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(1/1487) Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration.
The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations =0.7 nmol/L (reference value for sodium-replete cats) and normal packed-cell volumes. A minimal sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance of 0.8 g Na/kg diet (energy density = 22 kJ/g diet) or 0.4 mmol Na. kg body weight-1. d-1 is proposed. (+info)
(2/1487) Assessment of swallowing and referral to speech and language therapists in acute stroke.
The best clinical assessment of swallowing following acute stroke, in order to decide whether to refer a patient to a speech and language therapist (SLT), is uncertain. Independently of the managing clinical team, we prospectively investigated 115 patients (51 male) with acute stroke, mean age 75 years (range 24-94) within 72 h of admission, using a questionnaire, structured examination and timed water swallowing test. Outcome variables included referral to and intervention by a speech and language therapist (SLT), dietary modification, respiratory complications and death. Of those patients in whom an SLT recommended intervention, 97% were detected by an abnormal quantitative water swallowing test; specificity was 69%. An SLT was very unlikely to recommend any intervention if the test was normal. Inability to perform a water test and/or abnormality of the test was associated with significantly increased relative risks of death, chest infection and dietary modification. A timed water swallowing test can be a useful test of swallowing and may be used to screen patients for referral to a speech and language therapist after acute stroke. (+info)
(3/1487) Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis.
High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake. (+info)
(4/1487) Nitrogen retention by lambs fed oscillating dietary protein concentrations.
Nitrogen excreted by beef cattle can be retained in manure or lost by volatilization to the atmosphere or by runoff and percolation into surface or ground water. Increasing the retention of dietary N should decrease environmental losses. To this end, the effects of oscillating concentrations of dietary CP on nutrient retention were determined using lambs fed a 90% concentrate diet. Ten St. Croix lambs (average BW = 27 kg) were used in two 5x5 Latin square experiments. Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) 10% CP, 2) 12.5% CP, 3) 15% CP, 4) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 24-h intervals, and 5) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 48-h intervals. Supplemental N was provided by cottonseed meal in Trial 1 and by a 50:50 (N basis) blend of cottonseed meal and urea in Trial 2. Each period of the Latin square lasted 35 d, with excreta collection the final 8 d. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P<.01) with increasing N intake in both trials (.77, 1.33, and 1.89 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 1; .94, 1.78, and 2.19 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 2). Compared with continuously feeding the 12.5% CP diet, oscillating the 10 and 15% CP diets on a 24-h basis did not affect N retention (P>.10) in either trial (1.62 and 1.56 g/d for Trials 1 and 2, respectively). Oscillating dietary CP at 48-h intervals did not affect N retention in Trial 2 (1.82 g/d) but increased (P<.05) N retention by 38% in Trial 1 (1.87 g/d). Phosphorus, K, and Na retention and excretion were not affected by dietary treatments in Trial 1. In Trial 2, P retention increased (linear, P<.05) with increasing dietary CP and was greater (P<.05) in lambs on the 48-h oscillation treatment than in lambs fed the 12.5% CP diet. These results suggest that oscillating the dietary CP concentrations might potentially increase the utilization of N by ruminants fed high-concentrate diets. (+info)
(5/1487) Effect of individual or combined ablation of the nuclear groups of the lamina terminalis on water drinking in sheep.
The subfornical organ (SFO), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), and median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) were ablated either individually or in various combinations, and the effects on drinking induced by either intravenous infusion of hypertonic 4 M NaCl (1.3 ml/min for 30 min) or water deprivation for 48 h were studied. Ablation of either the OVLT or SFO alone did not affect drinking in response to intravenous 4 M NaCl, although combined ablation of these two circumventricular organs substantially reduced but did not abolish such drinking. Ablation of the MnPO or MnPO and SFO together also substantially reduced, but did not abolish, drinking in response to intravenous hypertonic NaCl. Only near-total destruction of the lamina terminalis (OVLT, MnPO, and part or all of the SFO) abolished acute osmotically induced drinking. The large lesions also reduced drinking after water deprivation, whereas none of the other lesions significantly affected such drinking. None of these lesions altered feeding. The results show that all parts of the lamina terminalis play a role in the drinking induced by acute increases in plasma tonicity. The lamina terminalis appears to play a less crucial role in the drinking response after water deprivation than for the drinking response to acute intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. (+info)
(6/1487) Use of doxycycline-controlled gene expression to reversibly alter milk-protein composition in transgenic mice.
A reverse tetracycline transactivator-encoding cDNA under the control of the mammary specific beta-lactoglobulin promoter was linked to a bovine alpha-lactalbumin transcription unit driven by a reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator/doxycycline-inducible human cytomegalovirus promoter. The construct was microinjected into eggs from alpha-lactalbumin-deficient mice. These mice produce a highly viscous lactose-free milk and have a shortened lactation period. Mice from three out of the nine transgenic lines investigated expressed reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator mRNA in their lactating mammary glands at levels detectable by Northern analysis. Following doxycycline addition to the drinking water, lactation was fully restored in animals from the three lines. Doxycycline removal resulted in a reversal of phenotype. The observed mammary-specific and high expression of the doxycycline inducible reporter gene (up to 5.2 mg of recombinant alpha-lactalbumin.mL-1 of milk, i.e. up to 13-fold induction) opens up exciting prospects to use the tetracycline system to study the development and functioning of the mammary gland, and to control the production level of active pharmaceutical proteins in the milk of transgenic animals. (+info)
(7/1487) Effect of prolonged administration of a urinary kinase inhibitor, ebelactone B on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension in rats.
The effect of prolonged administration of a carboxypeptidase Y-like kininase inhibitor, ebelactone B (EB) (2-ethyl-3, 11-dihydroxy-4, 6, 8, 10, 12-pentamethyl-9-oxo-6-tetradecenoic 1, 3-lactone), on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension was tested. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of non-treated 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley strain rats was gradually increased by DOCA-salt treatment from 137+/-2 mmHg (n=11) to 195+/-7 mmHg at 10 weeks of age. With daily oral administration of lisinopril (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), which is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, a major kininase in plasma, the development of hypertension was not suppressed. By contrast, administration of EB (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), completely inhibited the development of hypertension (SBP: 146+/-1 mmHg, n=5, 10 weeks old). The reduced SBP at 10 weeks of age was equal to the SBP before any treatment (142+/-1 mmHg, n=5). Direct determination of mean blood pressure (MBP) in conscious, unrestrained rats confirmed that MBP elevation was completely inhibited by EB. Continuous subcutaneous infusion (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of HOE140, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, restored the elevation of SBP, which was suppressed by EB. The weights of left ventricle of DOCA-salt treated rats 10-weeks-old (0.36+/-0.02 g 100 g body weight(-1), n=11) was significantly reduced by EB (0.27+/-0.01, n=5), as were the sodium levels in serum, cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocyte. These findings suggested that EB is effective in preventing salt-related hypertension presumably by eliminating sodium retention. (+info)
(8/1487) Long-term CCK-leptin synergy suggests a role for CCK in the regulation of body weight.
The gut peptide CCK is a nutrient-related signal important to the control of food intake. In the present studies, we observed that a single intraperitoneal injection of CCK (1-2 microgram/kg) given 2-3 h after intracerebroventricular leptin (2-5 microgram) reduced body weight and chow intake over the ensuing 48 h more than did leptin alone. CCK alone had no effect on either 48-h chow intake or body weight but significantly reduced feeding during a 30-min sucrose test. However, reduction of 30-min sucrose intake by CCK was not enhanced by prior intracerebroventricular leptin. The present data suggest that CCK can contribute to the regulation of body weight when central leptin levels are elevated. (+info)
How stupid would drinking a pint of gin be?
Bonus question: What about drinking a pint of it?
Said drinking is done in a time normally spent when drinking a pint of beer.
Dammit, the pint in the bonus question is supposed to be a pitcher.
It will depend in whether it is a pint of gin straight or diluted but if drunk at the same rate as beer you will get blotto and could even get alcohol poisoning.
I think it would be bloody stupid to even try drinking that much even for a long night out
What's the difference between drinking to get drunk and drinking to relax?
I've heard people defend the practice of drinking alone as innocent relaxation (and I totally agree with that). But...as I'm sitting here after working and studying all day and wanting to enjoy a few cocktails in peace, I can't help but wonder where the difference between alcoholism and relaxation is. And along those lines, do you consider drinking to get drunk to be a bad practice? Any thoughts?
The difference between drinking to get drunk and drinking to relax? Hmm..about a fifth of tequila.
I think if you MUST drink to relax then you have a problem. Or if you are always drinking alone. Also, if you are killing a bottle of wine every night after work, you might want to think about going to AA meeting. :-)
What alcoholic drinks do women enjoy drinking?
I am throwing a party and I want to make drinks that can be easily mixed from home so details would greatly be appreciated. Also if anyone has any good/new ideas for drinking games that wouldnt mind sharing it with me; that would also be great!
I have some good ideas but its always good to diversify creativity.
I personally like jack daniels and coke, southern comfort and lemonade and also love baileys. I would say vodka and red bull but its actually been made illegal to sell because aparently the vodka slows your heart rate down whilst the red bull speeds it up and could cause a heart attack!!! Just a bit of information for you :) lol
Erm....drinking games....I've played a couple of fun ones like 'have you ever' you ask questions like 'have you ever... gone skinny dipping' (questions can get mutch more interesting lol) and whoever has, has to take a drink, so its a fun way to find out what people have been up to, as people seem to be much more willing to share when they've had a few drinks down them! lol
Another one called 'flip, sip or strip' its best with like 3 to 5 people, but more people and the game will last longer. Basically what happens is you flip a coin and while it is in the air, call heads or tails. If you guess right, pass the coin to your right. If you guess wrong, pass the coin to your left and either take one article of clothing off (anything that is a pair counts as one item) or drink a shot. Thing is, you cannot do the same thing (sip or strip) more than twice in a row!
Final one: Beer Pong!! you need a ping pong ball and 12 glasses of beer. you arrange six glasses of beer on either side of a table as if you're setting up bowling pins. You get in to two groups and sit opposite the other group with 6 beers in front of them. When it comes to taking your turn, youve gotta throw the ping pong ball in to the opposite teams glasses. If it lands inside a glass, the opposing team must drink the beer immediately. Once done, rearrange the beers so they are all close to each other. The winning team is the team that manages to make the opposing team drink all their drinks. At the end of the game, the losing team must drink all remaining beer on the winning side.
I'm sure you could find a load of drinking game ideas on Google if your still a bit stuck, hope you have a great night :)
What does not drinking water, or any other drink do to your body?
I barely drink anything.
I probably drink around one or two glasses of water a day.
What does not drinking alot of water do to your body?
Your body needs 7.5 quarts of water in it to digest just 1 quart of food you eat each day. You will get a little water from foods, but only if they are fresh. Processed foods are dehydrated and extract water from you. Your organs will pull water from your blood vessels to keep you functioning, but that shrinks the blood vessels and causes a strain on your heart.
Many bodily functions depend on you getting adequate water each day. Here is what a well hydrated person should consume each day in water:
Take your total body weight and divide by 2. That number is the amount of water in ounces that you need to drink each and everyday. Along with that, you should consume 1/4 teaspoon of "air dried sea salt" in conjunction with each quart of water you drink. This puts the electrolytes in your body that will give you proper hydration. The typical white table salt you buy in stores like the Morton Salt, for instance, is terrible for you and has loads of chemicals added. Avoid that junk. If you drink ANY diuretic drinks like, sodas, coffee, tea, alcohol, commercially prepared fruit drinks, energy drinks, etc., these all dehydrate you and you will need to add more water to the total to compensate for the water loss due to these diuretic drinks. Take the total ounces of the diuretic drinks and multiply by 1.5 and add that total to the original total to come up with the proper amount of water you need to drink each day.
The lack of water in your body will take it's toll big time and you will become a victim of many potential diseases as a result.
Symptoms of early or mild dehydration include:
* flushed face
* extreme thirst, more than normal or unable to drink
* dry, warm skin
* cannot pass urine or reduced amounts, dark, yellow
* dizziness made worse when you are standing
* cramping in the arms and legs
* crying with few or no tears
* sleepy or irritable
* dry mouth, dry tongue; with thick saliva.
In severe dehydration, these effects become more pronounced and the patient may develop evidence of hypovolaemic shock, including: diminished consciousness, lack of urine output, cool moist extremities, a rapid and feeble pulse (the radial pulse may be undetectable), low or undetectable blood pressure, and peripheral cyanosis. Death follows soon if rehydration is not started quickly.
Good luck to you
When do babies start drinking things other than milk?
When do babies start drinking things other than milk?
And what do they drink?
My sister is 4 months old.
well they start drinking regular milk at 1 year old
i started my daughter on juice at 9 months once she was eating stage 2 baby food
What are the benefits of drinking water?
I barely drink water and I think i can even stay a month or who knows without drinking water. I only drink coke (coca cola). So what good things would happen to me if i quit coke and start drinking water everday?
Okay... I know a ton about this, because my family is all about drinking water. Anyway, one of the most important things (for me) that it'll help you do is lose weight. Drinking an adequate amount of water helps you lose weight, and then keeps you thin and trim. Many times, people's thirst mechanism is so low in their body that when their body is telling them they're thirsty, the person will think they're hungry, so they'll end up eating instead of drinking water- which will make you gain weight. Also, you'll stop having headaches. #1 cause of headaches is dehydration. Once you start drinking a lot of water you'll be sick less, because drinking water helps your immune system, therefore your immune system can fight disease and sickness better. The biggest reason to drink water though is to cleanse your body of toxins. Everyday we drink and eat... crap. So many chemicals and junk is put into our body that is somehow needs to get out- that's what water is for. Drinking water cleansing the body of these chemicals therefore not only does it help you be healthier, but it decrease your risk of cancers and disease like that. Drinking water will increase your energy level, because NOT drinking is like a form of malnutrition. It'll probably make your bones stronger, and it could probably help vision. And (I know this for a fact) when you exercise or even when you're not exercising a lot of times females experience cramps (running = abdominal cramps; lsudden eg cramps are very common)- these cramps happen because your body is not getting enough water. Menstrual cramps can also be eliminated or lessened by drinking more water. Women's muscles are made up of a lot more water then males so that's why if we don't drink enough water our bodies react right away. I hope this helped... and I'm sure I forgot a lot of things... Oh! And you should be drinking half your body weight in ounces. So let's say you're 120 lbs, you should be drinking 60 oz. a day!!
Is drinking a rasberry iced tea or lemonade the same as drinking a carbonated soda?
I want to lose weight and i have stopped drinking soda(sprite, coke, Sunkist), is it equally as bad to drink Hawaiian Punch and stuff like that? Does the carbonation in soda do something the other drinks don't?
Yes, it's just as bad because the drinks you have named off, like Hawaiian Punch and most Iced teas are loaded with sugars. If the sodas you listed are the only ones you drink, they aren't as bad as cola, which also has caffeine. Although I'm not sure, but some orange soda (I want to say sunkist is one) has caffeine. If you are looking for a healthier drink, water really is the best way to go.
Is drinking red and white wine considered mixing your drinks?
I know that mixing drinks is not a good thing. Every time I switch drinks majorly, say from beer to champagne to bailey's, I can feel severely unwell and fall to sleep. I have also seen bad examples of people in the pub drinking steadily and then switching to a completely different drink and that will switch them into a completely different character.
I'm just wondering, does switching from white to red wine have a negative effect? Should you stick to exactly the same drink?
Mixing drinks is about drinking alcohol made from different sources. Red and white wine both come from grapes so they are not mixing your drinks.