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*  Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology | Northwestern University Press
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*  Discover Criminology Day
The Discover Criminology Day will give Year 12 students a taste of what it is like to ... a careers presentation on opportunities following graduation in Criminology, a lecture, a ... study Criminology at The University of Manchester. The day will consist of an overview of ... of the facilities and a choice of workshops from across a range of topics in Criminology. ......
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*  Criminology and Criminal Justice - Missouri State University
In Missouri State's criminology and criminal justice department, you will:. *Gain a solid ... In order to better meet the needs of our majors and minors, the Criminology and Criminal ......
*  Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology | Idaho State University
SOC 4431 Criminology: 3 semester hours.. Analysis of criminal law, law enforcement, ... Required Courses for the Area of Concentration in Criminology. SOC 2231. Juvenile ... Associate of Arts in Criminology. In their second semester, students need to choose an ... Bachelor of Arts in Sociology with an Area of Concentration in Criminology. The ......
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(1/21) Comparison of PowerPlex 16, PowerPlex1.1/2.1, and ABI AmpfISTR Profiler Plus/COfiler for forensic use.

AIM: Several amplification and detection formats for the analysis of short tandem repeat loci are readily available to the forensic laboratory. Careful consideration must be given to the throughput, sensitivity, concordance, data interpretation, facility requirements, and costs of operation. The Pennsylvania State Police DNA Laboratory sought to establish that of any of the amplification or detection formats generally used in the United States generates concordant results and that the use of several formats within one laboratory provides a solution to the interpretation of difficult evidentiary samples. METHODS: Validation work consisting of sensitivity, precision, mixture, and substrate studies was performed by use of each of three detection formats (ABI Prism(r)310 Genetic Analyzer, ABI Prism(r)377 DNA Sequencer, and the Hitachi FMBIO(r)II Fluorescent Scanner) and three amplification systems (GenePrint(r) PowerPlex 16, GenePrint(r) PowerPlex 1.1/2.1, and AmpflSTR ProfilerPlus/COfiler). The results generated in each of the formats were compared, along with the problems incurred. RESULTS: All allele calls were concordant, with the exception of primer region variants, and all detection systems were sensitive and reliable. Even with the use of multiple formats, a general protocol can be written with only one set of interpretation guidelines. CONCLUSION: National databases can be used with input data from any of these formats. The use of several detection formats allowed the forensic scientist to select a system, based on sample quality, quantity, and throughput requirements. Interpretation issues resulting from complex mixtures, degraded samples, rare microvariants, internal primer variants, unusual heterozygote ratios, above or below ladder alleles, and potential tri-alleles can be verified.  (+info)

(2/21) Interpretation of complex forensic DNA mixtures.

Forensic evidentiary samples routinely contain DNA from multiple contributors. The interpretation of these mixtures can be a challenging task for the DNA scientist. Several approaches are discussed (no calculation- qualitative statement; probability of exclusion; likelihood ratio estimates; presumptive genotype assignment based on peak heights), which have been employed to assess the significance of an inclusion/match when DNA mixtures have been detected in casework samples. These statistical approaches are discussed in light of technical challenges that can arise when evaluating evidentiary samples.  (+info)

(3/21) Implementation of forensic DNA analysis on casework evidence at the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office Crime Laboratory: historical perspective.

Palm Beach County is the largest of the 64 counties in the state of Florida, USA, with most of the area uninhabited and the population concentrated near the coastal region. The Serology/DNA Section of the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office (PBSO) Crime Laboratory serves a community of approximately one million residents, and an additional million tourists visit Palm Beach County every year. In addition to the unincorporated county regions, there are thirty-four city police agencies, the Florida State Highway Patrol, several university security agencies, the local Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the county Medical Examiners Office that all use the PBSO Serology/DNA Laboratory for the analysis of casework evidence. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide laboratories that are in the process of initiating DNA analysis on casework with practical information regarding the decision-making processes that occurred during the development of the DNA testing program at PBSO. Many of the concerns addressed in the early 1990's are still a guide to the development of a quality forensic DNA analysis program in the year 2001. Issues, such as personnel, laboratory space, internal standard operating procedures, implementation of DNA analysis on casework evidence, and building a relationship with law enforcement personnel are discussed.  (+info)

(4/21) Establishing a large DNA data bank using the PowerPlex 1.1 and 2.1 systems.

In the early 1990's, the importance of establishing a DNA Data Bank of convicted sex offender samples for comparison to unsolved cases became apparent to the Virginia Division of Forensic Science to help identify potential perpetrators. Ultimately, through the expansion of the data basing law to include all convicted offenders and juveniles convicted of a crime that would be considered a felony if tried as an adult, the Division has successfully used the DNA Data Bank to aid the law enforcement community in solving crimes where the victim was unable to identify the perpetrator. As the number of offender sample analyses has increased, in combination with the number of analyses of cases where a suspect could not be identified, the number of DNA Data Bank hits has also significantly increased. Initially, in 1997, when the Division converted its DNA Data Bank program from the restriction fragment length polymorphism technology to the short tandem repeat technology, one offender hit occurred on average for every 2,900 convicted offender samples that were entered into the Data Bank. However, by December 31, 2000, one DNA Data Bank hit occurred on average for every 700 samples entered into the Data Bank.  (+info)

(5/21) Identification of missing persons: the Spanish "Phoenix" program.

In 1999, Spain was the first country to officially start a National Program to try to identify cadavers and human remains which could not be identified by the use of traditional forensic approaches. This attempt is called "Phoenix Program". Two independent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) databases were generated, which can automatically compare and match identical or similar sequences. One is the Reference Database, with mtDNA sequences from maternal relatives of missing persons, who provide the samples (buccal swabs) voluntarily; the other is the Questioned Database, comprised of mtDNA data of unknown remains and cadavers. Although the first phase of the program (typing of all unidentified human remains) will probably not be completed until December 2003, positive identifications are being made in the interim. To date, more than 1,200 families have contacted Phoenix, and at least 280 reference samples and 48 questioned evidences have been analyzed. When mtDNA matches are found, another independent analysis is performed as a part of the quality control mechanism. Once a match is confirmed (so far in 6 cases), an attempt is made to analyze short tandem repeat (STR) loci. We call for international collaboration to make this effort valuable worldwide.  (+info)

(6/21) Mass identification of persons missing from the break-up of the former Yugoslavia: structure, function, and role of the International Commission on Missing Persons.

The staff of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is attempting to undertake the largest mass human identification effort in history. Through the generosity of numerous governmental and private corporations the ICMP has established or is currently establishing a strong network of political allies, family outreach centers, and DNA laboratories throughout the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the ICMP is currently working to streamline current technology as well as employ new technology in its efforts to assist in identifying missing individuals. ICMP will continue to act as a link between the family associations in the region and will synchronize the work of the DNA identification process in the countries affected by the war in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. In the longer term, ICMP seeks to contribute to the closure of the missing persons issue, to raise awareness of the human dimension of the missing persons tragedy, and to preserve a shared and common memory of the missing in the former Yugoslavia.  (+info)

(7/21) The Green Revolution: botanical contributions to forensics and drug enforcement.

Forensic botany encompasses many sub-disciplines, including plant anatomy, plant ecology, plant systematics, plant molecular biology, palynology, and limnology. Although the field of forensic botany has been recognized since the mid-1900's, the use of trace plant material as physical evidence in criminal casework is still novel. A review of published forensic casework that used plant evidence is presented here. Cases include the analysis of wood evidence in the Charles Lindbergh baby kidnapping, the use of pollen in establishing the location of a sexual assault, and pollen analysis to determine the time of year for burial in a mass grave. Additional cases discuss the use of plant growth rates to determine the time of a body deposit in a field, the use of diatoms to link individuals to a crime scene, and plant DNA typing to match seedpods to a tree under which a body was discovered. New DNA methods in development for plant species identification and individualization for forensic applications are also discussed. These DNA methods may be useful for linking an individual to a crime scene or physical evidence to a geographic location, or tracking marijuana distribution patterns.  (+info)

(8/21) The one that did not get away: individual assignment using microsatellite data detects a case of fishing competition fraud.

Assignment of an individual to the population from which it most probably originated based on its multilocus genotype has been widely applied in recent years. In this study, individual assignment based on microsatellite data was used to identify a case of fishing competition fraud. Despite the fact that the true population of origin was most probably not among the reference populations, recent modifications of the assignment tests were used in confidently excluding (p < 0.0001) the possibility of a 5.5 kg salmon (Salmo salar) originating from the fishing competition location, Lake Saimaa (south-east Finland). In fact, the probability of the suspect salmon originating from one of the regions that supply most of Finland's fish markets was found to be over 600 times higher than it originating from Lake Saimaa. When presented with this evidence, the offender confessed to purchasing the salmon at a local fish shop and criminal charges were laid. This study emphasizes the potential practical application of the individual assignment procedure, in particular the usefulness of confidently excluding populations as the origin of an individual. A similar strategy could be also used, for example in suspected cases of illegal poaching, in order to assign or exclude individuals from originating from a claimed population.  (+info)

What impact does Depression, bipolar disorders and mental illness have on crime and criminal behavior?

This is a question that I have in reference to my criminology class. I am stuck on this one.

I personally believe that the individual mentally ill person's internal compass still functions except when they totally lose touch with reality.

Even though we have a mental illness does not mean we no longer know what is right from wrong. It does not mean that we have lost the ability to understand what impact our actions could have on others...

The problem with a mental illness that is not being actively controlled/managed is that the person CAN have a much lower impulse control. I think that is where the problems happen and create situations where spontaneous criminal activity occur.

But our mental illness is not an excuse for our behavior unless we have totally lost sight of reality and right and wrong.

We are still responsible for our actions.

I think for the most part, mental illness sufferers are way to occupied dealing with their own personal form of hell than to embark on life of crime. We might have "bad" days and as a result draw the attention of law enforcement but I'd say there are more normies that process through jail on any given day...

How can you become horny again quickly after you jerked it 2-3x in a day?

In the daytime I jerked it 3 times and right now I'm studying for Criminology and I want to feel horny again, but the feeling isn't coming. I don't want to wait till tomorrow to choke the chicken again, so how can I speed up the process of 'recharging my batteries' down there?

Haha beating off is the best part of summer. After you cum just sit and rub your balls for a while..that always gets my dick up. Ever try spitting on it? Feels pretty amazing dude. Enjoy pounding it all day!

How can i use a degree in Clinical Laboratory Science to get a job in a crime lab?

Can i use a bachelor degree in Clinical Laboratory Science to get a job in a crime lab? Would i need to obtain a masters degree in Forensic Science or Criminology first? I have always loved the sciences and forensics, any answers would be appreciated! =)

To become a forensic scientist, you need a bachelor's degree in a natural science and 1-2 years of laboratory experience.  A Master's degree in a natural science can substitute for the lab experience.  If you want a job in the field, it would recommend looking at job sites which target forensic scientists.

or go to various law enforcement organizations (state/local police departments/FBI/etc.) and see what type of forensic job openings they have.

What do you plan/or are studying in college?

Just a random question that came to mind. I'm not in college yet but I either want to study criminal justice/criminology/forensic science or environmental science. What about you? What do you plan on studying? Or what are you studying?

I'm considering doing a double major if they'll let me. I want to do English with a focus on creative writing and do a pre-med program. I want to write novels or screenplays but even if I do break into that sort of thing, that is not a dependable income for me. So, I want to be a doctor as well. At least at the moment. I feel very happy about it but I have a lot of mixed emotions. I'd like to be a dermatologist or the like. And the other thing is... I don't even have to do a pre-med program to go to medical but I think it'd be good for me.

=D I love questions like there were I just get to talk about myself... XDD

Do you plan on going into forensics/investigating? I used to want to do that... but it's not something that'd make me as happy as writing.

Will seeking help from a mental health professional make me unable to get a job in my field?

I'm getting ready to graduate college with a 4yr degree in Criminology. I'm also a SGT in the US Army reserves. When I was 17 I was diagnosed with depression, but with treatment I became better. Its been 5 years since I've had treatment and I've been okay until about 1.5 years ago my symptoms came back with a vengeance. Its been up and down ever since. I have been putting off seeing anyone for help because I am afraid it will stigmatize me and make me an undesirable applicant for jobs or for promotion when I admit I have received treatment. I can't just lie about it, my treatment would come out in my background checks and I would have to explain why I was taking certain meds. I know I need help. It’s getting difficult for me to do anything, let alone live my life. But if I get the help I need, will I be unable to get jobs with the federal government, state police, or other organizations because of my depression? Will I be unable to go overseas if my unit deploys? What should I do?

I have a friend who had similar problems and was prevented from being deployed, mainly because the Navy was worried about how he would handle a combat situation. He went back to his psychiatrist and worked with him to get the right medication for his depression. After a few months, he got a clean bill of health and was deployed.

You can't hide what has happened. Be honest and upfront. They will work with you to address the problem. Don't ever give up or be ashamed over it.

Had hip surgery, would this lower my chances of becoming an officer?

I do not limp or anything, and this was about 6 years ago (the surgery). It is all healed up no pains no nothing, I am wondering if I am able to pass the physical examination part (running, etc...) is this good enough for them to look past any prior surgeries? Would my chances be greatly hindered with my medical history? 

-I will also have my B.S in Criminal Justice and Criminology by then.

It won't affect your chances of becoming an officer, especially since it doesn't bother you.

  Have a long and safe career.

If I allow myself to be diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia or PPD will I still be able to use Criminology?

Sorry the question wasn't worded very well but I was running out of text. What I want to know is if I allow myself to be diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia or PPD, will I still be able to pursue my desire to work as either a forensic scientist or a homicide detective? Please don't answer unless you know what you are talking about.

I'm not a complete expert on this, but this is what I know based on my PSY 202 course, and general knowledge of the law:

Since PPD can be contained (treatable, but not curable-- that they knowof), it may hurt you're chances of getting hired in a detective or enforcement field, but you cannot be immediatley denied because of it. 

Choosing a career in the forensics field, you would have a better chance, because it does not involve human-to-human analytic skills (or at least, its not the major aspect of the position). 

As most types of disorders, it is generally the best idea to accept medical help. If the condition progresses, there is a chance that you can be clinically declared ill, which will 100% affect everything you do and want to do in your future. It looks better to an interviewer when you accept something like this and if you're able to describe why it won't interfer with your work.

how can i be a single mom and get through law school? any suggestions?

So, I'm applying to law school and I have two boys under the age of 4... I managed to get through my BA in criminology and public policy, but have fears that I will fail big time in law school.  Are there any other single parents who have been through the same thing and have some  ?  I'm 26 and from CA... if that helps. 

thank you!

To be honest I'd wait until their a bit older. Law school is  full-time jobs as it is, plus I'm assuming you work part-time.  It's not their fault you didn't wait for kids, they should be the priority now.  It's not fair to them.  You can for sure land a decent paying job with your BA degree, I'd wait until their atleast both school aged.