Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Salmonella enteritidis: A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PortugalCommunity-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis: Methods of comparing two or more samples on the same two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gel.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.rRNA Operon: Genetic loci which direct transcription of ribosomal RNA in bacterial operons. They are designated rrnB, rrnC, rrnD, etc. according to the structural position of the transcription unit in the DNA sequence.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.DairyingChromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.JapanDensitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Leukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Klebsiella oxytoca: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.

*  Molecular epidemiological analysis of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in a neonatal intensive ca
prevention control Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field Hand / microbiology...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Molecular-epidemiological-analysis-methicillin-resistant/21212505.html
*  A novel strategy to construct yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity fermentat
/ methods* Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field Ergosterol /...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Novel-Strategy-to-Construct-Yeast/22363590.html
*  electrophoresis- WordWeb dictionary definition
electrophoresis- WordWeb dictionary definition. Skip ... apps. Noun: electrophoresis i,lek-trow-fu'ree-sis The motion of ... of an electric field ; particles with a positive charge go...
http://wordwebonline.com/en/ELECTROPHORESIS
*  Clonal dissemination of highly virulent extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli
Fingerprinting ; Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field ; Epidemiology,...
http://medlib.mef.hr/302/
*  Caracterización de Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de la beta-lactamasa SHV-5, en una unidad de cu
was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis PFGE , random ... typing techniques; electrophoresis, gel pulsed-field; polymerase chain ... Salud pública Méx vol.46 issue6; Abstract: S0036-36342004000600007. Article. Spanish pdf. Spanish epdf. Article in xml format. Article references. How to cite this article. Send this article by e-mail. Cited by SciELO. Similars in SciELO. Salud Pública de México. Print version ISSN 0036-3634. Abstract. ANDRADE, Verónica ; SILVA, Jesús and GRUPO DE RESISTENCIA BACTERIANA. Characterization of SHV-5 b -lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in an intensive care unit. Salud pública Méx. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342004000600007. OBJECTIVE: To perform the molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from pediatric patients and health care workers at the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected during an outbreak in June 1996 were analy...
http://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0036-36342004000600007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Caracterización de Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de la beta-lactamasa SHV-5, en una unidad de cu
was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis PFGE , random ... typing techniques; electrophoresis, gel pulsed-field; polymerase chain...
http://scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0036-36342004000600007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Antimicrobial treatment and clinical outcome for infections with carbapenem- and multiply-resistant
which were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis PFGE. ... , Bacterial* Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field Female Genotype...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Antimicrobial-treatment-clinical-outcome-infections/19910162.html
*  Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. from retail meats by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotypin
... g - Ge - 2005 - Journal of Applied Microbiology - Wiley Online Library. Journal of Applied Microbiology. JOURNAL MENU Journal Home FIND ISSUES Current Issue. Virtual Issues FIND ARTICLES Early View. Virtual Issue on Campylobacter. Virtual Issue on Food Safety. You have free access to this content Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. from retail meats by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. Meng 1 Article first published online: 31 OCT 2005 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02750.x. Journal of Applied Microbiology Volume 100, Issue 1, pages 175 184, January 2006. Additional Information How to Cite Ge, B., Girard, W., Zhao, S., Friedman, S., Gaines, S.A. 2006, Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. from retail meats by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100: 175 184. Author Information 1 Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 2 Department of Food Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 3 Division of Animal ...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02750.x/abstract
*  Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of C
... ampylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments - Sheffield Hallam University Research Archive. Login. SHURA home. Statistics. About SHURA. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments. Tools. Tools. Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote MODS OpenURL ContextObject in Span MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene typing in identifying clonal groups of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in farm and clinical environments. Link to published version:: 10.1128/AEM.67.4.1429-1436.2001. Although campylobacters have been isolated from a wide range of animal hosts, the association between campylobacters isolated from humans and animals in the farm environment is u...
http://shura.shu.ac.uk/399/
*  Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
... 'Pulsed field gel electrophoresis' is a technique used for the separation of large deoxyribonucleic acid DNA molecule s by applying to a gel matrix an electric field that periodically changes direction. Historical background Procedure Theory Applications External links References. Standard gel electrophoresis techniques for separation of DNA molecules provided huge advantages for molecular biology research. DNA molecules larger than 15-20 kb migrating through a gel will essentially move together in a size-independent manner. 1 This technique became known as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis PFGE. coli cluster analysis-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.jpg The procedure for this technique is relatively similar to performing a standard gel electrophoresis except that instead of constantly running the voltage in one direction, the voltage is periodically switched among three directions; one that runs through the central axis of the gel and two that run at an angle of 60 degrees either side. For extremely larg...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsed-field_gel_electrophoresis
*  Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis as an Epidemiologic Tool fo... : Sexually Transmitted Diseases
... . Advertisement. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Subscribe. Saved Searches. Recent Searches. You currently have no recent searches. Login. Register. Activate Subscription. eTOC. Help. All Issues Current Issue Issue Displayed. Advanced Search. Home Currently selected. Current Issue. Previous Issues. Published Ahead-of-Print. For Authors. Information for Authors. Language Editing Services. Journal Info. About the Journal. About ASTDA. Editorial Board. Advertising. Open Access. Subscription Services. Reprints. Rights and Permissions. Mobile. New Features. iPad App. Home. January 2002 - Volume 29 - Issue 1. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis as an Epidemiologic Tool fo... Previous Article. Next Article. Text sizi...
http://journals.lww.com/stdjournal/Fulltext/2002/01000/Pulsed_Field_Gel_Electrophoresis_as_an.5.aspx
*  human chromosome 14/pulse field electrophoresis
human chromosome pulse field electrophoresis human chromosome pulse field electrophoresis david weaver dweaver at bgnet bgsu edu tue sep est previous message make your own vacuum pump for gel blotting web page next message biomx electronic journal messages sorted by i presently am looking into the use of pulse field gel electrophoresis methodology to assess breaks points in our generated human tumor cell lines and need help in locating databases for restriction enzyme maps noti etc of human chromosome any and all suggestions would be appreciated previous message make your own vacuum pump for gel blotting web page next message biomx electronic journal messages sorted by more information about the gen link mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/gen-link/1996-September/001101.html
*  Mega-telomere
Telomeric regions of DNA were first identified in the late 1970s See: Discovery of Telomeric DNA. In 1994, extremely long telomeric regions were identified in chickens. 6 Telomeric sequences ranging from 20 kilobases to several megabases have also been identified in several species of birds. Telomeres are identified by telomere arrays. Analysis of siblings from highly inbred chicken-lines have suggested that these ultra-long telomeric sequences are extremely heterogenous. 9 In birds, whose cells contain microchromosomes, it has been suggested that there was a correlation between the presence of mega-telomeres and the number of microchromosomes present in a species, such that bird genomes with large numbers of microchromosomes also possessed larger amounts of telomeric DNA sequence. However, subsequent studies showed that mega-telomeres are not necessarily present in all species with microchromosomes, nor are they found on all microchromosomes within a cell. Mega-telomeres have been best described in vertebrat...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mega-telomere
*  Pulsenet
... 'PulseNet' is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/ CDC PulseNet USA Website Through the network, cooperating groups can share pulsed field gel electrophoresis PFGE results which act as fingerprints to distinguish strains of organisms such as ' E. coli ' O157:H7 and non O157, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Yersinia pestis. In this way, efforts to combat infectious disease outbreak s are strengthened. Due to the success of 'Pulsenet' USA since its inception in 1996, similar networks have been established internationally in Canada 2000, the Asia Pacific 2002, Europe 2003, http://www.pulsenet-europe.org/ PulseNet Europe Website Latin America 2003, http://www.panalimentos.org/pulsenet/ PulseNet Latin America Website and the Middle East 2006. These networks collaborate under the umbrella of ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsenet
*  Scientific Publications by FDA Staff
... Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Common Links. Food. Medical Devices. Animal Veterinary. Tobacco Products. Scientific Publications by FDA Staff. FDA Home. Scientific Publications Detail Entry. - Search Publications. Abstract Centers. All Centers Animal and Veterinary Biologics Drugs Food Medical Devices Office of the Commissioner Regulatory Affairs Tobacco Toxicological Research. Entry Details PLoS One 2013;8 1 :e55254 On the Evolutionary History, Population Genetics and Diversity among Isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis PFGE Pattern JEGX01.0004. Facile laboratory tools are needed to augment identification in contamination events to trace the contamination back to the source traceback of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteriditis isolates within S. Enteriditis Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis PFGE pattern JEGX01.0004 and close relatives, and determined their genome sequences. Sources for these isolates spanned food, clinical and environmental farm sources coll...
http://accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/publications/search_result_record.cfm?id=44762
*  PFGE
... redirect pulsed field gel electrophoresis...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PFGE
*  Chattanooga Ultrasound Gel 5L
... Email Sign-Up Close. Sign-Up Receive information about new products and educational opportunities, as well as, exclusive offers only available to subscribers. Chiropractic Equipment and Supplies. Call 1.800.747.3488 Order Tracking Customer Service Blog Send Feedback. Sign Up. Shopping Cart 0 Items. Largest Selection of Equipment Supplies. Analgesics. Chiropractic Tables. Conductivity Gels & Sprays. Electrotherapy/Ultrasound 223. TENS Units 52. Office Supplies/Equipment. Reconditioned Tables. Sports Chiropractic. Sport. New Items. Email Print. shop by department. electrotherapy. conductivity gels & sprays. chattanooga ultrasound gel 5l. Enlarge / Alternate Images. Zoom zoom reset. Alternative Views There are no alternate images available for this product. Chattanooga Ultrasound Gel 5L # 663 0033 Reviews. Price:. Email:. Dispenser Bottle 8Oz Pack Of 12 $25.89. ScripHessco Ultrasound Gel. Chattanooga Ultrasound Gel. Five liter ultrasound gel container with .25 liter ultrasound gel dispenser bottle. FAQ's fr...
http://scriphessco.com/products/chattanooga-ultrasound-gel-5l/?F_BrandId=198
*  JUVÉDERM® Injectable Gel in Dallas | View JUVÉDERM® Treatment
JUVÉDERM® Injectable Gel in Dallas. Non Surgical Cosmetic Fillers. BOTOX Cosmetic. Kybella a new, nonsurgical treatment to get rid of "double chin", or fat under the chin Sculptra Aesthetic adds volume to aging face, helps to re-grow collagen miraDry helps to eliminate excessive underarm sweating and odor Venus Freeze Venus Freeze treatments are effective in circumference reduction, improving cellulite, skin tightening and reducing the appearance of wrinkles. Surgical Procedures. Liquid Facelift. Neck Lift Skin Treatments. Cellulite Reduction. Facial Veins. Leg Veins. Procedures Before and After BOTOX® Cosmetic. Cellulite Reduction. Facial Veins. Leg Veins. Liquid Face Lift. Mini Face Lift. Sculptra® Aesthetic. JUV DERM Injectable Gel. It's the Answer to Wrinkles and Folds on Your Face. Fill in those lines, wrinkles and facial folds with JUV DERM Injectable Gel and get that youthful face back. JUV DERM Injectable Gelis a specially formulated dermal filler anti-aging gel treatment that comes in three concentra...
http://dallasderm.com/JUVÉDERM
*  Difference between Ultrasound Gel & Fetal heart monitor gel? | BabyCenter
Difference between Ultrasound Gel Fetal heart monitor gel?. BabyCenter. COMMUNITY. BLOG. MISSION MOTHERHOOD. Community Home. COMMUNITY. Mom Answers. Shop. Answer a question Ask a question. advertisement. Getting Pregnant Pregnancy Baby Toddler Preschooler Big Kid Children's Health You & Your Family. Question. Difference between Ultrasound Gel Fetal heart monitor gel?. I bought a Fetal Heart Monitor but it did not come with the gel they use at the doctor's office. I have looked online for the gel, but can only find the ultrasound gel. Is the heart monitor doppler gel the same as the ultrasound gel they use, or is it a different kind. Posted: 02/05/2012 by jriggs6710. Report question. Mom Answers. Sort by: best answers. most recent answers. 1 - 3 of 3 answers. what gel will work for this. posted 02/05/2012 by jriggs6710. Report answer. Was this answer helpful. 0 out of 0 found this helpful. posted 02/05/2012 by jriggs6710. Report answer. Was this answer helpful. 0 out of 0 found this helpful. The ultr...
http://babycenter.com/400_difference-between-ultrasound-gel-fetal-heart-monitor-gel_11117241_293.bc?sortFieldName=createDate&startIndex=&batchSize=
*  Patente US5770229 - Medical polymer gel - Google Patentes
... . . . . Patentes. A medical polymer gel produced by immobilizing a drug onto a water swelling polymer gel through a cleavable group with the main chain to be cleaved via an enzymatic reaction and a spacer, and a water swelling polymer gel produced by covalently crosslinking a polysaccharide having a carboxyl group within... . . . . . Fecha de prioridad 13 May 1994. Tarifa Caducada. . DE69530553T2,. EP0712635A1,. EP0712635A4,. EP0712635B1,. US5658592,. WO1995031223A1. . Inventores Masao Tanihara,. Hisao Kinoshita. Cesionario original Kuraray Co., Ltd. Exportar cita BiBTeX,. EndNote,. RefMan. Citas de patentes 7,. Otras citas 2,. Citada por 89,. Clasificaciones 30,. Eventos legales 4. Enlaces externos:. USPTO,. . Espacenet. Medical polymer gel US 5770229 A Resumen A medical polymer gel produced by immobilizing a drug onto a water swelling polymer gel through a cleavable group with the main chain to be cleaved via an enzymatic reaction and a spacer, and a water swelling polymer gel produced by covalently cr...
http://google.es/patents/US5770229?dq=flatulence
*  Sonigel Ultrasound Gel & Lotions
Sonigel Ultrasound Gel Lotions. Email Sign-Up Close. Chiropractic Equipment and Supplies. Call 1.800.747.3488 Order Tracking Customer Service Blog Send Feedback. Sign Up. Shopping Cart 0 Items. Largest Selection of Equipment Supplies. Analgesics. Chiropractic Tables. Electrotherapy. Conductivity Gels & Sprays. Electrotherapy/Ultrasound 223. TENS Units 52. Office Supplies/Equipment. Reconditioned Tables. Sports Chiropractic. Sport. New Items. Email Print. shop by department. electrotherapy. conductivity gels & sprays. sonigel ultrasound gel & lotions. Enlarge / Alternate Images. Zoom zoom reset. Alternative Views There are no alternate images available for this product. Sonigel Ultrasound Gel & Lotions # 663 0030 Reviews. Price:. Email:. Sonigel Ultrasound Lotion With Aloe $21.49. ScripHessco Economy Smooth Headrest Paper, 8.5"W x 225'L. ScripHessco Crêpe Headrest Paper, 8.5"W x 125'L. ScripHessco Smooth Headrest Paper, 8.5"W x 225'L. ScripHessco Crêpe Exam Table Paper 18"Wx125'L $26.99. ScripHessco Ultrasound...
https://scriphessco.com/products/sonigel-ultrasound-gel-and-lotions/
*  Geophysics Consulting and Subsurface Utility Engineering | GEL Geophysics | The GEL Group
Geophysics Consulting and Subsurface Utility Engineering. GEL Geophysics. The GEL Group. submit. Client Login. GEL Companies. GEL Laboratories. GEL Engineering. GEL Geophysics. Cape Fear Analytical. The GEL Group. The GEL Group. problem solved. submit. Services Companies. Experience. Contact Us. Client Login. Careers. GEL Companies. GEL Laboratories. GEL Geophysics. GEL Engineering. Cape Fear Analytical. The GEL Group. Our Services. Geophysics. Select a subsection. Soil Groundwater Investigation Remediation. Civil Industrial Site Engineering. Laboratory Services. Geophysics. Full List of Services. Specialized geophysics and subsurface utility engineering SUE services with the latest technologies and extensive experience. The GEL Group provides highly specialized services, backed by our experienced, advanced technologies and proven methodologies, to support geophysics and subsurface utility engineering and mapping projects throughout the United States and abroad. Our services support projects from land develop...
http://gel.com/services/view/geophysics
*  Evaluating the Safety of Tenofovir Vaginal Gel in HIV-Uninfected Pregnant Women - Full Text View - C
Experimental: Group 1a tenofovir gel Group 1a will include women with a gestational age range of 36 0/7 to 37 6/7 weeks; they will receive 1% tenofovir gel. Placebo Comparator: Group 1b placebo gel Group 1b will include women with a gestational age range of 36 0/7 to 37 6/7 weeks; they will receive placebo gel. Drug: Placebo gel One applicator of placebo gel will be inserted by the participant into the vagina once each day for 28 days or until delivery, whichever comes first. Experimental: Group 2a tenofovir gel Group 2a will include women with a gestational age range of 28 0/7 to 32 6/7 weeks; they will receive 1% tenofovir gel. Placebo Comparator: Group 2b placebo gel Group 2b will include women with a gestational age range of 28 0/7 to 32 6/7 weeks; they will receive placebo gel. Drug: Placebo gel One applicator of placebo gel will be inserted by the participant into the vagina once each day for 28 days or until delivery, whichever comes first. Experimental: Group 3a tenofovir gel Group 3a will include wom...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01490671?term=" November 16, 2011":" December 16, 2011"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=11
*  Evaluating the Safety of Tenofovir Vaginal Gel in HIV-Uninfected Pregnant Women - Full Text View - C
Experimental: Group 1a tenofovir gel Group 1a will include women with a gestational age range of 36 0/7 to 37 6/7 weeks; they will receive 1% tenofovir gel. Placebo Comparator: Group 1b placebo gel Group 1b will include women with a gestational age range of 36 0/7 to 37 6/7 weeks; they will receive placebo gel. Drug: Placebo gel One applicator of placebo gel will be inserted by the participant into the vagina once each day for 28 days or until delivery, whichever comes first. Experimental: Group 2a tenofovir gel Group 2a will include women with a gestational age range of 28 0/7 to 32 6/7 weeks; they will receive 1% tenofovir gel. Placebo Comparator: Group 2b placebo gel Group 2b will include women with a gestational age range of 28 0/7 to 32 6/7 weeks; they will receive placebo gel. Drug: Placebo gel One applicator of placebo gel will be inserted by the participant into the vagina once each day for 28 days or until delivery, whichever comes first. Experimental: Group 3a tenofovir gel Group 3a will include wom...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01490671
*  Sol-Gel Transition in Dispersions of Layered Double-Hydroxide Nanosheets - ePrints@IISc
... Sol-Gel Transition in Dispersions of Layered Double-Hydroxide Nanosheets. Naik, Vikrant V and Vasudevan, Sukumaran 2011 Sol-Gel Transition in Dispersions of Layered Double-Hydroxide Nanosheets. PDF Sol Ge.pdf - Published Version Restricted to Registered users only Download 2033Kb. PDF Support info.pdf - Published Version Restricted to Registered users only Download 122Kb. Official URL: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/la202876g Abstract Surfactant-intercalated layered double-hydroxide solid Mg-Al LDH-dodecyl sulfate DDS undergoes rapid and facile delamination to its ultimate constituent, single sheets of nanometer thickness and micrometer size, in a nonpolar solvent such as toluene to form stable dispersions. Here we have investigated the sol-gel transition in dispersions of the hydrophobically modified Mg-Al LDH-DDS in toluene by rheology, SAXS, and 1 H NMR measurements. The rheo-SAXS measurements show that the sharp rise in the viscosity of the dispersion during gel formation is a consequence of a t...
http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/42279/
*  New device creates web-like, gel structures - Materials Today
... Our website uses cookies Cookies enable us to provide the best experience possible and help us understand how visitors use our website. By browsing Materials Today, you agree to our use of cookies. Materials Science. Nanomaterials. Composite applications. Composite parts. News. News. Comment. Home » Surface science » News » New device creates web-like, gel structures New device creates web-like, gel structures 15 April 2013. Soap manufacturers add organic and synthetic surfactants and often a slew of other ingredients to their products to achieve a desired thickness and to help remove grease and dirt. The team built a palm-sized tool called a microfluidics device that lets researchers pump water mixed with a little detergent and salt through a series of vertical posts. The team also discovered that when they pumped a thicker, more elastic fluid through the device, the opposite effect happened the gel became thinner and more porous. Researchers hope one eventual outcome will be a scaled-up industrial desi...
http://materialstoday.com/surface-science/news/new-device-creates-web-like-gel-structures/
*  7Li NMR measurements of polymer gel electrolytes - DRO
... DRO home. Contact DRO. DRO. 7Li NMR measurements of polymer gel electrolytes Adebahr, J., Forsyth, M., MacFarlane, D. R., Gavelin, P. and Jacobsson, P. 2002, 7Li NMR measurements of polymer gel electrolytes , Solid state ionics , vol. Title. 7Li NMR measurements of polymer gel electrolytes. 7 Li NMR measurements of polymer gel electrolytes. Adebahr, J. Forsyth, M. MacFarlane, D. R Gavelin, P. Jacobsson, P. Journal name. Solid state ionics. Elsevier. Publication date. polymer gel electrolyte mobility, Ionic interaction NMR spectroscopy. Ion conducting polymer gels prepared from ethylene oxide n grafted methacrylates, ethylene carbonate EC , gamma butyrolactone gBL , and lithium hexafluorophosphate are studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This study shows that there are at least two possible lithium sites with different mobility. The lithium-ions with lower mobility dominate at room temperature, but this is changed as the temperature is increased. The NMR results also show that the ...
http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30030046
*  Liquitex - Acrylic Gel Medium - Modeling Paste - 32 oz
... All Categories ADHESIVE / TAPE BOARD BRUSHES CANVAS / SURFACES CHARCOAL / GRAPHITE DRAFTING / ENGINEERING DRAWING SUPPLIES EASELS GESSO / PRIMERS GIFT CARD GO GREEN GRAPHIC SUPPLIES KNIFE / CUTTING TOOLS MARKERS MEDIUMS / VARNISHES PAINTING PANELS / PAINT BOARDS PAPER PADS PAPER SHEETS PASTELS / CRAYONS PEN / INK PENCILS PORTFOLIO PRESENTATION PRINTMAKING PROJECTORS / LIGHTBOXES SCULPTURE STORAGE STRETCHER STRIPS STUDIO FURNISHINGS. My Cart. 0 Items. Browse Store ADHESIVE / TAPE. BRUSHES. CANVAS / SURFACES. CHARCOAL / GRAPHITE. DRAFTING / ENGINEERING. DRAWING SUPPLIES. EASELS. GESSO / PRIMERS. GO GREEN. GRAPHIC SUPPLIES. KNIFE / CUTTING TOOLS. MARKERS. MEDIUMS / VARNISHES. > Acrylic Mediums. Galeria Acrylic Medium. Golden Acrylic Medium. Golden Open Medium. Liquitex Acrylic Medium. Effects Mediums. Fluid Mediums. Gel Mediums. > Acrylic Varnish. > Effects Mediums. > Fluid Mediums. > Gel Mediums. > Oil Mediums. > Oil Varnish. > Paste Mediums. > Texture Mediums. PAINTING. PANELS / PAINT BOARDS. PAPER PADS. ...
http://creativecoldsnow.com/browse.cfm/liquitex-acrylic-gel-medium-modeling-paste-32-oz/4,4180.html
*  Liquitex Acrylic Gloss Heavy Gel Medium | MisterArt.com
Liquitex Acrylic Gloss Heavy Gel Medium. MisterArt.com. #1 Place for Craft Supplies, Art Supplies, Artist Materials and Kids Crafts. Shopping Departments. Adhesives Department. Airbrushing Department. Airbrush Mediums. Airbrush Paints. Airbrush Storage. Books Media. Architecture Drafting Department. Books Media. Books Media. Books Media Department. Drawing. Painting. Photography. Scrapbooking. Brushes Department. Acrylic Brushes. Cleaning. Decorative Brushes. Storage. Canvas Department. Accessories. Canvas Boards. Canvas Paper Pads. Ceramics Department. Books Media. This extra heavy body medium dries to a transparent or translucent gloss finish. When mixed with acrylic paint, it increases body, density, and viscosity, creating a consistency that is very similar to that of oil paints. It keeps paint workable longer than other gel mediums and also increases brilliance of color. Liquitex Gloss Heavy Gel Medium is an excellent binder for pigment and additives such as sand and stone. How to get VIP Club Prices Any...
http://misterart.com/painting/fp~8-17~/liquitex-acrylic-gloss-heavy-gel-medium.html
*  First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles
... Energy Science. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles. have obtained the first images of swollen microgel particles directly in aqueous solution using x-ray microscopy at the ALS, which, together with spectroscopic determination of their chemical state, provides insight into the underlying swelling mechanism. In this study, the researchers investigated lightly cross-linked poly 4-vinylpyridine -silica P4VP-SiO 2 nanocomposite microgel particles synthesized in aqueous solution. Variation of hydrodynamic diameter with solution pH for lightly cross-linked P4VP-SiO 2 nanocomposite microgel particles. The x-ray microscopy characterization was carried out using the polymer scanning transmission x-ray microscopy polymer-STXM endstation at ALS Beamline 5.3.2. The researchers first obtained the nitrogen 1s NEXAFS spectra for both neutral and protonated linear P4VP homopolymer. These well-resolved lowest-photon-energy peaks served as excellent markers for the protonated and neutral states of the pyrid...
http://www-als.lbl.gov/index.php/about-the-als/organization/261-first-direct-imaging-of-swollen-microgel-particles.html
*  Next Big Future: Injectable gel could repair damaged cardiac tissue
... Coverage of Disruptive Science and Technology. Forum About Contact. Facebook twitter Google. February 22, 2012. Injectable gel could repair damaged cardiac tissue. disease, future, medicine, science. Facebook. Twitter. linkedin. google. Reddit. University of California, San Diego researchers have developed a new injectable hydrogel that could be an effective and safe treatment for tissue damage caused by heart attacks. A company Ventrix, Inc., has been setup to bring the gel to clinical trials within the next year. Therapies like the hydrogel would be a welcome development, Christman explained, since there are an estimated 785,000 new heart attack cases in the United States each year, with no established treatment for repairing the resulting damage to cardiac tissue. The hydrogel is made from cardiac connective tissue that is stripped of heart muscle cells through a cleansing process, freeze-dried and milled into powder form, and then liquefied into a fluid that can be easily injected into the heart. Onc...
http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/02/injectable-gel-could-repair-damaged.html
*  Aquaflex Ultrasound Gel Pads
... Email Sign-Up Close. Sign-Up Receive information about new products and educational opportunities, as well as, exclusive offers only available to subscribers. Physical Therapy Equipment and Supplies - ProMed Products To Order 1-800-542-9297. Login Track Your Order. Shop by Brand. Active Innovations. 3-Point Products. Angel Feathers. BV Medical. Core Products. Cramer Products. Darco International. Drive Medical. Dura-Comfort. Elasto-Gel. Lotus Touch. Massage FX. NRG. Oakworks. Omron. Optimum Nutrition. Orthaheel. Orthogel. Parker. Pivotal. PROSERIES. RockTape. Rich-Mar. SCIFIT. Scott Specialties. Sombra. Soothing Touch. SportsArt. Stamina. Star Trac. Stronglite. Stott Pilates. Swede-O. TheraPro. Therapy Innovations. Thomas Tables. Tidi Products. Travanti Medical. Trigger Point Performance. Valeo. Whitehall. Williams. Winco. Xtensor. Electrotherapy Equipment - Massage Therapy Equipment - Acupuncture Supplies. Occupational Therapy Equipment - Occupational Therapy Supplies - Therapy Tools. Medical Rehab Equi...
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*  .. Author Archive .. Predicting Gel Formation .. Dopamine sensor works in water .. Loudspeakers in
Scientists can predict gel formation. In their work, Raynal and Bouteiller applied Hansen solubility parameters HSPs to predict the gelling ability of LMWGs in various solvents. When the team plotted the information in to Hansen space, they were surprised to find for each LMWG studied that gel-forming solvents clustered together. Raynal and Bouteiller were then able to determine the so called ‘gelation sphere’ a region of the Hansen space in which solvents forming gels were located in preference to those that form a solution or insoluble species specific to each LMWG. Hopefully gel scientists around the world are on the case and we will soon be able to predict gel formation of a LMWG in any solvent. Read the full story here: Organogel formation rationalized by Hansen solubility parameters Matthieu Raynal and Laurent Bouteiller Chem. No Comments ». If you would like to read more, then download the following ChemComm communication:-Â. No Comments ». To read the original ChemComm communication, please tak...
http://blogs.rsc.org/cc/author/shiellse/
*  Ultrasound Conductive Gels - Ultrasound Lotions & Sprays
Ultrasound Conductive Gels - Ultrasound Lotions Sprays. Skip to Main Content. Email Sign-Up Close. Sign-Up Receive information about new products and educational opportunities, as well as, exclusive offers only available to subscribers. Chiropractic Equipment and Supplies. Call 1.800.747.3488 Order Tracking Customer Service Blog Send Feedback. Login. Sign Up. Shopping Cart 0 Items. Largest Selection of Equipment Supplies. Item Added to Cart Close. Departments Acupuncture. Analgesics. Anatomical Charts & Models. Chiropractic Tables. Diagnostic. Electrotherapy. Carts 22. Conductivity Gels & Sprays. Cords, Plugs & Adapters 57. Electrodes & Wraps 66. Electrotherapy/Ultrasound 223. EMG/EMS Units 16. Iontophoresis 9. TENS Units 52. Exercise & Rehabilitation. Hot & Cold Therapy. Laser Therapy. Massage. Nutritional Supplements. Office Supplies/Equipment. Orthopedics. Pillows & Cushions. Reconditioned Tables. Sports Chiropractic. Traction & Decompression. Treatment Supplies. X-Ray. Sport. Clearance. New Items. Sale It...
http://scriphessco.com/shop-by-department/electrotherapy/conductivity-gels-and-sprays/default.aspx?F_Sort=11&pg=1
*  Ultrasound Conductive Gels - Ultrasound Lotions & Sprays
Ultrasound Conductive Gels - Ultrasound Lotions Sprays. Email Sign-Up Close. Chiropractic Equipment and Supplies. Call 1.800.747.3488 Order Tracking Customer Service Blog Send Feedback. Sign Up. Shopping Cart 0 Items. Largest Selection of Equipment Supplies. Analgesics. Chiropractic Tables. Conductivity Gels & Sprays. Electrotherapy/Ultrasound 223. TENS Units 52. Office Supplies/Equipment. Reconditioned Tables. conductivity gels & sprays. Conductivity Gels & Sprays Shop for conductivity gels & sprays for use when performing ultrasounds. Price. View All 1. ScripHessco Ultrasound Gel. TheraSonic™ Ultrasound Gel $4.99 - $6.99 Choose Options. Aquasonic 100 Ultrasound Transmission Gel $3.99 - $34.29 Choose Options. Scriphessco Ultrasound Lotion. Sonigel Ultrasound Gel & Lotions $3.99 - $18.49 Choose Options. PRETENS SKIN PREP UP220 WIPES 50/BOX $6.79. SignaSpray $6.49 - $40.99 Choose Options. Myossage Ultrasound Lotions $3.19 - $216.21 Choose Options. Sombra Ultrasound Gel & Lotion $3.99 - $26.49 Choose Options. C...
http://scriphessco.com/shop-by-department/electrotherapy/conductivity-gels-and-sprays/default.aspx?F_Sort=11
*  MSM Topical Gel
... HUMAN HEALTH: MSM Capsules MSM Powder - Fine Crystals MSM Powder - Coarse Powder MSM Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM Gel MSM Muscle & Joint Cream. ANIMAL HEALTH: MSM Powder for Pets MSM Powder for Horses. MSM for People MSM Only Products:. MSM Powder Fine Crystals. MSM Powder Coarse Flakes. MSM Topical Gel. MSM Combination Products:. MSM Muscle Joint Cream. MSM Powder Fine Crystals. MSM Powder Coarse Flakes. MSM Topical Gel. MSM Combination Products:. MSM Muscle Joint Cream. MSM for Dogs Cats. MSM Topical Gel Home. MSM Topical Gel. MSM Topical Gel. Price/ Bottle $16.50 1 bottle $15.75 2-5 bottles $15.50 6-11 bottles $14.95 12+ bottles. MSM Topical Gel: Pure OptiMSM®. Stanley Jacob in order to maximize the benefits of MSM in topical applications, this soothing gel is easily applied and quickly absorbed for fast relief. MSM is a small molecule containing 34% elemental sulfur, and is readily absorbed by the skin and immediately available when applied as a gel. Cross Linking Collagen fibers in the skin lie in a ...
http://msmpure.com/msm-for-people/msm-topical-gel/
*  JUVÉDERM® Injectable Gel (Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid) Dermal Fillers
Actual patient treated with JUVÉDERM XC and JUVÉDERM VOLUMA XC. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION Are there any reasons why I should not receive JUVÉDERM XC or JUVÉDERM VOLUMA XC. Do not use JUVÉDERM XC or JUVÉDERM VOLUMA XC if you are allergic to lidocaine. The safety of JUVÉDERM XC and JUVÉDERM VOLUMA XC injectable gels for use during pregnancy or in women who are breastfeeding has not been studied The safety of JUVÉDERM XC for use in patients under 18 years and JUVÉDERM VOLUMA XC for patients under 35 years or over 65 years has not been studied The safety and effectiveness of JUVÉDERM XC for treatment of areas other than facial wrinkles and folds such as lips have not been established in clinical studies The safety and effectiveness of JUVÉDERM VOLUMA XC for treatment in areas other than the cheek area have not been established in clinical studies The safety of JUVÉDERM XC and JUVÉDERM VOLUMA XC in patients with a history of excessive scarring eg, hypertrophic scarring and keloid formations and pigmentation dis...
http://juvederm.com/en.aspx
*  Wholesale results for 106896 plaid folk art blending gel medium 2ounces - DollarDays
... Add to cart results appear here. Close View Cart. Questions. Email or Call us at 877-837-9569. Speed Buy. About Us. Sign Up / Log In. Contact Us. Halloween Store. Shop by Department. Apparel and Accessories. Accessories - Fashion Clothing Footwear. Bath, Body and Wellness. Baby Care Bath and Body Cosmetics Fragrances Health and Wellness. Entertainment and Gift. Electronics Media Gift Baskets Supplies Licensed Team Products Sports Outdoors State and Regional Souvenirs Toys Games. General Merchandise. As Seen on TV Automotive Cleaning Supplies Custom Imprinting Pallet Assortment Store Fixtures. Holiday, Seasonal and Party. Holiday Seasonal Party Supplies Religious Stationery Gift Wrap. Home Essentials and Decor. Candles Home Fragrance Food Pantry Furniture Home Decor Housewares Lawn Garden Pet Supplies Tools and Hardware. Office and School. Arts Crafts Backpacks Books Calendars Office School Supplies. What's Selling Now. Backpacks. Back to School Store. New. Halloween Store. New. Star Wars Store. Bath & Bo...
https://dollardays.com/sitesearch.aspx?pg=1&terms=106896 plaid folk art blending gel medium 2ounces
*  .. A-Z Health Topics .. Premedication With Lidocaine Gel May Decrease Discomfort During Mammography
A-Z Health Topics. Library to Search Health Library Health Day News Consumer Medication Information. Search Method By Title All Text. Premedication With Lidocaine Gel May Decrease Discomfort During Mammography. Mammograms are still the best screening tool for breast cancer. The specialized x-ray improves the ability of specialists to find small tumors in breast tissue. Small cancerous tumors have the most treatment options and highest cure rates. Having a mammogram does require compressing the breast, and some women may find this very uncomfortable. Luke’s Mountain State Tumor Institute examined the ability of a lidocaine gel to decrease discomfort during a mammography. The study, published in Radiology, found that the gel was effective. About the Study. The women were assigned to have standard care with acetaminophen or ibuprofen or to a group that received an application of 4% lidocaine gel. The women were also asked if discomfort had delayed their mammogram or if it is likely to affect their decision to ...
http://sfmc.net/a-z-health-topics/?chunkid=379547&lang=English&db=hlt
*  Perlane Injectable Gel - P040024/S006
perlane injectable gel p s quick links skip to main page content skip to search skip to topics menu skip to common links u s food drug administration a to z index follow fda en espa ol enter search terms home food drugs medical devices radiation emitting products vaccines blood biologics animal veterinary cosmetics tobacco products perlane injectable gel p s fda home medical devices products and medical procedures device approvals denials and clearances issued may approval order summary labeling other consumer information this document is in a portable document format pdf acrobat reader is required to read this document updated june links on this page note if you need help accessing information in different file formats see instructions for downloading viewers and players accessibility contact fda careers fda basics foia no fear act site map transparency website policies u s food and drug administration new hampshire avenue silver spring md ph info fda contact fda for government for press combination products...
http://accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cftopic/pma/pma.cfm?num=p040024s006
*  Collagen gel contraction assay
... the collagen gel contraction assay is a type of wound contraction it is performed using the dermal equivalent model which consists of dermal fibroblast s seeded into a collagen gel references category skin physiology...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collagen_gel_contraction_assay
*  Tough Gel May Help With Replacing Damaged Cartilage In Human Joints - Redorbit
... Home. Videos. Images. Science. Space. Health. Technology. Toggle navigation. Science. September 5, 2012. Tough Gel May Help With Replacing Damaged Cartilage In Human Joints. by editor. Biocompatible material created at Harvard is much tougher than cartilage. A team of experts in mechanics, materials science, and tissue engineering at Harvard have created an extremely stretchy and tough gel that may pave the way to replacing damaged cartilage in human joints. Called a hydrogel, because its main ingredient is water, the new material is a hybrid of two weak gels that combine to create something much stronger. Not only can this new gel stretch to 21 times its original length, but it is also exceptionally tough, self-healing, and biocompatible a valuable collection of attributes that opens up new opportunities in medicine and tissue engineering. The material, its properties, and a simple method of synthesis are described in the September 6 issue of Nature. "Conventional hydrogels are very weak and brittle ima...
http://redorbit.com/news/science/1112687904/tough-gel-replacing-damaged-cartilage-human-joints-090512/
*  Golden Acrylic Gel Mediums - BLICK art materials
... My Lists. join our email list. registries lists. Wish Lists. Wish Lists. Sampler Set Included in this convenient introductory set is one 2 oz 60 ml jar of Soft Gel Gloss, Regular Gel Semi-Gloss, Extra-Heavy Gel Matte, Light Molding Paste, Coarse Pumice Gel, and Clear Tar Gel. Regular Gel These gels have the same thickness and creamy consistency as Golden Heavy Body Acrylic colors. Heavy Gel Thicker in consistency than Golden Heavy Body Acrylic colors, these gels hold peaks and dry translucent. Extra Heavy Gel / Molding Paste A blend of heavy gel and molding paste, dries to a satin, semi-opaque finish. Clear Granular Gel Made from clear acrylic granular solids, this gel is designed to add texture without altering color. Comments about Golden Acrylic Gel Mediums : I use this throughout my painting process, adding it to my Golden heavy body paints which leaves brush marks, gloss, making acrylic paintings look more like oil paintings. This product’s quality compared to similar, competitive alternatives is: B...
http://dickblick.com/products/golden-acrylic-gel-mediums/
*  Savvy Senior - Jim Miller - Mukilteo, WA - MukilteoBeacon.com
Savvy Senior By Jim Miller. Savvy Senior By Jim Miller - Oct 08 Dear Savvy Senior, I run a community counseling program for needy families and am frustrated that so few eligible seniors take advantage of the ... Savvy Senior By Jim Miller - Sep 23 Dear Savvy Senior, What kinds of reacher grabber tools can you recommend for seniors who need help picking things up off the ground. How to find the best reacher grabber tool Sep 05 Dear Savvy Senior, What kinds of reacher grabber tools can you recommend for seniors who need help picking things up off the ground. Savvy Senior By Jim Miller - Jun 20 Dear Savvy Senior, What are the cheapest cellphone options available today to seniors living on a shoestring budget. Savvy Senior By Jim Miller - Jun 16 Dear Savvy Senior, I just turned 65 and received my Medicare card. Savvy Senior By Jim Miller - Jun 06 Dear Savvy Senior, Can you recommend some popular work from home jobs for retirees. Savvy Senior By Jim Miller - Jan 21 Dear Savvy Senior, Can you recommend some popular...
http://mukilteobeacon.villagesoup.com/p/savvy-senior/206423?page=1&numFirst=1
*  I Would Like To Know The Dimensions (Both Height And Width) Of The Graham-Field Ultersound Gel Warme
I Would Like To Know The Dimensions Both Height And Width Of The Graham-Field Ultersound Gel Warmer. tell a friend. 866.880.8226. Home Care. Home Care Tools Adaptive Positioning Ambulation Training Bathroom and Bath Safety Bedroom and Beds Chairs Lifestyle Essentials Mattress, Pillow and Sheet Mobility Aids Patient Room and Transfer Patient Safety Power Mobility Seats Walkers and Rollators Wheelchairs. Special Needs Alzheimer's Disease Bed and Mattresses for Tall Bed Sore Healing Bedridden Care Dialysis Convenience Elderly / Handicapped Travel Obesity Living Pulmonary Complication Standing Up / Sitting Down Health and Product Topics. Clinical. Clinical Supplies Health Monitoring and Diagnostics Medical, Surgical and Physician Strength Measurement and ROM Office Products and Storage Ambulation Training Medical Chair Weight Scale Patient Wear Carts. Therapy. Therapy at Home Bed Sore Pressure Relief Therapy Cold Therapy and Heat Therapy Brace, Splint and Support Emergency / First Aids Respiratory Therapy Spa and...
http://ucanhealth.com/topics/index-P-1879-Ultrasound-Gel-Warmer.htm
*  gel drying problem - Molecular Biology
... BioJob BioBlog PubAlert BioTool BioProduct BioForum Protocol Home. Forum Index Home Live Discussion. Top : Forum Archives : : Molecular Biology. gel drying problem - asking for help Feb/18/2004 Hi, I encountered a problem during drying gel for later phosphorimager scan. My gel is 15% PAGE/7M urea. After running I transferred the gel to Saran wrap, then covered with Whatmann 3MM filter paper, flipped over and put into gel dryer for drying. The temperature was set at 80 FC. The time was an hour. EVERYTIME when I stopped the vacuum and open the plastic cover of the gel dryer, my gel and Saran wrap over it were wrinkled and then my gel cracked. I am really frustrated. -wjchxl- We never had such problem. We do it like this: 1 remove one panel of glass 2 apply filter paper directly to the gel 3 careful lift the fileter paper and the gel attaching to it 4 wrap the gel side of the paper with lab wrap and seal with tape at the edge of the other side 5 put one more paper on both sides 6 put the gel on the dryer wi...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/2904.html
*  Polymer Gel Shows Promise For Smaller, Cheaper Batteries - Slashdot
... Slashdot. Stories. Firehose. All. Popular. Polls. Video. Jobs. Deals Submit. Search Slashdot. Login. or. Sign up. Topics:. Devices. Build. Entertainment. Technology. Open Source. Science. YRO. Follow us:. RSS. Facebook. Google+. Twitter. Newsletter. Catch up on stories from the past week and beyond at the Slashdot story archive. Nickname:. Password:. Public Terminal Forgot your password. Close. binspam dupe notthebest offtopic slownewsday stale stupid fresh funny insightful interesting maybe offtopic flamebait troll redundant overrated insightful interesting informative funny underrated descriptive typo dupe error. 23856126 story. Polymer Gel Shows Promise For Smaller, Cheaper Batteries. 108 Posted by timothy on Monday September 12, 2011 @02:14AM from the also-in-naturally-sweetened-varieties dept. TENxOXR writes "The BBC News website is reporting that a team of researchers at the University of Leeds have developed a polymer jelly that could replace the volatile and hazardous liquid electrolyte currently...
http://hardware.slashdot.org/story/11/09/12/0335205/Polymer-Gel-Shows-Promise-For-Smaller-Cheaper-Batteries/funny-comments
*  Technical Measure For Gel Electrophoresis Shaping (Wealtec Bioscience)
If the collecting trough is input with two liquid basic materials, the liquid gel continuously output into the carrier sheet set can have a gradient. To obtain the above object, the method of gel electrophoresis shaping of the present invention stands a carrier sheet set on a seat; the carrier sheet set has a thin sheet receiving space for injecting therein liquid gel that is cured and shaped thereafter, and the carrier sheet set is provided on its bottom an elongate narrow seam in communication with the thin sheet receiving space, the seat is provided with an elongate gel output port at a position in corresponding to that of and with a width coincident with that of the narrow seam and with an opening facing upwards, when the gel enters the thin sheet receiving space via the bottom continuously from the gel output port and the narrow seam under continuous driving of a roller of a collecting trough, the former injected liquid gel can be pushed upwards by the latter injected liquid gel and is gradually injected...
http://freshpatents.com/-dt20121213ptan20120312686.php
*  Gels can Smile? | Bio-Link
Bio-Link. Bio-Link National Center People Newsletters Contact Bio-Link Partners. High School Partners Industry Partners Institutional Partners Projects. Biotech Employers by state State biotech map Who employs Bio-Link graduates. Programs. What is a Bio-Link Program. Become a Bio-Link program Find a Bio-Link Program Program data Resources. Biotech books Biotech Careers Curriculum Clearinghouse Bio-Link How-To Guides Courses in a Box Bio-Link Publications Blogs Event Materials Photo Gallery Videos. About Bio-Link About People News Publications Contact Bio-Link. Bio-Link Programs What is a Bio-Link program. Become a Bio-Link program Find a Bio-Link Program Data from Bio-Link programs. Newsletters Bio-Link Connections Bio-Link Connections Archive Bio-Link On-Line News. Home » Blogs » Jennifer Newsted s blog. chromatography columns electrophoresis gels Protein chromatography resolving gel stacking gel. As our class forges ahead in the fun filled world of Bioseparations we tackled chromatography and protein gels p...
http://bio-link.org/home/blog/jennifer-newsted/gels-can-smile
*  MisterArt.com | Items by Liquitex | Shop Art Supplies, Craft Supplies
MisterArt.com. Shop Art Supplies, Craft Supplies. #1 Place for Craft Supplies, Art Supplies, Artist Materials and Kids Crafts. Adhesives Department. Airbrushing Department. Airbrush Mediums. Airbrush Paints. Airbrush Storage. Books Media. Architecture Drafting Department. Books Media. Books Media. Books Media Department. Drawing. Painting. Photography. Scrapbooking. Brushes Department. Acrylic Brushes. Cleaning. Decorative Brushes. Storage. Canvas Department. Accessories. Canvas Boards. Canvas Paper Pads. Ceramics Department. Books Media. This heavy body, pure polymer gel is translucent when wet and transparent when dry. Liquitex Gloss Gel can also be used as a transparent ground for acrylic paint, as an excellent glue for collage and decoupage, and as a binder for powdered pigments to make an inexpensive “student grade” thick gloss paint. When asking your question, please be as descriptive as possible, it will allow us to give you the most accurate answer possible. in Gaeta, Italy, AE I've been using Liquite...
http://misterart.com/more-ways-brand-names/fb~liquitex~fp~0-54~/liquitex-acrylic-gloss-gel-medium.html
*  Canopy frizz - CurlTalk
... Hair. Canopy frizz 1 Likes. FuzzyMonster. FuzzyMonster. View Public Profile. Send a private message to FuzzyMonster. Find More Posts by FuzzyMonster. Join Date: Jul 2006 Posts: 268. # 1 : Canopy frizz. Sent from my SPH-D700 using CurlTalk App. Quote. PomegranateCurl. PomegranateCurl. View Public Profile. Send a private message to PomegranateCurl. Find More Posts by PomegranateCurl. Join Date: Feb 2013 Posts: 212. Friday, June 7, 2013 at 01:35PM. Some curlies finish their routine by using a hard-hold gel like BRHG only on the canopy, which helps w/ canopy frizz. Quote. View Public Profile. Send a private message to liquefiedstars. Find More Posts by liquefiedstars. Join Date: Jun 2013 Posts: 16. Friday, June 7, 2013 at 09:19PM. BRHG. Quote. View Public Profile. Send a private message to yossarian. Find More Posts by yossarian. Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 926. Friday, June 7, 2013 at 09:26PM. Salt pepper wavy mix 2B/2C Low to normal porosity, coarse, kinky, normal elasticity Current favorites: Low poo: Yes ...
http://naturallycurly.com/curltalk/general-discussion-about-curly-hair/159041-canopy-frizz.html
*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
... Pens >. Gel Pens. Gel Pens. Pens Refills & Inks Pencils Cases & Bags Paper Arts & Crafts Office Brands Blog New Arrivals. Vacuum Fill Ballpoint Pens. Colored. Needle-Point. Retractable Gel Pens. Needle-Point. Gel. Needle Point Tip. Erasable Ink. Diamine Ink. Lamy. Monteverde. Parker. Pelikan. Pilot. Platinum. Sailor. Staedtler. Add to Cart Pilot FriXion Ball Knock Retractable Gel Pen - 0.5 mm - Blue $3.80. Add to Cart Pilot FriXion Ball Knock Retractable Gel Pen - 0.5 mm - Black $3.80. Add to Cart Pilot Hi-Tec-C Gel Pen with Grip - 0.5 mm - Black - 10 Pen Set $32.00. 7 Add to Cart Uni-ball Signo UM-151 Gel Pen - 0.5 mm - Brown Black $2.50. Add to Cart Pilot FriXion Ball Knock Retractable Gel Pen - 0.5 mm - Red $3.80. 4 Add to Cart Pilot FriXion Ball Knock Retractable Gel Pen - 0.5 mm - Blue Black $3.80. Add to Cart Platinum Modern Maki-e Gel Roller Pen - 0.5 mm - Crane $66.00. 1 Add to Cart Pilot FriXion Ball Knock Retractable Gel Pen - 0.5 mm - Violet $3.80. Add to Cart Pentel EnerGel Tradio Needle-Poin...
http://jetpens.com/Gel-Pens/ct/239?ip=48&f=a4ac441aec235eb1cd5fbcfbc64dc408_fc002018027f9a29
*  Pyromellitamide gels
... multiple issues new types of gel s based on pyromellitamide molecules are currently being developed which will enable doctors to repair severed muscle s and spinal cord s in patients pyromellitamide gels for artificial muscles these types of artificial muscles are made possible by creating synthetic material s which are very similar to the ones which make up human tissues and cells these artificial materials are so similar that the body does not reject the material and instead allows normal cell growth in the materials which eventually become absorbed into the body what is a self assembled gel the gel molecule is composed of a tetra alkane benzene tetracarboxamide the gel structure is made up of millions of tiny fibres which form a d mesh by trapping a liquid in the same way that a sponge absorbs water to form a solid the unique feature of self assembled gels is that they don t require any chemical reaction s to form the fibres it is simply a case of heating them up in a liquid and waiting for them to se...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyromellitamide_gels
*  Gel electrophoresis
'Gel electrophoresis' is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules DNA, RNA and protein s and their fragments, based on their size and charge. It is used in clinical chemistry to separate proteins by charge and/or size IEF agarose, essentially size independent and in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate a mixed population of DNA and RNA fragments by length, to estimate the size of DNA and RNA fragments or to separate protein s by charge. 1 Nucleic acid molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through a matrix of agarose or other substances. Proteins are separated by charge in agarose because the pores of the gel are too large to sieve proteins. Proteins. Using an electric field, molecules such as DNA can be made to move through a gel made of agar or polyacrylamide. By placing the molecules in wells in the gel and applying an electric field, the molecules will move through the matrix at different rates, determined largely by their mas...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gel_electrophoresis
*  MisterArt.com More Ways To Shop: Top Rated | Shop Art Supplies, Craft Supplies
MisterArt.com More Ways To Shop: Top Rated. Shop Art Supplies, Craft Supplies. #1 Place for Craft Supplies, Art Supplies, Artist Materials and Kids Crafts. Adhesives Department. Airbrushing Department. Airbrush Mediums. Airbrush Paints. Airbrush Storage. Books Media. Architecture Drafting Department. Books Media. Modeling Materials. Books Media. Books Media Department. Drawing. Painting. Photography. Scrapbooking. Brushes Department. Acrylic Brushes. Cleaning. Decorative Brushes. Storage. Canvas Department. Accessories. Canvas Boards. Canvas Paper Pads. Ceramics Department. Books Media. Liquitex Gloss Gel can also be used as a transparent ground for acrylic paint, as an excellent glue for collage and decoupage, and as a binder for powdered pigments to make an inexpensive “student grade” thick gloss paint. When asking your question, please be as descriptive as possible, it will allow us to give you the most accurate answer possible. in Gaeta, Italy, AE I've been using Liquitex's clear gel medium for a few year...
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*  Gel-elution
gel elution gel elution hiranya roychowdhury hroychow at nmsu edu wed nov est previous message gel elution next message gel elution messages sorted by it is also possible to elute proteins from gel strips by reverse electrophoresis polymererize gel filling half of the sandwich place the gel pieces that contain the protein s of interest on the polymerized gel these are inserted into the sandwich with the help of a spacer or a spatula so that the strips sit evenly on the gel surface next fill up the remainder of the sandwich with stacking gel leaving about a couple of centimeters from the top empty let it polymerize run the gel with the usual buffer system but in reverse see the dye migrate upwards if the original gel was not stained stain the gel slices lightly with bpb prior to loading them as the stain reaches the top of the stack overlay the surface with ml depending on the thickness of the gel sandwich of x laemmli sample buffer w glycerol and collect the eluent every min with a syringe fitted with a or g ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/proteins/1995-November/003428.html
*  All Faculty | Duke Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
all faculty duke mechanical engineering and materials science jump to navigation duke mechanical engineering and materials science search this site secondary menu employment contacts pratt school of engineering main menu home about undergraduate graduate faculty research papers published trabbic carlson kimberly and setton lori a and chilkoti ashutosch swelling and mechanical behaviors of chemically cross linked hydrogels of elastin like polypeptides biomacromolecules vol no pp last updated on abstract genetically engineered elastin like polypeptides consisting of val pro gly x gly repeats where x was chosen to be lys every or pentapeptides otherwise x was val were synthesized and expressed in e coli purified and chemically cross linked using tris succinimidyl aminotriacetate to produce hydrogels swelling experiments indicate hydrogel mass decreases by gradually over an approximate c temperature range gels ranged in stiffness from to kpa at c and from to kpa at c depending on protein concentration lysine cont...
http://fds.duke.edu/db/pratt/mems/faculty/setton/publications/59951
*  Fix DNA in agarose gels?
fix dna in agarose gels fix dna in agarose gels colin rasmussen colin at pombe usask ca mon feb est previous message fix dna in agarose gels next message fix dna in agarose gels messages sorted by burkhard hassel wrote tracy jo litzi schrieb you can dry the gel on a gel dryer like they use for certain protein gels thinner gels are best bes but dried agarose gels are turbid i don t think you can do a laser scan with it afterwards the ones i ve seen are pretty clear like glass almost colin previous message fix dna in agarose gels next message fix dna in agarose gels messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-February/080854.html
*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  How do you store your gels? - General Lab Techniques
How do you store your gels. - General Lab Techniques. Top : Forum Archives : : General Lab Techniques How do you store your gels. To help me to solve this in the future, Could anyone tell me how to store the gels after the DNA run to prevent difusion. Should I keep it with my buffer in the fridge. if u leave it as it is, the bands will look diffuse. -scolix- i tend not to save them after running - maybe store your fresh gel in the fridge with some buffer and run the next day.... i have stored gels in the fridge with buffer for about 5 days no probs yet.... -aussieuk- QUOTE aussieuk Jul 19 2006, 05:58 AM i tend not to save them after running - maybe store your fresh gel in the fridge with some buffer and run the next day.... i have stored gels in the fridge with buffer for about 5 days no probs yet.... Why not take the picture straight after running the gel unless you need to excise the band. Storage of a fresh gel. Wrap in cling film and store in firdge but make sure fridge is not too cold or gel will ...
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*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  BeautyKat - Komenuka Bijin Eye Moisture Jell
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*  Elegance Gel, Elegance Gel Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com
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*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  McClean: Pouring Gels for Electrophoresis - OpenWetWare
... McClean: Pouring Gels for Electrophoresis From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search. Michael T. Patel Talk. contribs New page: ==Overview== The normal method of pouring gels wastes agarose if you only need to run a few lanes. Instead, by preparing gels on double-wide microscope slides, you're able to prolong the ... 1 Overview 2 Materials 3 Procedure 4 Notes 5 References 6 Contact. Overview. The normal method of pouring gels wastes agarose if you only need to run a few lanes. Instead, by preparing gels on double-wide microscope slides, you're able to prolong the life of your agarose stock by quite a while. Materials. Prepared Agarose 75 mm by 50 mm microscope slides Sigma CLS294775X50 or equivalent One 10 mL pipet Gel comb with 2" binder clips attached to each end A manual read: non-electric pipet filler. Procedure. After heating the agarose, let cool until warm, but not hot, to the touch similar to when we pour plates Meanwhile, adjust the comb so that it is just above th...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=McClean:_Pouring_Gels_for_Electrophoresis&diff=prev&oldid=663616
*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  www.arthritis-research.com - Figure
... Resolution: standard / high Figure 7. shRNA construct against matrix metalloproteinase 2 MMP-2 shMMP2 inhibits strengthening of collagen gels by annulus fibrosus AF cells. Parameters obtained from mechanical testing of collagen gels. a Rupture stress of collagen gels seeded with wild-type noninfected cells was significantly higher than that of acellular gels, gels populated with shNon-transduced cells, and gels populated with shMMP2-transduced cells P 0.05. b Short-term and c long-term moduli were lower in cell-seeded collagen gels but not significantly different from acellular gels. d Collagen gels seeded with cells possessed significantly lower viscous coefficients than did acellular gels P 0.05. Rastogi et al. Arthritis Research Therapy 2013 15 :R57 doi:10.1186/ar4224 Download authors' original image....
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*  Genomics - The Online Scientific Community - News
Scientific Community. New Sensor Tracks Zinc in Cells. The new MIT study supports this theory by showing that, although cancerous prostate cells can absorb zinc, the metal does not accumulate in the mitochondria, as it does in normal prostate cells. “We have had some success using proteins and peptides to target small molecule zinc sensors,” Radford says, “but most of the time the sensors get captured in acidic vesicles within the cell and become inactive.” Lippard’s team overcame that obstacle by making two changes: First, they installed a zinc-reactive protecting group, which altered the physical properties of the sensor and made it easier to target. The resulting sensor readily entered cells and allowed the researchers to visualize pools of mobile zinc within mitochondria. Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to: Exclusive articles Presentations from international conferences Over 2,600+ scientific posters on ePosters More than 3,800+ scientific videos on LabTube 35 community eNewsletters. Frid...
http://technologynetworks.com/Genomics/news.aspx?id=160577
*  bio-rad mini-protean III comments
... A.F. Simpson AFS7 at le.ac.uk. Thu May 11 14:52:17 EST 2000. Previous message: bio-rad mini-protean III comments Next message: bio-rad mini-protean III comments Messages sorted by:. Kevin Morano wrote: I'm setting up a new lab this year and am considering switching to Bio-Rad's new model III minigel units, having used their model IIs for quite some time. I have two main concerns: If you aren't constrained to buying Bio-Rad, I would suggest considering the Gibco-BRL Mini-V 8*10 tank. I switched from the Bio-Rad mini-protean II and much preferred the Gibco. The bast feature from my POV was the casting. Instead of a fiddly casting rig the plates are clipped together with bulldog clips and sealed at the bottom with an agarose plug. That's it - ready to pour as soon as the agarose has set about 30 seconds. This also means that multiple gels can be cast easily. Another set of gels can be ready to drop into the tank as soon as the first pair have finished running. The only drawback to the tanks I found is that ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-May/082974.html
*  Drying agarose gels
... mkbarnhart at uh.edu mkbarnhart at uh.edu. Wed Mar 24 12:09:08 EST 1999. Previous message: Drying agarose gels Next message: Plasmid drawing package. Messages sorted by:. Hi, You have another alternative. Try running a combination acrylamide/agarose gel. The composition is 3%-5% acrylamide and 0.5% agarose. These gels have been used to do gel shifts on splicing complexes. I've also used them to do gel shifts on relatively small RNAs and large protein complexes. To pour the gel, make up your acrylamide in 1/2 the total volume and 1/2 total volume of 1% agarose. Melt the agarose normally and allow to cool to about 50 degrees. Add your Ammonium persulfate, the agarose and then quickly pour the gel. The heat from the agarose will cause polymerization fairly quickly. Either run your gel slowly or in a cold room so the agarose doesn't melt. You can expose these gels wet. If your reaction is hot enough you can expose them for a couple of hours at 4 degrees C or if needed you can expose them o/n at -80C. If you ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1999-March/074479.html
*  Style Design Lab Rakuten Market Store | Rakuten Global Market: Dr.CiLabo Aqua Collagen Gel Enrich Li
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*  .. JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC: .. The FIRST and ONLY filler to corre
For more information, call Allergan Customer Service at 1-800-377-7790. Directions for Use Important Safety Information. JUV DERM VOLUMA. XC: The FIRST and ONLY filler to correct age-related volume loss in the midface for up to 2 years 1 1. JUV DERM VOLUMA XC Directions for Use, 2014. Register for access now. Forgot password. Please note: Documents are provided in Adobe Reader. format PDF. To view PDF documents, you must have the Adobe Reader. software installed on your computer. If you do not have Adobe Reader, you can download it from the Adobe. website. INDICATION JUV DERM VOLUMA XC injectable gel is indicated for deep subcutaneous and/or supraperiosteal injection for cheek augmentation to correct age-related volume deficit in the mid-face in adults over the age of 21. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION CONTRAINDICATIONS JUV DERM VOLUMA XC is contraindicated for patients with severe allergies, manifested by a history of anaphylaxis or history or presence of multiple severe allergies, and a history of allergies t...
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*  Clubman Pinaud Hard to Hold Styling Gel 16 oz.
... Site Map. About Us / Customer Care / FAQ. Privacy Policy. View Cart. Andis. Belson. Hot Tools. Oster. Wahl Clippers & Trimmers Search. Hair Care. Three Flowers Tres Flores by Clubman. Three Flowers After Shave Splash Classic Scent 6 oz. Three Flowers Brilliantine Styling Gel Regular Hold 16 oz. Clubman Baby Hair Lotion Concentrated 2 oz. Clubman Pinaud Hard to Hold Styling Gel 16 oz. 279255 Clubman Pinaud Hard to Hold Styling Gel 16 oz. Clubman Pinaud Hard to Hold Styling Gel 16 oz. Clubman Pinaud Hard to Hold Styling Gel 16 oz 279255. Shampoo, towel dry hair Apply a small amount Comb through to distribute evenly Blow dry or air dry Men's styling trends continue to be dominated by gels and pomades. Clubman Styling gel provides both. All Clubman Styling Gels are 100% Alcohol Free. Clubman Pinaud Regular Styling Gel 16 oz. Clubman Pinaud Clear Super Hold Styling Gel 16 oz. Clubman Pinaud Superhold Styling Gel 16 oz. Clubman Pinaud Regular Hold Travel Size 3.75 oz. Clubman Non Aerosol Supreme Styling & Groo...
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*  How to Make Gels
... Books HOME Policies Shipping and Returns. All Else Containers Ready to press or wear eyeshadow Ready to press or wear foundation Ready to wear or press blush. Makeup Containers PURCHASE BY THE CASE AND SAVE. Sets Clear Matte Black Matte Silver Other Shiny Black. Powder Presses Syringes, Measuring tools etc. Home How to Make a Gel. How to Make a Gel Make Gels and Cr me Gels We offer a very unique product called Naturajel sclerotium gum. This product allows you to formulate gels like no other gel base can. There is no other gel that you can mix oils into without separation. In other words is you use it at a level of 2% to make 100 grams that is 98 grams of water and 2 grams of Naturajel. Gels: 0.8-1.2% Thickening an emulsion 0.5-1.5% Obtaining a sprayable suspension: 0.5% Applications of extreme conditions: 1.0-2.0% To make a Cr me Gel or Gel with oil, mix your oils directly into your gel. Basic Base is now ready to use. Oils may be mixed directly into your gel. Vitamins: Oil soluble vitamins may be mixed ...
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*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
... Account. Log In. Go. Pens >. Gel Pens. Gel Pens. JetPens.com. Free USA Shipping on Orders over $25. Your Account Your Wish List Log In. Go. Cart $0.00. Pens Refills & Inks Pencils Cases & Bags Paper Arts & Crafts Office Brands Blog New Arrivals. Fountain Pens. Beginner. Calligraphy. Cartridge. Classic. Demonstrator. Disposable. Flex Nib. Industrial. Left-Handed. Luxury. Mini. Piston Fill. Retractable. Sets. Vacuum Fill Ballpoint Pens. Colored. Ergonomic. Executive. Mini. Needle-Point. Pressurized Ink. Retractable Gel Pens. Conical. Erasable. Executive. Metallic. Needle-Point. Retractable. Scented. Sets Multi Pens. + Pencil. 1 Pen +. 2 Pens +. 3 Pens +. 4 Pens +. Pen Functions Only. Rollerball Pens. Conical Tip. Needle Point Tip Brush Pens. Calligraphy Pens. Metal Tip. Comic / Manga Pens. Nib Holders. Nibs & Nib Replacements. Comic Inks Markers & Felt Tip Pens. Fluorescent Ink. Erasable Ink. Soft Ink. Pen Parts & Accessories. Bottled Inks. Diamine Ink. J Herbin. Kaweco. Kuretake. Lamy. Monteverde. Parker....
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*  Why is EB added into RNA loading buffer? - General Lab Techniques
Why is EB added into RNA loading buffer. - General Lab Techniques. . BioJob. BioBlog. PubAlert. BioTool. BioProduct. BioForum. Protocol. Home. Forum Index Home. Live Discussion. Top : Forum Archives : : General Lab Techniques Why is EB added into RNA loading buffer. - Sep/28/2006 I have purchased the PROMEGA's in vitro transcription kit. In the Protocol, there is saying that ethidium bromide was one the components of RNA loading buffer. Why. Why not to add EB into the agarose gel to make RNA seen. And in the Molecular Cloning 3rd edition, there wasn't EB in any of the loading buffers. -annezhu- To be honest, I don't like the idea of EB in my loading buffer at all. By the time it sits around on the bench for weeks it won't be doing much anyway. They probably use it because it helps disassemble proteins. I couldn't be sure, I can't imagine them using enough in their loading buffer to matter at all. -mandolin- EB works by intercalating between base pairs. Since RNA is single stranded you ...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/20595.html
*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  Alternative Energy: Do Energy Gels, Protein Bars, and Supplements Really Enhance Your Workout? | Fit
Alternative Energy: Do Energy Gels, Protein Bars, and Supplements Really Enhance Your Workout. Weight Loss. 30-Day Running Challenge: 30 Ways to #RunForFun. Healthy Eating. Healthy Eating. More in Healthy Eating. "I feel better the next day; I'm less sore, less achy, and I have more energy." Still, she doesn't really understand the science behind the supplements. "It sends energy in the form of glycogen to your muscles to keep them working." Many gels can also be a significant source of caffeine — good because studies show that caffeine improves endurance performance and focus, not so good if you wash those gels down with certain sports beverages, a number of which also contain large doses of the substance. "For most women, a healthy diet and rehydrating with water is enough," Clark says. Along with energy bars and gels, recovery shakes are an increasingly popular postexercise supplement; they contain protein powders, that, blended with water or milk, help repair and rebuild muscles after a strenuous workout....
http://fitnessmagazine.com/mind-body/supplements/do-energy-gels-and-supplements-really-work/
*  Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack
... Hybrid/Commuters/Cruisers Mountain Bikes Road Bikes Single-Speed & Fixed Gear Bikes Specialty Bikes. Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack. Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack Item # CF-S24N. Clif Bar - 12 Pack. Features Specs Customer Reviews Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack No more excuses. REVIEW SNAPSHOT by PowerReviews. Clif Bar Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack. 4.5 based on 13 reviews. 92% of respondents would recommend this to a friend. Pros. Cons. No Cons. Best Uses. Road biking 8 Mountain biking 6 Extreme sports 5 Commuting/city 3. Reviewer Profile: Avid cyclist 11. Cycling Style: Speed oriented 10, Comfort oriented 3. Was this a gift?: No 12. Write a Review. Reviewed by 13 customers Sort by Newest Oldest Highest rating Lowest rating Most helpful Least helpful. Displaying reviews 1-10 Back to top. Comments about Clif Bar Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack : Mighty tasty, but messy and sticky when using on the go. Comments about Clif Bar Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack : I have always loved the taste of these mocha s...
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*  Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack
... Hybrid/Commuters/Cruisers Mountain Bikes Road Bikes Single-Speed & Fixed Gear Bikes Specialty Bikes. Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack. Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack Item # CF-S24N. Clif Bar - 12 Pack. Features Specs Customer Reviews Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack No more excuses. REVIEW SNAPSHOT by PowerReviews. Clif Bar Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack. 4.5 based on 13 reviews. 92% of respondents would recommend this to a friend. Pros. Cons. No Cons. Best Uses. Road biking 8 Mountain biking 6 Extreme sports 5 Commuting/city 3. Reviewer Profile: Avid cyclist 11. Cycling Style: Speed oriented 10, Comfort oriented 3. Was this a gift?: No 12. Write a Review. Reviewed by 13 customers Sort by Newest Oldest Highest rating Lowest rating Most helpful Least helpful. Comments about Clif Bar Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack : Mighty tasty, but messy and sticky when using on the go. Comments about Clif Bar Clif Shot Energy Gel - 24 Pack : I have always loved the taste of these mocha shots, unlike some other nutritional s...
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*  Pilot G 2 Retractable Gel Pens 1.0 mm Bold Point Smoke Barrels Blue Ink Pack Of 12 by Office Depot &
Pilot G 2 Retractable Gel Pens 1.0 mm Bold Point Smoke Barrels Blue Ink Pack Of 12 by Office Depot OfficeMax. 800-GO-DEPOT. Office Depot Business Solution. Office Depot Business Solution. Order by Item #. Recommended Products. Office Supplies. Copy & Print. Product Plans & Leasing Options Page of There are no items in your cart. 207037 Pilot. Office Supplies. Pens. Gel Pens. This item is in your cart Pilot G-2 Retractable Gel Pens, 1.0 mm, Bold Point, Smoke Barrels, Blue Ink, Pack Of 12 Pilot G-2 Retractable Gel Pens, 1.0 mm, Bold Point, Smoke Barrels, Blue Ink, Pack Of 12 5 1 5 10 Reviews. Item # 207037 OfficeMax # 21513122 Long-lasting gel ink is smooth and smearproof. Quantity. Related Items. Back to Menu. Product Details Item # 207037. Grip Gel, G-2, LTD Executive Q7 Pens, Fine Point, 0.7 mm, Black, Pack Of 2 Item # 772141. Grip Gel, G-2, LTD Executive Q7 Pens, Fine Point, 0.7 mm, Black, Pack Of 2 Item # 772141. Grip Gel, G-2, LTD Executive Q7 Pens, Fine Point, 0.7 mm, Blue, Pack Of 2 Item # 526587. Grip ...
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*  experimental - What would cause proteins to get stuck in the stacking layer of a SDS-Page gel - Biol
... ogy Stack Exchange. Biology. Biology Meta. Stack Exchange. sign up log in tour. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Biology Questions. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. It's 100% free, no registration required. What would cause proteins to get stuck in the stacking layer of a SDS-Page gel. Typically when proteins aggregate, they will get stuck at the top of the well. Without the Cu I, the proteins run normally. Returning to the original question, what would cause a protein to stop at the stacking layer vs. This unfortunately still doesn't differentiate between proteins stuck at the combs vs stuck at the stacking layer. sds-page experimental share. improve this question. Is the proteing entering the stacking gel OK but getting stuck at the border of the stacking and resolving gels. What are the % of the resolving and stacking gels. @TomD, we're...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/3279/what-would-cause-proteins-to-get-stuck-in-the-stacking-layer-of-a-sds-page-gel/3312
*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  Jell
... may refer to gel an apparently solid jelly like material gelatin dessert also known as jelly a sweet or savoury food gel...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jell
*  Sephadex
... is a trademark for cross linked dextran gel used for gel filtration it was launched by pharmacia in after development work by jerker porath and per flodin accessed on june gel filtration a method for desalting and group separation nature vol s the name is derived from se paration pha rmacia dex tran it is normally manufactured in a bead form and most commonly used for gel filtration columns by varying the degree of cross linking the fractionation properties of the gel can be altered these highly specialized gel filtration and chromatographic media are composed of macroscopic beads synthetically derived from the polysaccharide dextran the organic chains are cross linked to give a three dimensional network having functional ionic groups attached by ether linkages to glucose units of the polysaccharide chains available forms include anion and cation exchangers as well as gel filtration resins with varying degrees of porosity bead sizes fall in discrete ranges between and µm applications fractionation see al...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sephadex
*  Problem with Polyacrylamide gel
... Bean Long via methods%40net.bio.net by ben.long from yourfinger.anu.edu.au Sun May 13 23:51:09 EST 2007. Previous message: long PCR Next message: Problem with Polyacrylamide gel Messages sorted by:. DK wrote: In article 1178873864.366594.161010 from w5g2000hsg.googlegroups.com, StewJW stewjw from gmail.com wrote: Use Invitrogen Midi or smaller mini precast gels and save a lot of time. See: http://invitrogen.com/content.cfm?pageid=10080 This is a non-solution. What do you think would happen if for every trivial. problem like polymerizing AA gel you suggest buying a product that. bypasses the problem altogether. What's next. - Hire a writer to write a grant for me. My 2 cents... Pre-cast gels, like almost every product you can get from Life Sciences companies, are an example of scientific progress that makes life easier and avoids unneeded time wasting ans stuff-ups. Why bother pouring your own when in the same time it takes you to clean the plates, make up the solutions, pour the gel, let it set, pour the...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2007-May/102076.html
*  Gel Pens - JetPens.com
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*  14 Things to do if You Feel Tired and Sore After Working Out
... Healthy Family. Health and Wealth. Get the SixWise e-Newsletter FREE. SixWise.com Web. You are here : Newsletters. 14 Things to do if You Feel Tired and Sore After Working Out. Previous Newsletters. Free Newsletter Subscription Get the Web's Most trusted Informative Health, Wealth, Safety More Newsletter -- FREE. Products. 14 Things to do if You Feel Tired and Sore After Working Out by www.SixWise.com. It's normal to feel the burn during your workout, but afterward you should feel energized -- not tired and sore. What causes sore muscles and fatigue after a workout. Many things, but often it occurs because you've exerted yourself and your body needs time to adjust. This type of soreness, called delayed-onset muscles soreness DOMS, is more likely to happen when you've just intensified your workout or started a new activity. With DOMS, you may think you're out of the woods, and then be hit with muscles soreness, stiffness, weakness and fatigue. Meanwhile, energy-wise it's possible to still be feeling the b...
http://sixwise.com/newsletters/07/07/11/14-things-to-do-if-you-feel-tired-and-sore-after-working-out.htm
*  RunningAHEAD - Topic: Gu/gel
... posted: 1/29/2013 at 10:17 PM I know I'm not there yet as far as needing them, but when are they most useful and what are some good brands. posted: 1/29/2013 at 10:21 PM I use Gu and PowerGel from time to time. Go figure. posted: 1/30/2013 at 1:21 AM I like the SiS gels. is to figure out when to take them. posted: 1/30/2013 at 7:01 AM I don't use them much in training but do use them in races. The Gu is so thick it takes a lot of effort for me to get it down, so I don't really like it but will sometimes take it if they're giving it out during the race. posted: 1/30/2013 at 8:53 AM Gu is used during most races, they must have a good gig with race directors or something. But I don't actually like the Gu brand very much. I prefer the products from Hammer nutrition, especially their chocolate "gel" it tastes like chocolate frosting. posted: 1/30/2013 at 10:15 AM modified: 1/30/2013 at 10:15 AM And some flavors from pretty much all brands these days will have caffeine and others won't. posted: 1/30/2013 at 10...
http://runningahead.com/forums/post/1d45239254444d97bcb131bbea18540c
*  .. Less Is More: Ruby Kisses HD Gel Eyeliner VS Bobbi Brown Longwear Gel Eyeliner
you are here home all things rk less is more ruby kisses hd gel eyeliner vs bobbi brown longwear gel eyeliner less is more ruby kisses hd gel eyeliner vs bobbi brown longwear gel eyeliner september by rubyadmin comment as far as we are concerned less is more especially when it comes to the price of your cosmetics in this latest installment of less is more our hd gel eyeliner goes toe to toe with an award winning favorite bobbi brown longewear gel liner bb s liner retails for the rk version â a mere how s that for a price drop you can get the look of a liquid with the ease and feel of a gel just by dipping your brush into our creamy formula the formula brushes on effortlessly with control and precision â long wearing and water resistant this is one liner that won t break your piggy bank with vibrant shades a smooth formula and rocking price tag we think we have a winning combination if you enjoyed this post please consider leaving a comment or subscribing to the rss feed to have future articles delivered to yo...
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*  Anomalous runs on the ABI 377
anomalous runs on the abi anomalous runs on the abi m m thu aug est previous message abiprism sequencing problems next message has anyone cut their own abi plates messages sorted by hi i need a little help with the abi and genescan analysis these days i am trying to run more then one genescan gel per day the gel that i run in the morning runs fine but then when i try to run another gel on the same set of plates after washing them i start getting problems it seems that the migration of the fragments on the second gel is invariably slower and so the size of the fragments that i get is greater on the second gel this is without changing anything else including the buffer and the acrylamide i am stymied and do not understand what i am doing wrong or what to do it seems like the sequencer gets tired by the end of the day so the migration anomaly if anyone has experienced a similar problem and found out how to solve it please let me know as i am pressed for time and have to get a lot of data out as soon as possible ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/autoseq/1997-August/000761.html
*  DailyTech - Anti-HIV Gel for Women May Cut Chances of Infection in Half
... Science Anti-HIV Gel for Women May Cut Chances of Infection in Half Tiffany Kaiser. Could contribute an almost 30-year campaign against AIDS Researchers may have found a HIV preventative gel, which contains an AIDS drug already on the market, that could decrease a woman's chances of getting HIV in half. The study was led by Quarraisha Abdool Karim and Salim Abdool Karim from the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa CAPRISA in Durban. Over a three year period, these women were asked to apply the gel, which contains a mixture of antiretroviral drugs and a one percent formulation of tenofovir that interrupts the reproduction of HIV in immune cells, with a vaginal applicator within a 12 hour window before intercourse and within a 12 hour window after intercourse. In comparison to the placebo group, those who used the microbicide reduced the risk of HIV by 39 percent overall. "Without this gel, we may see 10 women becoming infected in a year," said Salim Abdool Karim. "With this gel, we w...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=19089&commentid=599605&threshhold=1&red=3056
*  Extra band following gel purification?
extra band following gel purification extra band following gel purification matt huentelman huentelm at phys med ufl edu wed may est previous message help needed with three fragment ligation next message extra band following gel purification messages sorted by after doing a double digestion with bamh and mlu i gel purified quiagen a product of approximately kb however when i ran it on a gel following purification i saw an additional band that was at a higher concentration but a smaller mass does anyone know what this band could be and can i still use my purification product for cloning thanks previous message help needed with three fragment ligation next message extra band following gel purification messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2000-May/082954.html
*  Products | Bellissima Gel UK
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*  black dots.
black dots black dots vdrover at kean ucs mun ca vdrover at kean ucs mun ca wed sep est previous message tractor a t track location program next message use of bsa in emsa supershifts messages sorted by we routinely filter our acrylamide solution sans temed and aps and this seems to work well another practice is to coat your plates with rain away a water repellent from canadian tire it seems to work like sigmacote but is much cheaper and gives smooth pouring gels an unevenly poured gel may be part of the problem producing the black dots previous message tractor a t track location program next message use of bsa in emsa supershifts messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1994-September/018190.html
*  Free Flow Electrophoresis
... redirect free flow electrophoresis...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Flow_Electrophoresis

Pulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Collagen gel contraction assay: The collagen gel contraction assay is a type of wound contraction. It is performed using the dermal equivalent model, which consists of dermal fibroblasts seeded into a collagen gel.Electrophoresis (disambiguation): Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry: Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique formed by the combination of the liquid separation process of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. CE-MS combines advantages of both CE and MS to provide high separation efficiency and molecular mass information in a single analysis.Two-dimensional gel electrophoresisHoming endonuclease: The homing endonucleases are a collection of endonucleases encoded either as freestanding genes within introns, as fusions with host proteins, or as self-splicing inteins. They catalyze the hydrolysis of genomic DNA within the cells that synthesize them, but do so at very few, or even singular, locations.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Coles PhillipsAmplified fragment length polymorphismThermal cyclerBacitracinInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.RAPD: RAPD (pronounced "rapid") stands for 'Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA'. It is a type of PCR reaction, but the segments of DNA that are amplified are random.SCCmec: SCCmec, or staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, is a mobile genetic element of Staphylococcus bacterial species. This genetic sequence includes the mecA gene coding for resistance to the antibiotic methicillin and is the only known way for Staphylococcus strains to spread the gene in the wild by horizontal gene transfer.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.George Albert II, Margrave of BrandenburgSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Serum protein electrophoresisDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Genetic variation: right|thumbBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Enterococcus faecium: Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus. It can be commensal (innocuous, coexisting organism) in the human intestine, but it may also be pathogenic, causing diseases such as neonatal meningitis or endocarditis.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Serratia infection: Serratia infection refers to a disease caused by a species in the genus Serratia.Beta-lactamaseGijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.Escherichia coli O121: Escherichia coli O121 is a serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals.http://www.Global microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Size-exclusion chromatography: Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight. It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers.Interleukin 12: Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.Campylobacter jejuni: Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacterium commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Capillary action through synthetic mesh: Capillary action through synthetic mesh is the result of the intermolecular attraction between moisture and semi-synthetic polymers, causing a current of thermionic energy through a specific pathway within a mesh material. The combination of the adhesive forces and the surface tension that arises from cohesion produces the characteristic upward curve in a fluid, such as water.Bologna sausageCampylobacteriosisVancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus refers to strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin.Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection: Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection may result in orbital cellulitis or facial erysipelas in neonates.Chicken as biological research model: Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their eggs have been used extensively as research models throughout the history of biology. Today they continue to serve as an important model for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Bacteremia: (NOS) |Bismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Restriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Chromosome regionsLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Immunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis is a general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies. All variants of immunoelectrophoresis require immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, reacting with the proteins to be separated or characterized.Affinity chromatography: Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.

(1/4241) Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group.

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

(2/4241) Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications.

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

(3/4241) Epidemiological characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the North West of England by protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) gene polymorphisms.

In a comparative study, isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage type were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) for additional discriminatory subtyping information. PFGE was previously performed using standardized, commercially available kits and pre-programmed software. Isolates were examined for coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms following PCR amplification of the coa hypervariable and spa repeat regions. Coa gene RFLPs produced a total of 38 distinct combined patterns after digestion with HaeIII and AluI and identified the predominant epidemic (EMRSA) types 15 and 16. A unique HaeIII restriction site was identified by RFLP and sequence analysis in the coa gene for EMRSA 15 but not EMRSA 16. The spa gene PCR yielded a total of 14 different profiles ranging from 3-18 repeats with the 2 predominant EMRSA types falling into 2 distinct groups. PCR detection of coa and spa polymorphisms offer a rapid preliminary strain identification and discriminatory subtyping information for surveillance of MRSA.  (+info)

(4/4241) Evaluation of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction fragments in the discrimination of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3.

One hundred and six Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, biotype 4 isolated from human and porcine samples in 1984 and in the years 1993 5 were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genomic profiles produced by the enzymes NotI and XbaI were studied. Sixteen (A-P) and 8 (1-8) different pulsotypes were obtained, respectively. By combining the pulsotypes produced by both NotI and XbaI 24 different types were distinguished. The two major types, designated as A1 and B1, comprised 36% of all strains tested. The proportions of pulsotypes A1 and B1 were, 35.9 and 25.6%, respectively, among strains isolated in 1984. The corresponding figures among the strains isolated in 1993-5 were 35.8 and 41.8%. Nine pulsotypes were found only in 1984 and nine only in 1993-5. The proportions of the major pulsotypes, A1 and B1, in human isolates were 42.9 and 35.7% and in porcine isolates 22.2 and 36.1% respectively. Six types were found among both human and porcine isolates, 8 only among human strains and 10 only among porcine strains.  (+info)

(5/4241) Genomic complexity among strains of the facultative photoheterotrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis following the use of rare cutting restriction endonucleases together with Southern hybridization, using markers distributed on chromosomes I and II of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1, has been used to examine approximately 25 strains of R. sphaeroides in an effort to assess the occurrence of genome complexity in these strains. The results suggest that genome complexity is widespread and is accompanied by substantial genomic heterogeneity.  (+info)

(6/4241) Analysis with a combination of macrorestriction endonucleases reveals a high degree of polymorphism among Bordetella pertussis isolates in eastern France.

From 1990 to 1996, routine screening for whooping cough identified 399 patients with a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase-positive test result and yielded 69 Bordetella pertussis isolates. None of the patients were fully vaccinated, and most were less than 6 months old. Analysis of total DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after XbaI, SpeI, or DraI macrorestriction yielded 19, 15, and 5 different patterns, respectively, whereas ribotyping failed to demonstrate any strain polymorphism. Discrimination among the isolates was improved by combining the PFGE profiles. Some patterns were more frequent, but the corresponding patients were not clearly epidemiologically related. The patterns for two strains obtained during a 3-month period from patients who were neighbors differed by the length of a single DNA fragment. These data strongly suggest that one type of isolate is widely spread throughout the world and is carried by individuals other than patients who develop a true illness.  (+info)

(7/4241) DNA banding pattern polymorphism in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and criteria for defining strains.

The degree of DNA banding pattern polymorphism exhibited by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREM) strains isolated on a renal unit over an 11-month period was investigated. Thirty VREM strains from different patients were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE; with extended run and optimal pulse times), ribotyping, plasmid profile analysis, biotyping, pyrolysis mass spectrometry, and antibiogram analysis. PFGE resolved 17 banding patterns which formed four distinct clusters at the 82% similarity level. Intercluster band differences ranged from 14 to 31 bands. The strains in one cluster, which contained seven patterns that differed from each other by one to seven bands and from the common pattern by five bands, were confirmed to be a single strain by four of the five other typing methods. The strains in a second cluster with eight patterns, which differed from each other by 1 to 12 bands, contained two subclusters. This subdivision was supported by ribotyping and biotyping. However, it was unclear whether these subclusters represented distinct strains. In one strain, marked polymorphism (patterns that differed from each other by up to four bands) was observed in the ribotype pattern. This study demonstrates the high degree of DNA banding pattern polymorphism found for some strains of VREM and illustrates the complexity involved in defining such strains.  (+info)

(8/4241) Evidence for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci colonizing intravascular devices.

Nasal surveillance cultures were performed for 54 patients exhibiting >/=10(3) CFU of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci per ml in central venous catheter (CVC) rinse cultures over a 6-month period. Forty-two of the nasal cultures yielded growth of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 33 of the 42 cultures contained organisms that belonged to the same species as the CVC isolates. Of the 33 same-species isolates, 20 appeared to be identical strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. These data suggest that measures should be taken to reduce cross-contamination between the respiratory tract and intravascular devices. However, the potential interest in detecting methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus carriage in high-risk patients is hampered by the lack of sensitivity of nasal surveillance cultures.  (+info)


How to apply gel eyeliner without smudging your eyelid or lower lids?


Hi, I've recently started using gel eyeliner ( I use Mac gel eyeliner) when I apply it everything looks good but after a minute there would be a smudge on my eyelid and lower lids. I don't really like it cause it makes my eyes look unclean... Any suggestions? Thx!
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I haven't used the Mac one before, but the gel liner I've tried is Maybelline's gel liner and it's really good. It doesn't smudge on my eyelid or crease at all, and considering that I have oily monolids, this is a good thing. You can try  a primer, or an eyeshadow base beneath it to make sure it doesn't smudge.


What is the gel-like stuff that sometimes congeals around chicken?


What is the gel-like stuff that sometimes congeals in little bits around chicken if you refrigerate it after cooking it? (Good chicken, not old, and it's not mold). I think the gelatin stuff is disgusting looking & it grosses me out, but what IS that stuff?
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I know what you're talking about.  It's that semi-transparent gelled stuff.  

Well... Believe it or not... That's gelatin (collagen).

Gelatin is naturally occurring in connective tissue, skin and bones.  In fact, the packaged gelatin products (like Jell-O) make gelatin by boiling down bones, skin and leftover parts of animals.

Edit... I have to disagree with the other answers that it's chicken fat.  Cold chicken fat will form yellowish-whitish solid chunks.  The stuff the question is referring to is the semi-transparent gel that forms around the joints.


What's the difference between gel nails and acrylic nails?


And do gel nails damage the natural nails as much as acrylic or no? What's the pros and cons about gel nails?
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Acrylic nails are applied using a monomer (the 'liquid'), and a polymer (the 'powder'). The two ingredients are combined and the resulting bead of soft acrylic is placed into your nails and shaped into an artificial nail enhancement. Acrylic hardens by exposure to room temperature air in about 2 minutes for most brands. Acrylic is the most common form of nail enhancement offered in salons. If the tech uses cheap acrylic products, then the result is usually shoddy looking nails that yellow very easily, and look very fake. This usually happens in the cheaper salons, though I have seen it in higher end salons as well. It's always best yo use top of the line nail products when doing either acrylic, or gel nails on someone. The end result is usually so much better looking, and longer lasting than with cheap products.
UV gel nails are made from chemicals which are part of the acrylic family, but are different in a few ways. The most noticable difference is that the nail gels themselves are in fact not powder - as many people believe it is, but instead it is? You guessed it, UV nail gels are a gel! They look exactly as the name implies, like a 'gel.' Here is a pic of what top of the line UV gels look like. Notice they are NOT a powder!
http://www.cnd.com/Home/homelink-consume…
The gels are applied to your nails in several thinly applied layers, and each and every layer MUST be cured under a UV lamp for about 2 minutes each. This is quite different from the way acrylic nails harden - by exposure to air. Gel doesn't cure by exposing it to air. It uses the UV light emitted from the UV lamp to start the process of polymerization, and cure into the finished product. This takes place in 2 minutes - normally. Some brands need to cure for 3 minutes.
To sum it up, UV gel nails are non-yellowing, non-toxic, and quite durable as well. They are also much more realistic looking than acrylic nails are, and you can go a bit longer between fills. But beware if you choose to get this type of nail. First, many discount salons (avoid these places at all costs!) will apply acrylic nails, then apply a thin layer of gel over the top and call them gel nails. Well, they are not gel nails, but rather they are acrylic nails. And you will get charged the higher gel nail price. That is a scam that happens all the time to unsuspecting girls/women. Then, these people will leave thinking they have gel nails. This is why there are so many misconceptions about real gel nails vs. fake. I've seen it before - ask the question on here "How do I remove GEL nails." and everyone will tell you to soak them in polish remover, or acetone. If you got scammed and got acrylic nails instead of gels, then yes, they will soak off easily. And this is what happened to many people, so they think this is how they are removed. BUT, this is far from the truth. UV Gel nails are NOT soaked off. They cannot be due to their being non-porous. Thus, they are not affected by acetone or any other solvents. UV gel nails must be filed off. There is no other way to remove them. Anyone who tells you they had their 'gel' nails soaked off had acrylic nails, and not gel. Don't let that happen to you.


How long can I have Gel overlays on my finger nails for?


I have been having gel overlays on my hands now for 2 months, and have the longest strongest nails in years. But I know if I was to have them removed my nails would just snap off, am I ok to keep the overlays up?
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I think the only things that would prevent you from continuing with gel overlays would be if you had a nail injury, if you became allergic to the components of the gel overlay, if you contracted a fungal infection under the gel, or if you couldn't afford them any longer.  If you are getting the overlay done by someone you trust and they are using proper sanitation techniques, you shouldn't have a problem.  Just keep monitoring for signs of possible infection, green or black discoloration under the overlay, but otherwise, enjoy!


What shaving gel and aftershave gel or balm do you reccomend?


I use Gillette shaving gel and aftershave gel all the time but I want to try something else. I heard Nivea shaving gel and aftershave balm is good and I also heard L'Oréal Men's Expert aftershave is good too. What would you recommend? Thanks!
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Sainsbury's and Avon ! ! !


How do I prevent gel eyeliner from smudging off my waterline?


I use black waterproof gel liner. I apply it with a eyeliner brush and put it on my waterline. How do I keep it from coming off / smudging?
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First, go along your waterline with a q-tip, to get the moistness off first. Then, apply the gel eyeliner. After you're done applying it, go over it with some black eye shadow.


Whats the difference between Shower gel and Bodyspray?


I've always said Shower gel makes your skin smell good while bodyspray made your clothes smell good. My friend says that isnt the case. Someone wanna explain the differences? Also, I take showers at night so would i be able to use shower gel at night, sleep, then still have the smell for the rest of the day? Basically, how long does Shower gel and bodyspray last?

Thanks.
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Shower Gel is what you use to wash your body, bodyspray is scented perfume/cologne type spray you apply after showering so you will smell good and it may/may not act as a deoderant.

The original scent may fade anytime between a few minutes and a few hours. It all depends on what your doing (physical activity, sweating will kill the scent fast), how much you applied, and how strong the scent is.


What's the difference between gel nails and acrylic nails other than gel nails cost more to get and to fill?


I have acrylic nails but was considering gel nails. I saw a pic of them and they were really pretty, but other than them being pretty, are there other advantages??
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http://skincare.lovetoknow.com/Gel_Nails_Acrylic_Nails
That's a whole article about the pros and cons. :)