Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.

*  CUSABIO Life science | cusabio.com
Gallery. Company Structure. Sitemap. News. Cusabio News. ... the initiation of embryonic development. Scientists found a bat ...  CUSABIO Life science. cusabio.com. CUSABIO is your good partner in biology research. All Kit Protein Antibody Molecular Biology Product Small Molecule Raw Material of IVD Kit. Cusabio Story. Picture Gallery. Company Structure. Sitemap. News. Cusabio News. Biological News. Product center. Kit. Protein. Antibody. Molecular Biology Product. Small Molecule. Raw Material of IVD Kit. Service. Antibody Service. Protein Services. Molecular Biology Service. Small molecule Service. ELISA Service. Immunology Experiment Technical Service. Technical resources. Technical Support. Contact information. Contact Us. Product Center More >>. Kit ELISA Kit Elisa Kit For Food Safety & Drug Residues. Protein Native Protein Recombinant Protein. Antibody Polyclonal Antibody Secondary Antibody Monoclonal Antibody Tag/Control Antibodies. Molecular Biology Product RT-PCR Primers Clone Tools Enzyme. ...
http://cusabio.com/
*  Embryonic Structures Terms and Definitions at www.MedicalGlossary.org
Embryonic Structures Terms and Definitions at www ... org. Anatomy Embryonic Structures Terms and Definitions. Embryonic Structures. The anatomical parts that...
http://medicalglossary.org/anatomy_embryonic_structures_definitions.html
*  Strategies for enrichment and selection of stem cell-derived tissue precursors
, numerous human embryonic stem cell lines have been derived and ... potential: embryonic and adult, or tissue-specific, stem ... cells. Human embryonic stem cells hESCs are pluripotent cells...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3392764/;jsessionid=4B170A0A1D4934BA4E35CB84306EFEAA.eider?lang=en-ca
*  branchial - definition and meaning
, their homologous embryonic structures, or the derivatives of their ... body derived from embryonic gills. The Evolution of Man — Volume 2...
https://wordnik.com/words/branchial
*  kawakami lab
fecundity, rapid embryonic development, transparency at the embryonic stages and inexpensive and easy ... , we visualize structures of specific neural circuits, inhibit...
http://kawakami.lab.nig.ac.jp/
*  Ocular lymphomatosis - RightDiagnosis.com
Dictionary Topics. Embryonic Development Embryonic diapause Embryonic disc Embryonic hemoglobin Embryonic ... Induction Embryonic membrane Embryonic nuclear cataract Embryonic pole Embryonic protein Embryonic shield...
http://rightdiagnosis.com/medical/ocular_lymphomatosis.htm
*  Genomics - The Online Scientific Community - News
work primarily in embryonic stem cells, would help to solve the ... dimensional 3D structure of the human genome and regulate gene ... expression in human embryonic stem ES cells and adult cells. Monday,...
http://technologynetworks.com/Genomics/news.aspx?id=158765
*  Cerberus gene family
... The 'Cerberus gene family' produces many different signal proteins that are antagonistically involved in establishing anterior-posterior patterning and left-right patterning in vertebrate embryos. 1 Location Anterior-Posterior patterning Left-Right Asymmetry Heart Development References. It is expressed in the anterior endoderm but can vary dorsally and ventrally between species. For example, in amphibians Cerberus is expressed in the anterior dorsal endoderm and in mice it is expressed in the anterior visceral endoderm. 2 Anterior-Posterior patterning. Anterior-posterior patterning by Cerberus is accomplished by acting as an antagonist to nodal, bmp, and wnt signaling molecules in the anterior region of the vertebrate embryo during gastrulation. Knock down experiments in which Cerberus was partially repressed show a decreased formation of the head structures. In experiments where Cerberus was decreased and wnt, bmp and nodal signals were increased, embryos completely lacked head structures and develop o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerberus_gene_family
*  Multiple patterning
SPIE vol. is similar to the dual-tone photoresist technique above in that it doubles features without additional exposure. For example, a 25 nm half-pitch pattern can be generated from interleaving two 50 nm half-pitch patterns, three 75 nm half-pitch patterns, or four 100 nm half-pitch patterns. Below 40 nm half-pitch, the continued use of 193 nm immersion lithography entails an increasing number of exposures, even for regular array patterns. thumb|right|200px|'Hole shrink for sub-10nm node with SAQP.' At sub-10nm logic node, the total number of layer mask exposures may be reduced by using hole etch shrink to resolve 6x nm pitch. Hence, Intel is preparing to extend 193 nm immersion lithography with double and possibly triple patterning to 15 nm. For its 11 nm logic node 20-22 nm half-pitch, Intel expects to be able to use quintuple exposure with 193 nm lithography, where one of the exposures is used with spacer patterning for a further pitch division. Similar to the multiple patterning approach described for...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_patterning
*  Health Patterning Methodology | DrElizabethBarrett.com
Health Patterning Methodology. DrElizabethBarrett.com. Living Powerfully Through Health Patterning. Schedule a Consultation. Home Who I Am Background What I Do The Power Story FAQ Blog Services Contact Links PIP. Home Health Patterning Methodology In Health Patterning the focus is on teaching with a focus on meaning, wholeness, and well-being of people as unitary human beings meaning that we are whole and cannot be separated into parts. The focus is not on labeling, diagnosis or pathology, nor are people cases to be managed, as in case management. The major processes of Health Patterning are:. pattern manifestation knowing – discovering “what is” going on in the person’s world and what the person wants; and voluntary mutual patterning – the process where the therapist/teacher assists the person to freely choose with awareness ways to participate to make happen the changes they want to happen and to enhance their well-being by focusing on intention, aim, and direction with no attachment to outcome. This method...
http://drelizabethbarrett.com/background/health-patterning-methodology
*  SMART: Secondary literature for ZU5 domain
... SMART MODE: NORMAL GENOMIC. Schultz et al. 1998 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864 Letunic et al. 2014 Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949 HOME. SETUP. FAQ. ABOUT. GLOSSARY. WHAT'S NEW. FEEDBACK. Secondary literature sources for ZU5. The following references were automatically generated. Honigberg L, Kenyon C Establishment of left/right asymmetry in neuroblast migration by UNC-40/DCC, UNC-73/Trio and DPY-19 proteins in C. elegans. Development. 2000; 127 : 4655-68 Display abstract The bilateral C. elegans neuroblasts QL and QR are born in the same anterior/posterior A/P position, but polarize and migrate left/right asymmetrically: QL migrates toward the posterior and QR migrates toward the anterior. After their migrations, QL but not QR switches on the Hox gene mab-5. We find that the UNC-40/netrin receptor and a novel transmembrane protein DPY-19 are required to orient these cells correctly. In unc-40 or dpy-19 mutants, the Q cells polarize randomly; in fact, an individual Q cell polarizes in...
http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=ZU5
*  PITX1
pitx pitx paired like homeodomain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the pitx gene function clinical relevance interactions references further reading external links function this gene encodes a member of the rieg pitx homeobox family which is in the bicoid class of homeodomain proteins members of this family are involved in organ development and left right asymmetry this protein acts as a transcriptional regulator involved in basal and hormone regulated activity of prolactin clinical relevance mutations in this gene have been associated with autism and polydactyly in humans genomic rearrangements at the pitx locus are associated with liebenberg syndrome interactions pitx has been shown to interact with pituitary specific positive transcription factor references further reading external links category transcription factors...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PITX1
*  HHIP
... hedgehog interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the hhip gene this gene encodes a protein similar to the mouse hedgehog interacting protein a regulatory component of the hedgehog signaling pathway members of the hedgehog family are evolutionarily conserved proteins which are involved in many fundamental processes in embryonic development including anteroposterior patterns of limbs and regulation of left right asymmetry references further reading...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HHIP
*  FOXJ1
foxj foxj forkhead box protein j is a protein that in humans is encoded by the foxj gene it has been shown that this gene is a transcription factor involved in ciliogenesis function clinical significance references further reading function this gene encodes a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors similar genes in zebrafish and mouse have been shown to regulate the transcription of genes that control the production of motile cilia the mouse ortholog also functions in the determination of left right asymmetry clinical significance polymorphisms in this gene are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and allergic rhinitis references further reading category transcription factors...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOXJ1
*  File:Extended double patterning.PNG
file extended double patterning png file extended double patterning png summary the trend toward use of double exposure spacer technology and other techniques for double patterning allows the current nm immersion lithography technology to surpass the originally targeted patterning ability of euv lithography licensing...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Extended_double_patterning.PNG
*  Caputo Tipo 00 Pizzeria Flour 55 "Specification Sheet" - Forno Bravo Forum: The Woo
Caputo Tipo 00 Pizzeria Flour 55 Specification Sheet - Forno Bravo Forum: The Wood-Fired Oven Community. Contact Us. Community. Search Forum. Today's Posts. Forum. Forno Bravo Forum Thread Message Hello, Forno Bravo Community Forum Members. The Forno Bravo team has heard the feedback in regards to the community forum. As we are swiftly working on these problems, we want to say that we highly value the Forum Bravo Community Forum and every single community forum member. Link to topic: http://www.fornobravo.com/community/...with-new-forum. Caputo Tipo 00 Pizzeria Flour 55 Specification Sheet. X Collapse Posts. Search Forum Page of 1. Time All Time. southpaw Peasant. Join Date: Apr 2005. Posts: 35. #1 Caputo Tipo 00 Pizzeria Flour 55 Specification Sheet 10-29-2007, 01:13 AM. Hi all, Can you please give me the specifications for the Caputo Tipo 00 Pizzeria Flour Red Bag 55lb : - Protein - Gluten - Moistar - Water Absorption the whole thing. Thanks, Southpaw. james Brick Oven Merchant. Join Date: Mar 2005. Posts: ...
http://fornobravo.com/community/forum/pizza-quest-with-peter-reinhart/artisan-ingredients/2948-caputo-tipo-00-pizzeria-flour-55-specification-sheet?t=2857
*  Patente US7221093 - Patterning of electrodes in OLED devices - Google Patentes
pillars on the substrate for patterning the second conductive layer, wherein at least one of the pillars includes first and second photosensitive layers with the first photosensitive layer disposed below and in contact with the second photosensitive layer, the first photosensitive layer forms a base of the pillar and the second photosensitive layer forms a cap of the pillar such that the cap overhangs the base, the base has a profile with a substantially sloped section and a lower portion of the base is wider than an upper portion;. 3 The device of claim 2 wherein the base is formed by exposing the positive photosensitive material of the first photosensitive layer such that the upper portion is exposed with more energy than the lower portion. 5 The device of claim 2 wherein the base is formed by exposing the positive photosensitive material of the first photosensitive layer such that the upper portion is exposed with more energy than the lower portion. 7 The device of claim 6 wherein the first photosensitive ...
http://google.es/patents/US7221093?dq=flatulence
*  Wholemoutn beta-gal staining on mouse embryos
wholemoutn beta gal staining on mouse embryos wholemoutn beta gal staining on mouse embryos from przemko hi i am doing wholemount beta gal stainings on mouse embryos on a lacz knock in mice the well known problem is the penetrance of the stain from dpc onwards i have been wondering if someone tried to skin embryos maybe a quick scalding would not kill b gal or devised some other trick to get the penetrance better staining on the frozen sections works but paraffin sections are again a problem since pf and paraffin embedding seem to kill b gal any pointers would be greatly appreciated since my googling around did not produce any decent result tia przemko previous message next message...
http://histosearch.com/histonet/Jun03/Wholemoutnbeta-galstainin.html
*  The role of TAF proteins during early zebrafish development - eTheses Repository
... eTheses Repository Home. About the eTheses Repository. Browse Repository. Search Repository. The role of TAF proteins during early zebrafish development. Zaucker, Andreas 2011 Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham. Zaucker11PhD.pdf. PDF 13Mb. Abstract Replacement of the prototype promoter recognition factor PRF TFIID by alternative PRFs or changes in its subunit composition have recently been implicated in differentiation processes during development. TFIID is composed of TBP TATA-binding protein and 13 TAFs TBP-associated factors. I comprehensively studied the roles of Tafs during vertebrate development using zebrafish model. Taf knock down kd phenotypes generated in an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide MO screen suggest differential functions of Tafs during zebrafish development. The kd phenotypes also propose a special requirement of DNA-binding Tafs during zebrafish development. In conjunction with zygotic mutant phenotype analysis of zebrafish taf8-mutants compared to taf6-mutants I in...
http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/2983/
*  The blood-brain barrier in a live zebrafish embryo | Zebrafish | Nikon’s Small World
The blood-brain barrier in a live zebrafish embryo. Zebrafish. Nikon’s Small World. Nikon’s Small World Home. Photo Competition. Video Competition. Galleries. Exhibit Tour. News. Contact. Search. Enter the Competitions. Follow Small World …on Facebook. …on Twitter Follow @nikonsmallworld. Subjects Zebrafish. Previous. Tweet 1st Place 2012 Photomicrography Competition Dr. Jennifer L. Peters. Dr. Michael R. Taylor St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital Memphis, Tennessee, USA Subject Matter: The blood-brain barrier in a live zebrafish embryo - see: Zebrafish. Technique: Confocal. see: confocal. Dr. Jennifer Peters’ and Dr. Michael Taylor’s winning image of the blood-brain barrier in a live zebrafish embryo perfectly demonstrates the intersection of art and science that drives the Nikon Small World Competition. The blood-brain barrier plays a critical role in neurological function and disease. Drs. Peters and Taylor, developed a transgenic zebrafish to visualize the development of this structure in a live specime...
http://nikonsmallworld.com/subjects/image/zebrafish/2
*  Beneath the surface: What zebrafish can tell us about anxiety -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Mobile. Follow. Subscribe. Breaking News :. Ancient Ocean Alga Was Pre-Set for Life On Land. Volcanic Eruptions Affect Flow of Major Rivers. Ocean Bacteria: Millions of Tons of Hydrocarbons. How the Brain Recognizes Objects. Chernobyl: The Animals Have Returned. Illegal Trade Puts Cacti On Most Threatened List. World's Largest Atom Smashers: Smallest Droplets. Crucial Hurdle Overcome in Quantum Computing. Your Visual Cortex Is Making Decisions. Anorexia Nervosa and Gut Bacteria Linked: Study. Science News from research organizations. Beneath the surface: What zebrafish can tell us about anxiety. Date: July 14, 2014 Source: Ithaca College Summary: One researcher has focused how genetics influence responses to stimuli that can trigger anxiety, and he s using zebrafish -- a tropical member of the minnow family named for the black stripes on their bodies -- to do so. His research team examines how fish with tweaked genes respond to different triggers compared to unmo...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140714152320.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed: sciencedaily/plants_animals/fisheries (Fisheries News -- ScienceDaily)
*  Effect of Vascular Cadherin Knockdown on Zebrafish Vasculature during Development
... Surprisingly, we find that while vascular development and sprouting are unaffected by VE-cadherin knockdown, cardiac looping, circulation and endocardial/myocardial adhesion are impaired. Morpholino Knockdown of VE-Cad Results in Early Circulatory Failure, Pericardial Edema, and Absent Cardiac Looping To confirm the phenotype seen with our translation-blocking morpholino, AB strain embryos were injected with a recently-reported splice blocking morpholino VE-Cad-spMO [12]. Similar to the translation-blocking morpholino, VE-Cad splice blocking morpholino produced circulatory failure, improper cardiac looping and pericardial edema, figure 2C–D, G–H, compared to controls figure 2A–B, E–F. Pericardial edema was present in approximately 50% of VE-cad tMO-injected embryos and 90% of VE-Cad spMO-injected embryos at 48 h, 72 h and 96 hours respectively, compared to 5–10% of control-injected embryos figure 2J. To assess vessel sproutin...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2808391/?lang=en-ca
*  Fully Transparent Zebrafish Shows How Melanoma Cells Spread to the Skin | GEN News Highlights | G
Fully Transparent Zebrafish Shows How Melanoma Cells Spread to the Skin. GEN News Highlights. GEN. Linking Phenotypes and Modes of Action Through High-Content Screen Fingerprints. FDA Nominee Driven by "Data, Data, Data". Wound Care Pipelines Expand with Bioactive Market. Jobs Report: Data, Business, and Regulatory Savvy Driving New Hiring. More GEN Exclusives ». Linking Phenotypes and Modes of Action Through High-Content Screen Fingerprints. FDA Nominee Driven by "Data, Data, Data". Wound Care Pipelines Expand with Bioactive Market. Jobs Report: Data, Business, and Regulatory Savvy Driving New Hiring. More GEN Exclusives ». MORE GEN. Market & Tech Analysis. GEN Exclusives More. Linking Phenotypes and Modes of Action Through High-Content Screen Fingerprints The Use of High-Content Screening as... Wound Care Pipelines Expand with Bioactive Market Graying Populations, New Technologies Driving Demand... GEN News Highlights More » Feb 6, 2008 Fully Transparent Zebrafish Shows How Melanoma Cells Spread to the Skin...
http://genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/fully-transparent-zebrafish-shows-how-melanoma-cells-spread-to-the-skin/29999537/
*  Heart repair and regeneration: recent insights from zebrafish studies.
... Document Detail. Heart repair and regeneration: recent insights from zebrafish studies. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 22818295 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE. Failure to properly repair or regenerate damaged cardiac tissues after myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart failure. In contrast to humans and other mammals, zebrafish hearts regenerate after substantial injury or tissue damage. Here, we review recent progress in studying zebrafish heart regeneration, addressing the molecular and cellular responses in the three tissue layers of the heart: myocardium, epicardium, and endocardium. We also compare different injury models utilized to study zebrafish heart regeneration and discuss the differences in responses to injury between mammalian and zebrafish hearts. By learning how zebrafish hearts regenerate naturally, we can better design therapeutic strategies for repairing human hearts after myocardial infarction. 19597525 - Protective effects of betaglucin on myocardial tissue during myocardial infarctio...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Heart-repair-regeneration-Recent-insights/22818295.html
*  Exploring the role of Ca[superscript]2+ signaling in slow muscle development using intact zebrafish
Exploring the role of Ca 2+ signaling in slow muscle development using intact zebrafish embryos as an animal model - HKUST Institutional Repository. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1783.1/6863 Exploring the role of Ca 2+ signaling in slow muscle development using intact zebrafish embryos as an animal model Authors. Two distinct periods of spontaneous, synchronized Ca2+ signals, with characteristic frequencies and durations, termed ‘Signaling Period 1’ SP1 and ‘Signaling Period 2’ SP2, were visualized in the trunk of intact embryos between ~17.5-19.5 hours post fertilization hpf and after ~23 hpf, respectively, separated by a quiet period. These experiments revealed that the signals appeared to be restricted to slow muscle cells SMCs and that the SP1 Ca2+ signals had both a significant nuclear as well as cytoplasmic component, whereas the SP2 signals were predominantly cytoplasmic. Furthermore, treating embryos with antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine recep...
http://repository.ust.hk/ir/Record/1783.1-6863
*  New Zebrafish Study Tool Looks Promising for Human Disease Research | GEN News Highlights | GEN
New Zebrafish Study Tool Looks Promising for Human Disease Research. Analysis of the RNA-Seq and SCA Publication Landscape. Tissue-Specific Molecular Biomarker Signatures of Type 2 Diabetes. FDA Nominee Driven by "Data, Data, Data". Analysis of the RNA-Seq and SCA Publication Landscape. Tissue-Specific Molecular Biomarker Signatures of Type 2 Diabetes. FDA Nominee Driven by "Data, Data, Data". Jobs. Market & Tech An... GEN News Highlights More » Oct 18, 2013 New Zebrafish Study Tool Looks Promising for Human Disease Research Page 1 of 1 Scientists at Duke University say they have connected rare and precise duplications and deletions in the human genome to their complex disease consequences by duplicating them in zebrafish. The findings in the research article SCRIB and PUF60 Are Primary Drivers of the Multisystemic Phenotypes of the 8q23.4 Copy-Number Variant are broadly important for human genetic disorders because copy-number variants CNVs, which are fragments of the genome that are either missing or existi...
http://genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/new-zebrafish-study-tool-looks-promising-for-human-disease-research/81248997/?kwrd=Duke University
*  GWAS - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Work study. Talks training Search Zebrafish Mutation Project Search for:. ENSDARG00000093395 or slc2a11b or ENSG00000135862 or LAMC1 or sa457 You can look for mutant lines by browsing a complete list or by searching for a particular gene. GWAS GWAS data used on the Zebrafish Mutation Project Web site comes from http://www.genome.gov/gwastudies/. Genome-wide association analysis of age-at-onset in Alzheimer's disease. The human homologues of the following genes have been identified in this study: Gene name Reported Gene Ensembl ID Alleles found Associated phenotype Study Count adamts9 ADAMTS9 ENSDARG00000077778 6 Not determined 5. ALPK3 2 of 2 ALPK3 ENSDARG00000090375 4 Not determined 1. LOC560512 PVRL2 ENSDARG00000077419 None Not determined 9. LOC560816 PVRL2 ENSDARG00000062831 1 Not determined 9. pvrl2l PVRL2 ENSDARG00000063390 1 Not determined 9. pvrl4 PVRL2 ENSDARG00000094356 None Not determined 9. rnft2 RNFT2 ENSDARG00000053019 1 Not determined 2. si:ch211-12e13.7 KCNV2 ENSDARG00000062906 None Not de...
http://sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgwas/study/22005931
*  FishScope Zebrafish at 16 hours
fishscope zebrafish at hours developmental landmarks floorplate morphogenesis notochord formation oriented cell divisions at the level of the floorplate view of the otic placode click on image to play quicktime movie kb movie flrp zebrafish embryo from tailbud to hour stage stained with micromolar bodipy ceramide bodipy ceramide permeates the enveloping layer epithelium of the embryo accumulating in the interstitial spaces of the segmentation cavity the sequence begins at the level of the hypoblast chorda mesoderm cells intercalate in a mediolateral fasion this cellular convergence causes the chorda mesoderm to extend in an axial direction during cell intercalation the notochord develops a transient bilateral symmetry as the sequence progresses the notochord is depressed ventrally by mediolateral convergence of cells in the neural plate this begins neural keel formation the floorplate comes into view cells at the level of the floorplate along the embryo...
http://depts.washington.edu/fishscop/Boss/pages/movie_pages/landmarks/zfflrp/zfflrp.html
*  FishForPharma - Site - FishForPharma
fishforpharma site fishforpharma fishforpharma contact login why fishforpharma the project results news events why zebrafish we use zebrafish embryos as a model to study human infectious diseases with fluorescent colors we can visualize the cells of the zebrafish immune system microscopy imaging helps learning how immune cells engulf and fight harmful microbes we develop zebrafish models to screen new drugs for human disease treatment european funding supports the training of young scientists in the fishforpharma network fishforpharma training network on zebrafish infection models for pharmaceutical screens   fishforpharma is a marie curie initial training network funded by the th framework people programme of the european commission the project will run for years from january it brings together leading european research groups that have pioneered the use of zebrafish infection models and partner...
http://fishforpharma.com/
*  PLOS ONE: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor β Is Critical for Zebrafish Intersegmental Vessel
Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Article. Angiography at 72 hpf showed a decrease in blood circulation through the ISVs in embryos treated with inhV G. At 24 hpf, pdgfrβ2 MO-injected embryos had an average of 4.7 angiogenic sprouts as compared to 12.5 for control MO-injected embryos Figure 5A and C , p 0.001, n = 18. At 48 hpf, pdgfrβ2 MO-injected embryos started to recover from the original sprouting delay with an average of 23.25 ISVs that fully extended dorsally, compared to control MO-injected embryos that had 27.6 complete ISVs Figure 5D and E , p 0.01, n = 20. pdgfrβ2 MO-injected embryos had significantly more ISV defects than control MO-injected embryos at 24 hpf A and C , 30 hpf and 48 hpf E and F. However, dnPDGFRβ-YFP expression was not maintained at 48 hpf and there was no effect on ISV formation data not shown. In contrast, embryos that were heat shocked at 22 hpf expressed dnPDGFRβ-YFP throughout the ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0011324
*  kdm6a - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Mouse. Talks training Search Zebrafish Mutation Project Search for:. kdm6a. Ensembl ID: ENSDARG00000061759 ZFIN ID: ZDB-GENE-081105-56 Description: Novel protein similar to human and mouse ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat, X chromo Human Orthologues: KDM6A, UTY Human Descriptions: lysine K -specific demethylase 6A ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene, Y-linked Mouse Orthologues: Kdm6a, Uty Mouse Descriptions: 4lysine K -specific demethylase 6A Gene ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene, Y chromosome Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI. Alleles There are 2 alleles of this gene: Allele name Consequence Status Availability Estimate sa17907 Essential Splice Site Available for shipment Available now. sa7197 Nonsense Mutation detected in F1 DNA During 2015. Mutation Details. Allele Name: sa17907 Current Status:. Mutation: A T Consequence: Essential Splice Site Transcript ID Consequence Amino Acid Affected Amino Acid Total Exon Affected Exon Total ENSDART000000884...
http://sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000061759
*  csgalnact2 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Mouse. Talks training Search Zebrafish Mutation Project Search for:. csgalnact2. Ensembl ID: ENSDARG00000061400 ZFIN ID: ZDB-GENE-030131-5186 Description: chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 Human Orthologue: CSGALNACT2 Human Description: chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 Mouse Orthologue: Csgalnact2 Mouse Description: chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 Gene. Alleles There are 2 alleles of this gene: Allele name Consequence Status Availability Estimate sa16668 Nonsense Available for shipment Available now. sa10705 Essential Splice Site Available for shipment Available now. Mutation Details. Allele Name: sa16668 Current Status:. Available for shipment For more information about the meaning of this status and other statuses, please see our FAQs. Mutation: T A Consequence: Nonsense Transcript ID Consequence Amino Acid Affected Amino Acid Total Exon Affected Exon Total ENSDART00000087533 Nonsense 187 540 1 7. Genomic Location: Chromosome 13 posit...
http://sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000061400
*  adra2a - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Jump to content. Mouse. Talks training Search Zebrafish Mutation Project Search for:. adra2a. Ensembl ID: ENSDARG00000040841 ZFIN ID: ZDB-GENE-021010-1 Description: Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor Human Orthologue: ADRA2A Human Description: adrenergic, alpha-2A-, receptor Mouse Orthologue: Adra2a Mouse Description: adrenergic receptor, alpha 2a Gene. Alleles There is 1 allele of this gene: Allele name Consequence Status Availability Estimate sa24199 Nonsense Mutation detected in F1 DNA During 2015. Mutation Details. Allele Name: sa24199 Current Status:. Mutation detected in F1 DNA For more information about the meaning of this status and other statuses, please see our FAQs. Availability: We currently estimate that this allele will be available during 2015. Mutation: C A Consequence: Nonsense Transcript ID Consequence Amino Acid Affected Amino Acid Total Exon Affected Exon Total ENSDART00000059869 Nonsense 130 388 2 2. GWAS This gene's human homologue has been identified in the following GWAS studies:. Fasti...
http://sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000040841
*  btr16 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Mouse. Talks training Search Zebrafish Mutation Project Search for:. Ensembl ID: ENSDARG00000028850 ZFIN ID: ZDB-GENE-060929-1066 Description: bloodthirsty-related gene family, member 16 Human Orthologues: CTD-2611O12.2, CTD-2611O12.3, ERMAP, RFPL1, RFPL2, RFPL3, RFPL4A, RFPL4B Human Descriptions: erythroblast membrane-associated protein Scianna blood group ret finger protein-like 1 ret finger protein-like 2 ret finger protein-like 3 ret finger protein-like 4A ret finger protein-like 4B Mouse Orthologues: Ermap, Rfpl4 Mouse Descriptions: erythroblast membrane-associated protein Gene ret finger protein-like 4 Gene. Alleles There is 1 allele of this gene: Allele name Consequence Status Availability Estimate sa18425 Nonsense Available for shipment Available now. Allele Name: sa18425 Current Status:. Mutation: A T Consequence: Nonsense Transcript ID Consequence Amino Acid Affected Amino Acid Total Exon Affected Exon Total ENSDART00000101635 Nonsense 287 395 6 6. ENSDART00000105114 Nonsense 428 536 7 7. ENSDA...
http://sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000028850
*  ywhabl - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Talks training Search Zebrafish Mutation Project Search for:. Ensembl ID: ENSDARG00000040287 ZFIN ID: ZDB-GENE-030131-448 Description: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide like [Sour Human Orthologues: YWHAB, YWHAQ, YWHAZ Human Descriptions: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide [Source:HGN tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide [Source:HG tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide [Source:HGN Mouse Orthologues: Ywhab, Ywhaq, Ywhaz Mouse Descriptions: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide Gene [Sourc tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide Gene [Sour tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide Gene [Sourc. Alleles There is 1 allele of this gene: Allele name Consequ...
http://sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000040287
*  LOC562203 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Jump to content. Mouse. Talks training Search Zebrafish Mutation Project Search for:. ENSDARG00000093395 or slc2a11b or ENSG00000135862 or LAMC1 or sa457 You can look for mutant lines by browsing a complete list or by searching for a particular gene. Ensembl ID: ENSDARG00000051795 Human Orthologues: AC019294.4, MX1, MX2 Human Descriptions: myxovirus influenza virus resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78 mouse [Source:HGNC Symb myxovirus influenza virus resistance 2 mouse Putative UPF0621 protein C Mouse Orthologues: Mx1, Mx2 Mouse Descriptions: myxovirus influenza virus resistance 1 Gene myxovirus influenza virus resistance 2 Gene. Alleles There is 1 allele of this gene: Allele name Consequence Status Availability Estimate sa24662 Nonsense Mutation detected in F1 DNA During 2015. Mutation Details. Allele Name: sa24662 Current Status:. Mutation detected in F1 DNA For more information about the meaning of this status and other statuses, please see our FAQs. Availability: We currently estimate that ...
http://sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000051795
*  How Do Cells Tell Time? Scientists Develop Single-Cell Imaging to Watch the Cell Clock
Scientists Develop Single-Cell Imaging to Watch the Cell Clock. Scientists Develop Single-Cell Imaging to Watch the Cell Clock 14.11.2012 A new way to visualize single-cell activity in living zebrafish embryos has allowed scientists to clarify how cells line up in the right place at the right time to receive signals about the next phase of their life. Zebrafish embryos are already transparent, but with this closer microscopic look at the earliest stages of life, the researchers have answered two long-standing questions about how cells cooperate to form embryonic segments that later become muscle and vertebrae. more about: » Inner Clock » Notch Signaling » Single-Cell » cell death » cell division » cell type » daughter cells » develop » developmental disorder » fish embryos » infrared-fluorescent proteins » living cell » mental disorder » methanol fuel cells » molecular genetic » signaling pathway » single cell » zebrafish embryo. In this study, the researchers confirmed that the cells must receive the Notch s...
http://innovations-report.de/html/berichte/biowissenschaften-chemie/cells-time-scientists-develop-single-cell-imaging-205577.html
*  Projects with External Supervisors - Discipline of Physiology - The University of Sydney
Other projects by this supervisor The development of binocular vision Primary supervisor: Alan Freeman Most of us can combine the information from our two eyes to obtain a richer view of the world than would be the case with only one eye. Other projects by this supervisor Understanding ageing using senescence-accelerated SAM mice Primary supervisor: Juergen Goetz The project uses a combination of transgenic mouse strains characterised by neurodegeneration and senescence-accelerated SAM mice, to determine the first steps of the aggregation of the protein tau in degenerating neurons, how absence of tau Full project details. Other projects by this supervisor Establish the food intake control system in zebrafish to analyze human obesity candidate genes Primary supervisor: Silke Rinkwitz Lifestyle is thought to have a critical role in the increasing number of obese people. Recent genetic studies however have led to the conclusion that unlimited access to food is should be seen as a permissive factor for the geneti...
http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/physiology/students/honours/projects/external.php
*  Morphant
... an organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant background this term was coined by prof steve ekker to describe the zebrafish with which he was experimenting by knocking down embryo nic gene expression using morpholinos prof ekker phenocopied known zebrafish mutations that is he raised embryos that had the same morphological phenotype as embryonic zebrafish with specific gene mutation s prof ekker s papers and presentations describing morphant phenocopies of mutant phenotypes in combination with prof janet heasman s earlier work with morpholinos in xenopus embryos led to rapid adoption of morpholino technology by the developmental biology community references category molecular genetics...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphant
*  Garmin Forerunner 910XT w/HRM Monitors at Road Runner Sports
... ASICS Shop. Features Benefits: Premium HRM soft strap included Running, cycling and swimming metrics: Ideal for the multisport athlete Swim functions distance, stroke count, lap count for open water and indoor use Barometric altimeter for the ultimate elevation accuracy Custom & Interval Workouts Virtual Partner, new Virtual Racer and vibration alerts 20 hour battery life ANT+ enabled wireless upload to Garmin Connect High Sensitivity GPS Large screen, easy to use buttons Easy transition from swim to bike to run Package includes : Forerunner 910XT, USB ANT Stick, premium heart rate monitor soft strap, charging clip, expander strap, AC adapter, & user manuals Product GAR159 Review. Reviewed by 10 customers Sort by Newest Oldest Highest rating Lowest rating Most helpful Least helpful. Comments about Garmin Forerunner 910XT w/HRM Monitors : Excellent watch and love training with it. Comments about Garmin Forerunner 910XT w/HRM Monitors : This is my fifth GPS watch and without question the best product curre...
http://roadrunnersports.com/rrs/products/GAR159/garmin-forerunner-910xt-whrm/?cc=BK
*  The Ultimate Multisport Training Experience: Garmin® Forerunner® 910XT » Garmin News Releases
The Ultimate Multisport Training Experience: Garmin® Forerunner® 910XT Garmin News Releases. . News Releases. Press releases and product news from the global leader in GPS. Share on Tumblr. The Ultimate Multisport Training Experience: Garmin® Forerunner® 910XT 4 October 2011 @ 6:00 AM / Outdoor/Fitness / Sports /. OLATHE, Kan./Oct 4, 2011/Business Wire — Garmin International Inc., a unit of Garmin Ltd. NASDAQ: GRMN, the global leader in satellite navigation, today announced the Forerunner 910XT – the only all-in-one GPS-enabled device that provides detailed swim metrics and tracks distance, speed/pace, elevation and heart rate for running and cycling. The 910XT sports a sleek profile allowing users to easily slide wetsuits on and off, and has an on-board barometric altimeter for improved elevation data, all without sacrificing the size of its easy-to-read display. The Forerunner 910XT was announced in preparation for the Triathlon World Championship in Kona, HI, October 8, 2011 where it will be prominently di...
http://garmin.blogs.com/pr/2011/10/the-ultimate-multisport-training-experience-garmin-forerunner-910xt.html?activeBranchId=newsroom
*  Transactivation from Gal4-VP16 transgenic insertions for tissue-specific cell labeling and ablation
... in zebrafish. The Tol2-mediated gene/enhancer trapping system together with UAS transgenic lines provide valuable tools for regulated gene expression and for targeted labeling and ablation of specific cell types and tissues during early zebrafish development. As a means to expand available Gal4/UAS capabilities in zebrafish, we have used the Tol2 element to distribute a self-reporting Gal4-VP16;UAS:eGFP gene/enhancer trap construct throughout the zebrafish genome, and conducted a pilot screen for lines displaying Gal4-VP16 dependent activation of the UAS:eGFP reporter. Here, we demonstrate transactivation in UAS:Kaede transgenic fish by photoconversion of Gal4-VP16 expressing cells, a labeling method used to trace migratory cells during development. Materials and Methods Gene/Enhancer trap vector design The SAGVG s plice a cceptor- G al4- V P16;UAS:e G FP vector is a Tol2 transposon-based, bipartite construct consisting of a Gal4-VP16 gene/enhancer trap as well as a cis-linked UAS-regulated eGFP reporter...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3470427/?lang=en-ca
*  The Pope is either stupid, ignorant or dim – Pharyngula
The Pope is either stupid, ignorant or dim Pharyngula. Pharyngula The Pope is either stupid, ignorant or dim Posted by PZ Myers on April 1, 2009. The Pope could be evil. The Pope is either stupid, ignorant or wicked. April 1, 2009. April 1, 2009. The pope do what the pope do. April 1, 2009. April 1, 2009. April 1, 2009. April 1, 2009. April 1, 2009. The Pope or Dawkins. April 1, 2009. It s not that the Pope is stupid. April 1, 2009. ignorant > informed. evil > good. April 1, 2009. @7: Pope Nazinger, obviously. April 1, 2009. April 1, 2009. Too many people believe what the Pope says, and some of believe it not just because they have to. As PZ said, I m wary of anything posted on April 1, but nevertheless this makes me very uneasy. I don t read RD s blog there are only so many I can read in a day, so I don t know what s up with this. Harry potter is a book for amusement, you could just as well tell children to not read any fairytales anymore because they are unscientific. Harry potter is a book for amusement, y...
http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2009/04/01/the-pope-is-either-stupid-igno/
*  Hikari danio
... the hikari danio is a new species of danio recently discovered in burma and first exported in it is still awaiting a scientific name and is temporarily referred to as danio sp hikari it has blue and yellow varieties with the yellow being male and the blue female it appears to be closely related to danio kerri it may be a subspecies of this fish but this does not seem to be the case maximum length in cm colors blue silver yellow temperature preference c ph preference to hardness preference soft to medium salinity preference low to medium compatibility good but fast like most danios lifespan typically two to three years ease of keeping moderate ease of breeding moderate to hard see also danio danionin s external links references category danios...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hikari_danio
*  Fibroblast growth factors influence collective cell behavior during mesoderm migration - CaltechTH
Fibroblast growth factors influence collective cell behavior during mesoderm migration - CaltechTHESIS. CaltechTHESIS A Caltech Library Service Home. Fibroblast growth factors influence collective cell behavior during mesoderm migration. 2010 Fibroblast growth factors influence collective cell behavior during mesoderm migration. , California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:03122010-112724332. Abstract Collective cell migration is a complex process that occurs in development and disease. Therefore, we propose to add mesoderm migration in Drosophila melanogaster as a model for collective migration. Mesoderm migration involves the movement of hundreds of cells in concert, a process that occurs in many developing animals especially during gastrulation. Using this technique, we explored the role of fibroblast growth factors FGFs during migration of the mesoderm. Firstly, we investigated what role FGF signaling plays in collective cell migration. At the same time, we were able to ...
http://thesis.library.caltech.edu/5599/
*  NODAL
Like many other members of this superfamily it is involved in cell differentiation in early embryogenesis, playing a key role in signal transfer from the node, in the anterior primitive streak, to lateral plate mesoderm LPM. Nodal signaling is important very early in development for mesoderm and endoderm formation and subsequent organization of left-right axial structures. In addition, Nodal seems to have important functions in neural patterning, stem cell maintenance and many other developmental processes, including left/right handedness. 8 Signaling Species specific Nodal Ligands Functions References Further reading External links. Species specific Nodal Ligands. Although mouse and human only have one 'nodal' gene, the zebrafish contain three 'nodal' paralogs: 'squint, cyclops 'and' southpaw,' and the frog five xnr1,2,3,5 and 6. Even though the zebrafish Nodal homologs are very similar, they have specialized to perform different roles; for instance, Squint and Cyclops are important for mesoendoderm formatio...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NODAL
*  Mesenchyme
... is a type of tissue characterized by loosely associated cells that lack polarity and are surrounded by a large extracellular matrix mesenchymal cells are able to develop into the tissues of the lymphatic and circulatory systems as well as connective tissue s throughout the body such as bone and cartilage a sarcoma is a malignant cancer of mesenchymal cells mesenchyme is characterized morphologically by a prominent ground substance matrix containing a loose aggregate of reticular fibrils and unspecialized cells mesenchymal cells can migrate easily in contrast to epithelial cell s which lack mobility and are organized into closely adherent sheets and are polarized in an apical basal orientation see also ectomesenchyme splanchnopleuric mesenchyme somatopleuric mesenchyme intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cell mesoderm mesohyl the gelatinous matrix in sponges formerly called mesenchyme epithelial mesenchymal transition references external links at university of edinburgh category developmental bi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesenchyme
*  RSPO3
rspo rspo r spondin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the rspo gene function this gene encodes a member of the thrombospondin type repeat supergene family in addition the protein contains a furin like cysteine rich region furin like repeat domains have been found in a variety of eukaryotic proteins involved in the mechanism of signal transduction by receptor tyrosine kinases during embryonic development rspo is expressed in the tail bud and the posterior presomitic mesoderm of the embryo in tissue engineering r spondin has been used to differentiate pluripotent stem cells into paraxial mesoderm progenitors references further reading...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSPO3
*  Template:PBB/6468
template pbb template pbb gnf protein box name f box and wd repeat domain containing image image source pdb hgncid mgiid symbol fbxw altsymbols dac fbw fbwd shfm shsf iuphar chembl omim ecnumber homologene geneatlas image pbb ge fbxw at tn png geneatlas image geneatlas image protein domain image function component gnf go id go text ubiquitin ligase complex process gnf go id go text positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation gnf go id go text ubiquitin dependent protein catabolic process gnf go id go text wnt signaling pathway gnf go id go text embryonic limb morphogenesis gnf go id go text embryonic digit morphogenesis gnf go id go text cartilage development hs entrezgene hs ensembl ensg hs refseqmrna nm hs refseqprotein np hs genloc db hg hs genloc chr hs genloc start hs genloc end hs uniprot p mm entrezgene mm ensembl ensmusg mm refseqmrna nm mm refseqprotein np mm genloc db mm mm genloc chr mm genloc start mm genloc end mm uniprot q jmj path pbb...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:PBB/6468
*  [Histonet] In situ hybridization problems
in situ hybridization problems in situ hybridization problems from anne sophie martinez dear histonetters i am not sure i am supposed to tackle this kind of subject here but i really need help so let s try it is about in situ hybridization on slides of adult oysters we have been doing experiments for ages and have met a lot of different problems in particular we struggled to have a significant signal antisense probe and no background sense probe after a couple of successfull quite experiments it stopped working even on the same samples as before since then we are not only unable to obtain a signal again but another problem has been added when we add the substrate of the enzyme nbt bcip the slides seem to dribble as if they have been bleeched partially the blue staining is partially in the liquid around the slide my questions are thus concerning the loosing of the signal could it be due to the destruction of the rna by the davidson s fixative which is apparently not the most appropriate the lenght of time in p...
http://histosearch.com/histonet/Mar08A/HistonetInsituhybridizati.html
*  in situ hybridization in pathology
... andrew scott scottal at netcom ca sun jan est previous message n e section soc for industrial microbiology next message h pylori in water messages sorted by dear netters i am writing a paper for one of my th year molecular courses on the use of dna and rna probes for in situ hybridization in pathology laboratories and needed some help can anyone tell me what the most popular probes in current use in the labs are i m mainly looking for viral and tumour diagnosis any help would be appreciated tia andrew scott previous message n e section soc for industrial microbiology next message h pylori in water messages sorted by more information about the microbio mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/microbio/1998-January/011302.html
*  PCR- in-situ hybridisation
pcr in situ hybridisation pcr in situ hybridisation stewartl at best com stewartl at best com thu oct est previous message pcr in situ hybridisation next message hepatitis b sub typing messages sorted by kevin o donnell wrote can anyone recommend some good papers on pcr in situ hybrisisation i seem to recall one from biotechniques i think a couple of years ago but my copies are incomplete if anyone can supply the biotechniques reference in particular i d be very grateful there are a number of pcr in situ online links at http www alkami com refmthd htm insitu in addition there are other pages at this site http www alkami com that have pcr troubleshooting tips and a comprehensive collection of other pcr related information i think it s better than the pcr jump station biotechniques has a web site where you could probably track down the article you re looking for at http www biotechniques com however my experience with thier article search program has been spotty good luck previous message pcr in situ hybridisat...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/diagnost/1998-October/001327.html

(1/126) Facial visceral motor neurons display specific rhombomere origin and axon pathfinding behavior in the chick.

In the chick embryo, facial motor neurons comprise branchiomotor and visceral motor subpopulations, which innervate branchial muscles and parasympathetic ganglia, respectively. Although facial motor neurons are known to develop within hindbrain rhombomere 4 (r4) and r5, the precise origins of branchiomotor and visceral motor neuron subpopulations are unclear. We investigated the organization and axon pathfinding of these motor neurons using axonal tracing and rhombomere transplantation in quail-chick chimeras. Our results show that a large majority of branchiomotor neurons originate in r4 but that a cohort of these neurons undergoes a caudal migration from r4 into r5. By contrast, visceral motor neurons develop exclusively in r5. We found that a striking property of facial visceral motor neurons is the ability of their axons to navigate back to appropriate ganglionic targets in the periphery after heterotopic transplantation. These results complement previous studies in which heterotopic facial branchiomotor neurons sent axons to their correct, branchial arch, target. By contrast, when trigeminal branchiomotor neurons were transplanted heterotopically, we found that they were unable to pathfind correctly, and instead projected to an inappropriate target region. Thus, facial and trigeminal motor neuron populations have different axon pathfinding characteristics.  (+info)

(2/126) Drosophila wing development in the absence of dorsal identity.

The developing wing disc of Drosophila is divided into distinct lineage-restricted compartments along both the anterior/posterior (A/P) and dorsal/ventral (D/V) axes. At compartment boundaries, morphogenic signals pattern the disc epithelium and direct appropriate outgrowth and differentiation of adult wing structures. The mechanisms by which affinity boundaries are established and maintained, however, are not completely understood. Compartment-specific adhesive differences and inter-compartment signaling have both been implicated in this process. The selector gene apterous (ap) is expressed in dorsal cells of the wing disc and is essential for D/V compartmentalization, wing margin formation, wing outgrowth and dorsal-specific wing structures. To better understand the mechanisms of Ap function and compartment formation, we have rescued aspects of the ap mutant phenotype with genes known to be downstream of Ap. We show that Fringe (Fng), a secreted protein involved in modulation of Notch signaling, is sufficient to rescue D/V compartmentalization, margin formation and wing outgrowth when appropriately expressed in an ap mutant background. When Fng and alphaPS1, a dorsally expressed integrin subunit, are co-expressed, a nearly normal-looking wing is generated. However, these wings are entirely of ventral identity. Our results demonstrate that a number of wing development features, including D/V compartmentalization and wing vein formation, can occur independently of dorsal identity and that inter-compartmental signaling, refined by Fng, plays the crucial role in maintaining the D/V affinity boundary. In addition, it is clear that key functions of the ap selector gene are mediated by only a small number of downstream effectors.  (+info)

(3/126) Drosophila Tsc1 functions with Tsc2 to antagonize insulin signaling in regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and organ size.

Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominant disorder that leads to the development of benign tumors in multiple organs. We have isolated a mutation in the Drosophila homolog of TSC1 (Tsc1). Cells mutant for Tsc1 are dramatically increased in size yet differentiate normally. Organ size is also increased in tissues that contain a majority of mutant cells. Clones of Tsc1 mutant cells in the imaginal discs undergo additional divisions but retain normal ploidy. We also show that the Tsc1 protein binds to Drosophila Tsc2 in vitro. Overexpression of Tsc1 or Tsc2 alone in the wing and eye has no effect, but co-overexpression leads to a decrease in cell size, cell number, and organ size. Genetic epistasis data are consistent with a model that Tsc1 and Tsc2 function together in the insulin signaling pathway.  (+info)

(4/126) Morphogenesis of prechordal plate and notochord requires intact Eph/ephrin B signaling.

Eph receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, mediate cell-to-cell signals implicated in the regulation of cell migration processes during development. We report the molecular cloning and tissue distribution of zebrafish transmembrane ephrins that represent all known members of the mammalian class B ephrin family. The degree of homology among predicted ephrin B sequences suggests that, similar to their mammalian counterparts, zebrafish B-ephrins can also bind promiscuously to several Eph receptors. The dynamic expression patterns for each zebrafish B-ephrin support the idea that these ligands are confined to interact with their receptors at the borders of their complementary expression domains. Zebrafish B-ephrins are expressed as early as 30% epiboly and during gastrula stages: in the germ ring, shield, prechordal plate, and notochord. Ectopic overexpression of dominant-negative soluble ephrin B constructs yields reproducible defects in the morphology of the notochord and prechordal plate by the end of gastrulation. Notably disruption of Eph/ephrin B signaling does not completely destroy structures examined, suggesting that cell fate specification is not altered. Thus abnormal morphogenesis of the prechordal plate and the notochord is likely a consequence of a cell movement defect. Our observations suggest Eph/ephrin B signaling plays an essential role in regulating cell movements during gastrulation.  (+info)

(5/126) Generation of a novel functional neuronal circuit in Hoxa1 mutant mice.

Early organization of the vertebrate brainstem is characterized by cellular segmentation into compartments, the rhombomeres, which follow a metameric pattern of neuronal development. Expression of the homeobox genes of the Hox family precedes rhombomere formation, and analysis of mouse Hox mutations revealed that they play an important role in the establishment of rhombomere-specific neuronal patterns. However, segmentation is a transient feature, and a dramatic reconfiguration of neurons and synapses takes place during fetal and postnatal stages. Thus, it is not clear whether the early rhombomeric pattern of Hox expression has any influence on the establishment of the neuronal circuitry of the mature brainstem. The Hoxa1 gene is the earliest Hox gene expressed in the developing hindbrain. Moreover, it is rapidly downregulated. Previous analysis of mouse Hoxa1(-/-) mutants has focused on early alterations of hindbrain segmentation and patterning. Here, we show that ectopic neuronal groups in the hindbrain of Hoxa1(-/-) mice establish a supernumerary neuronal circuit that escapes apoptosis and becomes functional postnatally. This system develops from mutant rhombomere 3 (r3)-r4 levels, includes an ectopic group of progenitors with r2 identity, and integrates the rhythm-generating network controlling respiration at birth. This is the first demonstration that changes in Hox expression patterns allow the selection of novel neuronal circuits regulating vital adaptive behaviors. The implications for the evolution of brainstem neural networks are discussed.  (+info)

(6/126) Drosophila neuralized is a ubiquitin ligase that promotes the internalization and degradation of delta.

The Drosophila gene neuralized (neur) has long been recognized to be essential for the proper execution of a wide variety of processes mediated by the Notch (N) pathway, but its role in the pathway has been elusive. In this report, we present genetic and biochemical evidence that Neur is a RING-type, E3 ubiquitin ligase. Next, we show that neur is required for proper internalization of Dl in the developing eye. Finally, we demonstrate that ectopic Neur targets Dl for internalization and degradation in a RING finger-dependent manner, and that the two exist in a physical complex. Collectively, our data indicate that Neur is a ubiquitin ligase that positively regulates the N pathway by promoting the endocytosis and degradation of Dl.  (+info)

(7/126) neuralized Encodes a peripheral membrane protein involved in delta signaling and endocytosis.

Activation of the Notch (N) receptor involves an intracellular proteolytic step triggered by shedding of the extracellular N domain (N-EC) upon ligand interaction. The ligand Dl has been proposed to effect this N-EC shedding by transendocytosing the latter into the signal-emitting cell. We find that Dl endocytosis and N signaling are greatly stimulated by expression of neuralized (neur). neur inactivation suppresses Dl endocytosis, while its overexpression enhances Dl endocytosis and Notch-dependent signaling. We show that neur encodes an intracellular peripheral membrane protein. Its C-terminal RING domain is necessary for Dl accumulation in endosomes, but may be dispensable for Dl signaling. The potent modulatory effect of Neur on Dl activity makes Neur a candidate for establishing signaling asymmetries within cellular equivalence groups.  (+info)

(8/126) Hindbrain patterning: Krox20 couples segmentation and specification of regional identity.

We have previously demonstrated that inactivation of the Krox20 gene led to the disappearance of its segmental expression territories in the hindbrain, the rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5. We now performed a detailed analysis of the fate of prospective r3 and r5 cells in Krox20 mutant embryos. Genetic fate mapping indicates that at least some of these cells persist in the absence of a functional Krox20 protein and uncovers the requirement for autoregulatory mechanisms in the expansion and maintenance of Krox20-expressing territories. Analysis of even-numbered rhombomere molecular markers demonstrates that in Krox20-null embryos, r3 cells acquire r2 or r4 identity, and r5 cells acquire r6 identity. Finally, study of embryonic chimaeras between Krox20 homozygous mutant and wild-type cells shows that the mingling properties of r3/r5 mutant cells are changed towards those of even-numbered rhombomere cells. Together, these data demonstrate that Krox20 is essential to the generation of alternating odd- and even-numbered territories in the hindbrain and that it acts by coupling the processes of segment formation, cell segregation and specification of regional identity.  (+info)


How do embryonic stem cells differ from other stem cells?


What are the advantages of embryonic stem cells over adult stem cells? Is is that embryonic stem cells are still active and able to change into cell tissue? Am I right about that?
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Embryonic stem cells (aka pluripotent stem cells) are the most basic kind of cell, and have the potential to become any other type of cell in the body.  Stem cells that are derived from other tissues (most commonly the skin) are not pluripotent, and have a more limited range of what they can become, and therefore less potentially useful.


Are there ways to get embryonic stem cells without abortions or killing the embryo?


Can you get embryonic stem cells from stillborns, miscarriages, etc?
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You can get stem cells from umbilical cords!


R embryonic stem cells the best way 2 find cures 2 diseases?How do alternatives compare medically & ethically?


Are embryonic stem cells the best way to find "cures" to diseases? How do alternatives compare medically & ethically?
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No, there are no cures to date. There is nothing on the brink of success. Adult stem cells, on the other hand, are already producing a lot of benefits.


What structures help increase the absorption of food in the small intestine? How do they do this?


What structures help increase the absorption of food in the small intestine? How do they do this?
----------

Those structures are called intestinal villi.  To learn more about how they help with food absorption, click the link:

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/smallgut/lifecycle.html


Has anyone ever been treated with embryonic stem cells?


Has any human being in the history of this planet has ever been treated directly with embryonic stem cells? 
So far I have only found information on people who have been treated with adult stem cells. 
Doing some research, so Thank you in advance.
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There have been a couple of trials of the use of embryonic stem cells.

These trails were to treat blindness:
http://healthland.time.com/2012/01/24/early-success-in-a-human-embryonic-stem-cell-trial-to-treat-blindness/
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/234855.php

This is an overview of the very few trials to date:
http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/health.asp


Can embryonic stem cells be used on human beings?


because i am doing a research paper on it and i cant find a definite answer to it. for this paper, i am for embryonic stem cells. is it yes, it is legal or no, it is illegal?
please help me out and thank you very much!
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Currently, there are no real treatments that use embryonic stem cells.  There is research going on in the field, but nothing has gone to the clinical stage.  Some doctors in poorly regulated countries may claim to use embryonic stem cells, but they are charlatans and/or quacks.


what are the pros and cons of embryonic stem cells?


I'm doing a debate on embryonic stem cells and I am FOR them. I need to know both sides of the argument with as much details as possible.
----------

A Debate? Well, so am I!

Here be my notes:
As we all know stem cells have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body and the potential to be used for almost anything. Embryonic stem cell research involves the nucleus of a cell taken from a patient implanted into a donor egg that is then prompted to grow and divide. After many divisions, a very early-stage embryo develops that will contain stem cells with almost identical DNA to the patient. These cells can be prompted to grow into any kind of tissue – and so can, in theory, combine with small pieces of tissue taken from the patient and encourage growth in that tissue. In this way, entirely new organs can be grown almost from scratch without any need for a scaffold.

The "potential" embryos (not fetuses) are approximately four to five days old and consisting of 50–150 cells when they are harvested. THESE are the most valuable of stem cells because it has the capacity to turn into ANY cell in the human body. 

The reason I said potential embryos is because if the cell mass was placed on a woman's uterus it would not develop into a fetus. When harvested, the potential embryo has no nervous system no brain, so why not gather the cells if it could help save thousands of lives?
I ask you, isn’t a life more valuable than a potential life, if it means ending the suffering of the disabled? That’s what embryonic stem cell research is all about. If an embryo, containing only twenty three chromosomes, is willingly given by a female, then I don’t see what’s wrong with that. A human needs 46 chromosomes to be an individual, so I don’t understand how this cluster of cells can be considered a person, rather than a couple of the female’s genes. 
Research on embryonic cells - particularly when using the cloning technology that produced Dolly the sheep - could revolutionize the treatment of degenerative diseases of the heart, liver, kidneys and neurons, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease. Damaged tissue, due to strokes, burns, cirrhosis, and so on, could also potentially be replaced. Again, doesn’t it seem worth it, to save a person with a disease such as Huntington’s, which has no cure, hope at the expense of no one? It just seems to makes sense all around.
Also, there are several advantages provided by embryonic stem cells, rather than other methods, such as Adult Stem Cells. For example:
1. They are distinctly flexible. They appear to have the potential to make any cell, which only broadens their possibilities.
2. They are, in a way, immortal: one ES cell line can potentially provide an endless supply of cells with 
    defined characteristics.
3. And lastly, they are always available. Embryos can be provided by vitro fertilization clinics and female donors at any time.


Not done yet, but I'm happy to help :)


Parallel sensory structures in the uncircumcised penis and vagina?


Can someone show me a image or description between parallel structures in the uncircumcised penis and vagina?
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Kind of like anatomically analogous?

The foreskin is equivalent to the clitoral hood. (Fact: the most common type of female circumcision removes the clitoral hood, hmmmm...)
The glans of the penis equals the clitoris.
The penis equals all genitalia (the above and also the inner and outer labia).