Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.BaltimoreMethadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)New York CityHIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.San FranciscoAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.PrisonersOpioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.RussiaCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.KentuckyPharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.EstoniaInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.United StatesUrban Health: The status of health in urban populations.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.HTLV-II InfectionsLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.MexicoUnsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.ArkansasHomosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.VietnamSexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.ConnecticutContraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Appalachian Region: A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.Bacillaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.HungaryHIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Rhode IslandRomeProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.WashingtonPeer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.MoscowSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Georgia (Republic)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Opiate Alkaloids: Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.ArgentinaMobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Los AngelesClostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Amyl Nitrite: A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.ScotlandCaliforniaHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.FloridaMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Homeless Youth: Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.PhiladelphiaHuman T-lymphotropic virus 2: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.UkraineDenial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.LatviaCocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Montenegro: Montenegro was formerly part of the historic Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Montenegro was granted the status of a republic within YUGOSLAVIA. On May 21, 2006, the Republic of Montenegro held a successful referendum on independence and declared independence on June 3. The capital is Podgorica.BrazilWheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.SwitzerlandEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.LondonEndocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.

*  Phone scam targets Medicare drug users | Peninsula Clarion
People receiving Medicare benefits are being targeted in a scam involving false offers of refunds for prescription drugs. ... People receiving Medicare benefits are being targeted in a scam involving false offers of refunds for prescription drugs. ... of Health and Social Services representative who trained area senior services providers on the Medicare prescription drug Plan ... Medicare Agency reportedly is contacting beneficiaries telling them Medicare wants to send them a refund for prescription drugs
http://peninsulaclarion.com/stories/101006/news_1010new001.shtml
*  B.C. woman says drug users hold solution to growing overdose crisis | Vancouver...
Drug users are the solution to addressing overdose deaths and providing services to people before they die alone, says a woman ... Karen Ward, a board member of the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, was among about 20 drug users who joined doctors, ... The war on drugs is a war on drug users and we're dying, thousands of us." ... He said the overdose-reversing drug naloxone should also be provided and parents who are illicit drug users themselves should ...
http://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/b-c-woman-says-drug-users-hold-solution-to-growing-overdose-crisis
*  Treatment Utilization Among Adolescent Substance Users: Findings from the 2002...
Treatment Utilization Among Adolescent Substance Users: Findings from the 2002 to 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. ... National Survey on Drug Use and Health data were pooled across 2002 to 2013, with a combined sample of 79,885 past-year ... Adolescent substance users face serious health and social consequences and benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. The ... Most adolescents received treatment for both alcohol and drug use, and self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation facility
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acer.13137/abstract
*  Skills training para sa ex-drug users | Tempo - The Nation's Fastest Growing...
Tinatayang nasa 120 sumukong drug users sa Pasig City ang bibigyan ng skills training para maging contruction workers. ... Home » News » News Roundup » Skills training para sa ex-drug users Skills training para sa ex-drug users. November 10, 2016 , ... Sa ilalim ng kasunduaan, ang mga sumukong drug users ay tuturuan at bibigyan ng pagkakataong makapagtrabaho bilang welders, ... Tinatayang nasa 120 sumukong drug users sa Pasig City ang bibigyan ng skills training para maging contruction workers. ...
http://tempo.com.ph/2016/11/10/skills-training-para-sa-ex-drug-users/
*  US Drug Watchdog Now Urges Users of Yaz Yasmin Birth Control Pills That Had a...
Drug,Watchdog,Now,Urges,Users,of,Yaz,Yasmin,Birth,Control,Pills,That,Had,a,Stroke,Or,Developed,Other,Serious,Medical,Conditions ... The US Drug Watchdog is now urging mothers of young women who suffered a heart attack a stroke or a pulmonary embolism to ask ... US Drug Watchdog Now Urges Users of Yaz Yasmin Birth Control Pills That Had a Stroke Or Developed Other Serious Medical ... The US Drug Watchdog says, 'One of the biggest problems we have with respect to our drug initiative work, is the average
http://bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/US-Drug-Watchdog-Now-Urges-Users-of-Yaz-Yasmin-Birth-Control-Pills-That-Had-a-Stroke-Or-Developed-Other-Serious-Medical-Conditions-to-Contact-The-John-98828-1/
*  Public injecting among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada |...
This study sought to examine public injecting among a community-recruited cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Vancouver. ... Public injecting among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada ... Public injecting among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada ... the prevalence and correlates of recent public injecting among participants enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study ...
http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2008/07/15/jech.2007.069013
*  Methadone treatment as a determinant of HIV risk reduction among injecting drug...
... we performed a nested case-control study on seroconverters cases who were part of a cohort of HIV-negative infecting drug users ... Controls were matched with cases by sex, age, duration of drug use and follow-up time. Information on methadone... ... Methadone treatment as a determinant of HIV risk reduction among injecting drug users: a nested case-control study. R f. 80151 ... who were part of a cohort of HIV-negative infecting drug users (IDUs) (controls). ...
http://bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/80151/
*  Mainline, drugs en gezondheid - Drugsinfo for users
Mainline zet zich al 25 jaar in om de gezondheid en kwaliteit van leven van druggebruikers te verbeteren in binnen- en buitenland. Mainline geeft gezondheidsvoorlichting, biedt trainingen, maakt een lifestyle magazine en werkt met partner-organisaties in het buitenland.
http://mainline.blogbird.nl/page/drugsinfo-for-users
*  Reducing High Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users Through Syringe Exchange -...
2010 Reducing High Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users Through Syringe Exchange For prevention of transmission of the Human ... Injection Drug Users in Miami-Dade: NHBS-IDU2 Cycle Preliminary Results Injection Drug Users in Miami-Dade: NHBS-IDU2 Cycle ... QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTRAVENOUS DRUG USERS CITY RDS Number QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTRAVENOUS DRUG USERS SECTION 1 SOCIAL-DEMOGRAPHIC ... HIV/AIDS Prevention among Injecting Drug Users: Learning from Harm Reduction in Iran HIV/AIDS Prevention among ...
http://docplayer.net/770991-Reducing-high-risk-behavior-in-injection-drug-users-through-syringe-exchange.html
*  Dragons Gonna Drag: Elves vs. Magic-Users in LotFP
Can we make the Magic-User and Elf a bit more equal with minimal changes to the rules?. Well, I was reading the official LotFP ... I think this still gels well with the conception of the Elf as a Fighter/Magic-User hybrid class, like in OD&D and Basic/Expert ... TL;DR Give the Elf the Cleric's spell progression with Magic-User spells and don't let Elves craft magic items. Keep the rest ... The Elf can cast Magic-User spells, but their Spells per Day and maximum spell level per experience level can ...
http://dragonsgonnadrag.blogspot.com/2016/01/elves-vs-magic-users-in-lotfp.html
*  Adult Illicit Drug Users Are Far More Likely To Seriously Consider Suicide
... About NCADD. NCADD Bookstore. Recovery Stories. Learn More.... Learn About Alcohol. FAQ's / Facts. Alcohol and Crime. Learn About Alcohol Curious about what drinking will do to you. Learn More.... Learn About Drugs. FAQ's/Facts. Prescription Drugs. Drugs and Crime. Learn About Drugs A source of information about substances that alter the mental and emotional state. Learn More.... FAQ's/Facts. Learn More.... FAQ's/Facts. Drugs and Crime. Recovery Stories. For Youth Think you may have a problem with your drinking or drug use. Learn More.... For People In Recovery. For People In Recovery Recovery from alcoholism and drug addiction is happening every day for millions of people. Learn More.... FAQ's/Facts. Family Disease/ Recovery. Recovery Stories. For Family & Friends The disease of alcoholism and drug addiction affects the whole family. Learn More.... Home : In the News : Adult Illicit Drug Users Are Far More Likely To Seriously ...
http://ncadd.org/index.php/in-the-news/986-adult-illicit-drug-users-are-far-more-likely-to-seriously-consider-suicide
*  International drugs network smashed by detectives - ITV News
... Advertisement. ITV. News. Sport. Jackpot. Search. Search. Top stories. Money. Health. Sport. Weather. Weather. Advertisement. Drugs kingpin guilty plea. An international crime network responsible for importing more than 50 tonnes of cannabis and cocaine into the UK has been smashed. The last remaining kingpin, Philip Baron, pleaded guilty to conspiracies to import drugs and money laundering today. International drugs network smashed by detectives. A network of international organised crime groups responsible for flooding the UK streets with more than 50 tonnes of cannabis and cocaine has been smashed by detectives. Today at Liverpool Crown Court the last remaining kingpin, Philip Baron, aged 57, pleaded guilty to conspiracies to import drugs and money laundering. Philip Baron has pleaded guilty to conspiracies to import drugs and money laundering. Baron, who is originally from Salford but had been living in Ireland for the last 15 years, will be sentenced later this ...
http://itv.com/news/update/2013-03-26/international-drugs-network-dismantled-by-detectives/
*  July 10: Lawmakers search for ways to curb synthetic drugs - StarTribune.com
... StarTribune. Local. Sports. Business. Variety. Obituaries. Classifieds. Jobs. Minneapolis. Paul. Local Columnists. Local Blogs. MPLS. Gophers. Sports Columnists. Sports Blogs. Business Columnists. Business Blogs. 214850601 Minnesota lawmakers search for ways to curb soaring use of synthetic drugs. Legislators listened for hours on Tuesday to experts who say the new concoctions are becoming a public health threat in Minnesota that may eclipse that of methamphetamine a decade ago. The state has passed laws banning the chemicals that make up the synthetic drugs the latest will go into effect Aug. Every time you stomp something down, something else pops up, he told legislators Tuesday. Louis County Attorney Jon Holets, whose office deferred to federal authorities when it came to prosecuting Duluth s Last Place on Earth, said the key will be laws that make the possession and sale of synthetic drugs a felony. Louis County consistently leads the state in the number of synthetic drug ...
http://startribune.com/july-10-lawmakers-search-for-ways-to-curb-synthetic-drugs/214850601/?c=y&page=1
*  Face eating man may have been using synthetic drug | Video Library | The Daily JournalFace eating ma
Face eating man may have been using synthetic drug. My account. Log out. Log in. News. Sports. Email. Face eating man may have been using synthetic drug Miami medical experts believe a naked man who was shot by police as he was eating the flesh off another man's face was most likely under the influence of synthetic drugs, like bath salts or fake marijuana. Face eating man may have been using synthetic drug. http://archive.thedailyjournal.com/VideoNetwork/1662601918001/Face-eating-man-may-have-been-using-synthetic-drug. rtmp://cp81384.edgefcs.net/ondemand/&mp4:brightcove/44692046001/44692046001 1662588105001 FACE-EATING-MAN-BATH-SALTS-W053012-NW07.mp4 http://archive.thedailyjournal.com/VideoNetwork/1662601918001/Face-eating-man-may-have-been-using-synthetic-drug http://bcdownload.gannett.edgesuite.net/contentone/44692046001/44692046001 1662480977001 ari-origin07-arc-135-1338382785396.jpg Face eating man may have been using synthetic drug Miami medical experts ...
http://archive.thedailyjournal.com/videonetwork2911/1662601918001/Face-eating-man-may-have-been-using-synthetic-drug?from=global
*  .. Tag Archive for ‘synthetic drugs’ .. Next Studio One will highlight the dangers of synthetic
tag archive for synthetic drugs next studio one will highlight the dangers of synthetic drugs this week on studio one sergeant travis jacobson will discuss how synthetic drugs are becoming a serious concern across the united states he will define what makes a â syntheticâ substance and why they can be hazardous â you seldom know what is in the drugs the only way you would know is if some of these a message from the office of u s attorney tim purdon about synthetic drugs â newly developed synthetic drugs generally referred to as synthetic psychedelics or synthetic hallucinogens have been identified in grand forks county and polk county there have been multiple overdoses of such drugs in the past thirty days in addition to two deaths that may be linked to such synthetic drugs these drugs have been seized by
http://webapp.und.edu/dept/our/uletter/?tag=synthetic-drugs
*  User talk:92.98.62.170 - Wikiquote
... User talk:92.98.62.170 From Wikiquote. Jump to: navigation, search Thank you for your effort to contribute to our project, but Wikiquote exists for the collecting of notable quotations of famous people and famous works, not for the posting of quotations of people not yet famous in some field. Within bounds of Wikimedia policy, registered users can put quotes of themselves or people they know on their user pages. For a quick overview of what Wikiquote is, read Wikiquote:Wikiquote, and also What Wikiquote is not for a list of common activities that Wikiquote does not support. ~ Ningauble talk 14:32, 12 December 2012 UTC. Again, please refrain from adding quotes from a non-notable source. Such quotes may be more appropriate for your User page. ~ UDScott talk 19:12, 13 December 2012 UTC. Please stop. Your continued posting of tweets, from a person who is not notable in some field, is becoming disruptive. When people are not interested in contributing responsibly to the development of Wikiquote, ...
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/User_talk:92.98.62.170
*  Deepthroat gagging oral creampies collection created by user: Cmoore88 at fantasti.cc
... Videos /. Images /. Categories /. Collections /. Community.
http://fantasti.cc/user/cmoore88/collections/deepthroat-gagging-oral-creampies/108915/
*  Snap Front V-Neck Top in Celadon from Discounted Medical Uniforms
... Shopping Cart. Jump to Menus Brands Cherokee Certainty Code Happy Dickies HeartSoul Workwear Scrub HQ Tooniforms Littmann Stethoscopes Classroom Uniforms. Categories Solid Tops Print Tops Pants Footwear Medical Accessories Men's Solid Jackets Print Jackets Whites Labs. Collections New Prints Infinity by Cherokee EDS Signature Cherokee Luxe Dickies Gen Flex Runway By Cherokee Flexibles HeartSoul Break On Through HeartSoul Picture Perfect Disney. School Preschool Girls Juniors Boys Young Men. Home Solid Tops Snap Front V-Neck Top in CELW. Snap Front V-Neck Top in Celadon. Style: 4770 Color: CELW. Choose a size:. Please select a size. 2XL. 3XL. Size Chart. Selected Color:. See Cart For Price. Retailers have the right to set their own prices independently, but some manufacturers place restrictions on how those prices may be communicated. The manufacturer does not allow us to show you this price until you place the item in your shopping cart. You can easily remove it from your cart if you decide not to buy ...
http://discountedmedicaluniforms.com/shop/style.php?style_id=4770&color_id=CELW&category=10001
*  Behavioral Intervention Trial for HIV-infected Injection Drug Users - Full Text View - ClinicalTrial
... s.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. About the Results Database. History, Policies, and Laws. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00146445?order=237
*  "Factors associated with needle sharing among Black male injection drug" by Jordan Richardson Cahoo
... n. Home. Search. Browse Collections. My Account. About. Digital Commons Network™. Skip to main content. DigitalCommons@The Texas Medical Center. Home. About. FAQ. My Account. Home. DISSERTATIONS. AAI1479569. Factors associated with needle sharing among Black male injection drug users in Harris County, Texas. Jordan Richardson Cahoon, The University of Texas School of Public Health. Abstract Background. Injection drug users IDUs are at increased risk for HIV transmission due to unique risk behaviors, such as sharing needles. In Houston, IDUs account for 18% of all HIV/AIDS cases among Black males. Objectives. This analysis compared demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of needle sharing and non-sharing IDUs in a population of Black males in Harris County, Texas. Methods. Data used for this analysis were from the second IDU cycle of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. This dataset included a sample of 288 Black male IDUs. Univariate and ...
http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/dissertations/AAI1479569/
*  Behavioral Intervention for HIV and HCV-Uninfected Injection Drug Users - Full Text View - ClinicalT
... rials.gov. Behavioral Intervention for HIV and HCV-Uninfected Injection Drug Users This study has been completed. Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Information provided by Responsible Party : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00164372 First received: September 9, 2005 Last updated: September 26, 2012 Last verified: September 2012 History of Changes. The purpose of this study is to test whether a six-session behavioral intervention for HIV and HCV seronegative injection drug users is effective in reducing sexual and injection risk behaviors that could lead to primary HIV and HCV infection. HIV Infections Hepatitis C. Official Title: Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study III/Drug Users Intervention Trial CIDUS III/DUIT. Further study details as provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:. Detailed Description: CIDUS III/DUIT is a five-city Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, New ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00164372?order=22
*  N Galai
2011 Prognostic factors for survival differ according to CD4+ cell count among HIV-infected injection drug users: pre-HAART and HAART eras Noya Galai Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:74-81. 2001 Time to initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injection drug users D D Celentano Department of Epidemiology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA AIDS 15:1707-15. 2007 HIV incidence among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland 1988-2004 Shruti H Mehta Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:368-72. Prognostic factors for survival differ according to CD4+ cell count among HIV-infected injection drug users: pre-HAART and HAART eras Noya Galai Department of Epidemiology, Johns ...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/johns/galai/n-galai-279121.html
*  Richard S Garfein
2004 A peer-education intervention to reduce injection risk behaviors for HIV and hepatitis C virus infection in young injection drug users Richard S Garfein Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA AIDS 21:1923-32. 2007 The influence of needle exchange programs on injection risk behaviors and infection with hepatitis C virus among young injection drug users in select cities in the United States, 1994-2004 Deborah Holtzman Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Mailstop G 37, Atlanta GA 30333, USA Prev Med 49:68-73. 2008 Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999 Scott S Santibanez Division of HIV AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton ...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/centers/garfein/richard-s-garfein-338099.html
*  A Trial of Observed Long-acting, Anti-HIV Treatment With a Monoclonal CCR5 Antibody (PRO 140) as an
A Trial of Observed Long-acting, Anti-HIV Treatment With a Monoclonal CCR5 Antibody PRO 140 as an Adjunct to a New, Optimized, Oral Antiretroviral Regimen in HIV-infected Injection Drug Users With Viral Rebound and Documented Poor Adherence - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. Find Studies Study Record Detail. A Trial of Observed Long-acting, Anti-HIV Treatment With a Monoclonal CCR5 Antibody PRO 140 as an Adjunct to a New, Optimized, Oral Antiretroviral Regimen in HIV-infected Injection Drug Users With Viral Rebound and Documented Poor Adherence The recruitment status of this study is unknown because the information has not been verified recently. Verified July 2013 by CytoDyn, Inc.. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01272258 First received: January 5, 2011 Last updated: July 25, 2013 Last verified: July 2013 History of Changes. PRO 140 2102 is a phase 2b, national, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in order to ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01272258?order=150
*  Herpes virus infection drives HIV infection among non-injecting drug users in New York
... June 28, 2014 Herpes virus infection drives HIV infection among non-injecting drug users in New York June 28, 2014 HIV and its transmission has long been associated with injecting drug use, where hypodermic syringes are used to administer illicit drugs. Now, a newly reported study by researchers affiliated with New York University's Center for Drug Use and HIV Research CDUHR in the journal PLOS ONE, shows that HIV infection among heterosexual non-injecting drug users no hypodermic syringe is used; drugs are taken orally or nasally in New York City NYC has now surpassed HIV infection among persons who inject drugs. The study, "HSV-2 Co-Infection as a Driver of HIV Transmission among Heterosexual Non-Injecting Drug Users in New York City," was conducted among drug users entering the Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment programs in NYC. More than half of the non-injecting drug users in the ...
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-06-herpes-virus-infection-hiv-non-injecting.html
*  Herpes drives HIV infection among non-injecting drug users in New York - ScienceBlog.com
... Herpes drives HIV infection among non-injecting drug users in New York Jun 29, 2014. Now, a newly reported study by researchers affiliated with New York University s Center for Drug Use and HIV Research CDUHR in the journal PLOS ONE, shows that HIV infection among heterosexual non-injecting drug users no hypodermic syringe is used; drugs are taken orally or nasally in New York City NYC has now surpassed HIV infection among persons who inject drugs. The study, HSV-2 Co-Infection as a Driver of HIV Transmission among Heterosexual Non-Injecting Drug Users in New York City, was conducted among drug users entering the Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment programs in NYC. The researchers found that HIV infection among non-injecting drug users doubled over the last two decades, from 7% infected in the late 1990s n= 785 to 14% n=1764 currently. The increased efficiency for transmitting HIV occurs even when ...
http://scienceblog.com/73069/herpes-drives-hiv-infection-among-non-injecting-drug-users-new-york/
*  A Failed "War on Drugs" Prompts Rethinking on HIV Infections among Injection-Drug Users - Scientific
A Failed War on Drugs Prompts Rethinking on HIV Infections among Injection-Drug Users - Scientific American. Subscribe to Print. View the Latest Issue. Subscribe. News & Features Latest Stories Ask the Experts Fact or Fiction Extreme Tech Features Forum In-Depth Reports Interactive Features Mind Matters News Science Images Slide shows. Videos & Podcasts Video SA's The Countdown 60-Second Science Podcast 60-Second Earth Podcast 60-Second Health Podcast 60-Second Mind Podcast 60-Second Space Podcast 60-Second Tech Podcast Science Talk Podcast. Education SA at the Google Science Fair Bring Science Home Citizen Science Digital Education Report Professional Learning 1,000 Scientists in 1,000 Days Search for Scientists/Educators Scientist Sign Up Educator Sign Up Participant Dashboard Scitable Education Resources. Inside the Latest Issue Features Advances 50, 100 & 150 Years Ago Anti Gravity Forum Graphic Science The Science Agenda The Science of Health Skeptic TechnoFiles Recommended Archive ...
http://scientificamerican.com/article/a-failed-war-on-drugs/
*  Expert Speakers Forum: Dr. Hal Margolis: Risk of Hepatitis C Infection Among Injection Drug Users
expert speakers forum dr hal margolis risk of hepatitis c infection among injection drug users questions glossary risk of hepatitis c virus infection among injection drug users let me show you a little bit about what we think has happened in the injection drug users since that is the population that accounts for almost of the infections if you look at a number of studies that were done some back in the s in baltimore and then a family of studies that have been done in new york and chicago looking at relatively young injection drug users and looking at hepatitis c based on the duration of their injection drug use if you go back to the baltimore group what you saw was that people acquired their infection very rapidly within months to a year of initiating drug use almost all drug users were infected but if you look at what s been happening now in the late s and probably what is going on now is that you see for instance in ...
http://hepb.org/expforum/media-player.aspx?speakerID=halMargolis&topicID=hmarg24&language=English&mediaType=text&player=flash
*  Kenya to Distribute Needles to Injection Drug Users | StoptheDrugWar.org
Kenya to Distribute Needles to Injection Drug Users. StoptheDrugWar.org. . Sign In or Subscribe for Free. raising awareness of the consequences of prohibition. Home Newsletter Blog Legislation About Donate. Subscribe Email This Print This. Home » Drug War Chronicle » Issue #738 Kenya to Distribute Needles to Injection Drug Users Post to: Twitter Facebook Digg StumbleUpon Reddit. by psmith, June 11, 2012, 05:29pm, Issue #738. Posted in:. Disease Drug-Related AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis C Harm Reduction Heroin Needle Exchange News Brief Politics Outside US. The Kenyan government will begin distributing needles to the country's estimated 50,000 injection drug users next month in a bid to slow the spread of HIV and other blood-borne diseases. The plan was announced last week in Mombasa, where the first pilot program will begin. Mombasa, a port city, is reportedly a transit route for international drug trafficking. It also has the country's ...
http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/2012/jun/11/kenya_distribute_needles_injecti
*  Aging drug users are increasing and facing chronic physical and mental health problems -- ScienceDai
... ly. Your source for the latest research news. Aging drug users are increasing and facing chronic physical and mental health problems. Date: September 12, 2010 Source: Wiley - Blackwell Summary: Health and social services are facing a new challenge, as many illicit drug users get older and face chronic health problems and a reduced quality of life. UK researchers interviewed people aged 49 to 61 in contact with voluntary sector drug treatment services. Health and social services are facing a new challenge, as many illicit drug users get older and face chronic health problems and a reduced quality of life. "Aging drug users are increasing and facing chronic physical and mental health problems." ScienceDaily. Aging drug users are increasing and facing chronic physical and mental health problems. Retrieved October 4, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100909074009.htm Wiley - Blackwell. "Aging drug users ...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100909074009.htm
*  Homelessness Resource Center - Resource HIV surveillance in injection drug users
... Loading... Warning To protect your privacy, you will be logged out within 5 minutes due to inactivity. If you would like to stay logged in, simply click "Okay". Skip Navigation. About Us. Contact Us. Search. HIV surveillance in injection drug users Author s : CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/idu/resources/slides/index.htm Download the PDF No Recommendations Yet Click here to recommend. Tags: HIV |. CDC |. Injection drug use. Click here to add your own tag. No Recommendations Yet Click here to recommend. Description: CDC Updates “HIV Surveillance in Injection Drug Users” Slide Set The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC recently updated the “HIV Surveillance in Injection Drug Users through 2009 ” slide set with information from the 2009 HIV Surveillance Report.
http://homeless.samhsa.gov/Resource/HIV-surveillance-in-injection-drug-users-52065.aspx
*  HIV/AIDS & Injection Drug Use (IDU) | Drug War Facts
HIV/AIDS Injection Drug Use IDU. Drug War Facts. Drug Use Estimates Economics Ecstasy MDMA Entheogens including Salvia, LSD, Mushrooms, and Peyote Environment Families, Students Youth Forfeiture Gateway Theory Hemp Hepatitis C Heroin Heroin Assisted Treatment HAT HIV/AIDS Injection Drug Use IDU HIV/AIDS, Race the Drug War Ibogaine Interdiction of Drugs International Data and Policies Mandatory Minimums and Sentencing Guidelines Marijuana Medicinal Marijuana Methadone, Buprenorphine, and Opioid Substitution Therapy Methamphetamine Meth Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Militarization Netherlands Compared with the US New Psychoactive Substances NPS Legal Highs Overdose Pain Management and Prescription Drugs Pregnancy Prevention Prisons Jails Overview Prisons Drug Offenses Race Prison. Drug War Facts Podcast Table of Contents Chapters By Topical Area. Drug Policy Facts Podcast #61 Drug Policy Facts Podcast #60. Home HIV/AIDS Injection ...
http://drugwarfacts.org/cms/HIV-AIDS
*  Investigation into the effectiveness of filters for use by intravenous drug users - Opus
... Study. Research. Faculties Departments. Business. About. Site Search. Research Research. Publications. Browse by author. Browse by department. Browse by funder. Browse by year. Search. About. Policy. Authors' corner. Contact. Login. REF: Select. Investigation into the effectiveness of filters for use by intravenous drug users. Reference: Scott, J., Kennedy, E. J, Winfield, A. J and Bond, C., 1998. Investigation into the effectiveness of filters for use by intravenous drug users. International Journal of Drug Policy, 9 3, pp. 181-186. Related documents: This repository does not currently have the full-text of this item. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided below. Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0955-3959 98 00020-6 Abstract Injecting drug users are at risk of and can suffer from serious health problems due to intravenous administration of insoluble particles from street drugs and tablets. Makeshift filters are used to try ...
http://opus.bath.ac.uk/20052/
*  Three million injecting drug users are HIV-positive - BONJOUR L'ESTONIE
... BONJOUR L'ESTONIE. Minister promises pay hike. Main. New Peugeot dealer in Estonia : car sales will drop. September 26, 2008 Three million injecting drug users are HIV-positive Michael Carter 16 million people worldwide inject drugs, with 3 million infected with HIV, according to a study published in the September 24 th edition of The Lancet. High levels of HIV infection amongst injecting drug users were observed in south and south east Asia, eastern Europe and Latin America. However, the investigators’ study was limited by a lack of reliable data from many countries, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, an indication of the neglect of the HIV prevention needs of injecting drug users. Injecting drug use has caused health problems around the world, not least the transmission of bloodborne infections, most notably HIV. Accurate and reliable estimates of the number of injecting drug users and HIV prevalence amongst them is needed so that ...
http://shaan.typepad.com/shaanou/2008/09/three-million-i.html
*  دانلود مقاله : هدف قرار دادن مداخلات برای جمعیت های با ر
Targeting interventions to high-risk populations: Benefits and costs. Targeting prevention interventions to high-risk populations may increase intervention benefits, but identifying and/or finding the high-risk populations may increase intervention costs. We explore the costs and benefits of targeting in the context of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention in high-risk injection drug users IDUs. Recruiting high-risk IDUs for such interventions, however, may be more difficult and costly. Researchers have long suggested that targeting health care by risk or economic need would increase cost effectiveness of the program in question. The tradeoffs between these costs, and the benefits of targeting health interventions, have received little explicit attention in the research literature. In this paper, we develop a model to more fully explore these tradeoffs in the context of targeting human immunodeficiency HIV interventions to high-risk injection drug users IDUs. A discussion of ...
http://isiarticles.com/article/6672
*  AHCPR-Funded Study Finds Progression of HIVDisease Not Related to Race, Sex, or Drug Use
... www.ahrq.gov AHRQ Home Live Site. 1995 Press Release Archive AHCPR-Funded Study Finds Progression of HIV Disease Not Related to Race, Sex, or Drug Use. Please go to www.ahrq.gov for current information. AHCPR-Funded Study Finds Progression of HIV Disease Not Related to Race, Sex, or Drug Use Press Release Date: September 20, 1995 A new study being published in the September 21, 1995, issue of The New England Journal of Medicine examines the relationships of race, sex, and drug use to progression of HIV disease. The researchers concluded that among patients with HIV infection who received medical care from a single urban center, there were no differences in disease progression or survival associated with sex, race, injection-drug use, or socioeconomic status. Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, supported by an AHCPR research grant, measured disease progression and survival in a cohort of 1,372 patients who were seropositive for HIV, and ...
http://archive.ahrq.gov/news/press/sept2.htm
*  Pathology Case Studies
... discussion symptoms history physical findings stop think lab and x ray differential diagnosis the disease treatment conclusions quiz evaluation who gets aids and how is it transmitted to a greater extent than ever before aids in europe and the us is contracted through intravenous drug use and heterosexual contact this wasn t always the case and the recent epidemiologic figures reflect the changing dynamic of how hiv is spread group all cases new cases homosexual and bisexual men intravenous drug abusers hemophiliacs recipients of blood and blood components heterosexual contact with high risk groups undetermined risk factors hiv is transmitted under circumstances that exchange blood or body fluids containing the virus or infected cells sexual contact vigra has changed things for the elderly now sexually active again but largely unaware of the risk parenteral inoculation should be very low with proper maternal treatment passage of virus from infected mothers to their newborns the ...
http://medsci.indiana.edu/c602web/602/c602web/adcas/aids2.htm
*  Comments on: HIV drug can also protect injection drug users
Wichita, KS News Weather and Sports | We've Got Your Back Tue, 29 Sep 2015 21:14:17 +0000
http://ksn.com/2013/06/12/hiv-drug-can-also-protect-injection-drug-users/feed/
*  Simulation of automotive fuel injection equipment - ePrints Soton
... ePrints Soton Policies Latest Additions Download Statistics Browse by Year Browse by Subject Browse by School. Login. RSS 1.0. RSS 2.0. Atom. Simulation of automotive fuel injection equipment. 1984 Simulation of automotive fuel injection equipment. University of Southampton, Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, Doctoral Thesis, 295 pp. Download. Description/Abstract The ever increasing demands on Diesel engines for increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions and noise have given rise to more stringent requirements for the associated fuel injection equipment and greater emphasis on the understanding of the factors affecting its performance and the optimisation of its design. This work describes how the simulation of the complex phenomena arising in transient high pressure wave flows in diesel fuel injection equipment has been carried out, using a digital computer. Previous published research in producing fuel injection equipment models relied on producing simplified subsets of generalised ...
http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/52318/
*  Milwaukee County considers cutting needle-exchange program (6556) | Advocate.com
Milwaukee County considers cutting needle-exchange program 6556. Politics Business A E Transgender Bisexuality Religion Families HIV/AIDS Commentary Out Pride SheWired Gay.net Gay.com Out Traveler Plus Here TV Subscribe Subscriber Services Email Newsletter Signup Contact Staff Career Opportunities Advertise With Us Privacy Policy User Agreement Community Guidelines Legal Notice 2015 Here Media Inc. Editor's Pick Kim Davis Pope Francis Election Transgender Religion 7 Things. Religion. Vatican Priest Comes Out, Promptly Fired. Religion. Vatican: Kim Davis 'Exploited' the Pope. What Do Straight People Think This Gay Slang Means. Artist Spotlight. Artist Spotlight: Paul Specht. Religion. Health. Milwaukee County considers cutting needle-exchange program. A plan by Milwaukee County executive Scott Walker to cut more than $230,000 from needle-exchange programs aimed at reducing HIV infections drew heavy criticism at the 13th annual AIDS Walk Wisconsin, held September 28 in Milwaukee, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ...
http://advocate.com/health/health-news/2002/10/08/milwaukee-county-considers-cutting-needle-exchange-program-6556
*  New York Times Magazine Examines Needle-Exchange Programs - TheBody.com
... Prevention/Epidemiology New York Times Magazine Examines Needle-Exchange Programs From Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. November 23, 2009 In a New York Times magazine article, Tina Rosenberg examines how needle sharing has contributed to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the viability of needle exchange programs as a prevention strategy. Though it has been scorned as special treatment for a despised population, AIDS prevention for drug users is in fact crucial to preventing a wider epidemic." She continues, "Unlike with sexual transmission, there is a proven solution here: needle-exchange programs, which provide drug injectors with clean needles, usually in return for their used ones. Needle exchange is the cornerstone of an approach known as harm reduction : making drug use less deadly." Rosenberg notes that clean needles also provide a means to connect drug users with HIV counseling, tests and treatment as well as drug rehabilitation programs. Kaiser Family ...
http://thebody.com/content/art54528.html
*  Advocates Urge Canada to Implement Needle-Exchange Programs in Prisons to Prevent HIV Transmission -
... TheBody.com. International News Advocates Urge Canada to Implement Needle-Exchange Programs in Prisons to Prevent HIV Transmission From Henry J. July 16, 2008 HIV/AIDS advocates are calling on the Canadian government to implement needle-exchange programs in the country's federal prisons to prevent the spread of HIV, the Winnipeg Free Press reports. According to Correctional Service Canada, 1.6% of federal inmates, or about 218 people, were known to be HIV-positive in 2006. Most inmates eventually are released from prison and can bring infectious diseases into the general population, Elliot said, adding that Canadian officials "disproportionately incarcerate drug users who are engaged in high-risk behavior, and we're putting them in prisons where there's limited access to addiction treatment." Melisa Leclerc -- spokesperson for Public Safety Minister Stockwell Day, who was unavailable for comment -- said the federal government does not support "the use of illegal drugs or ...
http://thebody.com/content/art47643.html
*  Update: Syringe Exchange Programs --- United States, 1998
... Syringe exchange programs SEPs provide sterile syringes* in exchange for used syringes to reduce the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus HIV and other bloodborne infections associated with the reuse of potentially blood-contaminated syringes among injection drug users IDUs 1. The largest number of SEPs were in four states: 21 in California, 14 in New York, 12 in Washington, and nine in New Mexico. The 12 largest programs exchanged 62% of all syringes. From 1994--1995 to 1998, the number of SEPs participating in the activities survey increased from 60 to 110 83%, the number of cities with SEPs increased from 46 to 81 76%, and the number of syringes exchanged increased from 8.0 million to 19.4 million 143% Table 2. Syringe exchange programs---United States, 1994--1995. Update: syringe exchange programs---United States, 1996. Update: syringe exchange programs---United States, 1997. States with the largest SEPs: California four ; Washington three ; New York two ; and Illinois, ...
http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5019a4.htm
*  New Era for Syringe Exchange Programs! No More Abstinence-Only Education! - TheBody.com
New Era for Syringe Exchange Programs. No More Abstinence-Only Education. - TheBody.com. Print this page. Back to Web version of article. New Era for Syringe Exchange Programs. No More Abstinence-Only Education. By Bonnie Goldman July 29, 2009 A new era has dawned in HIV/AIDS. For years, public health experts, health care providers and researchers have been pleading with the U.S. government to remove the federal ban on funding for needle exchange programs and to accelerate the growth of these programs across the U.S. They wanted this done for one simple reason: Syringe exchange programs can save lives. They can be an important component in reducing the spread of blood-borne infectious diseases -- including HIV and hepatitis -- among injection drug users. According to many studies, these programs do not encourage drug use, contrary to what many conservatives say. Instead, they encourage the humanitarian treatment of people who have a substance abuse problem. Syringe exchange programs not ...
http://thebody.com/content/art53001.html?ts=pf
*  At Tapestry Health's needle exchange programs in Northampton and Holyoke, staff members emphasize h
... arm reduction. masslive.com. MassLive.com. Menu. Mobile Apps. News. Sports. High School Sports. Jobs. Real Estate. Obituaries. Photos. Follow Us. Back to Main Menu. Sign up for Breaking News Alerts. Back to Main Menu. Worcester. Weather. Business. Forums. Back to Main Menu. Red Sox. Patriots. UMass Basketball. UMass Football. More Sports. Back to Main Menu. UMass. Back to Main Menu. Football. Off Season Sports. Back to Main Menu. Boys Basketball. Girls Basketball. Boys Ice Hockey. Girls Ice Hockey. Boys Winter Track. Girls Winter Track. Boys Track and Field. Girls Track and Field. Back to Main Menu. Back to Main Menu Close Customize Your Weather Set Your Location Enter City and State or Zip Code. Photos from The Republican News, entertainment and sports photo galleries from The Republican. At Tapestry Health's needle exchange programs in Northampton and Holyoke, staff members emphasize harm reduction. Clean syringes are only available to program clients at Tapestry's Main Street office in the city, but ...
http://photos.masslive.com/republican/2012/09/at_tapestry_healths_needle_exchange_programs_in_northampton_and_holyoke_staff_members_emphasize_harm_17.html
*  Holyoke Launches Needle Exchange Program
... New England Public Radio. Listen Now Contribute Now Playing ♪ Now Playing:. NEPR News Network:. National News. Music Listen Now. All Programs A-Z. NEPR Programs. NEPR News Network Programs. Amherst College. Mount Holyoke College. Events Station Events. Public Events Calendar. Stations and Frequencies. Tour the Station. Press Releases. New England Public Radio Foundation, Inc. Contest Rules. Support Contribute. 50th Anniversary Capital Campaign for WFCR. Holyoke Launches Needle Exchange Program. Holyoke has the third highest rate of HIV infection in the state, behind Springfield and Boston. And health officials say one third of new HIV cases in Holyoke come from shared drug needles which is almost three times the state average. While opponents of needle exchange say providing clean needles condones illegal drug use, supporters say it s been proven to reduce rates of HIV and Hepatitis c. Leslie Laurie is head of Tapestry Health, a health organization that s been contracted to run the Holyoke ...
http://nepr.net/news/2012/07/13/holyoke-launches-needle-exchange-program/
*  :: CLDF ::Reuters Health Information (2005-07-14): US syringe exchange programs declining
HBV HE HCC HCV NASH-NAFLD. About CLDF Centers of Educational Expertise. Live CME Meetings Telewebs Webcasts Slide Library Abstract Library. Reuters Health Information 2005-07-14 : US syringe exchange programs declining. Public Health US syringe exchange programs declining Last Updated: 2005-07-14 15:49:24 -0400 Reuters Health NEW YORK Reuters Health - Some syringe exchange programs in the US have ceased operations in recent years, and public funding for exchange programs has declined, according to an article in the July 15th issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Exchange programs help prevent transmission of HIV and other bloodborne infections by increasing access to sterile syringes among injection drug users IDUs and safely disposing of used syringes, lead author Dr. "In 2002, for the first time in 8 years, the number of exchange programs, the number of localities with exchange programs, and the amount of public funding for exchange programs in the United States decreased," the ...
http://chronicliverdisease.org/reuters/article.cfm?article=20050714publ002&topic=clin
*  Newsfeed : Needle Exchange Program OK’d in Fresno County, CA
Newsfeed : Needle Exchange Program OK d in Fresno County, CA. A Smart + Strong Site. POZ STORIES. POZ 100. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Symptoms Opportunistic Infections OIs Newly Diagnosed Disclosing Your HIV Status Living With HIV The Big Treatment Questions Side Effects and Other Health Problems POZ Focus / Fact Sheets Finding a Doctor Finding Support Health Services Directory. Lessons Drugs Graph Your Labs Treatment News POZ Focus / Fact Sheets Drug Assistance Programs Conference Coverage Health Services Directory. Who We Are Our Staff Advisory Board Advertise Awards Press Subscribe Get Our E-Newsletter Contact Us. Back to home » Newsfeed » December 2008. Hepatitis & HIV. Have news about HIV. December 19, 2008 Needle Exchange Program OK d in Fresno County, CA. Wanting to reduce the spread of diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV, the Fresno County Board of Supervisors has approved a pilot program that allows intravenous drug users to exchange used needles for clean ones, ...
http://poz.com/articles/1_15808.shtml
*  Santa Cruz needle-exchange program brought to a halt | Santa Cruz News - KSBW Home
Santa Cruz needle-exchange program brought to a halt. Santa Cruz News - KSBW Home. Back To Mobile Site Back To Mobile Site. News. On TV. / News. / Local News. / Santa Cruz News. Reacting to a wave of concern among residents, Santa Cruz city leaders shut down a needle-exchange site that was handing out 10,000 free needles to drug addicts and homeless residents every month. The Clean Team found and collected this many drug needles in one day. Danilo Tj Magallanes. The Clean Team found and collected this many drug needles in one day. Danilo Tj Magallanes. Surfer Jason "Ratboy" Collins is one of many Santa Cruz residents disturbed by drug needle littering on beaches and other public spaces. More. On Tuesday night, the Santa Cruz City Council's Public Safety Committee unanimously voted to send a recommendation to the council to dramatically change how needles are handed out. Addicts can turn in just one needle and get 30 needles in exchange. "While the exchange program exchanges over ...
http://ksbw.com/news/central-california/santa-cruz/Santa-Cruz-needle-exchange-program-brought-to-a-halt/18342500?item=2
*  Syringe Exchange Programs --- United States, 2008
Syringe exchange programs SEPs provide free sterile syringes and collect used syringes from injection-drug users IDUs to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus HCV. Most of the SEPs reported offering preventive health and clinical services in addition to basic syringe exchange: 87% offered HIV counseling and testing, 65% offered hepatitis C counseling and testing, 55% offered sexually transmitted disease screening, and 31% offered tuberculosis screening; 89% provided referrals to substance abuse treatment. Providing comprehensive prevention services and referrals to IDUs, such as those offered by many SEPs, can help reduce the spread of bloodborne infections and should increase access to health care and substance abuse treatment, thus serving as an effective public health approach for this population. Data were compiled to show the numbers of programs known to NASEN, numbers of ...
http://cdc.gov/MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5945a4.htm
*  Needle Exchange Programs | City of New York
needle exchange programs city of new york visiting nyc find events attractions deals and more at nycgo com the official website of the city of new york nyc text size the official website of nyc home nyc resources office of the mayor events connect jobs needle exchange programs share print the city provides referrals for needle exchange programs where used syringe needles can be exchanged for clean ones there is no out of pocket expense client information is kept confidential call for needle exchange information and referrals also found in health healthy living alcohol drugs smoking share print top requests alternate side parking or street cleaning pay a parking ticket fireworks displays affordable housing noise from neighbor columbus day information civil service exams heat or hot water complaint nyc jobs food stamps property records new york city housing lottery residential maintenance complaint about follow us on twitter nyc download the app directory of city agencies contact nyc government city ...
http://www1.nyc.gov/nyc-resources/service/2055/needle-exchange-programs
*  Jackie Speier on Drugs
... Democrat Follow @ontheissuesorg Distribute sterile syringes to reduce AIDS and hepatitis. Speier signed Community AIDS and Hepatitis Prevention Act To permit the use of Federal funds for syringe exchange programs for purposes of reducing the transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including HIV and viral hepatitis. Congress finds as follows: Each year, approximately 12,000 Americans contract HIV/AIDS and approximately 19,000 Americans contract the hepatitis C virus directly or indirectly from sharing contaminated syringes. A 2005 comprehensive international review of the evidence of the effectiveness of syringe exchange programs in preventing HIV transmission shows that such programs reduce HIV transmission and are cost-effective. Research has shown that injection drug users who are referred to addiction treatment from syringe exchange programs are more likely to enter and remain in treatment. Research has shown that, by providing safe disposal of used injection equipment, syringe exchange ...
http://ontheissues.org/CA/Jackie_Speier_Drugs.htm
*  Needle exchange attitudes and practices among IDUs in Long Beach, CA
... The 130th Annual Meeting of APHA. 4088.0: Tuesday, November 12, 2002 - Board 8 Abstract #43504 Needle exchange attitudes and practices among IDUs in Long Beach, CA Michele M. Klahn, MA, Michael A. Janson, BA, Grace L. Center for Behavioral Research & Services, California State University, Long Beach, 1090 Atlantic Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90813, 562 495-2330, ext. 111, mmwood@csulb.edu INTRODUCTION: A pilot study is being conducted to inform needle exchange program NEP development in Long Beach, CA. RESULTS: 15% of participants were on local pharmacy regular customer lists. 61% had purchased/obtained syringes from someone with a prescription in the past 6 months, while only 6% had purchased or attempted to purchase a NS from a pharmacy/other business. 12% had been arrested or hassled by police for carrying a needle or syringe past 6 months. Participants held positive attitudes toward needle exchange: M=4.58, SD=1.04, 1=bad for drug users, 5=good for drug users; M=3.98, SD=1.46, ...
https://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_43504.htm
*  U.S. repeals funding ban for needle exchanges - SFGate
repeals funding ban for needle exchanges - SFGate. Hearst. Privacy policy. Privacy policy. Get SFGate newsletters for the latest from the Bay. Check out the Top 100 Bay Area restaurants. Bay Area & State. News Blogs. Sports Blogs. http://www.sfgate.com/nation/article/U-S-repeals-funding-ban-for-needle-exchanges-3278232.php. In a victory for AIDS-prevention efforts, Congress and President Obama have repealed a 21-year-old ban on federal funding for local programs that supply clean needles to drug users. It does not contain any new money for needle exchanges, but allows disease-prevention programs to use federal funds to provide clean needles, subject to approval by local police and health officials. "Hundreds of thousands of Americans will not get HIV/AIDS or hepatitis C, thanks to Congress repealing the federal syringe funding ban," said Bill Piper of the Drug Policy Alliance, one of many groups that lobbied for the change. The new law will make federal grants available for local ...
http://sfgate.com/nation/article/U-S-repeals-funding-ban-for-needle-exchanges-3278232.php
*  Needle Exchanges Often Overlooked In AIDS Fight | KRWG
Needle Exchanges Often Overlooked In AIDS Fight. KRWG. News. NM Road Conditions. TX Road Conditions. KRWG News Video. Community Events. Business. Sports. Fronteras Reports. Television. TV Schedule. Television Programs A-Z. Watch KRWG News Video. Watch Newsmakers. Watch PBS Video. PBS Kids. PBS NewsHour. Nightly Business Report. Newsmakers. Fronteras. NMSU Sports Weekly. News 22. Radio. Radio Schedule. Radio Programs A-Z. LISTEN LIVE. Monday Business Watch. Fronteras. Images. Where To Watch Listen. EEO Reports. Diversity Reports. Content Reports. Support KRWG. Facebook. Twitter. News. Cordita-Caritas Medan, a nongovernmental organization active there, works to reduce HIV infections through rehab of drug users and a needle exchange program. "The only thing that comes close is our ability to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV with drugs." In fact, Amsterdam's long-established needle exchange program has virtually eliminated HIV transmission there. A study at the Washington AIDS ...
http://krwg.org/post/needle-exchanges-often-overlooked-aids-fight
*  Foreign Currency Exchange Services in Tyler, TX - foreign-currency-exchange.localbizguide.info
... Foreign Currency Exchange Services. Homepage About Us Terms of Use Privacy Policy Contact Us Bookmark Us. Foreign Currency Exchange Services in Tyler, TX Foreign Currency Exchange Services in Tyler, TX. 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Advanced Search:. Find by Business Categories There are 6 Foreign Currency Exchange Services found in Tyler, TX. These businesses provide services including Foreign Currency Exchange & Brokers, Money Orders & Transfer Services, Pawn Brokers & Shops, Travel Agents, Traveler's Checks, Banks, Financial Services, Check Cashing Services, Commercial & Savings Banks, Financial Institutions, Gold Silver & Platinum Buyers & Dealers, Investments, Mortgage & Loan Banks, etc. Click on the business to find details. 1 A PLUS Pawn Shop 2115 E Front St Tyler, TX 75702 Phone: 903 595-0792 Website : click to see Category : Jewelers more. Write/Read Reviews. 2 American Gold & Diamond EXCH 1608 S Fleishel Ave Tyler, TX 75701 Phone: 903 597-2396 Website : click to see ...
http://foreign-currency-exchange.localbizguide.info/TX-texas/Tyler/page-1/2.htm
*  Syringe Exchange Saves Lives, Says amfAR
Health/Fitness Syringe Exchange Saves Lives, Says amfAR by Winnie McCroy EDGE Editor Monday Jul 22, 2013 PRINT. On Tuesday, July 23, amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, will bring together leading government, research, law enforcement and policy experts on Capitol Hill for a briefing supporting syringe exchange programs. The briefing, entitled Prescription Opioids, Heroin and Disease Prevention: Law Enforcement, Community and Research Perspectives, will discuss how syringe exchange programs SEPs save lives and public resources, and serve as vital bridges to services, such as HIV testing and counseling, drug treatment, overdose prevention, housing, and employment. amfAR will also be showing a short film it just debuted titled, The Exchange, which will be followed by a discussion on the role of SEP programs and other federal funding controversies related to public safety and critical public health challenges, including drug addiction or overdose, HIV and hepatitis C. In 2009, Congress ...
http://edgelosangeles.com/index.php?ch=health_fitness&sc=&sc2=news&sc3=&id=147266
*  Needle and syringe programmes | Guidance and guidelines | NICE
Needle and syringe programmes. Guidance and guidelines. NICE. News. Get involved. Communities. NICE Guidance. Health protection. Communicable diseases. Infectious disease prevention and control. Needle and syringe programmes. NICE guidelines. Published date: March 2014. × Email. Email to:. Enter a valid email address in the above text box to share this by email. sending email... Error occurred. Send Email Close. Guidance. Guidance. Share. Share. Linked In. Facebook. Email. Save. Save as PDF. Save as ePub. Save as eBook. Needle and syringe programmes. This guidance updates and replaces NICE public health guideline 18 published February 2009. This guidance makes recommendations on needle and syringe programmes, including those provided by pharmacies and drugs services for adults and young people including those under 16 who inject drugs, including image- and performance-enhancing drugs. The main aim of needle and syringe programmes is to reduce the transmission of blood-borne viruses and ...
http://nice.org.uk/guidance/ph52
*  Sikeston Standard Democrat: Column: Michael Jensen: Tax dollars wasted on needle exchange
... Enlarge text Facebook RSS. Fair ~ 70 F High: 82 F ~ Low: 58 F Monday, Oct. 5, 2015. Home News Sports High school. The Last Word Business Obituaries Photos Lifestyle School News Contests High school football. SD Alerts Web Exclusives Classifieds Real Estate. Columns Editorials Letters to the Editor SpeakOut Looking Back. Print Email link Contact editor. Post comment Share:. Tax dollars wasted on needle exchange. Thursday, January 3, 2008 Michael Jensen Washington, D.C., is far from the ideal community to serve as our nation's capital. The city is near the top of the crime list and near the bottom of the education achievement category. And now our nation's capital has yet another honor - it has reached "modern epidemic" status for the explosion in AIDS cases. Nationwide, on average 14 people per 100,000 population have the AIDS virus. That percentage explodes to 128 AIDS cases per 100,000 in Washington, D.C. And 80 percent of those cases are among the minority population there. Health officials in ...
http://standard-democrat.com/story/1354471.html
*  Needle Exchange Around the World - TheBody.com
... On Peer Syringe Exchange Delivery and on Working Together July 21, 2014 In Housing Works AIDS Issues Update, from Housing Works On TheBodyPRO.com Ukraine: Customs Service Charges Anti-AIDS Group Hr 3.3 Million for Syringes January 30, 2013 In CDC HIV/Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update, from CDC National Prevention Information Network Mexican Government, NGOs Working to Expand Access to Clean Syringes to Prevent HIV Among IDUs October 12, 2012 In Kaiser Daily Global Health Policy Report, from Henry J. March 16, 2010 In CDC HIV/Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update, from CDC National Prevention Information Network The Cost-Effectiveness of Consistent and Early Intervention of Harm Reduction for Injecting Drug Users in Bangladesh January 29, 2010 In CDC HIV/Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update, from CDC National Prevention Information Network At Least 77 Countries Promote Syringe Exchange, GMHC Report Says October 21, 2009 From Gay Men's Health Crisis. Syringe Exchange Programs ...
http://thebody.com/index/whatis/druguse_needle_internat.html?ic=sabottom
*  $500,000 needle exchange is approved - latimes
needle exchange is approved latimes advertisement you are here lat home collections los angeles county in brief los angeles county los angeles needle exchange is approved march from times staff and wire reports the board of supervisors on tuesday approved a certified needle exchange program though two supervisors mike antonovich and don knabe questioned its benefits and suggested the money would be better spent on education and rehabilitation the program financed with tobacco settlement funds provides controlled access to clean needles to drug users and others the purpose is to prevent hiv and other blood borne diseases by offering a safe alternative to dirty needles supervisors gloria molina yvonne brathwaite burke and zev yaroslavsky voted for it more seizure led to flojo s death his scores make his case restaurant review south beverly grill brutal murder by teen age girls adds to britons shock comaneci confirms suicide attempt magazine says advertisement from the archives many benefits in ...
http://articles.latimes.com/2007/mar/14/local/me-briefs14.5
*  Internet Archive Search: mediatype:movies AND subject:"Needle Exchange"
... Featured All Texts. Top American Libraries Canadian Libraries Universal Library Community Texts Project Gutenberg Biodiversity Heritage Library Children's Library. Open Library. TV News. Top Animation & Cartoons Arts & Music Community Video Computers & Technology Cultural & Academic Films Ephemeral Films Movies. Featured All Audio. Top Audio Books & Poetry Community Audio Computers & Technology Music, Arts & Culture News & Public Affairs Non-English Audio Podcasts. Radio Programs Spirituality & Religion University of Baltimore, Langsdale Library Special Collections, Oral Histories Today In History. Featured All Software. This Just In Old School Emulation MS-DOS Games Historical Software Classic PC Games Software Library. Featured All Image. PEOPLE. Search. movies 3. COLLECTION The Dope Tapes 3. Drugs 3 needle exchange 3 vhs 3 Berkeley 2 Oakland 2 San Francisco 2 Drug Policy Foundation 1 alcoholism 1 cigarettes 1 crack 1 drug tests 1 harm reduction 1 steroids 1. CREATOR michael ...
https://archive.org/search.php?query=mediatype:movies AND collection:dopetapes AND subject:"Needle Exchange"
*  News | WFHB | Page 23
WFHB. WFHB Bloomington Community Radio. News Daily Local News. Volunteer Meeting Calendar. Podcast: Play in new window. We bring you part of that conversation now for today’s WFHB community report. tweet. July 29, 2015. Podcast: Play in new window. tweet. Podcast: Play in new window. Correspondent Jerrod Dill brings us the story behind Indiana’s job growth for today’s WFHB Community Report. tweet. Daily Local News July 28, 2015 July 28, 2015. Podcast: Play in new window. Correspondent Jerrod Dill brings us the story behind Indiana’s job growth for today’s WFHB Community Report. Executive Producer is Joe Crawford. tweet. Podcast: Play in new window. Download Duration: 59:34 54.5MB Tonight’s program “Orson Around, is a glimpse at the life and movies of Orson Welles. CREDITS Producer Host: Doug Storm Board Engineer: Jonathan Richardson Executive Producer: Joe Crawford. is produced by Clarence Boone Executive Producer is Joe Crawford Our News Editor is Michael Nowlin Our Board Engineer is Chris Martin. Download ...
http://wfhb.org/news/page/23/
*  Court says participants in exchange program can carry needles elsewhere | Amarillo.com | Amarillo Gl
Court says participants in exchange program can carry needles elsewhere. Court says participants in exchange program can carry needles elsewhere. BOSTON - A person enrolled in a needle exchange program in one city may legally possess needles obtained through the program anywhere in the state, the state's highest court ruled. Arguing that the programs' important public health goals could otherwise be imperiled, the Supreme Judicial Court ruled Friday an interpretation of the law "that discourages program participation by effectively limiting where a participant may legally possess needles would certainly hinder, and might well defeat, the Public Health department's attempt to deal with the problem." The ruling comes in the case of Maria Landry, 22, who was charged with illegal possession of needles in Lynn last year, even though she was a member of an authorized needle exchange program in Cambridge. The Legislature amended that law in 1993 to allow possession of needles by people enrolled in the state's pilot ...
http://amarillo.com/stories/120802/usn_courtsays.shtml
*  New D.C. AIDS administrator wants condoms in schools | Advocate.com
AIDS administrator wants condoms in schools. Editor's Pick Kim Davis Pope Francis Election Transgender Religion 7 Things. Religion. Vatican Priest Comes Out, Promptly Fired. Artist Spotlight. Artist Spotlight: Paul Specht. Health. AIDS administrator wants condoms in schools. Marsha Martin, the newly appointed director of the District of Columbia’s HIV/AIDS Administration, is calling for the availability of condoms in schools and the establishment of needle-exchange programs in Washington to combat the spread of HIV, the Washington Examiner reports. Marsha Martin, the newly appointed director of the District of Columbia’s HIV/AIDS Administration, is calling for the availability of condoms in schools and the establishment of needle-exchange programs in Washington to combat the spread of HIV, the Washington Examiner reports. Martin was named AIDS director in August after former director Lydia Watts was fired amid questions about the agency’s handling of federal AIDS funds and in the wake of the report ...
http://advocate.com/health/health-news/2005/10/07/new-dc-aids-administrator-wants-condoms-schools
*  .. Obama Budget Retains Needle Exchange Ban, Leaving Drug Users and Others at Risk
Obama Budget Retains Needle Exchange Ban, Leaving Drug Users and Others at Risk. by Paola Barahona, Physicians for Human Rights May 18, 2009 - 8:00 am. Tweet. In his 2010 budget, President Obama failed to deliver on his commitment to end the ban on federal funding of needle exchange services–an action he promised to take before and after the election and one that would help protect the health and save the lives of tens of thousands of injection drug users–in the U.S. and around the world. Every year since 1988, Congress has tucked the ban into the Labor HHS appropriations bill with a provision stating that "no funds appropriated in this Act shall be used to carry out any program of distributing sterile needles or syringes for the hypodermic injection of any illegal drug."Â. These words have meant that communities across the U.S. are limited in how they can fight HIV among some of their most vulnerable residents. Technically, they do not apply to any funding not covered by ...
http://rhrealitycheck.org/article/2009/05/18/obama-budget-retains-needle-exchange-ban-leaving-drug-users-and-others-risk/
*  Urban Dictionary: needle exchange
... słownik. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # najnowsze. gra ulubione Store. Cart. Polish. Arabic. Azerbaijani. Bengali. Bulgarian. Chinese. Czech. Danish. Dutch. English. Filipino. French. German. Greek. Hungarian. Indonesian. Italian. Japanese. Korean. Norwegian. Polish. Portuguese. Romanian. Russian. Serbian. Spanish. Swedish. Thai. Turkish. Ukrainian. Vietnamese. Help translate. Top Definition. needle exchange. a place that hands out free, unused needles in exchange for dirty, used ones to iv drug users. joe always saves his old sets. that way he can always get new ones at the needle exchange. dodane przez g-ring kwiecień 26, 2007. 6 0. Add your own. Losowe słowo. 19 Words related to needle exchange. oakland. cocaine. cotton. crack. crime. drugs. etc. fun. ghetto. heroin. junky. prostitution. san francisco. shot. swabs. tenderloin. tl. west oakland. works. 2 needle exchange. a person who will hook you up with needles and supplies for injecting heroin. call the ...
http://pl.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=needle exchange
*  Ohio lawmakers might enable more clean needle exchanges | The Columbus Dispatch
Ohio lawmakers might enable more clean needle exchanges. The Columbus Dispatch. Subscriber Services. Reader Rewards. Customer Service. Newsletters. Columbus, Ohio. 53 Overcast The Columbus Dispatch. News. RSS Feeds. Obituaries. News Blog Directory. Sports. RSS Feeds. College Sports Ohio State Sports at BuckeyeXtra.com. High School High School Sports. Sports Blogs -Browse by Sport- Blue Jackets Buckeye football Buckeye men's basketball Buckeye women's basketball Clippers Crew Golf High school sports. Sports Blog Directory. RSS Feeds. Letters to the Editor Today's letters and web-only letters. Op-Ed Columns Today's columns. RSS Feeds. Events. Advertising To place help wanted ads, call 614-888-8888 or visit ColumbusJobs.com For private seller and classified advertising, call 614-888-8888 or visit DispatchClassifieds.com. DISPATCH Lisa Roberts, a nurse at the Portsmouth City Health Department, helps a heroin addict choose needles after he exchanged his dirty ones. The department’s needle-exchange program helps ...
http://dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2014/02/02/clean-needles.html
*  Phil English on Drugs
... Voted YES on more funding for Mexico to fight drugs. Congressional Summary: Merida Initiative to Combat Illicit Narcotics and Reduce Organized Crime Authorization Act: Provide assistance for Mexico for: counternarcotics and countertrafficking; port & airport security to assist in controlling the Mexico-US and Mexico-Central America borders; intelligence gathering operational technology; and public security and law enforcement, including assistance to the National Council Against Addiction CONADIC. MICHAEL McCAUL R, TX-10 : We need a strategy on this side of the border: a two-pronged Approach; a comprehensive strategy that deals not only with the Mexican side but with the US side. $1 billion in this bill would go to Mexico. Reference: Merida Initiative; Bill HR.6028 ; vote number 2008-H393 on Jun 10, 2008. Bill HR 2586 ; vote number 2001-356 on Sep 25, 2001. Among other provisions, the bill prohibits the use of federal funds for needle exchange programs, prohibits implementing an approved ballot ...
http://ontheissues.org/PA/Phil_English_Drugs.htm
*  Needle Exchange Programme - Ways of taking drugs
... 33 Sandyford Street P O Box 22-176 Christchurch New Zealand Phone +64 3 366 9403 Fax +64 3 366 9405. Home Page. Find an Outlet. Drug Information. Introduction When people take drugs they are usually trying to get the substance from outside their body to receptor cells inside their body. In the case of mood altering drugs, the receptors are mostly in the brain, although with some drugs like anabolic steroids the receptor cells may be elsewhere in your body. The ways of getting substances into your body vary depending on the type of drug you are going to use and the form which it takes. For example, some drugs like heroin are prepared in a way which lends itself to the drug being injected. Other drugs like cannabis or tobacco are difficult and dangerous to inject but easily smoked. Risks and benefits Just as different drugs have different risks associated with using them, different ways of taking drugs have different risks too. Here are ...
http://needle.co.nz/ways_taking_drugs.html/182
*  AIDS / HIV - Health
... Times Topics. AIDS / H.I.V. Real Estate. Editorial welcomes major federal study finding that people infected with HIV should get treatment as soon as possible, regardless of how they feel; suggests study poses moral question of whether organizations around world can find will to protect millions who would benefit from this information; urges World Health Organization to recommend treatment for all infected people in updated treatment guidelines. Federal health officials recommend people infected with HIV be immediately put on antiretroviral drugs upon diagnosis, since those who receive immediate treatment are 53 percent less likely to develop AIDS or serious illness; halt clinical trial on early treatment led by National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease because results were overwhelmingly clear. Indiana approves needle exchange program through May 24, 2016 for Scott County, which is at center of largest HIV outbreak in state's history; county has been operating a temporary needle ...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/aids/index.html?query=Drugs (Pharmaceuticals)&field=des&match=exact
*  AIDS / HIV - Health
... Times Topics. AIDS / H.I.V. Real Estate. Editorial welcomes major federal study finding that people infected with HIV should get treatment as soon as possible, regardless of how they feel; suggests study poses moral question of whether organizations around world can find will to protect millions who would benefit from this information; urges World Health Organization to recommend treatment for all infected people in updated treatment guidelines. Federal health officials recommend people infected with HIV be immediately put on antiretroviral drugs upon diagnosis, since those who receive immediate treatment are 53 percent less likely to develop AIDS or serious illness; halt clinical trial on early treatment led by National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease because results were overwhelmingly clear. Indiana approves needle exchange program through May 24, 2016 for Scott County, which is at center of largest HIV outbreak in state's history; county has been operating a temporary needle ...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/aids/index.html?query=France, David&field=per&match=exact
*  AIDS / HIV - Health
... Times Topics. AIDS / H.I.V. Real Estate. Editorial welcomes major federal study finding that people infected with HIV should get treatment as soon as possible, regardless of how they feel; suggests study poses moral question of whether organizations around world can find will to protect millions who would benefit from this information; urges World Health Organization to recommend treatment for all infected people in updated treatment guidelines. Federal health officials recommend people infected with HIV be immediately put on antiretroviral drugs upon diagnosis, since those who receive immediate treatment are 53 percent less likely to develop AIDS or serious illness; halt clinical trial on early treatment led by National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease because results were overwhelmingly clear. Indiana approves needle exchange program through May 24, 2016 for Scott County, which is at center of largest HIV outbreak in state's history; county has been operating a temporary needle ...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/aids/index.html?query=Prostitution&field=des&match=exact
*  AIDS / HIV - Health
... Times Topics. AIDS / H.I.V. Real Estate. Editorial welcomes major federal study finding that people infected with HIV should get treatment as soon as possible, regardless of how they feel; suggests study poses moral question of whether organizations around world can find will to protect millions who would benefit from this information; urges World Health Organization to recommend treatment for all infected people in updated treatment guidelines. Federal health officials recommend people infected with HIV be immediately put on antiretroviral drugs upon diagnosis, since those who receive immediate treatment are 53 percent less likely to develop AIDS or serious illness; halt clinical trial on early treatment led by National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease because results were overwhelmingly clear. Indiana approves needle exchange program through May 24, 2016 for Scott County, which is at center of largest HIV outbreak in state's history; county has been operating a temporary needle ...
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/aids/index.html?query=University of California, San Francisco&field=org&match=exact
*  Grits for Breakfast: Needle exchange could fight Hep C epidemic
... Grits for Breakfast. Thursday, March 24, 2005. So 113,000 people in Texas now know they have hep C, and TDH says that almost 300,000 have it but do not know. They will continue to shoot drugs, and they will use dirty syringes, if that's all they've got. 20,000,000 syringes were exchanged in the US in the year 2000, through 107 syringe exchange programs. Texas needs to join with the American Bar Association, the American Medical Association, and the American Public Health Association, among others and pass this Senate Bill 127 for effective public health policy for now and for Texas' future. Posted by Gritsforbreakfast. Labels: Health, HIV, Needle exchange. 3 comments:. Grits for Breakfast "is the best blog about criminal justice in Texas" and "as usual extremely fair" - Erica Grieder, The Economist. "concise, knowledgeable, in-depth and sometimes counter-to-prevailing wisdom" - Rob Patterson, The Austin Post "Scott Henson's 'Grits for Breakfast' is one of the most insightful blogs on criminal ...
http://gritsforbreakfast.blogspot.com/2005/03/needle-exchange-could-fight-hep-c_24.html
*  AIDS and needle exchange - Sun Sentinel
... Sun Sentinel. Needle exchange, HIV, and the feds. Steve Chapman. Going back to the 1980s, the federal government has been spending money to combat the spread of HIV and AIDS. For most of that time, the effort excluded state and local programs to provide drug users with clean syringes -- even though study after study proved they were highly effective. Given the choice of using dirty needles to inject drugs or using sterile ones, addicts generally prefer the latter. And every one who makes that choice cuts off an avenue for the transmission of the AIDS virus. These programs curb the epidemic without stimulating more drug use. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel on HIV Prevention has said, An impressive body of evidence suggests powerful effects from needle exchange programs....Studies show reduction in risk behavior as high as 80%, with estimates of a 30% or greater reduction of HIV in IDUs intravenous drug users. In 2009, President Obama signed a ...
http://sun-sentinel.com/chi-needle-exchange-hiv-and-the-feds-20111216-story.html
*  Central office exchange service - Definition
... help. contact. sitemap. Central office exchange service definition. home. dictionary. word tools. courses. study skills. forum. about us. Search. dictionary help. Central office exchange service computing dictionary. communications Centrex A PBX service providing switching at the central office instead of at the company premises. Typically, the telephone company owns and manages all the communications equipment necessary to implement the PBX and then sells various services to the company. 01 Apr 1999. central neuritis, central obesity, central office Prev. Next. central ossifying fibroma, central osteitis. Bookmark with:. word visualiser. Go and visit our forums. general about us contact us terms of use what's new. forum biomedical health care dictionary general study skills study kits research writing presenting courses med terms courses info register courses help word tools word visualiser scrabble solver word finder crossword solver dictionary medical computing acronyms abbreviations. mondofacto ...
http://mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?Central office exchange service
*  ACES - American Cultural Exchange Service
aces american cultural exchange service aces op login lc login cbc login my aces login programs in the usa high school homestay hsh kennedy lugar youth exchange study yes sister cities international partnership sci youth ambassador exchange yae teacher exchange program tep culture language immersion program clip programs overseas kennedy lugar youth exchange study abroad program nsli y china turkey special programs coach exchange program team training and competition sports administration training program artists exchange program get involved aces internship host a student become a local coordinator promote cultural exchange about aces local coordinators host families host schools overseas partners news and events useful links contact us sister cities international partnership sci sister cities international sci and aces have teamed up to provide students at sister cities chapters around world the opportunity to live with american host families attend local high schools and participate in activities with ...
http://exploretheworld.org/programs_usa_SCI.php
*  Keep Santa Cruz Weird? Residents say they're over it | Santa Cruz News - KSBW Home
Keep Santa Cruz Weird. Residents say they're over it. Santa Cruz News - KSBW Home. Keep Santa Cruz Weird. - Outrage and concern over a controversial drug needle exchange program shifted from Santa Cruz City Hall to the County Board of Supervisors chamber this week. During a public comment session Tuesday morning, dozens of residents took issue with allowing volunteers to park a van on county property on Emeline Street. Addicts, many who are homeless, can go to the van three days a week for free needles and the county is in charge with overseeing the needle operation. "Enough is enough, I'm sorry Mr. Henderson was addressing supervisor Neal Coonerty, who created the "Keep Santa Cruz Weird" campaign a decade ago. But addicts strung out on drugs also act weird, and a backlash against the slogan has grown since the start of 2013. Supervisors were not hit with the intensity and verbal barbs that Santa Cruz City Council members weathered last week during their public comment session. MORE: Santa Cruz ...
http://ksbw.com/news/central-california/santa-cruz/Keep-Santa-Cruz-Weird-Residents-say-they-re-over-it/19383708?view=print
*  .. New dual credit teacher standards could cost families thousands .. Overnight fire destroys garag
New dual credit teacher standards could cost families thousands October 5, 2015. Under the new standards several teachers will not be qualified to teach courses that allow Hoosier high school students to earn college credits at little or no cost. Advertisement. Overnight fire destroys garage 8:36 am. Fire crews responded to a garage fire early Tuesday morning. Allen County takes 1st step toward needle-exchange program 8:44 am. The Fort Wayne-Allen County Health Department unanimously approved a resolution Monday calling for a needle-exchange program to slow the spread of hepatitis C among intravenous drug users. Area school districts help students dealing with homelessness October 5, 2015. The number of students dealing with homeless has risen dramatically in Indiana during the last five years. Local school districts have support staff in place to help serve those most in need. NIPSCO projects lower winter heating bills Updated: 4 mins ago. Assuming it’s a normal winter and current market ...
http://wane.com/?S=9039438
*  The BEAST: America's Best Fiend
BEAST. As President Bill Clinton's liaison with the ONDCP, the incoming chief of staff advised on and defended that administration's tough-on-crime punitive approach to drugs and its cowardly opposition to medical-marijuana initiatives and needle-exchange programs. Earlier this month, hundreds of leading substance-abuse health professionals signed a letter to Obama expressing concern over Ramstad's opposition to evidence-based HIV/AIDS-reduction practices such as methadone and needle-exchange programs, as well as his support for arresting medical marijuana patients and failure to co-sponsor any of the three bills put forward by the last Congress to eliminate the cocaine-sentencing disparity. More than half of federal prisoners 95,000 people are behind bars for drug-law violations -- a record. drug laws, including ending the prohibition of marijuana, remains years if not decades away. The Drug Policy Alliance, the nation's largest drug-policy-reform advocacy group, seeks the ...
http://buffalobeast.com/134/zaitchickdrugs.htm
*  New 1-for-1 limit on Santa Cruz drug needle exchange | Local News - Home
New 1-for-1 limit on Santa Cruz drug needle exchange. Local News - Home. Monterey. 71 F. Partly Cloudy. Home. News. Local News. National News. Odd News. Real Estate Essentials. Sports. Travel. Politics. Most Popular. Video. Slideshows. Weather. Weather. Current Conditions. Interactive Radar. 7 Day Forecast. Detailed Forecast. Alerts. Map Room. Videocast. Entertainment. Health. Health. Wellness and You. On TV. Connect With Us. Get Email Alerts. u local. NOWCAST. Watch KSBW Action News 8 On Demand. Breaking News. California governor signs right-to-die legislation. Closings. No Closings Found. Severe Weather. No Counties Under Advisory. Local News. Prev Video Next Video. New 1-for-1 limit on Santa Cruz drug needle exchange. A controversial program in Santa Cruz is getting a makeover. The needle exchange program is being modified to address community concerns about dirty needles winding up on city streets and beaches. Most Popular Stories. 1 dead in Salinas shooting. California governor signs ...
http://m.ksbw.com/news/New-1-for-1-limit-on-Santa-Cruz-drug-needle-exchange/19530246
*  Cameron's Compression Systems Group: Rotor Exchange Program
... Cameron's Compression Systems Group. Rotor Exchange Program. While Cameron can repair rotors quickly, your machine will generally stay offline during the entire 4-8 week repair process. The Rotor Exchange program was designed to provide our customers with a quicker and inexpensive alternative to repair. Place order for new rotor via the rotor exchange program. Are rotors available for all models and what is the lead time. Our rotor exchange program applies to all Turbo-Air and C8 models manufactured by Cameron. TA-18 TA-28 TA-38 TA-48 TA-2000 TA-2020 TA-3000 TA-6000 TA-9000 Quality Commitment From start to finish, from the factory to the field, in every area, for every employee, quality is the rule. Warranty As the original equipment manufacturer of your Joy, Cooper Turbocompressor, Cooper Compression and Cameron centrifugal compressors, we are the natural choice for all your parts and service needs. Join us on Facebook at: ...
http://cameronscompressionsystems.blogspot.com/2009/10/rotor-exchange-program.html
*  WORLD | Needle in a haystack | Bob Jones | May 9, 1998
WORLD. Needle in a haystack. Bob Jones. May 9, 1998. skip to main content. Welcome, Guest. God's Big WORLD. kids. teen. radio. video. more. Print. Mobile. Online. iPad. Kindle. Account Access Become a Member Login. Connect:. Become a Member. Login. Donate. WORLD. real matters. WNG.ORG. Main Navigation Content Sections Home. Lead Stories. ECFA strips Gospel for Asia’s membership Church planting ministry cited for violations related to governance and financial management. Are mass shootings really becoming routine. Examining the president’s claim that gun violence is worse in the United States than everywhere. Come home, prodigal How ‘attractional’ churches treat the Bible as a how-to manual instead of a grace-filled life. Senate approves USCIRF reauthorization Bipartisan breakthrough paves way for four-year reauthorization. Magazine. Pregnant pause October 17, 2015, Vol. 30, No. 21 Cover Story. Table of Contents. View E-Zine. Download PDF 18MB. iPad Edition. Kindle Edition. Archives. Articles. Magazine. ...
http://worldmag.com/1998/05/needle_in_a_haystack
*  Category » INEF 2009 Conference « @ inef.ie
Category INEF 2009 Conference @ inef.ie. Olympic inef.ie Irish Needle Exchange Forum. Home. eBulletin Contact INEF Irish Pharmacy Needle Exchange. Welcome to The Irish Needle Exchange Forum The INEF exists to actively develop, support, and sustain a network of high quality, comprehensive needle exchange and other harm reduction services across Ireland. INEF 2009 Conference Posted on March 21st, 2010 TimB. No comments. Dr Shane Butler Needles in Haystacks. jamie Bridge Whats is Harm Reduction. Rick Lines Deputy Director IHRA. Tony Geoghegan Merchants Quay Ireland What a difference a decade makes. Tony Duffin Ana Liffey Drug Project. Lloyd Belcher Secondary Needle Exchange. Martin Chandler PIEDS. HSE roll out of pharmacy Needle Exchange in Ireland. Dave Gordon Needle And Syringe Provision For Adolescents. John Craven HSE Back Packing Needle Exchange. INEF National Conference by INEF is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England Wales License. Please email ...
http://inef.ie/?cat=4
*  How the Global War on Drugs Drives HIV and AIDS | TIME.com
How the Global War on Drugs Drives HIV and AIDS. TIME.com. Time.com. MY ACCOUNT SIGN IN SIGN OUT SUBSCRIBE. Health. Subscribe Newsletters Feedback Privacy Policy Your California Privacy Rights Terms of Use Ad Choices. 2015 Time Inc. Subscribe. Sign In Subscribe. How the Global War on Drugs Drives HIV and AIDS. By Maia Szalavitz @maiasz June 28, 2012. The war on drugs is driving much of the global AIDS pandemic, increasing new infections among injection-drug users in the U.S. and elsewhere, according to a new report from the Global Commission on Drug Policy. But over the same time period, seven countries have seen a 25% increase in new infections. Because the fear of recrimination prevents drug users from seeking clean needles — a major risk factor for HIV infection. Twenty-five years ago, city law enforcement was battling outdoor drug markets by arresting users en masse; at the same time, the city reported a 50% HIV infection rate among ...
http://healthland.time.com/2012/06/28/how-the-global-war-on-drugs-drives-hiv-and-aids/?iid=hl-article-editpicks
*  Tom Coburn -- Final Round
... Round Two -- Concluding Remarks Posted June 19, 1997 T OM C OBURN J oel Gallant asks two interesting questions in his opening-round response. First, he inquires why "we continue to ignore the evidence that needle-exchange programs decrease HIV transmission?" I would ask him why he and other needle-exchange proponents have ignored recent studies showing that these programs do not decrease infection. To the contrary, I would argue that condoms and "safer sex" have been exclusively celebrated as the only realistic way to avoid infection -- even though studies have concluded that condoms have failure rates of up to 31 percent. Since 1993, spending for AIDS prevention has increased by 24 percent, AIDS research by 40 percent, and AIDS treatment by 173 percent. New York's Baby AIDS law is the most recent example of the value of traditional public-health measures. AIDS activists fought this proposal both at the state and federal level claiming that it would scare pregnant women away from receiving care and do ...
http://theatlantic.com/past/docs/unbound/forum/aids/cobu3.htm
*  Moving ahead - The MS Discussion Board
... Active Topics. Active Posts. Male Survivors Moving ahead. Register User Forum List Calendar Active Topics FAQ Chat. Who's Online. 12837 Members 75 Forums 66330 Topics 463486 Posts. #365194 - 06/30/11 12:32 AM Moving ahead. Registered: 02/16/11. kb8715 has asked that I post about my decision to go back to school to become an art therapist and any progress I am making. For those who don't know, I've been volunteering once a week teaching arts and crafts to heroin addicts at a needle exchange program in Manhattan. The agency where the course takes place exists to reduce the spread of disease, specifically AIDS, by providing clean needles to heroin addicts. However, my group consists of active users. It is amazing what comes out of these people. I asked what it was. He then showed me a canvas he is working on. The scratchiness of the thin ink lines on the coarse canvas makes for a very strong statement. Much of his artwork has an eye, which he identifies as his own, with a tear in it. Sound familiar. ...
http://malesurvivor.org/board/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=380194&page=1
*  Moving ahead - The MS Discussion Board
... Active Topics. Active Posts. MaleSurvivor. MaleSurvivor Public Forums. Male Survivors Moving ahead. Register User Forum List Calendar Active Topics FAQ Chat. Who's Online. 12835 Members 75 Forums 66319 Topics 463419 Posts. #365194 - 06/30/11 12:32 AM Moving ahead. Registered: 02/16/11. kb8715 has asked that I post about my decision to go back to school to become an art therapist and any progress I am making. For those who don't know, I've been volunteering once a week teaching arts and crafts to heroin addicts at a needle exchange program in Manhattan. The agency where the course takes place exists to reduce the spread of disease, specifically AIDS, by providing clean needles to heroin addicts. However, my group consists of active users. It is amazing what comes out of these people. One guy, BA, glued a wad of cotton on top of a tube, topped it with a blue square of felt, put some more blue felt down the front and used a navy marker to make a definitive large face. I asked what it was. The ...
http://malesurvivor.org/board/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=376921&page=1
*  Latest News - Swapping Politics For Science On Drug Policy
... Latest Drug War News. HIV activists, public health experts and communities of drug users celebrated -- not for what's in the appropriations bill, but for what's not in it: a ban on federal funding for needle exchange programs, which has appeared in the federal budget every year since 1988. In addition to the much-needed dollars that will start flowing to needle exchanges, lifting the ban is also of huge symbolic importance to a presidency whose commitment to a public health approach to drug addiction has at times amounted to more talk than substance. But needle exchange is only one intervention among many that have come to be known as harm reduction -- taken together, this approach to addiction is pragmatic rather than punitive. Safe injection facilities, for example, take needle exchange to the next level by offering users a safe place to inject drugs under medical supervision. In May, a coalition of harm reduction organizations in New York City sponsored a ...
http://november.org/stayinfo/breaking10/Swapping_Politics_Science.html
*  Littérature britanique Salles de consommation à moindre risque
Charlie Lloyd and Neil Hunt, Drug consumption rooms: An overdue extension to harm reduction policy in the UK. This commentary examines the drug policy context of drug consumption rooms DCRs in the UK and describe the conclusions of an Independent Working Group IWG that was set up to evaluate the evidence of need in the UK, the international evaluation literature and legal, political and ethical concerns. Neil Hunt, Charlie Lloyd, Jo Kimber, Charlotte Tompkins, Public injecting and willingness to use a drug consumption room among needle exchange programme attendees in the UK, International Journal of Drug Policy 18 2007 62–65. This study examines the prevalence of public injecting and willingness to use drug consumption rooms DCRs among UK needle exchange programme NEP attendees. Injection in a public place in the past week was reported by 55% of the sample and 84% reported willingness to use a DCR if it was available. Public injecting was positively associated with ...
http://salledeconsommation.fr/british-literature.html
*  Exchanging Ideas About Needles
... News Opinion Music Arts Screens Eats. News Blog News Home Commentary City Desk Cincinnati vs. On Second Thought Curmudgeon Notes Living Out Loud CEAs Music Home Music Blog MidPoint Music Fest Live Music Events Spill It Minimum Gauge Arts Home Arts Blog Art Events Visual Arts Onstage Curtain Call The Big Picture Dance Lit Culture Film Home Movies Blog Movie Reviews Television Eats Home Reviews & Features Cooks in the Kitchen The Dish Drink Local Restaurants Local Happy Hours App All Blogs News Music Arts The Morning After CityBeat Staff Picks Event Calendar Music Calendar Arts Calendar Submit a Listing Iron Fork PET-oberfest CityBeat Events MidPoint Indie Craft Village 20th Anniversary All-Star Weekend The Beer Issue Menu Title Annual Manual Best of Cincinnati Camp Guide CEAs Cool Issue Dining Guide Drinking Issue Election Coverage Fall Arts Preview Focus On Education FotoFocus Fringe Festival Green Issue Holidays Love List MidPoint Music Fest MPMF Visitors Pride ScaryBeat Summer Guide Sign-up for ...
http://citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-2886-exchanging_ideas_about_needles.html
*  Posts tagged with prevention and health | MetaFiltercaret-downclockcommentemailfacebookfeedgo-to-bot
Posts tagged with prevention and health. MetaFilter. caret-down. clock. comment. email. facebook. feed. go-to-bottom. go-to-top. heart. log-out. moon. pencil. search-white. twitter. cog. list. user. mefi-shirt. bracketed-plus. down-arrow. html-bracket-left. html-bracket-right. slash. two-lines. bold. close. hyperlink. icon 19502. icon 248. icon 299. italic. Meta Filter community weblog. Log In. Sign Up. MetaFilter. AskMeFi. FanFare. Projects. Music. Jobs. IRL. MetaTalk. More. Best Of. Podcast. Chat. Labs. Search MetaFilter. Menu. Home. FAQ. About. Archives. Tags. Popular. Random. 4 posts tagged with prevention and health. Displaying 1 through 4 of 4. Subscribe:. "Don't come in, I'm... doing my utmost in the fight against cancer!" Masturbation cuts cancer risk. That is all. posted by crossoverman on Nov 5, 2010 - 67 comments. Circumcision Is circumcision an AIDS weapon. To cut or not to cut. Does circumcision prevent the transmission of HIV. It was deemed "An acceptable strategy for HIV prevention" in ...
http://metafilter.com/tags/prevention health
*  List of Exchange Programs in Cancer Education | Cancer Network
List of Exchange Programs in Cancer Education. Cancer Network. Skip to main content. Search For... Search. Cancer Network SearchMedica. Topics: ARS 2015. Breast Cancer. Colorectal Cancer. Leukemia Lymphoma. Lung Cancer. Melanoma. Prostate Cancer. Browse All Topics All Topics ARS 2015 Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Leukemia & Lymphoma Lung Cancer Melanoma Prostate Cancer. MAIN MENU Home ONCOLOGY Cancer Management Handbook News Blogs Topics Image IQ Podcasts Conferences. Welcome Guest. Login or Register Welcome My Account. My Account or Logout. Connect to other sites within the UBM Medica Network. ubmslateCN-logo-ubm. ≡. Search For... Search. Cancer Network SearchMedica. Topics: ARS 2015. Breast Cancer. Colorectal Cancer. Leukemia Lymphoma. Lung Cancer. Melanoma. Prostate Cancer. Browse All Topics All Topics ARS 2015 Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Leukemia & Lymphoma Lung Cancer Melanoma Prostate Cancer. Main menu Home. Topics. Buyer s Guide. Journal. MAIN MENU Home ONCOLOGY Cancer Management Handbook ...
http://cancernetwork.com/articles/list-exchange-programs-cancer-education
*  Co-infection of HIV and Hepatitis Viruses - TheBody.com
... The Body Covers: The XIII International AIDS Conference Co-infection of HIV and Hepatitis Viruses Coverage provided by Alvan Fisher, M.D. July 12, 2000 A note from TheBody.com: The field of medicine is constantly evolving. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information. Immunological responses to hepatitis C and non-hepatitis antigens in hepatitis C virus HCV infected and human immunodeficiency virus HIV -HCV coinfected patients WeOrA526 Authored by H. Lederman Seroprevalence correlates of HIV and HCV infection among injection drug users IDUs attending an outreach syringe exchange program SEPs in five Brazilian cities WeOrA530 Authored by F. WeOrA530 reported on seroprevalence of HCV and HIV among 287 intravenous drug users IDUs attending syringe exchange programs in five cities in Brazil in 1998. 62% of these individuals were either HCV- or HIV-positive or both. ...
http://thebody.com/content/art16132.html
*  Treatment News : Multi-Pronged Prevention Tactics Could Slash HIV Rates in IDUs
... A Smart + Strong Site. POZ STORIES. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. Back to home » Treatment News » March 2014. More Treatment News. Click here for more news. Have news about HIV. Tackling HIV prevention efforts among injection drug users IDUs with a multifaceted approach including increased HIV testing and treatment as well as harm reduction and treatment for drug use could cut new infections in this population by more than 60 percent by 2040 and save money overall. Publishing their findings in Health Affairs March issue, which is devoted to papers on HIV, researchers at the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health and Brown University used computer modeling to project how various interventions would affect HIV rates among IDUs. They compared the projected HIV incidence rates the annual rate of new infections in 2020 and 2040 when at least one of four different interventions were used: increasing access to HIV testing, expanding access to substance abuse treatment, increasing ...
http://poz.com/articles/IDUs_interventions_761_25253.shtml
*  HP 3 year Next Business Day Exchange LaserJet M425 MFP Service | HP® Official Store
Laptops. Desktops. Printers. Ink, toner paper. All home products. Desktops. Laptops. Networking Press Right Arrow or Space to open. Printers Press Right Arrow or Space to open. Business printers. Ink, toner paper. Servers Press Right Arrow or Space to open. Software Press Right Arrow or Space to open. Business Service Management. Storage Press Right Arrow or Space to open. Services Press Right Arrow or Space to open. Business process services. Enterprise software services. Support services. All enterprise services. Solutions Press Right Arrow or Space to open. Small medium business servers, storage and networking. Remote problem diagnosis and technical telephone support Hardware exchange Prepaid shipping label, materials, and instructions for return Standard coverage window Access to electronic support information and services. HP Hardware Support Exchange Service offers a reliable and fast exchange service for eligible HP products. Specifically targeted at products that can easily be shipped and on which ...
http://store.hp.com/us/en/pdp/care-packs-88343--1/hp-3-year-next-business-day-exchange-laserjet-m425-mfp-service?HP-3-year-Next-Business-Day-Exchange-LaserJet-M425-MFP-Service
*  Learn More About Nalco's DI Exchange Services | Ecolab
Learn More About Nalco's DI Exchange Services. Ecolab. English. Careers. Investors. Locations. SDS. Contact Us. Login. Search. Search. Search. Industries. Buildings & Facilities. Markets Commercial Buildings. Get the results you need – and the confidence that your facility is protected and sustainable – by partnering with Ecolab. Keep your facility clean and... Data Centers. We understand the need for reliability in your system operations. Our expertise and cutting edge technologies, supported by comprehensive products and... District Energy. We can help you increase operational efficiency by maintaining clean heat transfer surfaces and reducing water and energy consumption in chillers, boilers ... Education. We can help you keep your students comfortable and safe while maximizing efficiency, minimizing cost and conserving resources – with solutions for... Government. We can help you protect the health and comfort of your building occupants while operating sustainably. Our solutions for cleaning and ...
http://ecolab.com/program/di-exchange-services/?industry=manufacturing&market=household-and-personal-care&solution=water-pretreatment-solutions
*  Condemned to Death | The Nation
Drug War and Drug Policy. Malaysia and Vietnam have registered more than 55,000 and 75,000 cases of HIV, respectively, with the majority of cases in both countries among injection drug users and the actual numbers of those infected thought to be much higher. The Chinese government though likely to be vastly underestimating the scope of those infected through blood donation schemes in the center of the country already acknowledges that 1 million Chinese are HIV-infected, more than 60 percent of them injection drug users. More than 90 percent shoot drugs. With nearly 2 billion people in countries with skyrocketing, injection-driven HIV epidemics, one might expect coordinated, emergency action at the organization spearheading international control of both drugs and HIV: the United Nations. The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNAIDS both regularly affirm the importance of a full range of HIV prevention ...
http://thenation.com/article/condemned-death/?page=0,2&quicktabs_most_block=1
*  Medical Care | Exchange Programs
Medical Care. Exchange Programs. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Exchange Programs. Exchange Experience. Travel Living Arrangements. Parents Families. American Arts Incubator. Travel Living Arrangements //. Health Safety // Medical Care. Medical Care. Medical Care. For more medical information while abroad, visit travel.state.gov. Read through the Country Background Notes and Country Specific Information on the country you plan to visit to make sure you are aware of prevalent illnesses, water and food conditions, and current travel warnings. All travelers should familiarize themselves with conditions at their destination that could affect their health high altitude or pollution, types of medical facilities, required immunizations, availability of required pharmaceuticals, etc. The key resource for health information is the Travelers’ Health page of the Centers for Disease Control CDC website. The CDC Website also provides general guidance on health precautions, such as safe food and water ...
http://exchanges.state.gov/us/medical-care

SyringeManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Comfort Food (novel): Comfort Food: A Novel by Noah Ashenhurst contains a cast of characters: a romantic academic, a self-assured young writer, an enigmatic musician, a slacker, a wealthy mountaineer, and a former heroin addict—characters whose lives intersect in the unique, award-winning debut novel.Substance-related disorderList of drug interactions: The following is a list of interactions with various prescription and over-the counter drugs:List of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).Tobacco harm reduction: Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks associated with using nicotine, as an example of the concept of harm reduction, a strategy for dealing with the abuse of other drugs. Smoking tobacco is widely acknowledged as a leading cause of illness and death.William Donald SchaeferMethadone clinic: A methadone clinic is a clinic which has been established for the dispensing of methadone (Dolophine), a schedule II opioid analgesic, to those who abuse heroin and other opioids. The focus of these clinics is the elimination or reduction of opioid usage by putting the patient on methadone.List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre: The Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre, or SDATC (), is a governmental organization providing drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation services in Shanghai, China. SDATC is the only government-supported centre in Shanghai and was established in 1997 on the approval of Shanghai Narcotic Control Commission and Shanghai Public Health Bureau.British Columbia Medical Journal: The British Columbia Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed general medical journal covering scientific research, review articles, and updates on contemporary clinical practices written by British Columbian physicians or focused on topics likely to be of interest to them, such as columns from the BC Centre for Disease Control and the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia. Although it is published by the British Columbia Medical Association (BCMA), it maintains distance from the BCMA in order to encourage open debate.Opioid overdose: .0, -Crack cocaine: Crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. It may also be termed rock, work, hard, iron, cavvy, base, but is most commonly known as just crack; the Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine.Clickfine pen needlesUniform State Narcotic Drug Act: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.Jack London's San Francisco Stories: Jack London's San Francisco Stories is an anthology of Jack London short stories set in the San Francisco Bay Area. The book was edited by Matthew Asprey.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study: The Stateville Penitentiary malaria study was a controlled study of the effects of malaria on the prisoners of Stateville Penitentiary near Joliet, Illinois in the 1940s. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department.International Law Enforcement Academy: International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) are international police academies administered by the U.S.Amphetamine dependence: .0–.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.Pulse St. Petersburg: Pulse St. Petersburg is a monthly entertainment magazine published in English and Russian.Controlling Vice: Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St. Paul, 1865-1883: Controlling Vice is a book by Minnesotan author Joel Best, published in 1998. It is the story of the strategies that the Minnesota police officers enforced in attempts to regulate prostitution in the late nineteenth century.University of Kentucky College of DentistryGenovese Drug Stores: Genovese Drug Stores was a pharmacy chain located in the New York City-Long Island area of the United States, including northern New Jersey, along with Fairfield County, Connecticut and Hartford County, Connecticut. It was acquired by Eckerd in 1998.Prenatal methamphetamine exposure: Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a prenatal fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age.Canine hepacivirus: Canine hepacivirus is a single strand RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus.Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Gerold G, Qaisar N, Jain K, Henriquez JA, Firth C, Hirschberg DL, Rice CM, Shields S, Lipkin WI (2011) Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.List of California state prisonsClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Estonia (race car)Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.List of tattoo artists: This is a list of notable tattoo artists.Hepatitis B immune globulinList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Mac OS X Server 1.0Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Gun laws in Arkansas: Gun laws in Arkansas regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of Arkansas in the United States.Prescott Townsend: Prescott Townsend (June 24, 1894 – May 23, 1973) was an American gay rights activist.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City: The Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City is a Vietnamese national institute initially created by the French in 1891 under the name Pasteur Institute - Sai Gon, in 1975 renamed the Institute of Epidemiology, and in 1991 given the current name.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Plymouth Congregational Church (New Haven, Connecticut)LifeStyles Condoms: LifeStyles Condoms is a brand of condom made by the Australian company Ansell Limited, previously known as Pacific Dunlop Limited.Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force: The Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (HKAPF, ) is established in 1914 as the Police Reserve unit, provides additional manpower to the Hong Kong Police Force, especially during emergencies and other incidents.Felony murder rule (Florida): In the state of Florida, the common law felony murder rule has been codified in Florida Revised Statutes § 782.04.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Childbirth in rural Appalachia: Childbirth in rural Appalachia has long been a subject of concern. Infant mortality rates are higher in Appalachia than in other parts of the United States.City Park (Budapest)Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay: Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay is what happens (in the UK) once the originator brand has lost its patent exclusivity (patent expiry) and generic versions of the originator brand have been launched.Applied Economics, 2004, 36, 731–73, The price premium of generic to brand-names and pharmaceutical price index, Ying KonNHH Dept.Miss Rhode IslandDell Hymes: Dell Hathaway Hymes (June 7, 1927, Portland, OregonNovember 13, 2009, Charlottesville, Virginia) was a linguist, sociolinguist, anthropologist, and folklorist who established disciplinary foundations for the comparative, ethnographic study of language use. His research focused upon the languages of the Pacific Northwest.

(1/404) I love you... and heroin: care and collusion among drug-using couples.

BACKGROUND: Romantic partnerships between drug-using couples, when they are recognized at all, tend to be viewed as dysfunctional, unstable, utilitarian, and often violent. This study presents a more nuanced portrayal by describing the interpersonal dynamics of 10 heroin and cocaine-using couples from Hartford, Connecticut. RESULTS: These couples cared for each other similarly to the ways that non-drug-using couples care for their intimate partners. However, most also cared by helping each other avoid the symptoms of drug withdrawal. They did this by colluding with each other to procure and use drugs. Care and collusion in procuring and using drugs involved meanings and social practices that were constituted and reproduced by both partners in an interpersonal dynamic that was often overtly gendered. These gendered dynamics could be fluid and changed over time in response to altered circumstances and/or individual agency. They also were shaped by and interacted with long-standing historical, economic and socio-cultural forces including the persistent economic inequality, racism and other forms of structural violence endemic in the inner-city Hartford neighborhoods where these couples resided. As a result, these relationships offered both risk and protection from HIV, HCV and other health threats (e.g. arrest and violence). CONCLUSION: A more complex and nuanced understanding of drug-using couples can be tapped for its potential in shaping prevention and intervention efforts. For example, drug treatment providers need to establish policies which recognize the existence and importance of interpersonal dynamics between drug users, and work with them to coordinate detoxification and treatment for both partners, whenever possible, as well as provide additional couples-oriented services in an integrated and comprehensive drug treatment system.  (+info)

(2/404) The interplay between interpersonal dynamics, treatment barriers, and larger social forces: an exploratory study of drug-using couples in Hartford, CT.

BACKGROUND: The drug treatment field tends to place emphasis on the individual rather than the individual in social context. While there are a growing number of studies indicating that drug-using intimate partners are likely to play an important role in determining treatment options, little attention has been given to the experience and complex treatment needs of illicit drug-using (heroin, cocaine, crack) couples. METHODS: This exploratory study used in-depth interviews and ethnographic engagement to better understand the relationship between interpersonal dynamics and the treatment experience of ten relatively stable drug-using couples in Hartford, CT. Semi-structured and open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with each couple and separately with each partner. Whenever possible, the day-to-day realities and contexts of risk were also observed via participant and non-participant observation of these couples in the community. A grounded theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze nearly 40 transcripts of 60-90 minute interviews as well as fieldnotes. RESULTS: This study builds on a concept of complex interpersonal dynamics among drug users. Interpersonal dynamics of care and collusion were identified: couples cared for each other and colluded to acquire and use drugs. Care and collusion operate at the micro level of the risk environment. Treatment barriers and inadequacies were identified as part of the risk environment at the meso or intermediate level of analysis, and larger social forces such as gender dynamics, poverty and the "War on Drugs" were identified at the macro level. Interpersonal dynamics posed problems for couples when one or both partners were interested in accessing treatment. Structural barriers presented additional obstacles with the denial of admittance of both partners to treatment programs which had a sole focus on the individual and avoided treating couples. CONCLUSION: Detoxification and treatment facilities need to recognize the complex interplay between interpersonal dynamics which shape the treatment experience of couples, and which are also shaped by larger structural dynamics, including barriers in the treatment system. Improvements to the treatment system in general will go a long way in improving treatment for couples. Couples-specific programming also needs to be developed.  (+info)

(3/404) Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment.

BACKGROUND: To reduce criminal recidivism and drug use, it has been proposed that the substance abuse treatment delivery system cut across different components of the criminal justice continuum. Arrest, at the front end of this continuum, may represent a critical moment to motivate people with substance use disorders (SUD) to seek treatment but is often over looked as an intervention point. We used data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare treatment need and recent treatment admission for participants with no criminal justice (CJ) involvement in the past year, past-year arrest, and CJ supervision (i.e., probation or parole status). RESULTS: Of those arrested, 44.8% met criteria for an SUD. However, only 14% of those arrested with an SUD received treatment in the year of their arrest. In multivariate modelling, arrest was an independent predictor of treatment admission (odds ratio (OR) = 8.74) similar in magnitude to meeting criteria for an SUD (OR = 8.22). Those further along the continuum--under supervision--were most likely to receive treatment (OR = 22.62). CONCLUSION: Arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system. The NSDUH suggests that nearly 6 million individuals in the US experience an arrest annually and that nearly half meet criteria for an SUD. Although arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system, it is also the most fleeting point as individuals can move in and out rather quickly. Minimally, arrest imposes contact between the individual and a law enforcement person and can be an opportunity for early intervention strategies such as pre-arraignment diversion into treatment or brief intervention strategies. Using brief intervention at this early point in the continuum may motivate a greater number of individuals to seek treatment or decrease drug and alcohol use. Training and procedural shifts at this point of contact could have important policy implications in reducing the number of subsequent arrests or preventing individuals moving further along the criminal justice continuum, as well as decreasing the fiscal and resource burdens associated with criminal justice processing and confinement.  (+info)

(4/404) A rationale and model for addressing tobacco dependence in substance abuse treatment.

Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.  (+info)

(5/404) Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment.

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient) at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374). RESULTS: Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. CONCLUSION: Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment.  (+info)

(6/404) Homeless drug users' awareness and risk perception of peer "take home naloxone" use--a qualitative study.

BACKGROUND: Peer use of take home naloxone has the potential to reduce drug related deaths. There appears to be a paucity of research amongst homeless drug users on the topic. This study explores the acceptability and potential risk of peer use of naloxone amongst homeless drug users. From the findings the most feasible model for future treatment provision is suggested. METHODS: In depth face-to-face interviews conducted in one primary care centre and two voluntary organisation centres providing services to homeless drug users in a large UK cosmopolitan city. Interviews recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically by framework techniques. RESULTS: Homeless people recognise signs of a heroin overdose and many are prepared to take responsibility to give naloxone, providing prior training and support is provided. Previous reports of the theoretical potential for abuse and malicious use may have been overplayed. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to recommend providing "over the counter" take home naloxone" to UK homeless injecting drug users. However a programme of peer use of take home naloxone amongst homeless drug users could be feasible providing prior training is provided. Peer education within a health promotion framework will optimise success as current professionally led health promotion initiatives are failing to have a positive impact amongst homeless drug users.  (+info)

(7/404) Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use.

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. RESULTS: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female) Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. DISCUSSION: Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.  (+info)

(8/404) A success story: HIV prevention for injection drug users in Rhode Island.

BACKGROUND: New HIV diagnoses related to injection drug use (IDU) have declined in the United States. Access to clean syringes and decreasing HIV transmission among injection drug users have been HIV prevention priorities of the Rhode Island (RI) HIV community. To examine trends in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI, we performed a retrospective analysis of new HIV diagnoses according to HIV risk factor from 1990-2003. RESULTS: There has been an 80% absolute reduction in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI coincident with IDU-specific prevention efforts. CONCLUSION: There has been a greater decline in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island compared to national data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We hypothesize that this dramatic decline in Rhode Island is related to extensive HIV prevention efforts targeting IDUs. Further research is needed to examine the impact of specific HIV prevention interventions for injection drug users.  (+info)


Injecting Drug


  • Methadone treatment as a determinant of HIV risk reduction among injecting drug users: a nested case-control study. (ehesp.fr)
  • 5 William A. Zule and others, High Dead-Space Syringes and the Risk of HIV and HCV Infection among Injecting Drug Users, Drug and Alcohol Dependence 100, no. 3 (2009): , (accessed November 15, 2010). (docplayer.net)
  • The number of injecting drug users who used ice in the last six months has increased from 55 per cent to 61 per cent in the last year, according to the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre's annual survey released on Monday. (blogspot.com)
  • The harm reduction intervention for injecting drug users in Odessa is highly cost-effective and is likely to remain cost-effective at increased coverage. (lww.com)


IDUs


  • In order to evaluate the protective effect of methadone treatment on HIV infection, we performed a nested case-control study on seroconverters (cases) who were part of a cohort of HIV-negative infecting drug users (IDUs) (controls). (ehesp.fr)
  • If infection rates among injection drug users (IDUs) are not convincing enough for the widespread adoption of SEPs, the cost of treatment per infected person should be. (docplayer.net)


Interactions


  • Do not give other cough-and-cold medication that might contain the same or similar ingredients (see also Drug Interactions section). (rxlist.com)
  • Ken Johnson, senior vice president of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, said interactions between drug companies and doctors were beneficial. (bloggernews.net)


2016


  • The meeting focused on the need for safer alternatives to the current drug supply and an examination of existing drug policy and stigma surrounding drug use in a province where 1,400 people have fatally overdosed since January 2016. (vancouversun.com)
  • The Commission is referring to the 2016 United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs -- a meeting of all UN member states to evaluate the current state of international drug control. (drugpolicy.org)
  • We are convinced that the 2016 UNGASS is an historic opportunity to discuss the shortcomings of the drug control regime and identify workable alternatives. (drugpolicy.org)
  • The Global Commission hopes that UNGASS 2016 will recognize the international momentum toward adopting drug policies based on science, compassion, public health, and human rights. (drugpolicy.org)


cohort


  • This study sought to examine public injecting among a community-recruited cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Vancouver. (bmj.com)


illicit


  • He said the overdose-reversing drug naloxone should also be provided and parents who are illicit drug users themselves should carry it and be prepared to perform rescue breathing before help arrives, potentially preventing brain damage. (vancouversun.com)


abusers


  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a well-defined problem among homosexual men and parenteral drug abusers for almost 20 years (1-3). (annals.org)


heroin


  • For example, Switzerland supports maintenance and heroin assisted therapy in order to reduce harms to users. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Heroin poisoning occurs most commonly when an individual unintentionally overdoses on the drug. (medscape.com)
  • Body packers, also called "mules," are people who swallow and pack their GI tracts with bags of heroin in order to smuggle the illegal drug from one country to another. (medscape.com)
  • In 1920, the Dangerous Drugs Act prohibited the use of heroin altogether, thus driving it underground. (medscape.com)
  • Finally, heroin decreases gastric motility, inhibits the effect of acetylcholine on the small intestine, and diminishes the colonic propulsive waves, resulting in prolongation of gastric emptying time by as much as 12 hours, with consequent constipation in habitual users. (medscape.com)


prohibition


  • It has been argued that the War on Drugs has actually increased rates of drug abuse, as was seen during the alcohol prohibition era. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The Commission believes that global drug prohibition has not only failed to achieve its originally stated objectives of eradicating drug production and consumption, it has also generated alarming social and health problems. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Put simply, drug prohibition exacerbates and creates the very problems it tries to solve. (liberalconspiracy.org)


increase your dose


  • Do not increase your dose, use this drug more often, or stop using it without first consulting your doctor. (rxlist.com)
  • Do not increase your dose or take this drug more often than directed by your doctor or the package label. (rxlist.com)


harms


  • It is also an extremely expensive system to maintain, from the cops policing the drugs, the court system and the jail to hold people for a crime that ultimately harms no one but themselves -- assuming it even harms them. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The Commission's report produces a graph which compares the actual degree of harms - as reported in The Lancet - with the level of seriousness with which they are treated within the drug control regime: the sheer disparity between the two has to be seen to be believed. (liberalconspiracy.org)


injection


  • We prospectively examined the prevalence and correlates of recent public injecting among participants enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study during the period of December 1, 2003 to November 30, 2005 using generalized estimating equations (GEE). (bmj.com)
  • In addition, our findings support previous work suggesting that removing barriers to the use of Vancouver's existing supervised injection site may serve to further reduce public drug use. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Alex Willard HWP Research Paper November 17, 2010 Reducing High Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users Through Syringe Exchange For prevention of transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C (HCV), harm reduction is one strategy that has been found increasingly effective. (docplayer.net)
  • Harm reduction focuses on blood transmission, specifically through sharing syringes in cases of injection drug use. (docplayer.net)
  • According to the Harm Reduction Coalition (HRC), harm reduction is a set of strategies meant to reduce the negative consequences of injection drug use, namely promoting access to clean needles through syringe exchange programs (SEPs). (docplayer.net)
  • Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 1981, injection drug use has caused more than one-third (36%) of cases in the United States. (docplayer.net)
  • 1 Additionally, it is estimated that 61% of women living with HIV were infected due to injection drug use or as the result of having sex with someone who contracted HIV from injection drug use. (docplayer.net)
  • Injection drug use is considered a high-risk behavior for the transmission of HIV and HCV largely because of lack of access to clean syringes. (docplayer.net)
  • 5 As a prevention measure, SEPs began informally in San Francisco in Concerned health care workers would offer sterile syringes to patients being treated with jaundice and abscesses associated with injection drug use. (docplayer.net)
  • 7 Many opponents of harm reduction, and SEPs in particular, argue that it promotes injection drug use, rather than accepting it as a valid prevention strategy. (docplayer.net)


alcohol


  • Treatment was defined as receiving treatment or counseling for use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes. (wiley.com)
  • Most adolescents received treatment for both alcohol and drug use, and self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation facility were the most used treatment settings. (wiley.com)


Cocaine


  • New research studies and the experience gained in a handful of programs similar to the project here indicate that children born with traces of such illegal drugs as 'crack' cocaine in their system pose special problems for schools. (edweek.org)


dose


  • You may be directed to start with a higher dose of this drug for the first several days until you have begun to feel better, then decrease your dose. (rxlist.com)


harm


  • The only way to put governments back in control, disempower organized crime, reduce violence and corruption is to regulate drugs according to the harm they cause," says today's public statement. (drugpolicy.org)


Ecstasy


  • Ecstasy - a Class A drug which regularly features in newspaper scare-stories - appears second to the bottom of the table, as one of the most harmless drugs of all. (liberalconspiracy.org)


consequences


  • Older children should be encouraged to take responsibility at parties where drugs may be available and call 911 knowing they will not face criminal consequences, Kendall said. (vancouversun.com)
  • Adolescent substance users face serious health and social consequences and benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. (wiley.com)


addiction


  • A "chipper" (when it's not a machine for shredding Christmas trees) is a person who uses many different drugs while avoiding addiction to any specific one. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The National Association for Perinatal Research and Addiction estimates that 11 percent of all babies born this year will have some trace of drugs in their bodies. (edweek.org)


regularly


  • For certain conditions (such as arthritis), it may take up to two weeks of taking this drug regularly until you get the full benefit. (rxlist.com)


consumption


  • Despite the implementation of policy interventions to address open drug consumption, public injecting continues to occur in many urban settings. (bmj.com)


prescription drugs


  • People receiving Medicare benefits are being targeted in a scam involving false offers of refunds for prescription drugs. (peninsulaclarion.com)
  • A group calling itself the National Medicare Foundation or the National Medicare Agency reportedly is contacting beneficiaries telling them Medicare wants to send them a refund for prescription drugs or other services, according to J. R. Trombley, Aging and Disability Resource Center coordinator in Soldotna. (peninsulaclarion.com)
  • You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. (rxlist.com)
  • Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). (rxlist.com)
  • Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). (rxlist.com)
  • There’s a report coming out Wednesday detailing one reason the average American is spending more and more on prescription drugs. (bloggernews.net)


Victims


  • Hers is a special preschool class, a pilot program serving some of this city's youngest drug victims: the children of drug-using mothers. (edweek.org)


regulation


  • Allowing governments to apply different approaches to drug regulation in order to maximize public health and disempower organized crime. (drugpolicy.org)
  • On another note, I have also written an article about how the legalisation, regulation, and taxation of drugs would be a far more effective way of dealing with the fiscal deficit than David Cameron's immoral, counter-productive programme of cuts. (liberalconspiracy.org)


Medications


  • If you are treating a chronic condition such as arthritis, ask your doctor about non-drug treatments and/or using other medications to treat your pain. (rxlist.com)
  • If you are taking this drug "as needed" (not on a regular schedule), remember that pain medications work best if they are used as the first signs of pain occur. (rxlist.com)


occur


  • This effect can occur without warning at any time while taking this drug. (rxlist.com)


Hospitals


  • And 15 of 18 major hospitals surveyed last summer by the House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families reported that the number of drug-exposed births at their hospitals this year was three to four times higher than in 1985. (edweek.org)


substance


  • National Survey on Drug Use and Health data were pooled across 2002 to 2013, with a combined sample of 79,885 past-year substance users ages 12 to 17 (17,510 with SUD and 62,375 without SUD). (wiley.com)


illegal drug


  • Ito ang ipinahayag ng Eastern Police District (EPD) matapos na lagdaan ng police, local government officials at ibang stakeholders ang isang kasunduan na naglalayong isailalim sa skills training program ang mga dating illegal drug users para makapagtrabaho sa construction industry. (tempo.com.ph)
  • This will put a stop to all illegal drug use. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Realistically, background checks and gun registration would probably encourage an illegal gun market, just like the illegal drug market. (orlandosentinel.com)


take


  • Through empowering drug users to take control of our lives we can find a way out of this," Ward told a news conference. (vancouversun.com)
  • If registration would take guns from all the criminals, why wouldn't it also take the drugs from the criminals? (orlandosentinel.com)
  • But Vicky Ferrara wonders whether others among the estimated 375,000 children born each year to mothers who take drugs will be so lucky. (edweek.org)
  • Well, provided people were fully aware of the risks of taking Thalidmode, yes, yes I would allow people to take such a drug. (liberalconspiracy.org)


duration


  • Controls were matched with cases by sex, age, duration of drug use and follow-up time. (ehesp.fr)


medication


  • This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as xanthines. (rxlist.com)


blow


  • Gently blow your nose before using this drug. (rxlist.com)


uses


  • Some of these opinions may contain information about uses of the drug products that have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (rxlist.com)
  • OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. (rxlist.com)


Study


  • The Health Officers Council of British Columbia released a study in 2005 entitled A Public Health Approach To Drug Control in Canada , which studied the effects of drugs on Canucks. (rationalwiki.org)
  • It looks like we are going to need some special interventions for these kids,' said Dr. Ira Chasnoff, a Northwestern University medical researcher who has been among those leading the study of children exposed to drugs before birth. (edweek.org)


relieve


  • This drug may also be used to help relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. (rxlist.com)


side effects


  • The US Drug Watchdog says, 'One of the biggest problems we have with respect to our drug initiative work, is the average US consumer never hears about a drug recall, or serious side effects related to a specific drug's use. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. (rxlist.com)
  • Children may need to use this drug for a shorter amount of time to lower the risk of side effects. (rxlist.com)


policy


  • Dr. Mark Tyndall, executive director of the B.C. Centre for Disease Control, said it's time for policy-makers to use a patient or client-centred approach to deal with the overdose issue and that drug users are the ones with the "lived experience. (vancouversun.com)
  • New York, New York ) - A bold public statement was released today by the Global Commission on Drug Policy stating that "an historic opportunity to achieve more humane and effective drug policy is at risk. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Drugs policy is back in the headlines once again, and, this time, those of us who favour drug policy reform were in for some light relief. (liberalconspiracy.org)
  • Early last week, tycoon Richard Branson appeared in front of the Home Affairs Select Committee's new inquiry into drugs policy to denounce the war on drugs as having 'totally failed' and called for a major re-think of policy. (liberalconspiracy.org)
  • Branson is one of a number of high-profile public figures who shared a platform with the likes of Kofi Annan, former UN Secretary General, to produce the Global Commission on Drug Policy Report , published in June last year. (liberalconspiracy.org)
  • Another frustration is that every drugs policy debate sets off from the simplistic, conservative drugs-are-bad, just-say-no, approach. (liberalconspiracy.org)


creates


  • Keeping everything else the same, I think that locking Elves out of item crafting, Level 8 and 9 spells, and the fastest spell progression creates interesting differences between Elves and Magic-Users: if you want to play an adventurer who dabbles in magic to a fairly useful degree while also training in a few other, miscellaneous skills, you can play an Elf. (blogspot.com)


often


  • Chippers may, for example, smoke pot on a daily basis, but use "harder" drugs less often enough that they don't become addicts. (rationalwiki.org)


treatment


  • WebMD User Reviews should not be considered as medical advice and are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. (rxlist.com)
  • In 2004, the year he was chosen as president-elect of the kidney foundation, the pharmaceutical company Amgen, which makes the most expensive drugs used in the treatment of kidney disease, underwrote more than $1.9 million worth of research and education programs led by Collins, according to records examined by The New York Times. (bloggernews.net)


serious


  • US Drug Watchdog Now Urges Users of Yaz Yasmin Birth Control Pills That Had a Stroke Or Developed Other Serious Medical Conditions to Contact The Johnson. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The US Drug Watchdog says, 'If a young woman user of the birth control pills called Yaz, Yasmin, or the generic version Ocella has had a pulmonary embolism, a heart attack, stroke, blood clotting, or other serious medical issues, we want them to contact the Johnson Law Group at 1-800-996-9900 for a legal evaluation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. (rxlist.com)
  • This drug may rarely cause serious (rarely fatal) bleeding from the stomach or intestines. (rxlist.com)
  • Another serious problem is the staggering degree of media and government misinformation on drugs. (liberalconspiracy.org)


problems


  • Her school program, among the first in the country designed expressly to deal with the little understood problems of prenatally drug-exposed youngsters, puts Ms. Ferrara in a better position than most to pick up on the subtle cues to their distress. (edweek.org)


Control


  • PRWEB) January 24 2013 The US Drug Watchdog is now urging mothers of young women who suffered a heart attack a stroke or a pulmonary embolism to ask their daughters if they were using the birth control pills called Yaz Yasmin or the generic version called Ocella? (bio-medicine.org)
  • As a background according to the September 17th 2009 edition of the New York Times, 'The FDA released a warning letter sent in September to Bayer Pharmaceuticals over Yaz & Yasmin, that was very critical of the drug maker for failing to highlight the risk factors associated with these birth control pills. (bio-medicine.org)


life


  • Such a significant portion of the abuser's time is dedicated to thinking, using, and acquiring drugs that their life becomes impacted. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Like the boy in Ms. Ferrara's class, many carry the emotional scars of a home life devastated by drugs. (edweek.org)


public


  • Recent frequent public injecting was found to be negatively associated with cooking and filtering drugs prior to injecting (AOR = 0.50) and older age (AOR = 0.95). (bmj.com)
  • Portugal decriminalized the use of all drugs in 2001 , with significant crime prevention and public health benefits, including decreasing rates of HIV. (drugpolicy.org)


experience


  • The Elf can cast Magic-User spells, but their Spells per Day and maximum spell level per experience level can follow the Cleric table (from the Grindhouse edition, since I haven't read the Deluxe edition and I don't know if there's a difference in this case). (blogspot.com)
  • Be the first to share your experience with this drug. (rxlist.com)


themselves


  • Patient advocacy groups and many doctors themselves have long complained that drug companies exert undue influence on doctors, but the extent of such payments has been hard to quantify. (bloggernews.net)


people


  • Drug users are the solution to addressing overdose deaths and providing services to people before they die alone, says a woman who attended a meeting of health professionals in Vancouver trying to develop new strategies to deal with a growing crisis in B.C. (vancouversun.com)
  • Body stuffers, on the other hand, are people who ingest all the drugs in their possession in order to conceal the evidence from the police. (medscape.com)


health


  • she's the one who trained all of us," said Romain, about the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services representative who trained area senior services providers on the Medicare prescription drug Plan D program implemented in January. (peninsulaclarion.com)
  • Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional. (rxlist.com)
  • From then through 2005, drug makers paid more than 5,500 doctors, nurses and other health care workers in the state at least $57 million. (bloggernews.net)
  • And New York State health authorities just last week predicted that, if current drug-abuse patterns continue, 5 percent of all babies born in New York City in 1995 could be sick enough to require intensivecare. (edweek.org)


reduce


  • In addition, there is now unprecedented debate among elected officials, including President Obama, about how to transform drug policies to reduce mass incarcerations in the U.S. (drugpolicy.org)


year


  • He said the youngest person was a 14-year-old who was experimenting with drugs. (vancouversun.com)
  • Of the estimated 375,000 children being born each year with drug exposure, approximately 200,000 are thought to have traces of crack in their systems, according to experts. (edweek.org)


market


  • I've never really understand how a free market in drugs would work in practice. (liberalconspiracy.org)


effects


  • But the effects of the drug can be especially devastating for pregnant women and their unborn children. (edweek.org)


medical


  • The opinions expressed in the WebMD User Reviews are solely those of the User, who may or may not have medical or scientific training, and do not represent the opinions of WebMD. (rxlist.com)
  • Drug abuse refers to the systematic use of drugs for pleasure (rather than medical) reasons. (rationalwiki.org)


problem


  • and a lot of Cleric spells don't benefit them or outright hurt them (this seems like the biggest disadvantage to me, but Magic-Users aren't entirely free from this problem either due to their alignment, which muddies the water on how much this is a uniquely Elven problem). (blogspot.com)
  • Those calling for all guns to be registered have given us the solution to eradicate the drug problem in America. (orlandosentinel.com)


Read


  • Nominate users here and read their campaign slogans here ! (rationalwiki.org)


lives


  • But he wanted to improve the lives of drug users. (kuow.org)


why are IV drug users more susceptible to endocarditis condition relative to the genral population?


  • Condition endocarditis, justify why IV drug users are more susceptible to this condition relative to the genral population?
  • From the vein the drug passes directly in the Endometrium, resulting in irritation and hence endocardititis, and also phlebitis.


Why do drug users always watch each other closely when the are taking a hit?


  • Every time I see drug users, mostly smoking crack or heroine, they always seem to be staring at the drug, while someone next to them is smoking it. What is the reason for this? When I see street drinkers drinking on a park bench, I do not see them staring at someone elses can of tennants. Also rarely see this behaviour with weed. Difficult to explain. Imagine two people are sitting down on a street. One of them produces a rock of crack and puts it into his pipe. The other one keeps his eyes on the rock of crack the whole time and never looks away.
  • Well, you're right. There have been studies which show that cocaine addicts, while brains being monitored, will respond in powerful ways to the mere sight of cocaine being used. The addiction is deeply ingrained, and there is sort of a proxy effect in seeing others getting high. When I see a film cut away to people doing powders, it's like cutting away to a porno or something to me, grabbing my undivided attention. (Haven't used in years, but the seeds are still there.) Cocaine and heroin addiction takes place on a primitive level, like reproduction, eating, and survival. Marijuana does not do this, though you can tell a difference in just how interested other people are through some similar behaviors. (Greed, petty bickering over who's had what, pinching bags, etc.)


What will happen if we legalize drug, will the amount of drug users decrease( increase)?


  • Some people says that if we legalize drug , it will help and decrease whole amount of drug users in long run. What do you think ? Will it decrease ?
  • I think the amount of drug users will increase, drugs being available will make it seem more acceptable to consume them. Lagalizing drugs will help the economy a lot, due to the outrageous taxes that will be charged on drug purchases


Is the 12 step program for eating disorders the same as the 12 step program for alcoholics/drug users?


  • Is the 12 step program for eating disorders the same as the 12 step program for alcoholics/drug users? Also if you're an alchoholic, and you have an eating disorder, can you like double it?
  • Yes it is :) that's why it's called the 12 step program. They are all bases off the same thing. Peace&Love


If 2 drug users share needles but they are both clean of any diseases are they still at risk?


  • Say the drug users have unprotected sex and they are both clean of any sti, std, or disease of any sort, are they at risk for diseases if they share needles without cleaning in between use? what if the 2 users sleep with no one else, just each other and they share needles only with each other thats it, are they at risk? even though they both are clean as a whistle?
  • well i'm not too sure in all honesty, but if they are both clean, and the needles are shared only between those 2 people, then they can inject and have sex and spit at each other to their hearts content without catching diseases, that's what I would think anyway


When drug users inject and share unclean needles, what is the percentage of getting infection?


  • Also, what if a person with clean blood uses a needle before giving it to another person, is it possible to infect the other person? Im not a drug user, just curious.
  • Even 0.1% chance is not acceptable compare to the risk of Aids or hip B


What percent of drug users get addicted?


  • In the USA, what percent of drug users (not alcoholics) become addicted to drugs? Pleas provide website. Thanks
  • I don't knoe the exact percent, I know its bigg.. but you can probably go look it up on Google


What are signs that someone is a drug user?


  • Aside from blood tests and actually seeing them use illegal drugs, what are signs that a person is a heavy drug user? I have heard that you can see it in some peoples' pupil dilation, and I am looking for signs like that. To be clear I mean illegal drugs like marijuana and cocaine.
  • Dopey, red eyed, slurry, laughing at things that aren't funny, jittery, sweaty etc.