for the latest research news. Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolution Can Only Go Forward. A University of Oregon research team has found that evolution can never go backwards, because the paths to the genes once present in our ancestors are forever blocked. We solved those problems by studying the problem at the molecular level, where we can resurrect ancestral proteins as they existed long ago and use molecular manipulations to dissect the evolutionary process in both forward and reverse directions.". Once Thornton's team knew how the GR's modern function evolved, they wondered if it could be returned to its ancestral function. "Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolution Can Only Go Forward." ScienceDaily. Mutations Make Evolution Irreversible: By Resurrecting Ancient Proteins, Researchers Find That Evolution Can Only Go Forw...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090923143335.htm
*  Documents on Molecular Evolution
Other Research Projects: Apollo Bioinformatics Materials Research Physics of Scale.        Molecular Evolution Activities. Documents on Molecular Evolution. Documents. Online Document J. Buettner-Janusch and R. Hill, Evolution of Hemoglobin in Primates, in Evolving Genes and Proteins, eds. V Bryson and H. Vogel New York: Academic Press, 1965. pp. 167-181 [PDF 860K]. In this article, Buettner-Janusch and Hill set out to reconstruct Primate phylogenies by comparing the hemoglobin molecules of living species. In the course of their work, the authors strongly advocate an integrative approach to evolutionary biology in which neither organismal nor molecular data alone dominate. They especially caution that the use of molecular data alone, without an understanding of the organisms in which these molecules reside, can lead to nonsensical conclusions. For instance, they write that although the structure of the hemoglobins of man and gorilla are highly similar, this is simply not a datum that i...
http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/evolution/public/papers/buettnerhill1965/buettnerhill1965.html
*  Nuke Evolution Xtreme - Leading Open Source Content Management System » Site Map
Nuke Evolution Xtreme - Leading Open Source Content Management System Site Map. Members Groups Private Messages Profile Your Account. Community Image Repository Forums Link Us Members List Search. Files Links. News News Topics Stories Archive. Other Content Docs FAQ Site Map. Sitemap of Nuke Evolution Xtreme - Leading Open Source Content Management System. Blocks. Advanced Admin Block. Modules. Site Staff v1.5. Donations Xtreme. Coppermine Photo Gallery 2.0 BETA RELEASE. Nuke Evolution Xtreme 2.0.9a - 2.0.9b. Nuke Evolution Xtreme v2 2.0.7 - 2.0.9b. Nuke Evolution Xtreme 2.0.9b - 2.0.9c. Nuke Evolution Xtreme 2.0.9 - 2.0.9a Upgrade. Nuke Evolution Xtreme 2.0.9c - 2.0.9d. Evolution-Xtreme Version 2.0. Evolution-Xtreme Version 2.0.9 Current Release. Nuke Evolution Xtreme 2.0.9d. Nuke Evolution Security. Upgrade & Conversion Scripts. Evolution Xtreme. Evolution-Xtreme 2.0.9 - Evolution-Xtreme 2.0.9a. Evolution-Xtreme 2.0.9a - Evolution-Xtreme 2.0.9b. Evolution-Xtreme 2.0.7 - Evolution-Xtreme 2.0. Evolution-Xtrem...
http://evolution-xtreme.com/modules.php?name=Site_Map
*  Algae containing chlorophyll a+ careparaphyletic Molecular evolutionary analysis of the Chromophyt
... a - ePIC. Browse. Author. Year. Platform. Organizations. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Search. Simple. Advanced. About. About. Policies. Citation Guide. Login. Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung. Imprint. Contact. OAI. RSS 2.0. EPIC.awi.de. Home. Browse. Author. Year. Platform. Organizations. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Search. Simple. Advanced. About. About. Policies. Citation Guide. Login Login. Algae containing chlorophyll a+ careparaphyletic Molecular evolutionary analysis of the Chromophyta. Edit Item. HTML Citation ASCII Citation EndNote BibTeX MODS OpenURL ContextObject in Span MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Dublin Core EndNote Simple Metadata. General Information: Citation: Bhattacharya, D., Medlin, L., Wainwright, P. O, Ariztia, E. V, Bibeau, C., Stickel, S. K and Sogin, M. L 1992 : Algae containing chlorophyll a+ careparaphyletic Molecular evolutionary analysis of the Chromophyta, Evolution,. 46, pp. 1801-1817. Cite this page as: hdl: 10013/epic.10882 Cont...
http://epic.awi.de/290/
*  2000 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution - Overview - CarGurus
... CarGurus. Questions. Lancer Evolution. Diamante Eclipse Eclipse Spyder Endeavor Galant i-MiEV Lancer Lancer Evolution Lancer Sportback Mirage Montero Montero Sport Outlander Outlander Sport Raider. 2000 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Overview. Looking for a Used Lancer Evolution in your area. CarGurus has 1,305 nationwide Lancer Evolution listings starting at $10,500. Used Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution. Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Questions. Used Ford Mustang 697 Great Deals out of 36,830 listings starting at $1,500. Used BMW M3 45 Great Deals out of 1,057 listings starting at $2,995. Used Honda Civic 769 Great Deals out of 60,958 listings starting at $399. Used Subaru Impreza 151 Great Deals out of 9,075 listings starting at $2,000. Used BMW 3 Series 1,008 Great Deals out of 37,367 listings starting at $1,956. 2015 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 2 photos. 2014 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 34 photos. 2013 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 1 reviews , 93 photos. 2012 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 1 reviews , 125 photos. 2...
http://cargurus.com/Cars/2000-Mitsubishi-Lancer-Evolution-Overview-c11768
*  Evolution of Cellular Networks
... Research Projects Publication List Positions Available Blog. Tuesday, May 15, 2007. Protein evolution What constrains and determines the rate of protein evolution. This topic has received a great deal of attention in bioinformatics. Many reports have found significant correlations between protein evolutionary rate and expression levels, codon adaptation index CAI, protein interactions see below, protein length, protein dispensability and centrality in protein interactions networks. To complicate matters still, there are known cross correlations between some of the factors. For example it has been observed that the number of protein interactions correlates with protein length weakly and the probability that a protein is essential to the cell. This highlights the importance of thinking about the amount of variance explained by the correlation and controlling for possible cross correlations. In fact it has been shown that, when controlling for gene expression, some of other factors have a weaker correlation...
http://evocellnet.com/2007/05/protein-evolution-what-constrains-and.html
*  Integral Options Cafe: Stanford Researchers Show that Long-Term Evolution Is 'Surprisingly Predictab
... le'. Stanford Researchers Show that Long-Term Evolution Is 'Surprisingly Predictable'. This press release from Stanford University details some new research by Michael Palmer, a computational biologist at Stanford, Marcus Feldman, a biology professor at Stanford, and Stanford research biologist Arnav Moudgil, that was recently published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface. The researchers found that long-term evolutionary dynamics were surprisingly predictable in a model of protein folding and binding - in a model that used 128 lineages a total of more than 16,000 individual proteins, over a span on 10,000 generations. Long-term evolution is 'surprisingly predictable,' Stanford experiment shows. A protein-folding simulation shows that the debated theory of long-term evolution is not only possible, but that the outcomes are predictable. The Stanford experiment provides a framework for testing evolutionary outcomes in living organisms. Michael Palmer, left, and Professor Marcus Feldman, with co-au...
http://integral-options.blogspot.com/2013/03/stanford-researchers-show-that-long.html
*  Nonsynonymous substitution
... a nonsynonymous substitution is a nucleotide mutation that alters the amino acid sequence of a protein it is contrasted with synonymous substitutions which do not alter amino acid sequences as nonsynonymous substitutions result in a biological change in the organism they are subject to natural selection if a gene has lower levels of nonsynonymous than synonymous nucleotide substitution then it can be inferred to be functional because a k a k s ratio is a hallmark of sequences that are being constrained to code for proteins see also synonymous substitution missense mutation nonsense mutation ka ks ratio external links category molecular biology category mutation...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonsynonymous_substitution
*  The Mol-evol July 1992 Archive by thread
... Mol-evol July 1992 Archives by thread Messages sorted by:. Index. Starting: Fri Jul 3 14:44:11 EST 1992 Ending: Fri Jul 31 03:01:08 EST 1992 Messages: 45. Hominid evolution Keith Robison Evolution is not progress Una Smith Molecular evolution temporary account for courses. Molecular evolution Keith Robison. Molecular evolution Rush Wells. protein seq basics Kate McCain Hominoid evolution Kent E. Holsinger Evolution is not progress Arseny Nikolaev Markov. Evolution is not progress S. A Modena. Evolution is not progress Arseny Nikolaev Markov. Evolution is not progress Mary K. Kuhner. Evolution is not progress Thomas Colthurst Evolution is not progress Una Smith Evolution is not progress Una Smith Molecular clock hypothesis Andrew Clifton evolution progress Kate McCain Evolution is not progress Arseny Nikolaev Markov Evolution is not progress frist at ccu.umanitoba.ca Evolution is not progress S. A Modena Evolution is not progress Arseny Nikolaev Markov Mutation Kenneth Tolman Mutation LEARN at UCRVMS.BITN...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/mol-evol/1992-July/thread.html
*  The Aris-Brosou Lab in Computational Molecular Evolution
the aris brosou lab in computational molecular evolution contact us department of biology university of ottawa marie curie pvt ottawa on k n n canada sarisbro at uottawa ca updated october research people publications downloads teaching pictures links the aris brosou lab our research group works in computational molecular evolution the themes we address range from very specific theoretical aspects to applications based on real data sets hypothesis driven or complete databases both data and hypothesis driven recent and current research topics include click links below for details influenza evolution viral phylodynamics theoretical developments in estimation of divergence times environmental genomics of the haptophytes estimation of selective pressures acting on protein coding genes mode and tempo of the diversification of gene families research facilities a small computer cluster was purch...
http://bioinformatics.uottawa.ca/stephane/
*  MEGA - Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
... Home Overview Features Update History About the Authors Example Data Online Manual PDF Manual A Walk Through MEGA. Introduction Aligning Sequences Estimating Distances Building Trees Testing Tree Reliability Marking Genes/Domains Testing for Selection Grouping Sequences Computing Sequence Statistics Trees from Distance Data. Koichiro Tamura, Daniel Peterson, Nicholas Peterson, Glen Stecher, Masatoshi Nei, and Sudhir Kumar 2011 MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Likelihood, Distance, and Parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Kumar S, Dudley J, Nei M Tamura K 2008 MEGA: A biologist-centric software for evolutionary analysis of DNA and protein sequences. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M & Kumar S 2007 MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis MEGA software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1596-1599. Features All features are listed in the table below. DNA, Protein, Pairwise distance matrix. Sequence Alignment Construction. Alignment Editor. Manual editing of D...
http://megasoftware.net/mega4/features.html
*  Molecular clock
... The 'molecular clock ' based on the 'molecular clock hypothesis' 'MCH' is a technique in molecular evolution that uses fossil constraints and rates of molecular change to deduce the time in geologic history when two species or other taxa diverged. It is sometimes called a 'gene clock' or 'evolutionary clock'. Early discovery and genetic equidistance Relationship with neutral theory Calibration Non-constant rate of molecular clock Methods Uses See also References Further reading External links. If this is correct, the cytochrome c of all mammals should be equally different from the cytochrome c of all birds. Since fish diverges from the main stem of vertebrate evolution earlier than either birds or mammals, the cytochrome c of both mammals and birds should be equally different from the cytochrome c of fish. 2008 The genetic equidistance result of molecular evolution is independent of mutation rates. Every generation, each individual can have new mutations, so there are \mu N new neutral mutations in the p...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_clock
*  an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution
Posts: 5383 Darwins +152/-7 Gender:. an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution on: October 25, 2012, 10:58:56 PM. Posts: 2492 Darwins +115/-1 Gender:. Posts: 5383 Darwins +152/-7 Gender:. Quote from: wright on October 26, 2012, 12:48:20 AM. Posts: 337 Darwins +34/-0. Posts: 913 Darwins +11/-0 Gender:. Posts: 337 Darwins +34/-0. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution Reply #5 on: October 26, 2012, 05:35:10 PM. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution Reply #8 on: December 17, 2012, 09:42:08 PM. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution Reply #9 on: December 17, 2012, 10:25:23 PM. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution Reply #10 on: December 17, 2012, 10:56:58 PM. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution Reply #11 on: December 18, 2012, 02:14:02 AM. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution Reply #12 on: December 18, 2012, 02:35:04 AM. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining evolution Reply #13 on: December 18, 2012, 02:40:59 AM. Re: an irrefutable analogy explaining ...
http://whywontgodhealamputees.com/forums/index.php/topic,24104.msg538191.html
*  Evolution: How Well Understood and Accepted?
Evolution: How Well Understood and Accepted. Published on People For the American Way http://www.pfaw.org Home Printer-friendly Evolution: How Well Understood and Accepted. Familiarity. Definition. Evolution: How Well Accepted. View Of Accuracy. Impact of the Word “Theory”. Main Finding: Although just about all Americans have heard of Evolution, less than half say they are very familiar with it. Further, roughly one in three hold an incorrect definition of Evolution. Although most Americans want Evolution to be taught in the public schools, most are not sure that the theory, as they understand it, is fully accurate or proven. Americans who lack a college education express the least certainty about Evolution. When it comes to Evolution, just about everyone 95% has heard of the term, though a great deal of confusion and misinformation exists. For instance, a sizable minority about one in three believes Evolution means human beings evolved from apes which, of course, is not what the theory says. Specifically:. A...
http://pfaw.org/print/10391
*  Heterotachy
... refers to shifts in site specific evolutionary rates over time in the field of molecular evolution the principle of heterotachy states that the substitution rate of sites in a gene can change through time it has been proposed that the positions that show switches in substitution rate over time that is heterotachous sites are good indicators of functional divergence however it appears that heterotachy is a much more general process since most variable sites of homologous proteins with no evidence of functional shift are heterotachous the covarion hypothesis is a specific form of heterotachy some studies have proposed functional divergence models that are also heterotachous additionally some mixture models that do not explicitly account for rate shift but site partitions evolving at different relative substitution rates across lineages are mathematically heterotachous failure to take heterotachy into account in phylogenetic reconstructions may lead to incorrect phylogenetic tree s thus zhong et al say that...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterotachy
*  dblp: Luca Compagna
... default search action combined dblp search. author search. venue search. publication search. Luca Compagna. export bibliography BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp keys. dblp key: homepages/c/LucaCompagna. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. records. records. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: conf/dbsec/SantosRCP15. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: conf/icst/CarboneCPP15. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. PubZone Roberto Carbone, Luca Compagna,. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: conf/tacas/ArmandoCC14. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. PubZone Alessandro Armando,. Roberto Carbone, Luca Compagna : SATMC: A SAT-Based Model Checker for Security-Critical Systems. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: series/lncs/BruckerCG14....
http://dblp.uni-trier.de/pers/hd/c/Compagna:Luca.html
*  Information for bionet.molbio.evolution (moderated)
Information for bionet.molbio.evolution moderated. Information for bionet.molbio.evolution moderated Jerry Learn learn at u.washington.edu. Mon Nov 18 20:06:06 EST 2002. Previous message: Insect mt primer 28 Next message: Early evolution of the cell membrane s. Messages sorted by:. Information for MOLECULAR-EVOLUTION/bionet.molbio.evolution moderated USENET newsgroup name: bionet.molbio.evolution Status: Moderated One line Description: Discussions about research in molecular evolution. Moderation address: mol-evol-moderator at net.bio.net =A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0 mo= l-evol-moderator at net.bio.net =A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0is = an alias for =A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0mol= -evol-moderator at net.bio.net Moderators: Jerry Learn =A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0Jam= es McInerney Mailing list name: MOLECULAR-EVOLUTION E-mail addresses: m...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/mol-evol/2002-November/007339.html
*  Recent Articles | Immigration And Evolution | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 7
Recent Articles. Immigration And Evolution. The Scientist Magazine. Page 7. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: immigration x. evolution x. The Scientist immigration and evolution. Most Recent Iron-Ferrying Protein Impedes Pathogens By Molly Sharlach. December 15, 2014. Meningitis-causing bacteria exerted strong evolutionary pressure on an iron-binding protein in primates, a study shows. 0 Comments. Bird Genomes Abound By Ruth Williams. December 11, 2014. Scientists complete the largest-ever comparative genomic study of birds. 1 Comment. Evolution in Oil Droplets By Bob Grant. December 9, 2014. For the first time, researchers have mimicked biological evolution using chemicals instead of living organisms. 0 Comments. Gene Jumped to All Three Domains of Life By Kerry Grens. December 1, 2014. By horizontal gene transfer, an antibacterial gene family has dispersed to a plant, an insect, several fungi, and an archaeon. 1 Comment. Book Excerpt from One Plus One Equals One By John ...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/2632,8/tags/immigration,evolution/pageNo/7/
*  Charter for bionet.molbio.evolution
... learn at valis.microbiol.washington.edu learn at valis.microbiol.washington.edu. Next message: Smallness of the human Y chromosome Messages sorted by:. Information for MOLECULAR-EVOLUTION/bionet.molbio.evolution moderated USENET newsgroup name: bionet.molbio.evolution Status: Moderated One line Description: Discussions about research in molecular evolution. Moderation address: mol-evol-moderator at net.bio.net mol-evol-moderator at net.bio.net is an alias for mol-evol-moderator at net.bio.net Moderators: Jerry Learn James McInerney Mailing list name: MOLECULAR-EVOLUTION E-mail addresses: mol-evol at net.bio.net Newsgroup charter: Bionet.molbio.evolution is a forum for scientific discussions and a source of information for the community of scientists interested in the study of the processes of how DNA, RNA, proteins and organisms have evolved at a molecular level. Functions of the newsgroup: The newsgroup will facilitate rapid communication among research scientists, educators and other individuals intere...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/mol-evol/2000-November/007053.html
*  Recent Articles | Biomedical Research And Evolution | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 7
Recent Articles. Biomedical Research And Evolution. The Scientist Magazine. Page 7. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: Biomedical Research x. evolution x. The Scientist Biomedical Research and evolution. Most Recent The Genetics of Society By Claire Asher and Seirian Sumner. January 1, 2015. Researchers aim to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which a single genotype gives rise to diverse castes in eusocial organisms. 8 Comments. Unraveling H7N9’s History By Kate Yandell. December 30, 2014. An analysis of stored samples shows that H7N9 precursor H9N2, a virus widespread in chickens, has shown increased fitness in recent years. 0 Comments. Behavior Brief By Molly Sharlach. December 18, 2014. A round-up of recent discoveries in behavior research 0 Comments. Iron-Ferrying Protein Impedes Pathogens By Molly Sharlach. December 15, 2014. Meningitis-causing bacteria exerted strong evolutionary pressure on an iron-binding protein in primates, a study shows. 0 Comments. Bird Gen...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/2888,8/tags/Biomedical-Research,evolution/pageNo/7/
*  Viral evolution
... 'Viral evolution' is a subfield of evolutionary biology and virology that is specifically concerned with the evolution of virus es. Viral evolution is an important aspect of the epidemiology of viral diseases such as influenza influenza virus, AIDS HIV, and hepatitis e.g. Viruses are ancient. 1 There are three classical hypotheses on the origins of viruses: Viruses may have once been small cells that parasitised larger cells the 'degeneracy hypothesis' Leppard, p. Viruses and the Evolution of Life. One of the problems for those studying viral origins and evolution is their high rate of mutation, particularly the case in RNA retroviruses like HIV/AIDS. Thus "viral proteomes retain traces of ancient evolutionary history that can be recovered using advanced bioinformatics approaches." Anshan Nasir and Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, "This implies the existence of ancient cellular lineages common to both cells and viruses before the appearance of the “last universal cellular ancestor” that gave rise to modern cells...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_evolution
*  evolution - Preserved alpha complementation over evolutionary time? - Biology Stack Exchange
evolution - Preserved alpha complementation over evolutionary time. - Biology Stack Exchange. current community. chat blog. Biology. . Biology Meta. your communities. Sign up or log in to customize your list. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Inbox. Reputation and Badges. sign up log in tour. help. Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Biology Questions. Tags. Users. Badges. Unanswered. Ask Question. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. It's 100% free, no registration required. Preserved alpha complementation over evolutionary time. up vote 2 down vote favorite. Has the result of alpha-complementation ever happened via mutation through evolutionary time, and been preserved in modern day organisms. In other words, has a functional gene product ever been split or terminated by mutation, exhibit...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/3764/preserved-alpha-complementation-over-evolutionary-time?answertab=votes
*  Infectious Disease - Rapid Evolution Page 1
... Rapid Evolution. Where Are They. Global Distribution of Disease. Tracing Emerging Diseases. Public Health. Vaccines Human Immunity. Antibiotics Emerging Drug Resistance. Antiretrovirals The HIV Pandemic. Vector Control Malaria. RAPID EVOLUTION. Evolving Threats to Health 1 2. Random Mutations + Natural Selection = Evolution The tremendous evolutionary potential of microbes makes them adept at developing resistance to even the most potent drug therapies and complicates attempts at creating effective vaccines. IOM 2003 Evolving Threats to Health Evolution is a continuous process in which an individual with an altered gene survives and propagates better than others. New genetic traits appear randomly, but the environment selects for individuals with traits that help them survive and grow. Individuals with these traits will become more common. Microorganisms have extremely rapid reproduction rates and some even have higher mutation rates. Both characteristics give them an evolutionary advantage. Microorganis...
http://koshland-science-museum.org/sites/all/exhibits/exhib_infectious/rapid_evolution_01.jsp
*  Hydor Koralia Evolution 600 gph powerhead Hydor Koralia Evolution 600 gph pump Hydor Koralia Evoluti
... on 600 gph power head. www.marineandreef.com View Cart. My Account. About Us/Contact. Returns. Help. Your shopping cart is empty. Search. Navigation. ADDITIVES/ SUPPLEMENTS. AQUARIUMS. MAINTENANCE. PUMPS. UV STERILIZERS. Quick Links. Join our mailing list. Join our mailing list. Home > PUMPS >. Aquarium Powerheads > Aquarium Powerheads: Hydor Koralia Evolution & Magnum. SALE!. > Hydor Koralia Evolution 600 gph. List Price: $69.45 Our Price: $43.45 Sale Price: $33.99 You save $35.46. Stock Status:In Stock Product Code: RHY00869. NOTE: The Koralia Evolution 600 gph replaces the Evolution 550 gph. This is the new, improved and more powerful version. The Koralia Evolution 600 gph is one of Hydor's new and innovative circulation pumps for small reef aquariums. The Hydor Evolution design and technology guarantees a continuous and powerful water flow which can be directed freely thanks to the special sphere shaped connection to the exclusive combination suction cup and magnet support. High performance, low energ...
http://marineandreef.com/Hydor_Koralia_Evolution_600_gph_powerhead_p/rhy00869.htm
*  Hydor Koralia Evolution 850 gph powerhead. Formerly the Hydor Koralia Evolution 750 gph pump Hydor K
... oralia Evolution 850 gph power head. www.marineandreef.com View Cart. My Account. About Us/Contact. Returns. Help. Your shopping cart is empty. Search. Navigation. ADDITIVES/ SUPPLEMENTS. AIR PUMPS/ CO2. AQUARIUMS. CONTROLLERS/ TESTING. DECORATIONS. FILTRATION. FOOD/ FEEDERS. HEATERS/ CHILLERS. LIGHTING. MAINTENANCE. PLUMBING. PROTEIN SKIMMERS. PUMPS. UV STERILIZERS. Quick Links. Accept Credit Cards. Join our mailing list. Join our mailing list. Home > PUMPS >. Aquarium Powerheads > Aquarium Powerheads: Hydor Koralia Evolution & Magnum. SALE!. > Hydor Koralia Evolution 850 gph. Alternative Views:. List Price: $78.45 Our Price: $49.45 Sale Price: $36.99 You save $41.46. Stock Status:In Stock Product Code: RHY00717. Description. NOTE: The Koralia Evolution 850 gph replaces the Evolution 750 gph. This is the new, improved and more powerful version. The Hydor Koralia Evolution 850 gph is one of Hydor's new and innovative circulation pumps for small reef aquariums. The Hydor Evolution design and technology gua...
http://marineandreef.com/Hydor_Koralia_Evolution_850_gph_powerhead_Was_750_p/rhy00717.htm
*  Section 15 2 Evidence Of Evolution Answer Key compiled pdf, doc, ppt ...
section 15 2 evidence of evolution answer key - Direct Download 9.21 MB. Section 15 2 Evidence Of Evolution Answer Key - Direct Download uploaded by shamshir 22 May 2015. section 15 2 evidence of evolution answer key - Fast Download 2.53 MB. Section 15 2 Evidence Of Evolution Answer Key - Fast Download uploaded by ArthurMark 16 Sep 2015. Chapter 21 5.15 MB. Record The fossil record provides evidence of evolution. Darwins Theory of Evolution The Puzzle of Lifes Diversity ... The Fossil Record 10.14 MB. D Evidence of Evolution. Chapter 16 u0026 Chapter 17 6.76 MB. Chapter 15 Section 2 Evidence of Evolution ... Evolution 10.33 MB. Evidence of Evolution. Chapter 15 Evolution 15.1 Darwins Theory of Natural Selection 15.2 Evidence of Evolution 15.3 Shaping Evolutionary Theory 15.1 Darwins Theory of Natural ... Cilia of Paramecium Cross section of a cilium, as viewed with an electron microscope Cilia of windpipe cells 15 ... Glencoe Biology The Dynamics Of Life Answer Key Chapter 15 Section 2 - eBook 29 Sep 2015. La...
http://wpracetech.com/tor/section-15-2-evidence-of-evolution-answer-key/
*  Metabolism gives a boost to understanding plant and animal nutrient evolution
... february in biology evolution for the ancient ancestors of plants and animals a partnership with other microbes was once formed during an endosymbiotic event to give rise to eukaryotes plants and animals over billions of years of trial and error made efficient use of different energy sources in the environment namely carbon dioxide and oxygen in the advanced online edition of molecular biology and evolution authors maurino et al explore the evolution of a family of enzymes called hydroxy acid oxidase or haox that break down fats in both plant and animals they wanted to test and see if they could trace the evolution of hoax back to a common ancestor that once gave rise to these enzymes they built a database of all known haox sequences in plants animals and bacteria and reconstructed phylogenetic trees to test their hypothesis as wells as examining the functional differences through enzyme tests their data supports the evolution of hoax from a common ancestral gene with plants and animals evolving these en...
http://phys.org/print311602995.html
*  Hydor Koralia Evolution 240 gph powerhead Hydor Koralia Evolution 240 gph pump Hydor Koralia Evoluti
... on 240 gph power head. www.marineandreef.com View Cart. My Account. About Us/Contact. Returns. Help. Your shopping cart is empty. Navigation. ADDITIVES/ SUPPLEMENTS. AIR PUMPS/ CO2. AQUARIUMS. DECORATIONS. LIGHTING. MAINTENANCE. PUMPS. Quick Links. Join our mailing list. Join our mailing list. Home > PUMPS >. Aquarium Powerheads > Aquarium Powerheads: Hydor Koralia Evolution & Magnum. SALE!. > Hydor Koralia Nano Evolution 240 gph. List Price: $48.95 Our Price: $26.49 Sale Price: $23.99 You save $24.96. Stock Status:In Stock Product Code: RHY00715. The Koralia Nano Evolution 240 gph is one of Hydor's new and innovative circulation pumps for small reef aquariums. The Hydor Evolution design and technology guarantees a continuous and powerful water flow which can be directed freely thanks to the special sphere shaped connection to the exclusive combination suction cup and magnet support. High performance, low energy consumption and quick and easy maintenance. Unlike the non-Evolution Koralia pumps, the Korali...
http://marineandreef.com/ProductDetails.asp?ProductCode=RHY00715&CartID=1
*  The Early Evolution of Eukaryotes: A Geological Perspective
... . . . . The Early Evolution of Eukaryotes: A Geological Perspective. DSpace/Manakin Repository. DASH Home. Faculty of Arts and Sciences. FAS Scholarly Articles View Item. Login. The Early Evolution of Eukaryotes: A Geological Perspective. Show simple item record. dc.contributor.author. Knoll, Andrew. dc.date.accessioned. 2009-06-23T16:00:49Z. dc.date.issued. 1992. dc.identifier.citation. Knoll, Andrew H. 1992. The early evolution of eukaryotes - a geological perspective. Science 256 5057 : 622-627. en. dc.identifier.issn. 0036-8075. en. dc.identifier.issn. 1095-9203. en. dc.identifier.uri. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:3119539. dc.description.abstract. Molecular phylogenies of eukaryotic organisms imply patterns of biological and environmental history that can be tested against the geological record. As predicted by sequence comparisons, Precambrian rocks show evidence of episodic increases in biological diversity and atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Nonetheless, complete integration of th...
http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/3119539?show=full
*  How evolution works
... jim bowery jabowery at netcom com fri jun est previous message how evolution works next message rate of cancer occurrence with age messages sorted by venezia at zgi com domenick venezia writes on june cathy woodgold writes i m imagining an inividual who takes drugs to lengthen the telomeres in the cells of his her body so that he she can live a long time my point is that the individual will inevitably get cancer unless some powerfull way of controlling it is found other people on this newsgroup have been making this same point yes i agree bruce ames says that cancer goes up with the fifth power of age bottom line if you live long enough cancer will get you but i am not sure that it follows that if we extend life through telomeric extension i e the suppression of cellular senescence that the occurrance of cancer would follow the same power function understanding how telomerase based longevity might be induced without cancer requires understanding the point that domenick brings up as well as the regulatory...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/ageing/1994-June/000756.html
*  "Evolutions" assortment...
Evolutions assortment... Bringing Balance to the Force. Welcome, Guest. Please login or register. 1 Hour 1 Day 1 Week 1 Month Forever. Login with username, password and session length. Home. Help. Search. Calendar. Login. Register. JediDefender.com Forums. Collectibles. Hasbro Modern Lines. Revenge of the Sith Moderators: Scott, Jesse James, Jeff. Evolutions assortment... previous next Print. Pages: 1 ... 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 ... 57. Author Topic: Evolutions assortment... Read 52099 times. Jeff Administrator Jedi Council Member. Posts: 21533 i can t stop this feelin. . Re: Evolutions assortment... Reply #150 on: May 12, 2005, 01:42 PM. Quote from: ruiner on May 12, 2005, 01:36 PM. The new Insider magazine has mention of a third Evolution set tentatively titled Evolution of the Sith. It includes Maul, Dooku and the Emperor. Maul and Dooku look like kit bashed figures but the Emperor looks to be all new. You mean like these:. All 3 of the figures are brand new and they kick ass. Jeff. Logged Editor-in-Chie...
http://jedidefender.com/yabbse/index.php?topic=10547.msg126637
*  How predictable is evolution? | Science Codex
How predictable is evolution. Science Codex. Home Earth Heavens Body Brain Culture Tech. How predictable is evolution. Understanding how and why diversification occurs is important for understanding why there are so many species on Earth. The experiment, conducted by Matthew Herron, research assistant professor at the University of Montana, and Professor Michael Doebeli of the University of British Columbia, involved 3 different populations of bacteria. Herron and Doebeli were able to sequence the genomes of populations of bacteria frozen at 16 different points during their evolution, and discovered a surprising amount of similarity in their evolution. Recent advances in sequencing technology allowed Herron and Doebeli to sequence large numbers of whole bacterial genomes and provide evidence that there is predictability in evolutionary diversity. Any evolutionary process is some combination of predictable and unpredictable processes with random mutations, but seeing the same genetic changes in different popul...
http://sciencecodex.com/how_predictable_is_evolution-107195
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Evolution or De-evolution?
Biology-Online View topic - Evolution or De-evolution. Evolution. Evolution or De-evolution. 53 posts. Reply with quote. Evolution or De-evolution. Lastly, selective breeding and domestication of animals for a single trait via positive selection process can bring about variety of other changes by allowing other recessive traits traits that natural selection process would have eliminated. So, evolution or de-evolution. King Cobra Posts: 635 Joined: Thu Feb 14, 2008 7:40 pm. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. by Crucible. Crucible. Coral Posts: 187 Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:46 am. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. Tue Oct 18, 2011 12:10 pm Cat wrote: Thus, we, humans, are primarily responsible for variation in domestic animals and not nature. Inland Taipan Posts: 5694 Joined: Mon Sep 14, 2009 7:12 pm. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. Tue Oct 18, 2011 6:55 pm JackBean wrote: Cat wrote: Thus, we, humans, are primarily responsible for variation in domestic animals and ...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about23010.html?hilit=Gene
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Evolution or De-evolution?
Biology-Online View topic - Evolution or De-evolution. Evolution. Evolution or De-evolution. 53 posts. Reply with quote. Evolution or De-evolution. Lastly, selective breeding and domestication of animals for a single trait via positive selection process can bring about variety of other changes by allowing other recessive traits traits that natural selection process would have eliminated. So, evolution or de-evolution. King Cobra Posts: 635 Joined: Thu Feb 14, 2008 7:40 pm. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. by Crucible. Crucible. Coral Posts: 187 Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:46 am. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. Tue Oct 18, 2011 12:10 pm Cat wrote: Thus, we, humans, are primarily responsible for variation in domestic animals and not nature. Inland Taipan Posts: 5694 Joined: Mon Sep 14, 2009 7:12 pm. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. Tue Oct 18, 2011 6:55 pm JackBean wrote: Cat wrote: Thus, we, humans, are primarily responsible for variation in domestic animals and ...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about23010.html?hilit=Iris
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Evolution or De-evolution?
Biology-Online View topic - Evolution or De-evolution. Evolution. Evolution or De-evolution. 53 posts. Reply with quote. Evolution or De-evolution. Lastly, selective breeding and domestication of animals for a single trait via positive selection process can bring about variety of other changes by allowing other recessive traits traits that natural selection process would have eliminated. So, evolution or de-evolution. King Cobra Posts: 635 Joined: Thu Feb 14, 2008 7:40 pm. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. by Crucible. Crucible. Coral Posts: 187 Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:46 am. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. Tue Oct 18, 2011 12:10 pm Cat wrote: Thus, we, humans, are primarily responsible for variation in domestic animals and not nature. Inland Taipan Posts: 5694 Joined: Mon Sep 14, 2009 7:12 pm. Reply with quote. Re: Evolution or De-evolution. Tue Oct 18, 2011 6:55 pm JackBean wrote: Cat wrote: Thus, we, humans, are primarily responsible for variation in domestic animals and ...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about23010.html?hilit=Superior
*  Chimeric gene
'Chimeric genes' literally, made of parts from different sources form through the combination of portions of one or more coding sequences to produce new genes. These mutation s are distinct from fusion genes which merge whole gene sequences into a single reading frame and often retain their original functions. Formation Evolutionary Importance of Fusion Proteins Functions References. Formation. Chimeric genes can form through several different means. Many chimeric genes form through errors in DNA replication or DNA repair so that pieces of two different genes are inadvertently combined. "Formation and Longevity of Chimeric and Duplicat Genes in 'Drosphila'". Finally, ectopic recombination, when there is an exchange between portions of the genome that are not actually related, can also produce chimeric genes. Evolutionary Importance of Fusion Proteins. Unlike duplicate genes, chimeric proteins are immediately distinct from their parental genes, and therefore are more likely to produce entirely new functions. C...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimeric_gene
*  .. Email a Friend .. 2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 10 .. The latest Evo scores a 10! .. THE VERD
Car Reviews Mitsubishi 2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 10 2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution 10 The latest Evo scores a 10. The Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution is a pumped up version of the new Lancer. Born out of the original 1981 Mitsubishi Lancer 2000 Turbo rally, 10 generations of high-performance Lancer Evolution models have been sold in Japan, Australia and other Asian markets. 1 Mitsubishi offers two version of the Evo, the GSR and MR. 2 The GSR gets a five-speed manual and the MR gets a six-speed dual-clutch transmission with paddle shifters. If you get into one of the eight standard Lancers, you get a 152 hp 2.0L DOHC MIVEC engine, but no turbo. EVOLUTION GSR GETS FIVE-SPEED MANUAL. The entry-level Evolution GSR, which pays homage to earlier rally car nomenclatures, brings a slick five-speed manual transmission, steering-wheel accessible Super All-Wheel Control S-AWC system, 18-inch Enkei cast aluminum wheels, Yokohama Advan Sport tires, Brembo brakes, Recaro seats, dual exhaust, seven airbags front, side...
http://autoguide.com/manufacturer/mitsubishi/2008-mitsubishi-lancer-evolution-10-952.html
*  Recent Articles | Parasite And Evolution | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 8
Recent Articles. Parasite And Evolution. The Scientist Magazine. Page 8. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: parasite x. evolution x. The Scientist parasite and evolution. Most Recent Gene Jumped to All Three Domains of Life By Kerry Grens. December 1, 2014. By horizontal gene transfer, an antibacterial gene family has dispersed to a plant, an insect, several fungi, and an archaeon. 1 Comment. Book Excerpt from One Plus One Equals One By John Archibald. December 1, 2014. In Chapter 7, Green Evolution, Green Revolution, author John Archibald describes how endosymbiosis helped color the Earth in a verdant hue. 0 Comments. Capsule Reviews By Bob Grant. December 1, 2014. Your Atomic Self, Eureka!, A Talent for Friendship, and Undeniable 0 Comments. Mosquito Genomes Galore By Ruth Williams. November 27, 2014. Whole-genome sequences of 16 different mosquito species reveal rapid evolution and could inform malaria research. 1 Comment. Tapeworm Inhabits Man’s Brain for Years By Bob...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/450,8/tags/parasite,evolution/pageNo/8/
*  .. The trajectory of evolution
The trajectory of evolution 11 June 2009. Scientists and philosophers have long debated the trajectory of evolution. Some of the questions they consider include: is there a predictable direction for evolution, and if there is, what is the pathway. Are there evolutionary dead ends. Viruses are excellent subjects for the study of evolution: they have short generation times, high yields of offspring, and prodigious levels of mutation, recombination, and reassortment. Evolution does not move a viral genome from simple to complex, or along a trajectory aimed at perfection. Change comes about by eliminating those viruses that are not well adapted for the current conditions, not by building something that will fare better tomorrow. Tagged as: evolution , H1N1 , influenza , mutation , reassortment , recombination , selection , swine flu , viral , virology , virus. lantrix. It seems one can equate “Change comes about by eliminating those viruses that are not well adapted for the current condition” as effectively survi...
http://virology.ws/2009/06/11/the-trajectory-of-evolution/
*  XY Special: Strongest Mega Evolution ~Act 1~
... Kanto Battle Frontier Saga. The Sinnoh Saga. General Information MangaDex Character BIOs Detailed BIOs Chapter Guides Volume Guides RBG Series Yellow Series GSC Series RS Series FRLG Series Emerald Series DP Series Platinum Series HGSS Series BW Series B2W2 Series XY Series ORAS Series. Lucario and the Mystery of Mew. Arceus and the Jewel of Life Zoroark - Master of Illusions Black: Victini & Reshiram White: Victini & Zekrom Kyurem VS The Sword of Justice -Meloetta's Midnight Serenade Genesect and the Legend Awakened Diancie & The Cocoon of Destruction Hoopa & The Clash of Ages. Pikachu's Summer Vacation Pikachu's Rescue Adventure Pikachu And Pichu Pikachu's PikaBoo Camp Pikachu. Pikachu's Summer Festival. Pikachu's Ghost Festival. Pikachu's Island Adventure. Pikachu's Exploration Club Pikachu's Great Ice Adventure Pikachu's Sparkling Search Pikachu's Really Mysterious Adventure Eevee & Friends Pikachu, What's This Key. To Avoid the current hassles there is this disclaimer for those Who want to use it wi...
http://serebii.net/anime/epiguide/specials/035.shtml
*  Bristol University | Department of Computer ScienceGenomic and Structural Aspects of Protein Evoluti
Bristol University. Department of Computer Science. Genomic and Structural Aspects of Protein Evolution. Industrial partners. Study at Bristol. Undergraduate study Find a course. Why choose Bristol. Fees and funding. Postgraduate study Find a course or programme. Fees and funding. Why choose Bristol. Explore the University. University of Bristol Department of Computer Science. Julian Gough. Genomic and Structural Aspects of Protein Evolution. Cyrus Chothia, Julian Gough , Genomic and Structural Aspects of Protein Evolution. It has been known for more than 35 years that, during evolution, new proteins are formed by gene duplications, sequence and structural divergence and, in many cases, gene combinations. The genome projects have produced complete, or almost complete, descriptions of the protein repertoires of over 600 distinct organisms. At the present time, we can accurately trace the evolutionary relationships of about half the proteins found in most genomes and it is these proteins that we discuss here. U...
http://cs.bris.ac.uk/Publications/pub_master.jsp?id=2000998
*  ALSScan Candice Luca And Gina Devine Bejeweled 1080p HD | PussyArt
ALSScan Candice Luca And Gina Devine Bejeweled 1080p HD. PussyArt. PussyArt Home X-Art Met-Art SexArt Babes Lesbian PornPros Passion-HD 18OnlyGirls TeenModels DigitalDesire WowPorn The Art Of Blowjob. SexArt Dido A And Eufrat Mai Vertigo 1080p HD 18OnlyGirls Cant Stop Loving You Denisa Heaven 720p HD. ALSScan Candice Luca And Gina Devine Bejeweled 1080p HD. Release Name : ALSScan Candice Luca And Gina Devine Bejeweled 1080p HD Quality : H264.1920×1080 @ 10,142 kbps Audio : AAC Runtime : 00.25.39. MP4/1.82GB. Single Links. https://fileparadox.in/wf8kzz0wqk8z/a l s s.13.09.01.candice.luca.and.gina.devine.bejeweled.mp4. or. http://rapidgator.net/file/bcaa7130d4f4c21ed74649b4a451b211/a l s s.13.09.01.candice.luca.and.gina.devine.bejeweled.mp4.html. or. http://uploaded.net/file/ipc7nlbk/a l s s.13.09.01.candice.luca.and.gina.devine.bejeweled.mp4. Related posts:. ALSScan Candice Luca Smoking 1080p HD SexArt 13 04 27 Gina Devine Tone Of Love XXX 1080p MP4 ALSScan Little Caprice And Tanner Mayes Take In The Sun 1080p...
http://pussyart.net/alsscan-candice-luca-and-gina-devine-bejeweled-1080p-hd/
*  2015 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution - Sports Sedan
FIND A DEALER DEALER. BUILD & PRICE BUILD. LANCER EVOLUTION. GALLERY. FEATURES. LANCER EVOLUTION. Lancer Evolution. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. Lancer Evolution FROM $34,495 1. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. Build and Price. Find a Dealer. Request a Quote. Compare Vehicles. Special Offers. Trade-in Appraisal. Estimate Credit Score. Warranty. Offers. GALLERY. FEATURES. Check Out Our Special Offers. ESTIMATE PAYMENT Select Lancer Evolution trim and find out the price ESTIMATE PAYMENT ESTIMATE PAYMENT. GET UPDATES Find out about new vehicles, special offers and more View Newsletter View Newsletter. STAY IN TOUCH AUDIO SYSTEM WITH A 6.1" TOUCH PANEL DISPLAY 4 The standard 140-watt audio system in the Lancer Evolution features SiriusXM 5 , HD Radio and a dazzling 6.1-inch touchscreen display for a modern streamlined look and added functionality. BORN TO WIN DYNAMIC AND RESPONSIVE HANDLING Bred to dominate rally races, the 2015 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution lives and breathes perf...
http://mitsubishicars.com/lancer-evolution
*  2015 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution - Sports Sedan
FIND A DEALER DEALER. BUILD & PRICE BUILD. LANCER EVOLUTION. GALLERY. FEATURES. LANCER EVOLUTION. Lancer Evolution. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. Lancer Evolution FROM $34,495 1. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. BUILD YOUR OWN. Build and Price. Find a Dealer. Request a Quote. Compare Vehicles. Special Offers. Trade-in Appraisal. Estimate Credit Score. Warranty. Offers. GALLERY. FEATURES. Check Out Our Special Offers. ESTIMATE PAYMENT Select Lancer Evolution trim and find out the price ESTIMATE PAYMENT ESTIMATE PAYMENT. GET UPDATES Find out about new vehicles, special offers and more View Newsletter View Newsletter. STAY IN TOUCH AUDIO SYSTEM WITH A 6.1" TOUCH PANEL DISPLAY 4 The standard 140-watt audio system in the Lancer Evolution features SiriusXM 5 , HD Radio and a dazzling 6.1-inch touchscreen display for a modern streamlined look and added functionality. BORN TO WIN DYNAMIC AND RESPONSIVE HANDLING Bred to dominate rally races, the 2015 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution lives and breathes perf...
http://mitsubishicars.com/lancer-evolution?sc_mc=redirect_natural-search_possible_301-redirects_search-redirects_07232015
*  Theories of Evolution
... Jonathan Paul Carson jpc4e at dayhoff.med.Virginia.EDU. Thu Aug 25 13:50:22 EST 1994. Previous message: Theories of Evolution Next message: Theories of Evolution Messages sorted by:. I've gotten some comments very helpful ones, actually about my last posting. I never claimed to dethrone Darwin or uphold some Bible-thumping view. I never wished to throw aside all of the subtlety in the available models we know of in population genetics by speaking plainly and generally. I never wanted to preach the emergence of some Gaian global New Age consciousness. Lovelock and Margulis are visionaries whom I admire, though; I suspect that they are unhappy with the negative attention they've gotten from crystal-brandishing gurus and cyncial hard-nosed skeptics, alike. A fully-fleshed out idea is not necessarily a good one due to the fact that it is always a bit *too* exclusive ; a half-baked idea is not necessarily a bad one inspiration moves science along just as reductionist logic gives form to good ideas. All I want...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/mol-evol/1994-August/001928.html
*  The Theory of Evolution - Page 2 - Matt-Hughes.com Official Forums
... Matt-Hughes.com Official Forums. The Theory of Evolution. mscomc Guest. Posts: n/a. Quote: Originally Posted by Play The Man. You should check him out. Ie: Insulin attaches to insulin receptor, the receptor triggers a cascade response in cell, cell take up glucose yadda yadda yadaa. I didnt know he was also a preist. Play The Man. Join Date: Jun 2009 Posts: 2,264. Quote: Originally Posted by mscomc. Ie: Insulin attaches to insulin receptor, the receptor triggers a cascade response in cell, cell take up glucose yadda yadda yadaa. I didnt know he was also a preist. Play The Man. Find all posts by Play The Man. # 13 11-07-2009, 02:11 PM. shon8121 Guest. Posts: n/a. Quote: Originally Posted by NateR. Evolution as a theory that all life on Earth is derived from one common ancestor. Micro-Evolution can be observed. The Theory of Evolution actually does state that all life has a Common Ancestor or group of Ancestors usually depicted as a Single-Celled Organism. Endogenous Retroviruses Transposons Functionally R...
http://matt-hughes.com/forums/showthread.php?p=79027
*  Recent Articles | Methodology And Evolution | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 8
Recent Articles. Methodology And Evolution. The Scientist Magazine. Page 8. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Advertisement. The Scientist. tags: methodology x. evolution x. The Scientist methodology and evolution. Most Recent Mosquito Genomes Galore By Ruth Williams. November 27, 2014. Whole-genome sequences of 16 different mosquito species reveal rapid evolution and could inform malaria research. 1 Comment. Barley Key to Mankind’s Alpine Incursion By Bob Grant. November 24, 2014. The cold-tolerant cereal crop allowed humans to live and farm higher than ever starting more than 3,000 years ago. 0 Comments. When Males Kill Young By Jyoti Madhusoodanan. November 13, 2014. Many social factors contributed to the evolution of male infanticide in mammal societies. 3 Comments. Butterfly Eyespots Deflect Predation By Bob Grant. November 12, 2014. Researchers show that patterned coloration can be an effective means of distracting predators from vital body parts. 1 Comment. Behavior Brief By Molly Sharlach. November...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/1692,8/tags/methodology,evolution/pageNo/8/
*  BIOL 60B Evolution
biol b evolution biol b evolution oc qr sn prerequisite biol a nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution dobzhansky said famously evolution is a unifying theory of biology because it explains almost everything about the living worldboth the diversity of life and the similarities among organisms this course examines processes and patterns of evolution including the origin and fate of variation natural and sexual selection inbreeding and genetic drift the evolution of sociality the species concept and the origin of species biodiversity and phylogenetics as well as the history of life on earth including the fossil record and human evolution usually offered every year mr morris close...
http://brandeis.edu/registrar/schedule/course?acad_year=2010&crse_id=001000
*  .. The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution .. March 28, 2011
the origins of order self organization and selection in evolution march author stuart kauffman year published amazon stuart kauffman here presents a brilliant new paradigm for evolutionary biology one that extends the basic concepts of darwinian evolution to accommodate recent findings and perspectives from the fields of biology physics chemistry and mathematics the book drives to the heart of the exciting debate on the origins of life and maintenance of order in complex biological systems it focuses on the concept of self organization the spontaneous emergence of order that is widely observed throughout nature kauffman argues that self organization plays an important role in the darwinian process of natural selection yet until now no systematic effort has been made to incorporate the concept of self organization into evolutionary theory the construction requirements which permit complex systems to adapt are poorly understood as is the extent to which selection itself can yield systems able to adapt more succ...
http://kurzweilai.net/the-origins-of-order-self-organization-and-selection-in-evolution
*  Theistic Evolution
T he author has recently proposed a theory of theistic evolution as an alternative to the naturalistic theory. In regard to correspondence to current scientific evidence, the first SC and third TTE views consider evidence for the spontaneous origin of life by chance events to be totally inadequate as an explanation. However, it is possible that many scientific experiments could be carried out that might provide evidence that would be consistent with the theory of theistic evolution TTE that I have proposed. I will then critique in more detail Van Till's concepts of theistic evolution and functional integrity and will contrast my own views with the atheistic views of Richard Dawkins in his proposal of cumulative selection. Again, however, the proteins must have specific sequences of amino acids to be functional. 13 However, in living organisms the sequence of amino acids in proteins is always determined by the genetic information residing in DNA. Consequently, the author Mills, 1995 has proposed a theory of th...
http://asa3.org/ASA/topics/Evolution/CSR4-95Mills.html
*  .. “Believing” in evolution .. Share this: .. Like this: .. Related .. 73 Comments
« A redefinition of “atheist”. Miss USA: the math question ». “Believing” in evolution. Faye Flam is coming into her own as the evolution-centered science columnist at the Philadelphia Inquirer . Her column, which deals largely but not wholly with human evolution, is called Planet of the Apes. And her latest piece, “ Belief in evolution. It may be the wrong word” takes off from some of the answers given by Miss USA contestants when asked whether evolution should be taught in schools, especially the many responses that mentioned either pro or con a “belief” in evolution. Flam interviews scientists and skeptics like Lawrence Krauss, Ted Daeschler, Michael Shermer, and Glenn Branch deputy director of the National Center for Science Education . All of them pretty much agree that the term “belief”, while having a useful function in science, shouldn’t be applied to a concept as well established as evolution:. : “Science is not like religion, in that it doesn’t merely tell a story … one that one can choose to beli...
https://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2011/06/28/believing-in-evolution-2/
*  ASA - November 1996: ORIGINS:Design vs. Evolution
... ORIGINS:Design vs. Evolution. David Campbell bivalve@isis.unc.edu. Fri, 22 Nov 1996 11:18:53 -0500. Messages sorted by:. Next message: Russell Maatman: "Fw: Mere Creation conference". Previous message: RDehaan237@aol.com: "Re: Fw: Mere Creation conference". Next in thread: RDehaan237@aol.com: "Re: ORIGINS:Design vs. Evolution". Darwinian natural selection, however, is a sequential approach. only add one element at a time, which is retained only if it improves the. adaptation or reproductive success of the organism. Adding. "one-elements-at-a-time" simply cannot improve the function of a system, in. fact, it will probably impair if not destroy it because it interferes with. established relationships. Moreover Darwinian mechanisms cannot assemble a. complex system in advance since it does not see into the future, and cannot. anticipate future needs of an organism. Actually, new things can be added under natural selection if they do not. reduce the success so much as to be selected against; they do not ha...
http://www2.asa3.org/archive/asa/199611/0092.html
*  2013 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Comparisons | Automotive.com
2013 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Comparisons. Automotive.com. Automotive.com. Research Cars. Cars for Sale. Used Cars. Certified Vehicles. Get a Dealer Quote. Car Reviews & News. Car Reviews. Car News. Auto Shows. Car Comparisons. Tools and Tips. View Tools. Best Worst Cars. Research A Specific Vehicle Year. Cars. Mitsubishi. Lancer Evolution. 2013 Lancer Evolution GSR Sedan. Comparisons. Interior. Reviews Latest News. Cars for Sale Compare Most Similar. Standard Features. Safety Safety Features Recalls. Free Price Quote. 2013 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution Comparisons GSR Sedan. Change Vehicles Print this Comparison. 2013 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution GSR Sedan. 2013 Subaru Impreza WRX Sedan. 2013 Volkswagen Jetta GLI Sedan. Get a Quote. Get a Quote. Get a Quote. Engines & Power Standard Engine 2.0L I4 2.5L H4 2.0L I4. Horsepower 291 @ 6500 RPM 265 @ 6000 RPM 210 @ 5300 RPM. Torque 300 @ 4000 RPM 244 @ 4000 RPM 207 @ 1700 RPM. Exterior Dimensions & Weight Curb Weight - Automatic lb. Wheelbase in. Track Front in. ...
http://cars.automotive.com/mitsubishi/lancer-evolution/2013/compare/t3-12-3/
*  [Bioperl-l] planning sequence mutating modules
planning sequence mutating modules. Previous message: planning sequence mutating modules Next message: Medline to XML Messages sorted by:. Then I answer questions such as this: - for this codon position, when before which nodes of the tree did all synonymous or non-synonymous mutations occur. Further, I need to do simulate sequence evolution along the tree, e.g., like this: - mutate specified codon along the tree, perhaps with given substitution matrix and, possibly, with given non-synonymous/synonymous substitutions rate. -Heikki On Tuesday 14 February 2006 16:34, Georgii A Bazykin wrote: Hi, Just a thought: I really think that in perspective, it would be nice to be able to evolve the sequence along a tree of given shape. Bio::SeqEvolution::EvolutionI - interface file Bio::SeqEvolution::EvolutionI::seq - seq to mutate Bio::SeqEvolution::EvolutionI::seq type - returned seq class, defaults to Bio::PrimarySeq. Bio::SeqEvolution::EvolutionI::next seq - overridable by subclasses Bio::SeqEvolution::EvolutionI::eac...
http://bioperl.org/pipermail/bioperl-l/2006-February/020911.html
*  .. Evolution 2011: Darwinian medicine .. Share this: .. Like this: .. Related .. 17 Comments .. 5
Evolution 2011: Darwinian medicine. Â Most schools teach things about antibiotic resistance, more or less because they have to, but other aspects of DM aren’t often taught in medical school: things like “adaptive” human symptoms of disease, or things that pathogens do to facilitate their own spread the fact that malaria makes you prostrate, for instance, may actually be an adaptation of the malaria parasite to facilitate its spread; you’re more likely to be bitten by a mosquito, who transmits the parasite, if you’re laid out flat in bed. If a reader has an example of a constraint that keeps us from evolving resistance to a disease, let me know. Â Nesse used the example of malaria that I gave above, but this isn’t really coevolution: it’s simply an adaptation in the sporozoan parasite that facilitates its own transmission. This entry was written by whyevolutionistrue and posted on June 20, 2011 at 8:12 am and filed under human evolution. Posted June 20, 2011 at 8:36 am. Posted June 20, 2011 at 9:28 pm. Permali...
https://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2011/06/20/evolution-2011-evolutionary-medicine/
*  File:Evolution of infectious disease Paul Ewald.jpg
file evolution of infectious disease paul ewald jpg file evolution of infectious disease paul ewald jpg summary book cover of evolution of infectious disease by paul w ewald source http images amazon com images p lzzzzzzz jpg licensing...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Evolution_of_infectious_disease_Paul_Ewald.jpg
*  File:Buffers Evolution.jpg
file buffers evolution jpg file buffers evolution jpg summary licensing...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Buffers_Evolution.jpg
*  CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction From OpenWetWare CH391L/S12 Revision as of 15:45, 13 February 2012 by Jared Ellefson Talk. 1 What is Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. 1.1 Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes 1.1.1 Methods of Inferring Ancient Sequences 1.1.2 Gene Synthesis 1.1.3 Testing Ancestral Variants. 1.2 Examples of Ancestral Sequence Reconstructions 1.2.1 Evolution of Coral Pigments 1.2.2 Inferring the Paleoenvironment of ancient Earth. What is Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. Sequence Reconstruction Example. Sequences from extant species of the desired common ancestral gene and outgroup genes are aligned. The ancestral gene is inferred based on evolutionary models typically maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood. Ancestral genes are cloned and tested for function. Methods of Inferring Ancient ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S12/CH391L/S12/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&oldid=583945
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. ==Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes==...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=677463&oldid=677462
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 19:53, 24 February 2013 view source Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs → Evolution of Coral Pigments ← Previous diff. Revision as of 19:55, 24 February 2013 view source Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs → Evolution of Coral Pigments Next diff →. Line 30:. Line 30:. One example of ancestral sequence reconstruction was done by the Matz group currently residing at the University of Texas at Austin. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red cite #Ugalde /cite. The details of the evolution of fluorescent color in the GFP superfamily was not fully understand. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. One example of ancestral sequence reconstruction was done by the Matz group currently residing at the University of Texas at Austin. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wav...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=678933&oldid=678932
*  Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001)
branching order of bacterial phyla gupta branching order of bacterial phyla gupta bacterial phyla there are several models of the branching order of bacterial phyla one of these was proposed in by gupta based on conserved indels or protein termed protein signatures an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels however they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla one feature of the cladogram obtained with this method is the clustering of cell wall morphology with some exceptions from monoderms to transitional diderms to traditional diderms in the cladogram below yellow pseudopeptidoglycan monoderms gram variable red thick peptidoglycan monoderms gram positive blue thin peptidoglycan diderms gram negative green atypical see note in parethesis cladex style width auto bar gold archaea cladex bar crimson firmicutes cladex bar crimson actinobacteria see also branching order of bacterial phyla woese branching order ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branching_order_of_bacterial_phyla_(Gupta,_2001)
*  CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. Sequences for the common ancestor nodes were synthesized and tested for their activity. The common ancestor to all the superfamily had a green emission peak. The more recent common ancestor of Green/Red had two emission peaks; a strong green peak and a smaller red peak. Fluorescent proteins from related coral species had wavelengths corresponding to Cyan, Green, and Red. That is, what fluorescent spectra did the common ancestors of the modern corals have. Sequences for the common ancestor nodes were synthesized and tested for their activity. The common ancestor to all the superfamily had a green emission peak. The more recent common ancestor of Green/Red had two emission peaks; a strong green peak and a smaller red peak. 1.2 Examples of Ancestral Sequence Reconstructions 1.2.1 Evolution of Coral Pigments 1.2.2 Inferring the...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&diff=678913&oldid=678912
*  The FASTML Server - Server for computing Maximum Likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction
the fastml server server for computing maximum likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction home overview gallery source code citing credits old version the fastml server server for computing maximum likelihood ancestral sequence reconstruction type your multiple sequence alignment msa fasta format only or upload your multiple sequence alignment msa file sequences type amino acids nucleotides codons type your phylogenetic tree optional newick format only or upload phylogenetic tree file newick format only model of substitution jtt default lg mtrev for mitochondrial proteins cprev for chloroplasts proteins wag dayhoff jc model jukes and cantor t model tamura hky model hasegawa kishino and yano gtr generalised time reversible yang for codon sequences empiricodon for codon sequences please enter your email address optional your email address will be used to update you the moment the results are ready load an example advanced options phylogenetic tree method maximum likelihood ml neighbor joining optimize branch ...
http://fastml.tau.ac.il/
*  Comparison of Protein Sequences: BLAST searching and Phylogenetic Tree Construction
... Inquiry-based Integrated Instructional Units Comparison of Protein Sequences: BLAST searching and Phylogenetic Tree Construction. It accompanies several weeks of wet lab work in which students clone cDNAs encoding Cytochrome P450 1A CYP1A from animals primarily fish collected locally and exposed to pollution compounds that induce expression of the enzyme. In this exercise, students perform BLAST searches of reported CYP1A sequences and construct phylogenetic trees using CYP1A amino acid sequences from various vertebrate species, especially those with multiple CYP1A paralogs. Thus, evolutionary analysis of CYP1A sequences from many species provides an opportunity to explore the number and timing of gene duplications during vertebrate evolution. Three short readings about gene duplication in evolution and phylogenetic analysis are provided at least one week prior to class. These readings complement earlier readings that specifically concern the cloning and evolutionary analysis of CYP1A genes in fish. Mate...
http://serc.carleton.edu/genomics/units/19100.html
*  Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction - OpenWetWare
... Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction. From OpenWetWare. Talk:CH391L/S13 Revision as of 00:02, 24 February 2013 by Aurko Dasgupta Talk. contribs. diff ←Older revision. Current revision diff. Newer revision→ diff. Jump to: navigation, search. Gabriel Wu 16:59, 18 February 2013 EST : Remove the cost and methods of gene synthesis or just reference the dna assembly section we've already gone over. Expand the codon optimization section unless this fits better in somewhere else. Gabriel Wu 16:59, 18 February 2013 EST : How does Pauling's proposal for ancestral gene construction relate to the actual discovery of DNA structure. Benjamin Gilman 13:21, 21 February 2013 EST : The Pauling and Zuckerkandl paper came out when the only protein sequence information we had came from limited peptide sequencing methods like Edman degradation N-terminal sequencing. You might add something about the shift to using DNA or RNA sequences to infer protein sequence once techniques like Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequenc...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Talk:CH391L/S13/Ancestral_Sequence_Reconstruction&direction=prev&oldid=678776
*  Ancestral reconstruction
'Ancestral Reconstruction' also known as 'Character Mapping' or 'Character Optimization' is a method in evolutionary biology by which one can attempt to understand the phenotypic and genetic states of organisms that lived millions of years ago. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum likelihood. They are: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and the Bayesian Inference. Maximum parsimony is the method that came about first. Maximum likelihood accounts for what we know about the likelihood of various events, which is that they are not all equal. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum Parsimony. Maximum likelihood. The main difference between this and maximum parsimony is that the maximum likelihood test accounts for the fact that not all events are equally likely to happen. When this is the case, maximum parsimony may actually be more accurate because it is more willing to make large, unlikely leaps than maximum likelihood is. Maximum likelihood has been shown to be quite reliable in reconstructing character states however it does no...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancestral_reconstruction
*  Viral phylodynamics
... Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread,. Methods Coalescent theory and phylodynamics. Examples Phylodynamics of Influenza. Phylodynamics of HIV. The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure see figure 2 Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. For example, an application to HIV sequences within infected hosts showed that viral substitution rates dropped to effectively zero following the initiation of antiretroviral drug therapy. If the population size N t changes over time, the coalescent rate \lambda n t will also be a function of time. derived this rate for a time-varying population size under the assumption o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_phylodynamics
*  Diagnostic characters from Consortium of mx users. - Encyclopedia of Life
... Diagnostic characters. 2011, by Lewis L. Deitz and Matthew S. Wallace. Add to a collection. Diagnostic characters. Distance from eye to base of forewing usually greater than half eye width exceptions: Deiroderes and many Nicomiinae. Pronotum usually produced posteriorly over scutellum exceptions: Endoiastinae, Nicomiinae, Deiroderes, Abelus, and Hemicentrus, often also with anterior, lateral, or dorsal projections. Forewings with vein M fused with Cu basally share common stem; exceptions: some Nicomia and some Smiliinae. Prothoracic trochanter and femur not fused. Male abdominal segment IX usually with lateral plates discrete from pygofer exceptions: fused to pygofer in few members of various tribes; lateral plates absent in Anchistrotus and some Stegaspidini. Female pygofer not strongly produced posteroventrally. Nymph with abdominal tergum IX forming sheath around segment X, anal opening dorsal or posterior. Latest updates. No one has provided updates yet. Learn how to contribute. Add a new comment. Yo...
http://eol.org/data_objects/12685167
*  Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew | QUT ePrints
Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew. Browse By Person: Phillips, Matthew Statistics dashboard. Review. Book Chapter Phillips, Matthew J. Penny, David 2010 Mammalian phylogeny., Phillips, Matthew J. PLoS ONE, 10 5, e0125723., Carrano, Matthew T. Systematic Biology. Phillips, Matthew J., Gibb, Gillian C. 2014 Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and habitat preference evolution of marsupials. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31 9, pp., Phillips, Matthew J. Phillips, Matthew J., Gibb, Gillian,. Bunce, Michael 2013 Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes. PLoS ONE, 8 2, pp. Phillips, Matthew J. Current Biology, 23 14, R603-R605., Phillips, Matthew J. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 59 3, pp., Phillips, Matthew J. 2010 Evolutionary relationships and divergence times among the native rats of Australia. 2009 The evolutionary history of the extinct ratite moa and New Zealand Neogene paleogeography. 2009 Accounting for calibration uncertainty in phylogenetic estimation of evo...
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/view/person/Phillips,_Matthew.html
*  Wiegmann Lab: Current Research
Insect Molecular Systematics at NCSU. phylogenetic relationships and testing hypotheses about the evolution and diversification of insects. A major component of these studies is uncovering patterns and processes of DNA sequence evolution and using these to improve interpretation of morphological and developmental evolutionary pathways. Molecular Phylogenetics of Diptera: FLYTREE - NSF - Assembling the Tree of Life project on Diptera a Collaborative Research Effort in Dipteran Phylogenetics. The need for new, large, comprehensive datasets for Diptera phylogeny motivates our collaborative, National Science Foundation funded, Assembling the Tree of Life ATOL project-- FLYTREE. Within this study, we are assembling multiple phylogenetic data sets to simultaneously assess dipteran phylogenetic relationships and the information content of specific character systems. For example, we will compare large by character data sets 1st tier; 45 taxa; 15-20 genes and mt genomes to those with increased numbers of taxa by taxa ...
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/users/b/bwiegman/public_html/labweb/currentresearch.html
*  Talk:CH391L/S13/DirectedProteinEvolution - OpenWetWare
Gabriel Wu Talk. *' ] 21:45, 21 February 2013 EST ':It would be nice if you added literature examples of Directed Evolution of Proteins for each approach as done in the Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction or take a similar approach. *' ] 21:45, 21 February 2013 EST ':It would be nice if you added literature examples of Directed Evolution of Proteins for each approach as done in the Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction or take a similar approach. + *' ] 15:33, 2 March 2013 EST ':It would be nice to put some numbers on the typical plasmid screening in 'E. + ****' ] 14:03, 4 March 2013 EST ': This is an interesting point. *' ] 04:13, 27 February 2013 EST ':I thought it'd be nice to have a section explaining fitness landscapes and moving through sequence space. *' ] 04:13, 27 February 2013 EST ':I thought it'd be nice to have a section explaining fitness landscapes and moving through sequence space. It's true that many times the selection will result in being trapped in a local optima, but other times the selection wi...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Talk:CH391L/S13/DirectedProteinEvolution&diff=680636&oldid=680003
*  Systematics
thumb|400px|A comparison of phylogenetic and phenetic concepts Biological '''systematics''' is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. Phylogenetic trees of species and higher taxa are used to study the evolution of traits e.g., anatomical or molecular characteristics and the distribution of organisms biogeography. Systematics, in other words, is used to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Definition and relation with taxonomy Taxonomic characters See also References Notes. Definition and relation with taxonomy. Europeans tend to use the terms "systematics" and "biosystematics" for the field of the study of biodiversity as a whole, whereas North Americans tend to use "taxonomy" more frequently. Taxonomic characters. Molecular characters. Immunological distance Electrophoretic differences Amino acid sequences of proteins DNA hybridization DNA and RNA sequences Restriction endonuclease analyses Other molec...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systematics
*  Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" - EEBedia
Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" From EEBedia. Chris Simon. Chris Simon. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Lab%208.%20Kasey%20Pregler%20MiniPresentation%2012April12.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 8. Kasey Pregler MiniPresentation 12April12.pdf. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Lab%208.%20Kasey%20Pregler%20MiniPresentation%2012April12.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 8. Kasey Pregler MiniPresentation 12April12.pdf. Instructor: Chris Simon, Biopharm 305D, 6-4640, chris.simon@uconn.edu Graduate Assistant: Chris Owen, Biopharm 325A, christopher.l.owen@uconn.edu ; 6-3947. Readings: will be posted as PDF’s. Lectures will examine some of the most serious problems in evolutionary tree construction: nucleotide bias, alignment, homoplasy, among-site rate variation, taxon sampling, long branches, big trees, heterogeneous rates of evolution among branches, covarion shifts. Syllabus Molecular Systematics rev 28 Mar 12.pdf Assignment 1. How molecules evo...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Molecular_Systematics_Spring_2012&diff=21831&oldid=21782
*  Molecular phylogenetics
'Molecular phylogenetics ' is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. History of molecular phylogenetics Techniques and applications Theoretical background Limitations of molecular systematics See also Notes and references Further reading External links. A comprehensive step-by-step protocol on constructing phylogenetic tree, including DNA/Amino Acid contiguous sequence assembly, multiple sequence alignment, model-test testing best-fitting substitution models and phylogeny reconstruction using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, is available at Nature Protocol Bast, F. These have been replaced in recent times largely by DNA sequencing, which produces the exact sequences of nucleotides or 'bases' in either DNA or RNA segments extracted using different techniques. In a molecular systematic analysis, the haplotypes are determined for a defined area of genetic material ; a substantial s...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_phylogenetics
*  CH391L/S13/DNA Computing - OpenWetWare
... CH391L/S13/DNA Computing From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 11:55, 1 April 2013 view source Dwight Tyler Fields Talk. contribs m New page: Hello world. ← Previous diff. Revision as of 12:03, 1 April 2013 view source Dwight Tyler Fields Talk. contribs m Next diff →. Line 1:. Line 1:. - Hello world. + ] ]. + =Introduction=. + Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction refers to the construction of hypothesized protein or DNA sequences belonging to a common ancestor of extant proteins or DNA. It enables scientists to synthesize biomolecules from extinct organisms. Sequence information Nucleic Acid and Protein from extant species can be used to infer the sequences of common ancestor species which can be synthesized and tested in the lab. The method was originally discussed by Pauling and Zuckerkandl in 1963 cite Pauling /cite, almost 30 years before the theory was experimentally tested. + ]. + + ==Pipeline for Generating Ancestral Genes==. + # Sequences from extan...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=CH391L/S13/DNA_Computing&diff=687401&oldid=687389
*  Phylogenetic Classification ( Real World ) | Biology | CK-12 Foundation
Phylogenetic Classification Real World. Help. Help. You are viewing an older version of this Concept. Go to the latest version. Phylogenetic Classification. Practice Phylogenetic Classification Practice. 0% Practice Now. Evolution. Resources. Published. Cows Gone Wild. The "cows" you see are Aurochs Bos primigenius. They are the species of bovine that humans domesticated to form our modern day cows. Looking at the cave paintings of aurochs, you may get the sense that they were a bit different than our domesticated cattle. The characteristics which made aurochs successful in the wild were not the characteristics that humans thought were most useful. For example, packing on lots of meat may be a great trait in a cow for a cattle rancher, but if that meat hampers mobility, then it can make a cow an easy target to predators. This is one of the differences between artificial selection and natural selection. However, it does not take 600 years for noticeable changes to appear in bred species once the artificial sel...
http://ck12.org/biology/Phylogenetic-Classification/rwa/21st-Century-Auroch/r8/
*  Filosofía, especie y sistemática
Host structure of the Phylogeny of West Nile Virus WNV: Does it shape the spatiotemporal structure. Methods Sequence Data: All the available sequences of complete genome of WNV, with collection times, and geographic locations 453 sequences, from 25 countries, and 79 hosts species were retrieved from GenBank. Phylogeny inferred using a Maximum likelihood analysis of 53 sequences. Phylogeny with Host structure for WNV. Just Testudines present a different resutl, where the non-nuclear and nuclear partitions had the lowest values Fig. Estimating Evolutionary Rates and Times to the last Common Ancestor DEV-2, using partitions vs complete coding region. Several studies have been aimed at understanding the epidemiology of DENV, rates and dates of evolution, and selection pressure in its different genes and genotypes Rico-hesse Rico-hesse, 1990; Rico-Hesse et al., 1997; S. The objectives of this study were to infer the time to the Most recent common ancestor MRCA of the DENV2 genotypes, and estimate the evolutionary ...
http://elecsist.blogspot.com/
*  PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. | Broad Institute of MIT and
PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Partnerships Philanthropy Careers Contact Us. What is Broad. Our Approach Areas of Focus History Leadership Who is Broad Partner Institutions Artist-in-Residence Media Center. Press Room News from the Broad Photos for Journalists Spotlight: Ebola Spotlight: CRISPR BroadMinded Blog Video Library For the Scientific Community. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Scientific Publications Science Data Software. Home. News & Publications:Scientific Publications PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades. Recent Broad Publications Inherited CHST11/MIR3922 deletion is associated with a novel recessive syndrome presenting with skeletal malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease. Read More / View Supplemental Materials Ferritinophagy via NCOA4 is required for erythropoiesis and is regulated by iron dependent HERC2-mediated proteolysis. Read More / View Supplemental ...
https://broadinstitute.org/publications/broad3822
*  Phylogenomics
It is a group of techniques within the larger fields of phylogenetics and genomics. Phylogenomics draws information by comparing entire genomes, or at least large portions of genomes. 1 Phylogenetics compares and analyzes the sequences of single genes, or a small number of genes, as well as many other types of data. Prediction of gene function Establishment and clarification of evolutionary relationships Gene family evolution Prediction and retracing lateral gene transfer. Prediction of Gene Function Prediction and Retracing Lateral Gene Transfer Gene family evolution Establishment of Evolutionary Relationships Databases See also References. Before the use of phylogenomic techniques, predicting gene function was done primarily by comparing the gene sequence with the sequences of genes with known functions. 3 This prediction was based on the fact that this organism has a gene for which the sequence is highly similar to genes from other species in the "MutS" gene family which included many known to be involved ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenomics
*  Wikiomics:RNA phylogenetics - OpenWetWare
... Wikiomics:RNA phylogenetics From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 17:04, 3 March 2008 view source Torsten Waldminghaus Talk. contribs added tags ← Previous diff. Current revision 05:34, 20 October 2009 view source Albert Vilella Talk. contribs adding rnasalsa. One intermediate revision not shown. Line 16:. Line 16:. * Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny. Allows secondary structure models. * Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny. Allows secondary structure models. * Designed specifically for use with RNA sequences that have a conserved secondary structure, e.g., rRNA and tRNA. Substitution models of sequence evolution that consider pairs of sites rather than single sites are implemented in this package along with standard nucleotides substitution models used nowadays. When a RNA molecule with a secondary structure is used in conjunction with a RNA substitution model, PHASE requires a structure-based alignment of the sequences with the consensus secondary structure ...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Wikiomics:RNA_phylogenetics&diff=360520&oldid=189099
*  Polyphyly
Image:Monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly.png File:Phylogenetic-Groups.svg|thumbnail|300px|Phylogenetic groups: A monophyletic taxon in yellow, the group of "reptiles and birds" contains a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A paraphyletic taxon in cyan, the reptiles contains its most recent common ancestor, but does not contain all the descendants of that ancestor. A polyphyletic in red, the group of all warm-blooded animals taxon does not contain the most recent common ancestor of all its members. A 'polyphyletic' Greek for "of many races" group is characterized by one or more homoplasies : phenotype s which have converged or reverted so as to appear to be the same but which have not been inherited from common ancestors. For example, warm-bloodedness evolved separately in the ancestors of mammals and the ancestors of birds 1. Researchers concerned more with ecology than with systematics may take polyphyletic groups as legitimate subject matter; the similarities in activity within the fungus group ' Alte...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphyly
*  Difference between revisions of "Molecular Systematics Spring 2014" - EEBedia
Chris Simon. Chris Simon. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/EEB%205350%20Lab%209.%20Minipresentation%20RT-PCR%20Brigette.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 9. Minipresentation RT-PCR Brigette.pdf. :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/EEB%205350%20Lab%209.%20Minipresentation%20RT-PCR%20Brigette.pdf}}EEB 5350 Lab 9. Minipresentation RT-PCR Brigette.pdf. Combining Data/Comparing Trees. + + :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Comparing%20Trees%20Combining%20Data%20Readings%202012.pdf}}Comparing Trees Combining Data Readings 2012.pdf. + + Reading for next week: :{{pdf|http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/molsyst-eeb5350/Simon%2C%20Buckley%2C%20Frati%2C%20Stewart%2C%20Beckenbach%202006%20AREES%20%26%20supplement.pdf}}Simon, Buckley, Frati, Stewart, Beckenbach 2006 AREES supplement.pdf. Lectures will examine some of the most serious problems in evolutionary tree construction: nucleotide bias, alignment, homoplasy, among-site rate variation, ...
http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/eebedia/index.php?title=Molecular_Systematics_Spring_2012&diff=21847&oldid=21846
*  Darwin's Evolutionary Tree 'Annihilated' | The Institute for Creation Research
Darwin s Evolutionary Tree Annihilated. Timely news related to creation and evolution. Life Sciences. Problems with Evolution. Evidence for Creation. Evidence for Truth. Evidence from Science. Apologetics Articles. ICR Store. Darwin's Evolutionary Tree 'Annihilated' by Brian Thomas, M.S. * Resources. Life Sciences Resources. Problems with Evolution. In 1837, Charles Darwin drew his first evolutionary tree in his B notebook, with the words I think scrawled above it, to illustrate his idea that all of today s species arose from a single common ancestor. But the poor fit of gene sequence data is forcing scientists to abandon the tree. A non-Darwinian evolutionary view has been offered, but this proposition is actually just the old Hopeful Monster with a twist. 3 Darwin s tree illustrated a long macroevolutionary past that never happened. 4 Finally, evolutionary biologists seem to be catching up with creation biologists. 5 Michael Syvanen, co-editor of Horizontal Gene Transfer 1998 and a medical biochemist at the...
http://icr.org/articles/view/4404/295/
*  Phylogenetic profiling
... 'Phylogenetic profiling' is a bioinformatics technique in which the joint presence or joint absence of two traits across large numbers of species is used to infer a meaningful biological connection, such as involvement of two different proteins in the same biological pathway. Along with examination of conserved synteny, conserved operon structure, or "Rosetta Stone" domain fusions, comparing phylogenetic profiles is a designated a "post-homology" technique, in that the computation essential to this method begins after it is determined which proteins are homologous to which. A number of these techniques were developed by David Eisenberg and colleagues; phylogenetic profile comparison was introduced in 1999 by Pellegrini, 'et al.' Pellegrini M, Marcotte EM, Thompson MJ, Eisenberg D, Yeates TO. Method Theory Advances and Challenges Notes. For a given protein family, its presence or absence in each genome in the original formulation is represented by 1 present and 0 absent. The large number of complete genom...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenetic_profiling

Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asColes PhillipsProto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.Genetic variation: right|thumbDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Somatic evolution in cancer: Somatic evolution is the accumulation of mutations in the cells of a body during a lifetime, and the effects of those mutations on the fitness of those cells. Somatic evolution is important in the process of aging as well as the development of some diseases, including cancer.CS-BLASTParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Primordial soup: "Primordial soup" is a term introduced by the Soviet biologist Alexander Oparin. In 1924, he proposed a theory of the origin of life on Earth through the transformation, during the gradual chemical evolution of molecules that contain carbon in the primordial soup.Nippleus Erectus: Nippleus Erectus was a drummer of GWAR (played by former White Cross member Rob Mosby), who did all the drumming for Hell-O. He is also credited for the drums on Scumdogs of the Universe, though it was Jizmak Da Gusha who played them.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionMaladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==AmborellaGlobal microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.BrachiopodOxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: A Canadian Story of Resilience and Recovery is a non-fiction book, written by Canadian writer Andrew Westoll, first published in May 2011 by Harper Collins. In the book, the author chronicles the time he spent volunteering at the Fauna Sanctuary, an animal refuge in Quebec for chimpanzees that had been used for biomedical research.Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Microevolution: Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population.Microevolution: What is microevolution?Branchiostoma lanceolatum: Branchiostoma lanceolatum is a lancelet in the subphylum Cephalochordata. It is a marine invertebrate found in soft substrates in shallow seas.Lunar magma ocean: According to the giant impact hypothesis a large amount of energy was liberated in the formation of the Moon and it is predicted that as a result a large portion of the Moon was once completely molten, forming a lunar magma ocean. Evidence for the magma ocean hypothesis comes from the highly anorthositic compositions of the crust in the lunar highlands, as well as the existence of rocks with a high concentration of the geochemical component referred to as KREEP.Intron: right|thumbnail|270px|Representation of intron and [[exons within a simple gene containing a single intron.]]PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Reaction coordinatePrimordial sandwich: The concept of the primordial sandwich was proposed by the chemist Günter Wächtershäuser to describe the possible origins of the first cell membranes, and, therefore, the first cell.Chromosome regionsPaleopolyploidyChelicerata: Late Ordovician (but see text) – RecentCodon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.EcosystemFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Saccoglossus: Saccoglossus is a genus of acorn worm (Class Enteropneusta). It is the largest genus in this class, with 18 species.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Ty5 retrotransposon: The Ty5 is a type of retrotransposon native to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae organism.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Caninia (genus)Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.TuataraLattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentNADH-QGene polymorphismSpatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Tokay gecko: The tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) is a nocturnal arboreal gecko, ranging from northeast India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, throughout Southeast Asia, Philippines to Indonesia and western New Guinea. Its native habitat is rainforest trees and cliffs, and it also frequently adapts to rural human habitations, roaming walls and ceilings at night in search of insect prey.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Acromelanism: Acromelanism is a genetically determined, temperature-dependent pigmentation pattern, with full expression only occurring on legs, ears, tail and face. Seen in Siamese and Himalayan cats, rats, and rabbits.Hadrosaur diet: Hadrosaurids, also commonly referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs, were large terrestrial herbivores. The diet of hadrosaurid dinosaurs remains a subject of debate among paleontologists, especially regarding whether hadrosaurids were grazers who fed on vegetation close to the ground, or browsers who ate higher-growing leaves and twigs.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Flower box: __NOTOC__

(1/24558) Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region.

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

(2/24558) Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight.

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

(3/24558) Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly.

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

(4/24558) Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns.

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

(5/24558) Molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family.

We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. By distance and parsimony analysis of the ETS conserved domains we show that the family containing so far 29 different genes in vertebrates can be divided into 13 groups of genes namely ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF, ELK, DETS4, ELF, ESE, TEL, YAN, SPI. Since the three dimensional structure of the ETS domain has revealed a similarity with the winged-helix-turn-helix proteins, we used two of them (CAP and HSF) to root the tree. This allowed us to show that the family can be divided into five subfamilies: ETS, DETS4, ELF, TEL and SPI. The ETS subfamily comprises the ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF and the ELK groups which appear more related to each other than to any other ETS family members. The fact that some members of these subfamilies were identified in early metazoans such as diploblasts and sponges suggests that the diversification of ETS family genes predates the diversification of metazoans. By the combined analysis of both the ETS and the PNT domains, which are conserved in some members of the family, we showed that the GABP group, and not the ERG group, is the one most closely related to the ETS group. We also observed that the speed of accumulation of mutations in the various genes of the family is highly variable. Noticeably, paralogous members of the ELK group exhibit strikingly different evolutionary speed suggesting that the evolutionary pressure they support is very different.  (+info)

(6/24558) Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection.

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

(7/24558) Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element.

Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution.  (+info)

(8/24558) The nuclear receptor superfamily has undergone extensive proliferation and diversification in nematodes.

The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is the most abundant class of transcriptional regulators encoded in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, with >200 predicted genes revealed by the screens and analysis of genomic sequence reported here. This is the largest number of NR genes yet described from a single species, although our analysis of available genomic sequence from the related nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae indicates that it also has a large number. Existing data demonstrate expression for 25% of the C. elegans NR sequences. Sequence conservation and statistical arguments suggest that the majority represent functional genes. An analysis of these genes based on the DNA-binding domain motif revealed that several NR classes conserved in both vertebrates and insects are also represented among the nematode genes, consistent with the existence of ancient NR classes shared among most, and perhaps all, metazoans. Most of the nematode NR sequences, however, are distinct from those currently known in other phyla, and reveal a previously unobserved diversity within the NR superfamily. In C. elegans, extensive proliferation and diversification of NR sequences have occurred on chromosome V, accounting for > 50% of the predicted NR genes.  (+info)


What is book that explains on a molecular neurological µbiological level how antipsychotic drugs work?


Title of a book that explains in detail (on a molecular and neuroligical) level how psychiatric drugs have the affect that they do on the brain tissue and what the long lasting effects could be ?
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Maybe a neuropsychiatry textbook.


How do you prove Evolution is true, and Creation is not?


My science class is having a debate over this.  How can you prove evolution is true, besides scientific evidence?  How can you prove creation is not true?
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Scientific evidence is proof. All the evidence is there, proving it. If people refuse to believe in it that's their conscious choice. Just like I choose to not believe in bananas.

Creationism is proven incorrect by the scientific evidence supporting evolution.


How do I start cooking with Molecular Gastronomy?


I have been cooking for years now, and I want to step it up to the next level and start cooking with molecular gastronomy. 

Where is a good place to start? 
Books?
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Here:
http://www.alacuisine.org/alacuisine/2004/11/molecular_gastr.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_gastronomy


Will evolution have decreased the chance of getting cancer in the future?


Or evolution doesn't see cancer as a threat to passing your genes forward?

Maybe evolution doesn't work this way, someone clarify thanks.
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The biggest risk factor for many cancers is age.

As these people develop cancer after they have already reproduced, the cancer does not affect their reproductive rate so evolutionary factors do not come into play.

Evolutionary factors could decrease the risk of childhood cancers, and this may have even worked in the past to be the reason we now see cancer as primarily a disease in older people.


What should I wear for my presentation for my molecular cell biology class?


Hi,
 I'd like opinions on what I should wear. I feel as though my dresses are either too casual, or too professional for a 1/2 hour presentation for my college molecular cell class. I'd prefer to shop at jc penny, wet seal, charlotte russe, or macys. Thanks!
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Business casual. For my presentations for school I wear a nice simple blouse (plain color) nothing to flashy, a pair of slacks, and flats.


How do you see the evolution of technology improving health care?


How do you see the evolution of technology improving health care?
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I do not see much in say the next 10-15 years, except a lot of ethical debates.
Problem being that technology is advancing faster than the law makers are able to think, digest and contemplate the advances. The example is this new artificial life cell and look how much debate that has already stirred up. Some say Yippee and others say 'They will make a Alien'. So unless the power that be, law makers, keep up to date on laws and ethics, I can see everything grinding to a halt.


How does evolution have to do with the Dental profession?


I will be applying to Dental School very soon and will be asked the question "How do you think Evolution has to do with Dentistry?" How can I answer this? 
Thanks!
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This may include enhanced dental material properties (improving physical and chemical properties), and introducing new or advanced techniques in diagnosis and treatment, for example, introducing the flowable composite was a breakthrough in the filling techniques, also introducing dental implants changes massively the line of treatment for partially or completely edentulous patients. Plates and screws for fracture treatment (whether resorbable or non resorbable plates and screws), bone grafting materials and techniqes, now genetic engineering and coloning may help getting cells for new teeth development in the edentulous area instead of fixed or removable restorations
for more info u can contact me in my address (or messenger) as ahmadhashem41@yahoo.com


If loving infant care is so important for the infant normal development, why evolution hadn't made it without?


Evolution should fever those kids who despite haven't received loving care become normal adults.
Or is there a situation where receiving too much attention and love can cause a survival disadvantage to the offspring?
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actually studies show that children who are more cared for and loved in infancy tend to be, more confident, and independent individuals later in life. if you didnt know, indians and cave men/women always took care of their infant adn had them within arms reach at all times