Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles: Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.PiperazinesGenes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.IndiaTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.QuinolinesChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.UzbekistanRhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

*  Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas Steitz, and Ada Yonath win 2009 Nobel Prize in...
... for SBDD of new and effective drugs in the race against resistance development among bacterial ... resolution structures of drug targets and their resistance mutants are used to create novel drugs, ... Finally, how antibiotic drugs and ribosomal mutations can tune the accuracy of codon reading up or ... The ribosome is the target for about 50% of all antibacterial drugs to date, and the advent of high ......
http://scienceblogs.com/terrasig/2009/10/07/venkatraman-ramakrishnan-thoma/
*  BioSpace - Print News Article
... is specific to a single type of bacteria and does not cause the side effects or drug resistance ... Combination therapy is required for the treatment of life threatening bacterial and viral diseases ... The Lysins in the agreement cover drug-resistant staph (MRSA) as well as group B streptococcus, ... This combined approach is of particular importance in treating drug-resistant bacteria. Dr. ......
http://biospace.com/news_print.aspx?NewsEntityId=203050
*  Marine Drugs | Special Issue : Marine Chitin and Chitosan
Marine Drugs, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. ... produce cytokines and other compounds that confer non-specific host resistance against bacterial ... Contact Details Submit to Marine Drugs Edit a special issue Review for Marine Drugs ... to develop crosslinked drug loaded microspheres to improve the control over drug release. Once the ......
http://mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs/special_issues/chitin-chitosan
*  Dihydropteroate synthase from Streptococcus pneumoniae: structure, ligand...
2000) Sulfonamide resistance: mechanisms and trends. Drug Resist. Update 3:155-160. ... 1997) Crystal structure of the anti-bacterial sulfonamide drug target dihydropteroate synthase. Nat ... Two mutations which confer resistance to sulfonamide drugs do not affect DHPPP binding, but have a ... and that mutations which confer resistance to sulfonamide drugs act exclusively on the second step ......
http://biochemj.org/content/412/2/379
*  The hazards of horizontal gene transfer - Biology Online
... and spreading drug and antibiotic resistance among the pathogens, were both foreseen by the ... Geneticists have confirmed that the diseases are due to new viral and bacterial strains that have ... Antibiotic resistance marker genes may spread to bacteria in the mouth, as the mouth contains ... Antibiotic resistance marker genes may spread to bacteria in the environment, which then serves as ......
http://biology-online.org/articles/unregulated-hazards-naked-free-nucleic-acids/hazards-horizontal-gene-transfer.html
*  The Poor Mouth: August 2010
... replace the antibiotics that have been rendered relatively useless because of bacterial resistance ... Here's a good argument for conservation (How many potential drugs have we lost because of our ... Hopefully the secretions will give rise o powerful new drugs that will ... had been dragged to the floor and were being beaten.. "The two on the floor were in danger of being ......
http://thepoormouth.blogspot.com/2010_08_01_archive.html
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Theories - Origin of Life
... and epidemiology of bacterial resistance.. It notes. Tetracycline resistance is often due to the ... lose accumulated drug faster than susceptible cells do and that tetracycline enters the bacterial ... Antibiotic resistance is often used to show that the development of this resistance in humans is a ... Example: antibiotic resistance.' And your response is, 'this bacterium got antibiotic resistance ......
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about14351.html?p=145016&hilit=Delivers
*  BBC NEWS | Health | UK considers antibiotic policy
The over-use of antibiotics has been blamed for many bacteria developing resistance to the drugs. ... Doctors were told in 1998 to curb antibiotic use amid concern about growing bacterial resistance. ... Flu drug 'may cut pneumonia risk' 23 May 02 , Health Boost for pneumonia vaccine 08 May 02 , Health ... This followed advice from the Specialist Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance (SACAR) ......
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3323571.stm
*  MULTI DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA |authorSTREAM
Mechanisms of Resistance: Efflux Active, energy dependent pumps cause efflux of drugs Bacterial ... Multiple drug resistance: Multiple drug resistance Multiple drug resistance or Multidrug resistance ... Settings that Promote Drug Resistance: Settings that Promote Drug Resistance Day-care centers Long ... Multi-resistance : Multi-resistance Multi-resistance Multi-resistance to different antibiotics ......
http://authorstream.com/Presentation/doctorrao-871301-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria/
*  Ethiopia | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
According to the recent national TB drug resistance surveillance report, 2.3% of new TB cases and ... Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which ... The WHO Essential Drugs and Medicines (EDM) programme in Ethiopia contributes towards the ... Abraham Gebreghiorgis, Essential Drugs & Medicines gebregiorgisa@who.int. Dr. Yohannes Kebede, ......
http://afro.who.int/countries/ethiopia
*  Complications of Steroid-resistant asthma - RightDiagnosis.com
... About Us Bookmark this page. HOME SYMPTOMS DISEASES DIAGNOSIS VIDEOS TOOLS COMMUNITY MISDIAGNOSIS DOCTORS HOSPITALS DRUGS. Steroid-resistant asthma Introduction Steroid-resistant asthma: Introduction Summary Overview: Steroid-resistant asthma Types of Steroid-resistant asthma. Symptoms Symptoms of Steroid-resistant asthma. Complications of Steroid-resistant asthma. Diagnosis Diagnostic Tests for Steroid-resistant asthma Home Diagnostic Testing for Steroid-resistant asthma. Signs of Steroid-resistant asthma. Misdiagnosis Misdiagnosis of Steroid-resistant asthma. Undiagnosed Steroid-resistant asthma. Causes Causes of Steroid-resistant asthma. Treatments Treatments for Steroid-resistant asthma. Prognosis of Steroid-resistant asthma. Doctors and Medical Specialists for Steroid-resistant asthma. Cure Research for Steroid-resistant asthma. Community Videos related to Steroid-resistant asthma. Statistics Hospital Statistics for Steroid-resistant asthma. Reference Glossary for Steroid-resistant asthma. Assessmen...
http://rightdiagnosis.com/s/steroid_resistant_asthma/complic.htm
*  Researchers using novel method to combat malaria drug resistance // News // Today@ND // University o
... f Notre Dame. Researchers using novel method to combat malaria drug resistance // News // Today@ND // University of Notre Dame. Skip To Content. Skip To Navigation. University of Notre Dame. Office of University Relations. Today@ND. Search Search. Subscribe to Today@ND. Home. News. Researchers using novel method to combat malaria drug resistance. Researchers using novel method to combat malaria drug resistance. Published: May 07, 2012. Author: William G. Gilroy. Researchers from the University of Notre Dame’s Eck Institute for Global Health have developed a gene chip to contribute to the identification of malaria drug resistance, an effort that will allow for real-time response in modified treatment strategies for this devastating disease. The discovery is described in a paper appearing in the latest early online edition of the journal Science. The team of researchers includes Notre Dame’s Michael Ferdig, associate professor of biological sciences; doctoral student Becky Miller; and John Tan, managing dir...
http://today.nd.edu/news/30140-notre-dame-researchers-using-novel-method-to-combat-malaria-drug-resistance/
*  Treatment Interruption: Study Found Poor Result for Highly Treated, Highly Resistant Patients - TheB
... ody.com. Treatment Interruption: Study Found Poor Result for Highly Treated, Highly Resistant Patients September 12, 2003 Patients whose antiretroviral treatment was no longer working well due to extensive drug resistance were randomly assigned to two different groups. In one, the control group, they changed their treatment immediately to a new antiretroviral regimen devised by their doctor with the help of viral resistance testing. In the other, the treatment-interruption group, patients also changed their treatment based on resistance testing, but first they went off all antiretrovirals for four months. The idea was to see if the virus would partly revert to more drug-sensitive strains during the treatment interruption, in the hope that the drugs would work better later when they were restarted. The virus did tend to revert to more drug-susceptible strains in two thirds of the treatment-interruption patients. While the two groups had the same number of deaths 8 in each, the treatment-interruption group ...
http://thebody.com/content/art31750.html?ts=pf
*  CBS News news on new drugs - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
... Ask the Experts About. HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. CBS News news on new drugs Nov 20, 2004. Hi,On the CBS News new website on AIDS, they have some interviews with Doctor Fauci and Ho who say many things, inlcuding the great news that there are some new integrase and fusion drugs that will overcome resistance which will be available in the next few years. Are we really that close to new types of fusion and integrase drugs. Will these drugs be easier to take than Fuzeon/T-20??. NRTI, NNRTI, and PI resistance mutations will not be affected by this class of drugs. It is true, however, that their use may help to overcome the problem faced by people who have had many ART regimens and are highly resistant to the current classes of drugs. in whom there were 2 active classes of drugs, including one new class T-20, had the best results in the US trial, with almost one half of patients having full viral suppression. Q&A TERMS OF USE This forum is ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q161044.html?h32o
*  HIV Drug Resistance Database
... HOME Genotype-Rx Genotype-Pheno Genotype-Clinical hiv db program. Non-B Workgroup. Rami Kantor. Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. David Katzenstein, Brad Efron, Jonathan Schapiro, Soo-Yon Rhee and Robert Shafer. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Ana Patricia Carvalho, Ricardo Camacho. Hospital Egas Moniz, Lisbon, Portugal. Brian Wynhoven, Richard Harrigan. BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, Canada. Macelo Soares, Amilcar Tanuri. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patricia Cane. Health Protection Agency Antiviral Susceptibility Reference Unit, and PHLS, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. John Weber. Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, St Mary's Hospital, London. Joke Snoeck, Annemie Vandamme. Rega Institute for Medical Research, Leuven, Belgium. National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa. Sunee Sirivichayakul, Praphan Phanuphak. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Koya Ariyoshi, Wataru Su...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/pages/collaborators/Non_B_group.html
*  Resistance in Long-Term Treatment Naive Patients - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
... Advertisement. Ask the Experts About. HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Rollover images to visit our other forums. 0 Email. Glossary. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. Resistance in Long-Term Treatment Naive Patients Mar 16, 2008. I recently tested positive for HIV, but I know for sure that the infection took place in 1993. My doctor said it is highly unusual for someone to go that long having HIV without getting sick I am sick now, and have been for about 2 months. I am going to see an infectious disease specialist next week. My question is this: Do you think it is likely that I have developed resistance to any of the HIV drugs just by waiting so long to get treated. Can resistance develop in totally treatment-naive persons infected for long periods of time. Since I was infected in 1993, that was before protease inhibitors or non-nukes were even in use, so could my HIV be resistant to those drugs. Would a person like me need a resistance test before beginning ART. Response f...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q191350.html?ic=4003
*  Test Updates - Mayo Medical Laboratories
Setup Information Test Setup AOE Codes LOINC Codes Units of Measurement. My Account Report Portal Client Price Portal Additional Test Report Quality Report Portal Reportable Disease Portal Electronic Invoices Supply Catalog. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. 06/12/15 06/26/15 New England 600013 HIV-1 RNA Quantification, Plasma Test Status Notice. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. Setup. Sample Report. Abnormal Report. 06/11/15 06/26/15 Rochester HIVDQ HIV-1 RNA Detection and Quantification, Plasma New Test Notice. 06/11/15 06/26/15 Rochester 81958 HIV-1 RNA Quantification, Plasma Test Status Notice. 06/11/15 06/26/15 Rochester 62581 HIV-1 Ultrasensitive G...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-notifications/index.html?page=6
*  confusing questions about CD8 - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
... Ask the Experts About. HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. confusing questions about CD8 Jan 10, 2001. I had a few Elisa1 2 or 1 test done until 6/2000, which were all negative. in total 15 months However my Dr did a resistance test in 6/2000 for me by mistake alone with the negative elisa test. My CD4 was 830 and CD8 was 930. It seems to me that HIV will cause CD8 goes up, so I hoep you could enlighten me if I need more tests. I understand that with illness such as flu, CD8 will go up, but I did not have any illness and symptom when the two times I did the resistance test. I think you are confused about what resistance tests are with respect to HIV disease. Resistance tests are not related to CD8 counts. Q&A TERMS OF USE This forum is designed for educational purposes only, and experts are not rendering medical, mental health, legal or other professional advice or services. If you have or suspect you may have a medical, mental health, legal or...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q11727.html
*  drug resistance - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
... HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. Therefore, once treatment failure has been established, either by a rising viral load proving virologic failure or by a falling CD4 cell count immunologic failure or a new HIV-related opportunistic infection clinical failure, the HAART regimen should be switched immediately to a regimen containing three new drugs if possible and if available, including one new class of drugs. The evidence is increasing that in the developing world, in which people with HIV are monitored with CD4 cell counts and clinical follow up, but without viral loads, higher level drug resistance to the NRTIs, and particularly with TAMs that developed to AZT or D4T, there is more resistance and a lesser likelihood of any residual activity of AZT or D4T in a second or third line regimen, and reduced likelihood that other second line NRTIs such as abacavir, tenofovir which is a nucleotide or didanosine will be fully active. To sum up simply...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q192036.html
*  A question of resistance? - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
- Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com. HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. 9 inches, I lift weights, don't smoke, don't drink, don't take drugs, I do try to eat propertly but also struggle with depression and suffer from insomnia. What factors could contribute to resistance besides non-compliance with the current drug therapy. The factors that contribute to drug resistance are really any factors which lower the blood levels of the drugs you are taking non-compliance, severe vomiting or diarrhea, improper storage of refrigerated medications, drug interactions with other often non-HIV drugs in the presence of a detectable viral load. The most common cause of drug resistance, I suspect, is non-compliance, but there are clearly other reasons that people develop drug resistance. The good news is that we do not "expect" drug resistance at any given time after treatment has been administered - in other words - the drugs are not expected ...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q94452.html
*  Switching back to previous drug combos? - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
- Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com. HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. I was just recently switched from Atripla to Sustiva and Epzicom due to liver and kidney function being elevated. My question is, After my kidney and liver function return to normal, will I be able to take Atripla again. I was on Atripla sustiva truvada for years and the kidney and liver function just recently went up. Only your doctor can answer that question, because the answer depends on the degree of the severity of the abnormal liver and kidney labs, and what happens after the current switch. I will make a few general observations and then ask that you share this email with your doctor the next time you see him or her. I would urge you to share the answer to this question with your doctor. You and your doctor can discuss whether the type of kidney abnormality that you experienced was consistent with the type of abnormality seen with tenofovir. There are numerous o...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q192921.html
*  Stopping ART - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
... HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. No, I strongly advise you to keep your daughter on ART while you talk to her doctor and clarify why she is on treatment and the likely duration of treatment. It is important for you to understand that she is still infected with HIV, and that if treatment is stopped, she will again develop HIV signs and symptoms, and eventually develop AIDS opportunistic infections and conditions, and ultimately die without treatment. So my advice to you is that your daughter stay on ART while you talk with her doctor about what ART has already done for her, and what might happen if she stops her therapy. There have been several studies of STOPPING ART in people who are doing well, as your daughter has done. It also showed that fewer people with HIV who staying on their ART developed serious NON-HIV illnesses such as heart disease, liver disease, and kidney disease, compared to the people who stopped their ART according to the...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q187756.html?h102o
*  Stopping ART - Forum on HIV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
... HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. No, I strongly advise you to keep your daughter on ART while you talk to her doctor and clarify why she is on treatment and the likely duration of treatment. It is important for you to understand that she is still infected with HIV, and that if treatment is stopped, she will again develop HIV signs and symptoms, and eventually develop AIDS opportunistic infections and conditions, and ultimately die without treatment. So my advice to you is that your daughter stay on ART while you talk with her doctor about what ART has already done for her, and what might happen if she stops her therapy. There have been several studies of STOPPING ART in people who are doing well, as your daughter has done. It also showed that fewer people with HIV who staying on their ART developed serious NON-HIV illnesses such as heart disease, liver disease, and kidney disease, compared to the people who stopped their ART according to the...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q187756.html?ic=4003
*  Detection of Low Abundance Drug Resistant HIV Variants in Treatment Experienced Subjects by Ultra
... Deep Sequencing 454 Life Sciences/Roche Test. Detection of Low Abundance Drug Resistant HIV Variants in Treatment Experienced Subjects by Ultra Deep Sequencing 454 Life Sciences/Roche Test. 454 Life Sciences/Roche 3. Low abundance drug resistance HIV mutations as detected by UDS in ARV-experienced patients with viremia on ART are common and often not detected by current standard Sanger sequencing methods. Perform further analyses of the relationship between subjects'ARV treatment history, adherence and outcomes with UDS resistance profile. Low abundance drug resistant HIV variants at levels as low as < 1% of the viral quasispecies can be detected in antiretroviral ARV -naive individuals by sensitive and quantitative genotyping technologies. These variants have been shown to impact clinical responses in individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy ART .1-5 What is less defined is how often resistant variants go unrecognized by standard sequencing methods in ARV experienced individuals with detectable vir...
http://natap.org/2008/ResisWksp/ResisWksp_65.htm
*  Recommendations For HIV Drugs
... on: December 04, 2011, 03:34:28 PM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #1 on: December 04, 2011, 04:51:48 PM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #3 on: December 05, 2011, 05:45:14 AM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #4 on: December 08, 2011, 11:27:48 PM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #5 on: December 09, 2011, 06:24:08 PM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #6 on: December 09, 2011, 11:58:02 PM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #7 on: December 10, 2011, 01:23:44 AM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #8 on: December 10, 2011, 09:19:23 AM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #9 on: December 10, 2011, 09:42:35 AM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #10 on: December 10, 2011, 10:23:13 AM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #11 on: December 10, 2011, 10:57:41 AM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #13 on: December 10, 2011, 06:25:51 PM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Drugs Reply #14 on: December 10, 2011, 10:58:39 PM. Re: Recommendations For HIV Dru...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=40958.msg511965
*  Resistance Database Initiative
... 'HIV Resistance Response Database Initiative RDI ' is a not-for-profit organisation established in 2002 with the mission of improving the clinical management of HIV infection through the application of bioinformatics to HIV drug resistance and treatment outcome data. 2 HIV-TRePS. 5 In July 2011, the RDI made these models available as part of the HIV-TRePS system. Dr Julio Montaner BC Centre For Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, Canada Dr Carlo Torti University of Brescia, Italy Dr John Baxter Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, USA Dr Sean Emery National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, Australia Dr Jose Gatell Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain Dr Brian Gazzard Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom Dr Anna-Maria Geretti Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom Dr Richard Harrigan BC Centre For Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, Canada. Clinics: Jose Gatell and Elisa Lazzari University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain ; Brian Gazzard, Mark Nelson, Anton Pozn...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistance_Database_Initiative
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation v i treatment numn t rtis genotype a includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist olinger am mali a none t d h l d r i m i l s n i t pineiroyleone eu argentina a none h l a a i sugauchi ab nepal a none a k h h l i l v i kimbi ay africa a none a p g l i l v c i r q hannoun ay gambia a none t d h h l r i m m l s n i v ay thailand a none v q l cy p h h l d i l v i andernach fj haiti a none a n h h l i l v i q i q fj haiti a none in h l r i l v i lq fj haiti a none t d s d h h l r i l v s i r r t garmiri gq guinea a none d h h n i v borroto esoda gq canada a none t h l ps kr eq i gq usa a none dn h l i gq france a none h l qr i gq netherlands a none i santos hbvpv hm brazil a none n t h l r i l v i l h hbvpv hm brazil a none h l r i l v i l team citing the...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=A&pos=278&AA=I&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation l treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv anps acyclic nucleoside phosphoates genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist borroto esoda gq france b tc adv c il il fy lm imv lm t at l gq usa b tc adv gr v at fl hn s l team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=271&AA=L&rx=LANA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation h treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist mao ef china c tc etv d a a m l v h q a team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=262&AA=H&rx=LNA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation t i treatment numn t rtis genotype d includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist kimbi ay africa d none s i v l p n e i i m ay africa d none s v l p p n e q i p i m ay africa d none s i v l l p t k y n e i m meldal fj tunisia d none k w t w h d k i y borroto esoda gq germany d none st i t arankalle mod gq india d none d h a r y s i team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide databa...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=D&pos=326&AA=I&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation t treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv anps acyclic nucleoside phosphoates genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist sheldon dq spain a tc tdf s m t v team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=194&AA=T&rx=LANA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation m r treatment numn t rtis genotype b includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist li gq china b none a g r team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=271&AA=R&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation n treatment numn t rtis genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist wang dq china c none y h s e n e t d a v t h m a v team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=163&AA=N&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation n k treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist borroto esoda gq canada c none hy h k l de a v t h a team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=76&AA=K&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation l v treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist mulyanto c ab indonesia c none l kr v iv team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=267&AA=V&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation v l treatment numn t rtis genotype b includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist sugauchi ab china b none d i v n l t zhang ay china b none n i n d l i i sakamoto ab greenland b none k a d l e h s q h n tatematsu jrb ab japan b none q s y h s s a n h h m l h d i t r t m borroto esoda gq usa b none d h q d q m k r s cg s l h m kr s v h r r n nguye p hm usa b none d l team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=207&AA=L&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation d n treatment numn t rtis genotype i includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist olinger i m fj laos i none iv n hy i v r l fang ql fr china i none y v t s t h t n i n y h d l w team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=I&pos=123&AA=N&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation i v treatment numn t rtis genotype b includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist lin ay china b none v n d h i k r h s team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=14&AA=V&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation k r treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist horikita d japan c none q v r q l k kanada ab japan c none c l r q team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=212&AA=R&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation v i treatment numn t rtis genotype a includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist gous ifn south africa a none d a t s l i l i ifn south africa a none a l t s l i l i ifn south africa a none v t s l i l i ifn south africa a none d a t l s l i l i team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=A&pos=224&AA=I&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation q treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv anps acyclic nucleoside phosphoates genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist borroto esoda gq germany d tc adv d v v fl q k team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=241&AA=Q&rx=LANA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation a treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist haddad hbv eu brazil d tc h m i n h a v borroto esoda gq greece d tc h i r y m cs v a r team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=263&AA=A&rx=LNA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation s f treatment numn t rtis genotype a includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist lukhwareni zadgm am south africa a none h l i l v i y f f zadgm am south africa a none q h e l i l v s l f selabe za a dq south africa a none x i a l f team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=A&pos=324&AA=F&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation v treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist moriconi dq italy a tc v y d p m v v v dq italy d tc mt st h hl st s d v r y k m st v lv v n s team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=233&AA=V&rx=LNA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation q treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist moriconi dq italy d tc gw ap d h i g r y m at v n cg q team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=270&AA=Q&rx=LNA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation y treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist nguye p hm usa b tc s y team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=238&AA=Y&rx=LNA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation g treatment l nucleoside analogs and or etv genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist verheye hm germany a tc f g l l a team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=185&AA=G&rx=LNA&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation v i treatment numn t rtis genotype b includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist lin ay china b none i n w li gq china b none i d k a m t c utsumi ab indonesia b none a i d d q l h n team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=23&AA=I&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation f l treatment numn t rtis genotype d includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist osiowy gq canada d none s l p l n e v i team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=D&pos=201&AA=L&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
... A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance. Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation. Mutation. S256C. Treatment. NumN t RTIs = 0. Genotype. C. IncludeMixtures. No. References. 16. Patients. 41. Author RefID Pt Isolate Accession Country Genotype RxReceived NumMuts MutList. Fujiyama 1983. 228. 1 1 X01587. Japan. C None. 3 173G, 256C, 290L. Lin 1992. 167. 1 1 AF182803. China. C None. 11. 55Q, 100R, 118S, 134E, 139K, 176N, 191G, 193K, 221Y, 256C, 330S. 1 1 AF182804. China. C None. 5 55Q, 118S, 139K, 221Y, 256C. 1 1 AF182805. China. C None. 6 55Q, 118S, 139K, 202G, 221Y, 256C. Horikita 1993. 61. 4 1 D23680. Japan. C None. 4 78T, 226H, 256C, 309K. 4 1 D23681. Japan. C None. 6 106C, 142A, 226H, 256C, 309K, 317A. Moriyama 1994. 181. 1 1 D28880. Japan. C None. 12. 55Q, 109S, 122T, 127R, 134E, 139K, 223A, 224V, 238H, 256C, 271N, 332R. 1 1 S75184. Japan. C None. 7 55Q, 122T, 134E, 139K, 256C, 271N, 332R. Takahashi 1998. 74. 3 1 AB014362. Japan...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=256&AA=C&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation q n treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist moriyama d japan c none q s t r e k a v h c n r s japan c none q t e k c n r chan dq hong kong c none y h k l s a v d q n i a horiike ab japan c none n r a q n borroto esoda gq new zealand c none k a h r n r s v gq new zealand c none k h kr m y r n a s v gq netherlands c none y de n i a gq new zealand c none k l h m fy y as r n a s v team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=271&AA=N&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation s treatment numn t rtis genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist lin ay china b none d n m r l k s m huy ab vietnam c none y h f t t a v v t h l s a r r m team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=312&AA=S&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation e a treatment numn t rtis genotype d includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist borroto esoda gq spain d none v hy r y a v n hy a r gq australia d none ae st is a kt y team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=D&pos=271&AA=A&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation s p treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist dinhduy aj vietnam c none p q l d y l a c h i x v x team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=47&AA=P&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation r s treatment numn t rtis genotype a includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist owiredu af africa a none r l s d l v team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=A&pos=192&AA=S&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation d treatment numn t rtis genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist kimbi ay africa a none k v t a n d r t team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=165&AA=D&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation t treatment numn t rtis genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist huy ab vietnam c none y h l h a q i t a team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=305&AA=T&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation v g treatment numn t rtis genotype d includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist arankalle mod gq india d none h r y s a n d g team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=D&pos=291&AA=G&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation w c treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist liu s fj china c none c c h v team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=3&AA=C&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation p t treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist huy ab myanmar c none y h a t l h e v w a q l i a t r e team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=64&AA=T&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation s a treatment numn t rtis genotype d includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist zaaijer eu spain d none s k f l l p t n c g a r i borroto esoda gq turkey d none y a team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=D&pos=259&AA=A&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation r s treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist ono v japan c none h a l s team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=280&AA=S&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
... A curated public database designed to represent, store, and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying HIV drug resistance. Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation. Mutation. H238Q. Treatment. NumN t RTIs = 0. Genotype. B. IncludeMixtures. No. References. 11. Patients. 21. Author RefID Pt Isolate Accession Country Genotype RxReceived NumMuts MutList. Sastrosoewignjo 1999. 234. 1 1 AB033555. Japan. B None. 8 7A, 76D, 134D, 141F, 238Q, 267L, 271Q, 332N. 248. 1 1 AB033554. Japan. B None. 5 1D, 7A, 76D, 238Q, 332H. Osiowy 2004. 22. 1 928-79. DQ463787. Canada. B None. 5 38A, 229M, 238Q, 267S, 332H. 2 739-79. DQ463788. Canada. B None. 8 38A, 131D, 134D, 238Q, 267S, 271Q, 317S, 332N. 3 650-79. DQ463790. Canada. B None. 9 38A, 101P, 131D, 134D, 238Q, 267S, 271Q, 317S, 332N. 4 1 DQ463791. Canada. B None. 11. 38A, 53H, 110G, 123D, 131D, 134D, 238Q, 267S, 271Q, 317S, 332N. 4 1 DQ463792. Canada. B None. 10. 38A, 53D, 131D, 134D, 238Q, 267S, 271Q, 317S, 332N, 336S. 5 462-79. DQ463793. Canada. B None. 8 38A, 134D, 238Q, 267S...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=238&AA=Q&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation g a treatment numn t rtis genotype d includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist chauhan ef india d none i a ef india d none a team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=D&pos=174&AA=A&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation v g treatment numn t rtis genotype f includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist devesa ay venezuela f none h e g p h a team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=F&pos=27&AA=G&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation e treatment numn t rtis genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist okamoto ab japan c none e l a q h nguye p hm usa a none st e a at i m u hm usa b none n e at h team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=149&AA=E&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation d g treatment numn t rtis genotype c includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist fang eu china c none g n p l h m team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=C&pos=2&AA=G&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation f l treatment numn t rtis genotype b includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist sugauchi ab japan b none a l d g d q h l t team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=28&AA=L&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation s treatment numn t rtis genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist chauhan ef india a none t h l s r k team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=178&AA=S&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation r k treatment numn t rtis genotype a includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist jeantet gta aj france a none k y k i i l l a s t team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=A&pos=120&AA=K&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation e q treatment numn t rtis genotype d includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist meldal fj tunisia d none q mrani am france d none q s l p d y e i team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=D&pos=8&AA=Q&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation q r treatment numn t rtis genotype e includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist norder x senegal e none r i q h g g team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=E&pos=215&AA=R&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation c treatment numn t rtis genotype all includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist mahgoub s hq sudan e none q t c c i t team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=All&pos=47&AA=C&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation p h treatment numn t rtis genotype b includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist meldal m gq malaysia b none h n c team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=17&AA=H&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Query by HBV gp1 RT Mutation
query by hbv gp rt mutation a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance query by hbv gp rt mutation mutation q l treatment numn t rtis genotype b includemixtures no references patients author refid pt isolate accession country genotype rxreceived nummuts mutlist osiowy dq canada b none a d q s q s h l dq canada b none a k d q s q s h l team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/GetHBVRTByGenotypeRx.cgi?subtype=B&pos=334&AA=L&rx=RTINaive&includeMixtures=
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits authors title citation e value in hbvdb in gb in hbvdb annotation hu paired chimpanzee hepatitis b virus chhbv and mtdna sequences suggest different chhbv genetic variants are found in geographically distinct chimpanzee subspecies virus res e hbvdb download amino acid sequences aligned download nucleic acid sequences aligned or unaligned accession country colledate gbclonename gbnote genotype s e mutlist af i s p f f d m af d n s t p t i l d f n v s q s t af i k s t p f t af i v t s t p h n f d m af ...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?refID=326
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits authors title citation e value in hbvdb in gb in hbvdb annotation olinger phylogenetic analysis of the precore core gene of hepatitis b virus genotypes e and a in west africa new subtypes mixed infections and recombinations j gen virol pt hbvdb download amino acid sequences aligned download nucleic acid sequences aligned or unaligned accession country colledate gbclonename gbnote genotype s e mutlist am mali tentative a subtype a d h l d m i s n i t am cameroon a subtype a t d k gr hq h l t r i l s il d team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?GBRefID=478
*  started first-line regimen 14 weeks ago, numbers not as good as they should be, I think - Forum on H
... IV Drug Resistance - TheBody.com. HIV Drug Resistance HIV Drug Resistance. Ask the Experts > Forum on HIV Drug Resistance > Q & A. started first-line regimen 14 weeks ago, numbers not as good as they should be, I think Sep 20, 2004. Two months later, in May, my CD4 was 317 and viral load 334,000. Regardless, it seemed pretty clear to my doctor and I that I was not in the early stages of infection, and treatment was necessary. At four weeks in June my Viral load was down to 1800, but six weeks after that at 10 weeks on meds total it was only down to 578, and four weeks after that fourteen weeks total it had only gone down to 401 copies. Obviously, I had a very good initial response to treatment in the first 4 weeks since my viral load plummeted from 334,000 to 1800. In fact, even if the 334,000 was a 'blip' or error, going from a viral load of 61,000 to 1800 copies in 4 weeks is pretty good. I've been extremely adherent to my meds, so I'm not worried about drug resistance that I may have br...
http://thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Resistance/Q159789.html
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits authors title citation e value in hbvdb in gb in hbvdb annotation abe hbv genotype e full genome isolated from ghana published only in database e hbvdb download amino acid sequences aligned download nucleic acid sequences aligned or unaligned accession country colledate gbclonename gbnote genotype s e mutlist ab ghana genotype e e g c p p k q t a r g g q m team citing the hiv drug resistance database people terms of use faqs publications acknowledgements news resources user guide database documents database statistics hiv treatment websites rt protease and integrase structures additional resources all rights reserved questions contact hivdb...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?GBRefID=597
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits ab gaagactggggaccctgctatgaacatggagaacatcacatcaggactcctaggacccct tctcgtgttacaggcggtgtgtttcttgttgacaaaaatcctcacaataccaaagagtct agactcgtggtggacttctctcaattttctaggggtaccacccgggtgtcctggccaaaa ttcgcagtccccaatctccaatcacttaccaacctcctgtcctccaacttgtcctggcta tcgttggatgtgtctgcggcgttttatcatcttcctcttcatcctgctgctatgcctcat cttcttgttggttcttctggactatcaaggtatgttgcccgtgtgtcctctacttccagg atctacaaccaccagcacgggaccctgcaaaacctgcaccactcttgctcaaggaacctc tatgtttccctcctgctgctgtaccaaaccttcggacggaaattgcacctgtattcccat cccatcatcttgggctttcggaaaatacctatgggagtgggcctcagcccgtttctcttg gctcagtttactagtgcaatttgttcagtggtgcgtagggctttcccccactgtctggct tttagttatatggatgatctggtattgggggccaaatctgtgcagcatcttgagtccctt tataccgctgttaccaattttttgttatctgtgggcatccatttgaacacagctaaaaca aaatggtggggttatacccttcactttatgggttatagaattgggagttgggggaccttg cctcaggaacatattgtgcataaaatcaaagattgctttcgcaaacttcccgtgaataga cccattgattggaaggttt...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?refID=556&download=alignedNA
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits af gaagattggggaccttgcgctgaacatggagaacatcacatcaggattcctaggacccct gctcgtgttacaggcggggtttttcttgttgacaagaatcctcacaataccgcagagtct agactcgtggtggacttctctcaattttctagggggaactaccgtgtgtcttggccaaaa ttcgcagtccccaacctccaatcactcaccaacctcctgtcctccaacttgtcctggtta tcgctggatgtgtctgcggcgttttatcatcttcctcttcatcctgctgctatgcctcat cttcttgttggttcttctggactatcaaggtatgttgcccgtttgtcctctaattccagg atcttcaactaccagcacgggaccatgcagaacctgcacgactcctgctcaaggaacctc tatgtatccctcctgttgctgtaccaaaccttcggaaggaaattgcacctgtattcccat cccatcatcctgggctttcggaaaattcctatgggagtgggcctcagcccgtttctcctg gctcagtttactagtgccatttgttcagtggttcgtagggctttcccccattgtttggct ttcagttatatggatgatgtggtattgggggccaagtctgtacagcatcttgagtccctt tttaccgctgttaccaattttcttttgtctttgggtatacatttaaaccctaacaaaaca aaaagatggggttactctttacatttcatgggctatgtcattggatgttatgggtcattg ccacaagatcacatcagacagaaaatcaaagaatgttttagaaaacttcctattaaccgg cctgttgattggaaagtct...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?refID=646&download=alignedNA
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits s gaggactggggaccctgtgacgaacatggagaacatcacatcaggattcctaggacccct gctcgtgttacaggcggggttttccttgttgacaagaatcctcacaataccgcagagtct agactcgtggtggacttctctcaattttctaggggggtcacccgtgtgccttggccaaaa ttcgcagtccccaacctccaatcactcaccaacctcctgtcctccaatttgtcctggtta tcgctggatgtgtctgcggcgttttatcatattcctcttcatcctgctgctatgcctcat cttcttattggttcttctggattatcaaggtatgttgcccgtttgtcctataattccagg atcaacaacaaccagtacgggaccatgcaaaacctgcacgactcctgctcaaggcaactc tttgtttccctcatgttgctgtacaaaacctacggatggaaattgcacctgtattcccat cccatcgtcctgggctttcgcaaaatacctatgggagcgggcctcagtccgtttctcttg gctcagtttactagtgccatttgttcagtggttcgtagggctttcccccactgtttggct tttagctatatggatgatgtggtattgggggccaagtctgtacagcatcgtgaggccctt tataccgctgttaccaattttcttttgtctctgggtatacatttaaaccctaacaaaaca aaaagatggggttattccctaaacttcatgggttacagaattggaagttggggaacattg ccacaggatcacattgtacaaaagatcaaacactgttttagaaaacttcctgttaacagg cctattgattggaaggtatg...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?refID=733&download=alignedNA
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits dq gaagactggggaccctgtaccgaacatggagaacatcgcatcaggactcctaggacccct gctcgggttacaggcggggtttttcttgttgacaaaaatcctcacaataccacagagtct agactcgtggtggacttctctcagttttctaggggaaacacccgtgtgtcttggccaaaa ttcgcagtcccaaatctccagtcactcaccaacctgttgtcctccaacttgtcctggtta tcgctggatgtatctgcggcgttttatcatcttcctctgcatcctgctgctatgcctcat cttcttgttggttcttctggactatcaaggtatgttgcccgtttgtcctctaattccagg atcatcaacaaccagcaccggaccatgcaagacctgcacaactcctgctcaaggaacctc tatgtttccctcatgttgctgtacaaaacctacggacggaaactgcacctgtattcccat ctcatcatcttgggctttcgcaaaatacctatgggagtgggcctcagtccgtttctcttg gctcagtctactagtgccatttgttcagtggttcgtagggctttcccccactgtctggct ttcagttatatggatgatgtggttttgggggccaagactgtacaacatcttgagtccctt tataccgctgttaccaattttcttttgtctttgggtatacatttaaaccctcacaaaaca aaaagatggggatattcccttaacttcatgggatatgtaattgggagttggggcacattg ccacaggaacatattgtacaaaaaatcaaactgtgttttaggaagcttcctgtaaacagg cctattgattggaaagtat...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?refID=748&download=alignedNA
*  Genbank HBVrt References
... a curated public database designed to represent store and analyze the divergent forms of data underlying hiv drug resistance hbv rt blast hits ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab edwgpcyehgehhirtprtpsrvtggvflvdknphnttesrlvvdfsqfsrgttrvswpk favpnlqsltnllssnlswlsldvsaafyhlplhpaamphllvgssglsryvarvsstsr iynhqhgtlqnlhhscsrnlyvsllllyqtfgrklhlyshpiilgfrkipmgvglspfll aqftsaicsvvrrafphclafsymddlvlgaksvqhleslytavtnfllsvgihlntakt kwwgyslhfmgyiigswgtlpqehivhkikdcfrklpvnrpidwkvcqrivgllgfaapf tqcgypalmplyacitakqafvfsptykaflcqqymnlypvarq ab edwgpcyehgehhirtprtpsrvtggvflvdknphnttesrlvvdfsqfsrgttrvswpk favpnlqsltnllssnlswlsldvsaafyhlplhpaamphllvgssglsryvarvsstsr iynhqhgtlqnlhhacsrnlyvsllllyktfgrklhlyshpiilgfrkipmgvglspfll aqftsaicsvvrrafphclafsymddlvlgaksvqhlealytavtnfllsvgihlntskt kwwgyslhfmgyvigswgtlpqehivhkikdcfrklpvnrpidwkvcqrivgllgfaapf tq...
http://hivdb.stanford.edu/HBV/DB/cgi-bin/gbReferenceHBVRT.cgi?refID=834&download=alignedAA
*  Spring 2001 Report - Worrisome Trends in Transmission of Drug Resistant Virus
... SPRING 2001. WORRISOME TRENDS IN TRANSMISSION OF DRUG-RESISTANT VIRUS. Susan Little from San Diego reported a hugely important study that surveyed phenotypic resistance defined as a 10 fold decrease in susceptibility to any drug in 108 newly infected patients in North American cities Birmingham, Dallas, Denver, Los Angeles, San Diego, Seattle, Montreal and Vancouver and found an overall prevalence of 8% resistance, with 4% being resistant to two classes. What was more worrisome, they noted that the overall rate of resistance has increased markedly between the 1995-8 period and 1999-2000 from 3 to 14%; 1 to 6% for NNRTIs and 1 to 7% for PIs. Little and colleagues were able to pool data from enough patients to show that the presence of this resistance 10 fold to any ARV did increase the risk of virologic failure on therapy for all comers. In abstract 404 Little reported that 4/14 29% with 2.5 fold resistance experienced virologic failure lack of suppression or relapse compared to 1/34 3% who had no resista...
http://natap.org/2001/spring2001reports/worrisome.html
*  Development of a Moisture Resistance Test
... You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass subscription. This document is part of your ASTM Compass subscription. STP133 Development of a Moisture Resistance Test Published: Jan 1953.   Format Pages Price  . PDF 12 $ 25   ADD TO CART. Complete Source PDF 4.3M 12 $55   ADD TO CART. Source: STP133-EB ASTM License Agreement. Abstract Foreword. This paper is an account of work conducted at the Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories which pertains to the development of the Standard Cycle for Moisture Resistance Testing of Component Parts for use in electronic equipment The recent increasing interest in reliability and tropical tests has led the author to believe that his experiences in this field may to some extent be a contribution to the state of the art. In the latter part of 1943, the extent of failures of communication equipment occurring in the tropics, where vital phases of the war were being fought, had become a serious concern to the Signal Corps Engine...
http://astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP47703S.htm
*  Interpretation for 89609 BCR/ABL, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance, Kinase Domain Mutation Scre
... en. Specimen Handling Collection and Preparation Instructions by Specimen Type Category A Infectious Substances Light Protection Tests Microbiology Culture Tests Resources Supply Catalog FAQ Dangerous Goods Training. My Account Report Portal Client Price Portal Additional Test Report Quality Report Portal Reportable Disease Portal Electronic Invoices Supply Catalog. Test 89609 : BCR/ABL, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance, Kinase Domain Mutation Screen Clinical Information. ChroChronic myeloid leukemia CML is characterized by the presence of the t 9:22 BCR-ABL abnormality, resulting in formation of a fusion BCR-ABL mRNA and protein. Unfortunately, a significant subset of patients can develop functional resistance to TKIs, due in a large number of tumors to the acquisition of point mutations in the kinase domain KD of the chimeric ABL gene. Point mutations in ABL are typically detected by direct sequencing of PCR products, following RT-PCR amplification of the BCR-ABL mRNA transcript from a peripheral bl...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/?alpha=B&unit_code=89609
*  UCLA researchers discover drug resistance mechanisms in most common form of melanoma | EurekAlert! S
UCLA researchers discover drug resistance mechanisms in most common form of melanoma. EurekAlert. Science News. News. Breaking News. Science Business News. EurekAlert!中文版. Breaking News. Science Business News. EurekAlert. About EurekAlert. Researchers with UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that melanoma patients whose cancers are caused by mutation of the BRAF gene become resistant to a promising targeted treatment through another genetic mutation or the overexpression of a cell surface protein, both driving survival of the cancer and accounting for relapse. In a clinical trial at UCLA's Jonsson Cancer Center and other locations, patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma have been responding very well to an experimental drug, PLX4032. They also developed drug resistant cell lines to study, in collaboration with another team at UCLA's Jonsson Cancer Center led by Dr. "We've found two mechanisms in two subsets of melanoma and we'll need different drugs to treat those two subsets." Going...
http://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-11/uoc--urd112210.php
*  BAKDM - Overview: BCR/ABL, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance, Kinase Domain Mutation Screen
... Mobile Site. Search Mayo Medical Laboratories Search. Web: MayoMedicalLaboratories.com. Email: mml@mayo.edu. Telephone: 800.533.1710. International: 507.266.5700. Values are valid only on day of printing. Home. MayoACCESS. MayoLINK. Contact Us. Register Sign In. Test Catalog Go Test Name A. B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #. Disease A. B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #. Test Catalog Test Information New Tests Test Updates Reflex Tests Referred Tests NYS Informed Consent Test List Download Catalog References Critical Values and Semi-Urgent Results Performing Locations Policies. Setup Information Test Setup AOE Codes LOINC Codes Units of Measurement. Utilization Management Publications and Tools Algorithms Hot Topics Communiqu A Test in Focus Utilization Spotlight Profiles in Genetics Meaningful Use. Resources eBooks Case Studies Tools and Tactics Assessments. Clinical Specialties Tests by Specialty Cardiology Drugs of Abuse Testing Fertility Genetics and Pharmacogen...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/hematology/catalog/Overview/89609
*  Biomod/2012/TeamSendai/Future Application - OpenWetWareTeam Sendai Top
Biomod/2012/TeamSendai/Future Application - OpenWetWare. Biomod/2012/TeamSendai/Future Application From OpenWetWare Difference between revisions Jump to: navigation, search Revision as of 22:35, 27 October 2012 view source Kazuki Hirahara Talk. Revision as of 22:35, 27 October 2012 view source Kazuki Hirahara Talk. - If making artificial channels is achieved, we can deliver siRNA to the target region efficiently, or remove toxic molecules from our body. Moreover, we can overcome different illnesses like drug resistant cancer cells, bacteria or protozoa like malaria, because we can deliver medicine directly to these cells through artificial channels. + If a lid structures is adopted to the Cell Gate, the Gate can regulate the entrance and exit of smaller molecules. + + And aptamers offer transportation of various targets with selectivity. + + Thanks to these features, Cell Gate will be an artificial channel which can transport any target molecule with high selectivity,while not affecting the existence of the c...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=Biomod/2012/TeamSendai/Future_Application&diff=prev&oldid=647651
*  WHO | Publications on antimicrobial resistance
Publications on antimicrobial resistance. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Advanced search. Health topics. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Play Store. Drug resistance. Antimicrobial resistance Global action plan Surveillance of resistance Antimicrobial use Surveillance of use Infection prevention Activities Document centre. Publications on antimicrobial resistance. Global strategy for containment of antimicrobial resistance The document provides a framework of interventions to slow the emergence and reduce the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms through: reducing the disease burden and the spread of infection; improving access to appropriate antimicrobials; strengthening health systems and their surveillance capabilities; enforcing regulations and legislation. Documents by topic Antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial use. Infection prevention. Organism and disease specific issues. Documents by type World Health Asse...
http://who.int/drugresistance/documents/en/
*  Resistome
... the resistome is a proposed expression by gerard d wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non pathogenic bacteria this complete set of antibiotic resistance genes is composed of four different types of genes resistance genes found on pathogenic bacteria these are the fewest but also the most problematic ones at present resistance genes found on antibiotic producers the microorganisms such as soil dwelling bacteria and fungi that naturally produce antibiotics have their own protection mechanisms to avoid the adverse effects of the antibiotics on themselves the genes which code for these resistances are a strong source for the pathogenic bacteria cryptic resistance genes these genes are embedded in the bacterial chromosome but do not obviously confer resistance because their level of expression is usually low or they are not expressed precursor genes these genes do not confer antibiotic resistance however they encode proteins that confer...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistome
*  Low resistance gear pulleys that last.. - Weight Weenies
... HOT: Active* forum members generally gain 5% discount at starbike.com store. All forum members with at least 10 postings in the last 30 days will get a 5% discount on all brands. Just stay loggend in at the board and visit starbike.com Shop your prefered items and go to the shopping basket. Your discount will automatically be added. FAQ. Search. Trending Topics. Login. Register. HOME Listings Blog NEW Galleries NEW FAQ. Contact About. View unanswered posts. View active topics. Board index. Discussion. Road. Low resistance gear pulleys that last.. Page 1 of 1. Print view Previous topic. Next topic. Author Message svrasmussen Post subject: Low resistance gear pulleys that last.. Posted: Sun May 05, 2013 9:16 pm. Joined: Thu Jun 18, 2009 7:54 pm Posts: 5 Location: Denmark To day I noticed that the guide pulley on my almost new Ultegra derailleur was difficult to turn and hence was causing some notable resistance when turning the pedals by hand with the rear wheel off the ground. Disassembling and lubricatin...
http://weightweenies.starbike.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=985949
*  Patente US20060194403 - PCMO thin film with controlled resistance characteristics - Google Patentes
In a different aspect, the method comprises: forming a PCMO thin film with a crystallographic orientation; and, creating a PCMO film with a selectable resistance state, responsive to the orientation. For example, if the PCMO film is formed with an average crystal grain size in the range of 3 to 40 nanometers nm, then the PCMO film can be written to a high resistance of greater than 225 kilo ohms, using 5 V pulse of less than 100 ns, or reset to a low resistance of less than 10 kilo ohms, using a 3 V pulse of less than 10 microseconds. If the crystal grain size is in the range of 3 to 40 nanometers nm, then the selectable resistance state is a high resistance of greater than 225 kilo ohms, using 5 V pulse of less than 100 ns, or a low resistance of less than 10 kilo ohms, using a 3 V pulse of less than 10 microseconds. If the crystal grain size in the range of 40 nm to epitaxial, then the selectable resistance state can be a high resistance of greater than 300 kilo ohms, using 5 V pulse of less than 50 microse...
http://google.es/patents/US20060194403?dq=flatulence
*  Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) MIC Breakpoints For Susceptibility Testing Of Ana
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI MIC Breakpoints For Susceptibility Testing Of Anaerobes. Antimicrobial.Resistance. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI MIC Breakpoints For Susceptibility Testing Of Anaerobes. Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are common and may be serious or life threatening. Diagnosis and management of anaerobic bacterial infections are complicated by their slow growth, polymicrobial nature, and resistance to antimicrobial agents. Susceptibility testing of anaerobe should be performed to monitor local, national, or international susceptibility patterns periodically and to determine activity of new agents. Testing of an individual patient's isolates may be required for serious or chronic infection, such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, or brain abscess, or, or when serious infection is due to an organism with unpredictable antibiotic susceptibility Problems in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria include lack of standardization of techniqu...
http://parn.org.pk/index_files/Anaerobes.html
*  EUCAST: Clinical breakpoints
... Home. Contact. Sitemap. Clinical breakpoints. Organization EUCAST News Clinical breakpoints Information on breakpoint tables Antibiotics lacking clinical data Setting breakpoints Expert rules Resistance mechanisms Guidance documents MIC distributions ECOFFs Zone distributions ECOFFs AST of bacteria AST of mycobacteria AST of fungi AST of veterinary pathogens Frequently Asked Questions FAQ Meetings EUCAST Presentations Documents Translations Information for industry Links Contacts Website changes. Clinical breakpoints. See information on Clinical breakpoint tables. Breakpoint table for bacteria. Clinical breakpoints - bacteria v 5.0 - pdf file for printing 2015-01-01 and uploaded again 2015-01-26 after correction of internal links. Clinical breakpoints - bacteria v 5.0 - excel file for screen 2015-01-01 and uploaded again 2015-01-26 after correction of internal links. Breakpoint table 5.0 2015-01-01 includes ceftobiprole and telavancin. Updates from the preliminary table published 2014-12-05 are. - a link...
http://eucast.org/clinical_breakpoints/
*  ARS | Publication request: EVALUATION OF THREE DIFFERENT METHODS FOR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY SC
ARS. Publication request: EVALUATION OF THREE DIFFERENT METHODS FOR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY SCREENIN OF CAMPYLOBACTER ARS : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. International Programs. Scientific Collaborations. Related Topics Programs and Projects. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. Title: EVALUATION OF THREE DIFFERENT METHODS FOR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY SCREENIN OF CAMPYLOBACTER Authors. Submitted to: American Society for Microbiology Meeting Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: April 21, 2000 Publication Date: May 21, 2000 Citation: Wallace, F.M., Cray, P.J. Evaluation of three different methods for antimicrobial susceptibility screenin of campylobacter. American Society for Microbiology Meeting. Technical Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens, particularly Campylobacter and Salmonella, has emerged as a global problem. We evaluated the susceptibility of 55 poul...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=187618
*  BSCI 424 Broth Tube Dilution MIC
... BSCI 424 PATHOGENIC MICROBIOLOGY Fall 2000. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration MIC Broth Tube Dilution Method. The tube dilution test is the standard method for determining levels of resistance to an antibiotic. Serial dilutions of the antibiotic are made in a liquid medium which is inoculated with a standardized number of organisms and incubated for a prescribed time. The lowest concentration highest dilution of antibiotic preventing appearance of turbidity is considered to be the minimal inhibitory concentration MIC. At this dilution the antibiotic is bacteriostatic. Additionally, the minimal bactericidal concentration MBC can be determined by subculturing the contents of the tubes onto antibiotic-free solid medium and examining for bacterial growth. Although the tube dilution test is fairly precise, the test is laborious because serial dilutions of the antibiotic must be made and only one isolate can be tested in each series of dilutions. Procedure : Number sterile capped test tubes 1 through 9. All of ...
http://life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/LabMaterialsMethods/BrothTubeMIC.htm
*  10 Great Activities to Celebrate Labor Day Weekend | Education.com
10 Great Activities to Celebrate Labor Day Weekend. As a Plus or Pro member, get unlimited access to: Over 15,000 Worksheets Over 300 Printable Workbooks Hundreds of Fun Games and Activities Get Started. Sign in Become a free basic member: Get free worksheets plus activities, articles, and science projects. Games. Workbooks. Activities. Lesson Plans. Science Projects. 10 Great Activities to Celebrate Labor Day Weekend. Download All is only available to Education.com Plus and Pro members. Make a Career Book View Full Activity Celebrate Labor Day with this fun activity. Experiment with Wheels and Axles View Full Activity Engineers in training can get started with this simple wheel-and-axle construction activity. Make Your Own Abacus View Full Activity Countries all around the world have been using the abacus for thousands of years to make math easier. Measure Your Pulse View Full Activity Show your fourth grader how to see her heart in action. Make Your Own City View Full Activity Try this fun and interactive c...
http://education.com/slideshow/labor-day-activities/Wheel_And_Axle/
*  10 Great Activities to Celebrate Labor Day Weekend | Education.com
10 Great Activities to Celebrate Labor Day Weekend. As a Plus or Pro member, get unlimited access to: Over 15,000 Worksheets Over 300 Printable Workbooks Hundreds of Fun Games and Activities Get Started. Sign in Become a free basic member: Get free worksheets plus activities, articles, and science projects. Games. Workbooks. Activities. Lesson Plans. Science Projects. 10 Great Activities to Celebrate Labor Day Weekend. Download All is only available to Education.com Plus and Pro members. Make a Career Book View Full Activity Celebrate Labor Day with this fun activity. Experiment with Wheels and Axles View Full Activity Engineers in training can get started with this simple wheel-and-axle construction activity. Make Your Own Abacus View Full Activity Countries all around the world have been using the abacus for thousands of years to make math easier. Measure Your Pulse View Full Activity Show your fourth grader how to see her heart in action. Make Your Own City View Full Activity Try this fun and interactive c...
http://education.com/slideshow/labor-day-activities/what-i-want-to-be-poster/

Resistance mutation: A resistance mutation is a point mutations in virus genes that allow the virus to become resistant to treatment with a particular antiviral drug. The term was first used in the management of HIV, the first virus in which genome sequencing was routinely used to look for drug resistance.Multiple drug resistance: Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, fungi, and parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety).Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.BacitracinTariquidarBlood vessel: The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as a form of TB infection caused by bacteria that are resistant] to treatment with at least two of the most powerful [[Therapy#Lines of therapy|first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP).Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.ABCC4: ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 4 (ABCC4), also known as the multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) or multi-specific organic anion transporter B (MOAT-B), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC4 gene.Coles PhillipsManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.Transporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.PBR322: pBR322 is a plasmid and was one of the first widely used E. coli cloning vectors.PyrimethanilStreptomycinDoxorubicinDiscovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).IsoniazidChloroquineDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Pregnancy-associated malaria: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or placental malaria is a presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus. PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing parasites that infect humans.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Thermal cyclerTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Missense mutation: In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous substitution) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Another type of nonsynonymous substitution is a nonsense mutation in which a codon is changed to a premature stop codon that results in truncation of the resulting protein.Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.Streptomyces kanamyceticus: Streptomyces kanamyceticus is a bacterial species in the genus Streptomyces. It is the species from which the antibiotic kanamycin is isolated.Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.Strandpulling: Strandpulling is the general term for the practice of stretching steel springs, rubber cables or latex tubing, as a form of exercise and as a competitive sport, using a "chest expander", with many specific movements designed to target different muscles and provide progressive resistance usually, but not always, to the upper body.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Intermittent preventive therapy: Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp). The intervention builds on two tested malaria control strategies: a) to clear existing parasites (treatment effect seen in mass drug administrations) and b) to prevent new infections (prophylaxis).PGLO: The pGLO plasmid is an engineered plasmid used in biotechnology as a vector for creating genetically modified organisms. The plasmid contains several reporter genes, most notably for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the ampicillin resistance gene.VoriconazoleTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDihydrofolate reductaseAntiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Erythromycin 3''-O-methyltransferase: Erythromycin 3-O-methyltransferase (, EryG) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:erythromycin C 3-O-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLipoplatin: Lipoplatin (Liposomal cisplatin) is a nanoparticle of 110 nm average diameter composed of lipids and cisplatin. This new drug has successfully finished Phase I, Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials (2,3).Azole: An azole is a class of five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic ring compounds containing at least one other non-carbon atom of either nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen.Dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor: A dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor is a drug that inhibits the action of dihydropteroate synthase. Most are sulfonamides.Chloramphenicol acetyltransferaseATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Microneme: Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane.Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica: Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica is a skin condition caused by a Candida albicans infection, characterized by an oval-shaped area of macerated white skin on the web between and extending onto the sides of the fingers.SCCmec: SCCmec, or staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, is a mobile genetic element of Staphylococcus bacterial species. This genetic sequence includes the mecA gene coding for resistance to the antibiotic methicillin and is the only known way for Staphylococcus strains to spread the gene in the wild by horizontal gene transfer.

(1/7957) Triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is an antimicrobial agent used in hygiene products, plastics and kitchenware, and for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks. S. aureus strains with low-level resistance to triclosan have emerged. It has been claimed that strains with decreased susceptibility to biocides may also be less susceptible to antibiotics. We tested the susceptibility of S. aureus clinical isolates to triclosan and several antibiotics. Triclosan MICs ranged between 0.025 and 1 mg/L. Some, but not all, strains were resistant to several antibiotics and showed low-level triclosan resistance. S. aureus mutants with enhanced resistance to triclosan (< or =1 mg/L) were isolated. In several cases this resistance was stably inherited in the absence of triclosan. These mutants were not more resistant than the parent strain to several antibiotics. Changes in triclosan MICs associated with the acquisition of a plasmid encoding mupirocin resistance were not observed, suggesting that the triclosan/mupirocin co-resistance seen in a previous study was not the result of a single resistance gene or separate genes on the same plasmid. The continuous exposure of a triclosan-sensitive S. aureus strain to sub-MIC concentrations of triclosan for 1 month did not result in decreased susceptibility to triclosan or to several antibiotics tested. Triclosan-induced potassium leakage and bactericidal effects on a triclosan-sensitive strain, a resistant strain and a strain selected for increased resistance were compared with those of non-growing organisms, exponentially growing organisms and organisms in the stationary phase. No significant differences between the strains were observed under these conditions despite their different MICs. Biocides have multiple target sites and so MICs often do not correlate with bactericidal activities. The ability of S. aureus to develop resistance to triclosan and the current view that triclosan may have a specific target in Escherichia coli, namely enoyl reductase, underline the need for more research on the mechanisms of action and resistance.  (+info)

(2/7957) Resistance of helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin.

Resistance to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin, and beta-lactamase production were determined for 153 clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Of these isolates, 77.8% were resistant to metronidazole (MIC > 8 mg/L), 58.8% to tetracycline (MIC > 16 mg/L) and 71.9% to amoxycillin (MIC > 0.5 mg/L); 39.2% were multiresistant. Resistance to metronidazole was more common in isolates from females than in those from males (P < 0.05). None of the isolates produced beta-lactamase, so the mechanism of amoxycillin resistance was not linked to production of beta-lactamase.  (+info)

(3/7957) Enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at an Italian teaching hospital.

Two thousand one hundred and thirteen strains of enterococci isolated at Pisa General Hospital in 1998 were analysed retrospectively to determine their glycopeptide resistance. Of all the microorganisms isolated in this period, 14.7% were enterococci (1405 Enterococcus faecalis, 19 Enterococcus faecium, six Enterococcus avium and 683 Enterococcus spp.). Two hundred and thirty (10.8%) of these enterococci were resistant or demonstrated reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin. The highest rate of resistance was found in outpatient enterococcal strains isolated from the urogenital tract. The frequency of enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at Pisa Hospital is higher than that reported from other areas of Italy.  (+info)

(4/7957) Antibiotic susceptibility and mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in 1310 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa: a French multicentre study (1996).

A total of 1310 consecutive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected in 11 French hospitals in 1996. The percentages of susceptible isolates measured by the agar dilution method were: ticarcillin (53%), piperacillin (69%) (MIC 16 mg/L), ceftazidime (77%), cefepime (55%), cefpirome (40%), aztreonam (57.5%), imipenem (81.5%) (MIC 4 mg/L), amikacin (64.5%) (MIC 8 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (58%) (MIC 1 mg/L). Resistance to beta-lactams was linked to the production of transferable beta-lactamases (30%), overproduction of cephalosporinase (29%) and to non-enzymic mechanisms (38%).  (+info)

(5/7957) pncA mutations in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Korea.

BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. In vitro, it kills semidormant mycobacteria only at low pH. The purpose of this study was to compare PZA resistance with pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity and the genotype to better understand the molecular basis of PZA resistance and to expand the profile of pncA mutations worldwide. RESULTS: Of the 28 tested strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 6 were susceptible to PZA and positive for PZase activity and had no pncA mutations. Twenty-one strains were resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity and had mutations in the pncA gene, including 15 point mutations, 5 insertions, and 2 deletions. One strain had no mutation in the pncA gene, even though it was resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity. Three isolates had adenine to guanine point mutations in the -11 upstream region, making this the most common type of pncA mutations in this study, with at least two different RFLP patterns. CONCLUSION: These data help in the understanding of the molecular basis of PZA resistance. An adenine to guanine point mutation in the -11 upstream region was the most common type of pncA mutation in our isolates. The results of pncA mutation analyses should be carefully interpreted for epidemiologic purposes.  (+info)

(6/7957) Sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin prevent quinolone-resistance in a penicillin-resistant isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

BACKGROUND: The continuous spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci represents a permanent threat in the treatment of pneumococcal infections, especially when strains show additional resistance to quinolones. The main objective of this study was to determine a treatment modality impeding the emergence of quinolone resistance. RESULTS: Exposure of a penicillin-resistant pneumococcus to increasing concentrations of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin selected for mutants resistant to these drugs. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, development of trovafloxacin-resistance and high-level ciprofloxacin-resistance were prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the risk of quinolone-resistance in pneumococci, the observation might be of clinical importance.  (+info)

(7/7957) Characterization of mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance in Rhodococcus equi isolated from foals.

Treatment with a combination of erythromycin and rifampin has considerably improved survival rates of foals and immunocompromised patients suffering from severe pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. Frequently, because of monotherapy, emergence of rifampin-resistant strains has been responsible for treatment failure. Using consensus oligonucleotides, we have amplified and sequenced the rifampin resistance (Rif(r))-determining regions of 12 rifampin-resistant R. equi strains isolated from three foals and of mutants selected in vitro from R. equi ATCC 3701, a rifampin-susceptible strain. The deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of four rifampin-susceptible R. equi strains showed several types of mutations. In 3 of the 10 strains isolated from one foal, His526Asn (Escherichia coli numbering) and Asp516Val mutations were associated with low-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 2 to 8 microg/ml), whereas His526Asp conferred high-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 128 microg/ml) in the 7 remaining strains. In strains from the two other foals, His526Asp and Ser531Leu mutations were found to be associated with high-level and low-level resistance, respectively. The in vitro mutants, highly resistant to rifampin, harbored His526Tyr and His526Arg substitutions. As described in other bacterial genera, His526, Ser531, and Asp516 are critical residues for rifampin resistance in R. equi, and the resistance levels are dependent on both the location and the nature of the substitution.  (+info)

(8/7957) Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits.

Studies have shown benefits to patients from improved interventions involving antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the impact of improved interventions by (i) the use of TheraTrac 2, a computer software program which electronically links susceptibility testing results immediately to the pharmacy and alerts pharmacists of potential interventions, and (ii) the education of pharmacists involving microbiologic topics. The study group had the new intervention program. The control group had interventions performed the way that they had previously been done by manually reviewing hard copies of susceptibility testing data. In a 5-month period, all inpatients whose last names began with A to K were the study group; inpatients whose last names began with L to Z were controls. Three analyses were done; one analysis (analysis A) involved only patients with interventions, one analysis (analysis B) involved all patients for whom antimicrobial testing was done and who were matched for diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), regardless of whether an intervention occurred, and one analysis (analysis C) involved these DRG-matched patients by using severity-adjusted data. In analysis A, the study group had a 4.8% decreased rate of mortality, an average of a 16.5-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $20,886 decreased variable direct costs per patient. None of these differences was statistically significant. In analysis B, the study patients had a 1.2% higher mortality rate (P = 0.741), an average of a 2.7-day decreased length of stay per patient (P = 0.035), and $2,626 decreased variable direct costs per patient (P = 0.008). In analysis C, the study patients had a 1.4% lower mortality rate, a 1.2-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $1,466 decreased variable direct costs per patient. In conclusion, the institution of this program caused substantial cost savings.  (+info)


why is drug resistance hiv topic important for patients or nurses to understand?


who will nurses apply drug resistance hiv knowledge to his  or her clinical practice (pretendnures are caring for some one with this disease/ disorder)
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HIV will often respond when a drug is first initiated. However, as the virus mutates...these strands may not respond to a drug that worked well at first. Patients and caregivers need to understand this so they will be alert to possible new symptoms, and so they will continue with regular follow-up appointments to check their t-cell levels. A drop in t-cells could indicate the virus has become drug resistant and a new drug must be initiated. This is why most HIV patients are on a drug "cocktail"...a combination of several drugs that all work on different strains of the virus. 
Look at this link for more info: 
http://www.atdn.org/simple/resistance.html


What is the link between HIV mutation and drug resistant HIV?


Does HIV mutate when drug regimens are not followed, thus creating drug resistance?
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HIV is a retrovirus which replicates rapidly.
each time it does so, theres a chance for genetic mutation.
the mutation can make the virus become resistant to the drugs.
this can also happen when people dont follow instructions and take their medications as prescribed.


How to avoid drug resistance in hiv?Hiv and drug resistance,help please?


In hiv can i avoid drug resistance?If yes,How i can avoid?Please help me,thanks to all
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How does drugs affect your body?


How does drugs, tobacco, and marijuana affect your body? I need to know for my D.A.R.E (Drug Abusive Resistance Education) And does it slow down your metabolism?
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I can't believe people still buy into the "It kill brain cells" bit.

You people who believe that do understand that came from a study that suffocated monkeys with smoke. Marijuana doesn't kill your brain cells, but suffocation will.


Each of the following is a mechanism for drug resistance transfer between microorganisms except?


a.transposons
b r-plasmids
c conjugation
d mutation
e all of the choices provide for transfer of drug resistance
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1) Check assigned reading
2) Do assigned reading
3) Gain knowledge needed to answer question
4) Answer question
5) Can satisfaction from doing your own work


I keep getting bacterial infections and keep going back to the doctor for medicine. Any suggestions?


I have recurring bacterial infections.  I feel like the medicine I am being given to treat the infection is not strong enough and doesn't completely fight off the bacterial.  Has anyone been in this situation before and does anyone know anything that can be done?
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Well, generally I can say that if the treatment and diagnosis is right there should be no problem. Do you take antibiotics on right dosages and frequency? If antibacterials are suddenly stopped or minimized, drug resistance may occur thereby decreasing it's effectiveness. If that should happen, a "stronger" type of antibiotic is given OR a combination of drugs to increase potency.


What is the difference between drug dependency and drug addiction?


Prescription drug policy in many places seems to stigmatize anyone who is taking a narcotic pain reliever.  As so often happens, the minority of abusers make it difficult for the majority of legitimate chronic pain sufferers.
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According to the DSM-IV-TR : there really isn't a difference, actually the term drug dependency is starting to take the place of drug addiction.
Yet, another way to look at it is: drug dependency usually occurs when a person is taking a needed medication to treat a disorder such as Xanax for depression. It is an addictive drug, so when the person tries to stop taking it they go through withdrawals. Some anti-psychotic meds, used to treat personality disorders such as antisocial personality, or schizophrenia - are addicted, and the person becomes dependent on them. They need to take the medication in order to function correctly. 

According to the APA: Drug addiction is a "pattern of compulsive substance use" meaning that the person is taking them because they want to get high. There is no reason: behavioral, physiological or cognitive for them to be using them. People who are addicted usually have social, legal, or job related problems that manifest because of this use.


What drug causes mind disorder or unable to be himself again?


Some people say that there are a drug that makes someone disabled and unable to be himself again. Because of that drug one of my friend is now unable to think and talking to him is useless now.
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i think it's a tie between x or meth.

x because if you take the wrong pill...it can completely change someone around. It's so dangerous.

meth i think though is like...the worst f'in drug. it completely morphs a person into something you don't even know anymore.

without seeking help...it'll always stay that way.