Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.HydrocarbonsProteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Benzene DerivativesCarcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.SmokeBiological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.EstersDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.PolysaccharidesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.PhosphopeptidesBlood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

*  Mixture/Component Compounds for PubChem Compound (Select 67566707) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
Mixture/Component Compounds for PubChem ... ▲ Create Date ▼ Complexity ▲ Complexity ▼ MW ▲ MW ▼ HBD ▲ HBD ... , Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds. Summary Similar...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pccompound_pccompound_mixture&from_uid=67566707
*  Prop 65 Clearinghouse
of its synthesis complex mixture as a carcinogen under...
https://prop65clearinghouse.com/
*  Home Page
". Marijuana is a complex mixture of literally hundreds of ... Phone - 970 565 - 9577 Fax - 970 565 - 9576 Hours : Monday - Saturday 10am- 6pm. We believe in the wellness and betterment of our patrons and incorporate several factions of holistic healing. At Beacon Wellness Grp. your health is our primary focus, where we provide a safe, relaxing environment and strive to help our patrons achieve overall health and wellbeing. Always available will be a list of reputable providers known to us. We offer our patients reasonable access to a variety of different strains of medication and edibles. Why Use Marijuana. Many people of hundreds of disease types have claimed to find therapeutic benefit to its use. In the past few decades the medical and scientific communities have discovered numerous mechanisms by which the components of marijuana can both alleviate and cure certain diseases. The American College of Physicians the nations second largest collaborative of medical doctors, published a formal 13 page stateme...
http://beaconwellnessgroup.com/
*  Synthesis, Characterisation and Biological Activities of mixed-Ligand Copper(II) Complexes Containi
-Ligand Copper II Complexes Containing Saccharin - Universiti ... -Ligand Copper II Complexes Containing Saccharin. Begum, Thahira ... -Ligand Copper II Complexes Containing Saccharin. Masters thesis ... Synthesis, Characterisation and Biological Activities of mixed-Ligand Copper II Complexes Containing Saccharin - Universiti Putra Malaysia Institutional Repository. Synthesis, Characterisation and Biological Activities of mixed-Ligand Copper II Complexes Containing Saccharin. Begum, Thahira 2005 Synthesis, Characterisation and Biological Activities of mixed-Ligand Copper II Complexes Containing Saccharin. Magnetic and spectral results for the complexes support either a four or five-coordinate geometry in which the Schiff bases coordinate as NNS tridentate ligands and the saccharinate anion coordinates as a unidentate N-donor ligand. X-ray crystallographic structural analysis of the copper I1 saccharinate complex of S-methyl-~-N- 6-methylpyrid-2-yl methylenedithiocarbazatesh ows that the complex has a disto...
http://psasir.upm.edu.my/6365/
*  Plant Polymer Research : Key Publications
from jet cooked mixtures of fatty acids and defatted cornstarch ... -sodium palmitate complexes prepared by steam jet cooking. ... of amylose complexes prepared from hexadecylamine and its ... Plant Polymer Research : Key Publications. ARS Home. About ARS. Contact Us. ARS Research. National Programs. Scientific Manuscripts. International Programs. Scientific Software/Models. Scientific Collaborations. ARS People Locations. Find a person. Find a location. Find an office at headquarters. Organizational chart. ARS Newsroom. News Home. Latest News. Press Room. ARS Careers. ARS Vacancies at USAJOBS. Careers at ARS Info. Site Map. You are here: Midwest Area Home / Plant Polymer Research / People & Locations / George Fanta / Key Publications. Related Topics Find a person. Find a location. ARS Organizational Chart. Plant Polymer Research Unit Veera Boddu. George Fanta. Fanta Home Page. Key Publications. Contact Information. ARS News Articles. ARS Publications. ARS Research Projects. Key Publications. 1 Fanta, G.F....
http://ars.usda.gov/pandp/docs.htm?docid=24441
*  Twinlab - Amino Fuel Orange 16 Fluid Ounces - Save 41%
acids; stress B-complex vitamins; energizing complex ... form amino acid mixtures for optimum muscle growth.* Ingredients ... Twinlab - Amino Fuel Orange 16 Fluid Ounces - Save 41%. Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Category > Bodybuilding > Amino Acids > Combinations View Larger Image. Twinlab more from Twinlab. Amino Fuel Orange 16 Fluid Ounces Item No. 50-03387 UPC: 027434033879 Retail Price: $21.79 Your Price: $12.79 Save: 41% OFF. Quantity:. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20. Add to Cart. In stock. Other sizes and flavors 32 Fl oz Orange Rush $21.18. Label Information. Ingredients. Reviews. Anabolic* Liquid Lean Muscle. Natural Sweeteners and Flavors Orange Flavor. The Science Behind the Size:. Product: A fast absorbing anabolic* liquid amino acid product that has, per serving, 15 grams 15,000 mg of high quality branched chain, peptide-bonded, and free amino acids; stress B-complex vitamins; energizing complex carbohydrates; and pure crystalline fructose. Result: Protein in its most easily ...
http://nutritionexpress.com/bodybuilding/amino acids/combinations/twinlab amino fuel orange 16 fluid ounces.aspx
*  Smelter Debris? | Briar Press | A letterpress community
get you. Dross is a mixture of oxides removed from lead and alloys ... pot, which are a mixture of dross and undissolved tin and ... oxides is a pretty complex industrial process, which is why true...
http://briarpress.org/32818
*  Courtesan by Worth Perfume at FragranceNet.com
women is a highly complex mixture of numerous notes that range ... Courtesan by Worth Perfume at FragranceNet.com Over 10 Million Orders Shipped. Become a FragranceNet.com VIP. /. Sign In /. My Account /. Order Status /. Help. Become a FragranceNet.com VIP. Free Shipping in U.S. orders over $59.00. Currency. American Dollar. Canadian Dollar. British Pound. Australian Dollar. Euro. Swiss Franc. Brazilian Real. New Zealand Dollar. Norwegian Krone. Swedish Krona. Danish Krone. South African Rand. 0 items. Shop. Fragrances. Women's Perfume. Men's Cologne. Gift Sets. Best Sellers. New Arrivals. Skincare. Body. Hands & Nails. Lips. Tools & Accessories. Makeup. Body. Lips. Makeup Palettes. Makeup Removal. Makeup Sets. Nails. Tools & Accessories. Haircare. Accessories. Conditioner. Hair Color. Hair Loss. Hair Treatments. Styling Products. Styling Tools. Aromatherapy. Candles. Boutiques. Best Sellers. New Arrivals. Gifts under $10. Gifts under $5. Variety Gift Sets. Perfume Samples. Hard to Find Scents. For Kids Only...
http://fragrancenet.com/fragrances/worth/courtesan
*  Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Im
somewhere in the complex must be identified and targeted with a ... in the Golgi complex of mammalian cells. The culture was ... stained with a mixture of goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody ... Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells A-10. Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells A-10. The Golgi apparatus present in mammalian cells may be labeled with immunofluorescent probes, but first a candidate protein resident somewhere in the complex must be identified and targeted with a primary mono or polyclonal antibody. Giantin is a membrane-bound glycoprotein that resides in the cis and medial regions of the Golgi apparatus, which contains an elongated rod-like cytoplasmic domain 350 kiloDaltons or more in size. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the N-terminal 469 peptide residues of giantin react with a number of mammalian sp...
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/fluorescence/gallery/cells/a10/a10cellsexlarge14.html
*  [영문] 분자생물학 리포트
display of complex mixtures 7. Prospect 본문내용 * Peptides play a ... that make up our complex regulatory systems Search for the...
http://happycampus.com/doc/2396032
*  PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 22202242) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
PubChem Compound MeSH Keyword for PubMed Select 22202242 - PubChem Compound - NCBI. NCBI. Sort by Default order CID ▲ CID ▼ Active AIDs ▲ Active AIDs ▼ Total AIDs ▲ Total AIDs ▼ Create Date ▲ Create Date ▼ Complexity ▲ Complexity ▼ MW ▲ MW ▼ HBD ▲ HBD ▼ HBA ▲ HBA ▼ RBC ▲ RBC ▼. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent,...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pubmed_pccompound_mesh&from_uid=22202242
*  potash - Wiktionary
... potash. Jump to: navigation, search. 1 English. 1.1 Etymology 1.2 Pronunciation 1.3 Noun. 1.3.1 Translations 1.3.2 Derived terms 1.3.3 Related terms. 1.4 References 1.5 Anagrams. English. Etymology. Potash comes from the word potasch in modern spelling potas, coined by the Dutch in 1598. The English word Potash dates back to 1648. Pronunciation. IPA. Wikipedia has an article on: potash. Wikipedia. potash ‎ countable and uncountable, plural. potashes. the water - soluble part of the ash formed by burning plant material ; used for making soap, glass and as a fertilizer chemistry. an impure form of potassium carbonate K 2 CO 3 mixed with other potassium salts chemistry, archaic. of potash", potassium for example, "permanganate of potash" = potassium permanganate. Translations. f Dutch: potas. German: Pottasche. f Italian: potassa. Lao: please add this translation if you can Polish: potaż. potassium carbonate etc. German: Pottasche. Italian: potassa. f Lao: please add this translation if you can Polish: pota...
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/potash
*  PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 12651683) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
PubChem Compound MeSH Keyword for PubMed Select 12651683 - PubChem Compound - NCBI. NCBI. Search database All Databases Assembly BioProject BioSample BioSystems Books ClinVar Clone Conserved Domains dbGaP dbVar Epigenomics EST Gene Genome GEO DataSets GEO Profiles GSS GTR HomoloGene MedGen MeSH NCBI Web Site NLM Catalog Nucleotide OMIM PMC PopSet Probe Protein Protein Clusters PubChem BioAssay PubChem Compound PubChem Substance PubMed PubMed Health SNP SRA Structure Taxonomy ToolKit ToolKitAll ToolKitBook UniGene Search term. Sort by Default order CID ▲ CID ▼ Active AIDs ▲ Active AIDs ▼ Total AIDs ▲ Total AIDs ▼ Create Date ▲ Create Date ▼ Complexity ▲ Complexity ▼ MW ▲ MW ▼ HBD ▲ HBD ▼ HBA ▲ HBA ▼ RBC ▲ RBC ▼. Summary Similar Compounds Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds ...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pubmed_pccompound_mesh&from_uid=12651683
*  PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 4603133) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
PubChem Compound MeSH Keyword for PubMed Select 4603133 - PubChem Compound - NCBI. NCBI. Sort by Default order CID ▲ CID ▼ Active AIDs ▲ Active AIDs ▼ Total AIDs ▲ Total AIDs ▼ Create Date ▲ Create Date ▼ Complexity ▲ Complexity ▼ MW ▲ MW ▼ HBD ▲ HBD ▼ HBA ▲ HBA ▼ RBC ▲ RBC ▼. Summary Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. MW: 422.495240 g/mol MF: C 2 0 H 2 6 N 2 O 6 S IUPAC name: S - octan-2-yl]- 6-... Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. MW: 746.912000 g/mol MF: C 4 0 H 5 0 N 4 O 8 S IUPAC name: R - octan-2-yl]- 6-... MW: 746.912000 g/mol MF: C 4 0 H 5 0 N 4 O 8 S IUPAC name: R - octan-2-yl]- 6-... Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectivity Mixture/Component Compounds PubMed MeSH Keyword. MW: 422.49524...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pubmed_pccompound_mesh&from_uid=4603133
*  Potash Investing News - Investing News Network
... Potash. Investing News. Potash. Resource Investing. Agriculture. Potash. About Resource Investing. Life Science Investing. About Life Science Investing. Resource Investing. Life Science Investing. Read More. Get Potash Stock Investor Kits. Read More. Get Potash Stock Investor Kits. DuSolo Fertilizers, Aguia Resources, Potash West and Highfield Resources have all recently raised funds to develop their projects. Read More. Get Phosphate Stock Investor Kits. Read More. Get Potash Stock Investor Kits. Potash is an alkaline potassium compound that is most commonly used in fertilizers, with 95 percent of the world’s supply being use to grow food. In 2015, the total world consumption of potash for all uses was 36 million tonnes, a number that is expected to increase to 38 million tonnes in 2018. Last year, the top potash-producing country was Canada at 9.8 million tonnes, which marked a decline from the previous year. Saskatchewan is responsible for producing 90 percent of that total and accounts for about 50 p...
http://investingnews.com/category/daily/resource-investing/agriculture-investing/potash-investing/
*  Similar Compounds for PubChem Compound (Select 1806251) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
Similar Compounds for PubChem Compound Select 1806251 - PubChem Compound - NCBI. NCBI. PubChem Structure Search. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. PubChem Structure Search. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. Search database All Databases Assembly BioProject BioSample BioSystems Books ClinVar Clone Conserved Domains dbGaP dbVar Epigenomics EST Gene Genome GEO DataSets GEO Profiles GSS GTR HomoloGene MedGen MeSH NCBI Web Site NLM Catalog Nucleotide OMIM PMC PopSet Probe Protein Protein Clusters PubChem BioAssay PubChem Compound PubChem Substance PubMed PubMed Health SNP SRA Structure Taxonomy ToolKit ToolKitAll ToolKitBook UniGene Search term. Sort by Default order CID ▲ CID ▼ Active AIDs ▲ Active AIDs ▼ Total AIDs ▲ Total AIDs ▼ Create Date ▲ Create Date ▼ Complexity ▲ Complexity ▼ MW ▲ MW ▼ HBD ▲ HBD ▼ HBA ▲ HBA ▼ RBC ▲ RBC ▼. Summary Similar Compounds Same Parent, Connectiv...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pccompound_pccompound&from_uid=1806251
*  PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 3571943) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
PubChem Compound MeSH Keyword for PubMed Select 3571943 - PubChem Compound - NCBI. NCBI. PubChem Structure Search. All Chemicals Bioassays Resources... BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. PubChem Structure Search. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. Search database All Databases Assembly BioProject BioSample BioSystems Books ClinVar Clone Conserved Domains dbGaP dbVar Epigenomics EST Gene Genome GEO DataSets GEO Profiles GSS GTR HomoloGene MedGen MeSH NCBI Web Site NLM Catalog Nucleotide OMIM PMC PopSet Probe Protein Protein Clusters PubChem BioAssay PubChem Compound PubChem Substance PubMed PubMed Health SNP SRA Structure Taxonomy ToolKit ToolKitAll ToolKitBook UniGene Search term. Sort by Default order CID ▲ CID ▼ Active AIDs ▲ Active AIDs ▼ Total AIDs ▲ Total AIDs ▼ Create Date ▲ Create Date ▼ Complexity ▲ Complexity ▼ MW ▲ MW ▼ HBD ▲ HBD ▼ HBA ▲ HBA ▼ RBC ▲ RBC ▼. Summary S...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pubmed_pccompound_mesh&from_uid=3571943
*  Spraying Ag grade Potash from tank. - LawnSite.com™ - Lawn Care & Landscaping Business Forum, Disc
- LawnSite.com™ - Lawn Care & Landscaping Business Forum, Discuss News & Reviews. Mark Forums Read. Free Magazines. LawnSite.com™ - Lawn Care & Landscaping Business Forum, Discuss News & Reviews. Pesticides, Herbicides, Fertilizer, Organic, Renovation, Etc. Fertilizer Application. Ted, Is the potash SOP or MOP. MOP- Potassium chloride is occasionally known as muriate of potash, particularly when used as a fertilizer. Muriate of potash is potassium chloride containing between 50 and 60 per cent potash. SOP - Sulfate of Potash This contains 48 per cent potash. Sulphate of Potash is virtually chloride free with a salt index of only 46 whereas Muriate of Potash is 114. Ted, Is the potash SOP or MOP. MOP- Potassium chloride is occasionally known as muriate of potash, particularly when used as a fertilizer. Muriate of potash is potassium chloride containing between 50 and 60 per cent potash. SOP - Sulfate of Potash This contains 48 per cent potash. Sulphate of Potash is virtually chloride free with a salt index of ...
http://lawnsite.com/showthread.php?p=4645450
*  .. Potash price crucial to how far BHP can stretch .. Author Profile .. Breakingviews Video .. Brea
Breakingviews. Potash price crucial to how far BHP can stretch. By Una Galani. August 24, 2010. Tags:. potash. Potash prices are crucial to how far BHP Billiton can stretch its $39 billion hostile bid for Canada’s Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan. The miner’s offer is essentially a bet on demand for the commodity, which accounts for the bulk of the fertiliser giant’s value. According to calculations by Reuters Breakingviews, every $50 increase in the long-term price of a tonne of potash adds about $20 to Potash Corp’s value. BHP’s offer reflects the current market. But if prices rocket, so too will the value of its target. To value Potash Corp, start by looking at its other businesses. The company’s phosphate and nitrogen divisions are worth roughly $11 billion, according to Morgan Stanley’s estimates of what it would cost to rebuild them. Potash Corp also owns stakes in smaller listed rivals which have a current market value of $8 billion. Putting a value on the potash business is trickier. Deutsche Bank e...
http://blogs.reuters.com/breakingviews/2010/08/24/potash-price-crucial-to-how-far-bhp-can-stretch/
*  Potash
... Jim McKenney jimmckenney@jimmckenney.com Wed, 07 May 2008 15:32:19 PDT Previous message: Potash Next message: Potash. Messages sorted by:. . Jim Shields, if you don't mind, let's continue the inorganic chemistry lesson. If, as you say, potash is literally the potassium containing residue of burned wood, are there such things as sulfate of potash and muriate of potash. And if so, are they different in some way from potassium sulfate and potassium chloride. I'm not asking you if the names exist - we already know that these terms are common, at least in the older gardening literature. I'm asking if there is such a thing as sulfate of potash which is distinct from potassium sulfate and a muriate of potash which is distinct from potassium chloride. For instance, is it ever correct to use the terms sulfate of potash and muriate of potash to name fertilizers. Are these names vestiges of older processes which began with potash in the literal sense to produce crude, unrefined potassium sulfate or potassium chlori...
http://pacificbulbsociety.org/pbslist/2008-May/f5721rk1ochmducm39nuitacg1.html
*  Mesa Exploration Corp. - Bounty Potash Project - Tue Oct 6, 2015
... Your browser does not support script. Bounty Potash Project Belmont Silver Project Oatman Gold Project Eastern Utah Potash. Summary The Bounty potash project is a surface potash brine deposit located in the Great Salt Lake Desert of Utah, 120 miles west of Salt Lake City. The project is 15 miles north of the Wendover surface potash brine mine. The Wendover operation has been producing potash for 75 years and has an additional 125 years of reserves. Potash is produced at Wendover using brine collection ditches and solar evaporation ponds to concentrate naturally occuring brine, with final processing in a simple flotation mill. The Wendover mine has annual production of 100,000 tons of potash and 200,000 tons of magnesium chloride, with annual gross revenue of $65 million per year. Indications from drilling data suggests that the Bounty project is similar in size and grade to the Wendover mine. Key Attributes of Surface Potash Brine Operations: Low capital expenditure Low operating costs Inexpensive to exp...
http://mesaexploration.com/s/Bounty_Potash.asp
*  Reports: Local tax disagreement threatens Vale potash project in Brazil :: Chemical Week
... Top of the News Americas Europe Mideast/Africa Asia/Pacific Projects Viewpoint Chem Ideas. PEOPLE and BUSINESS. Basic Chemicals Plastics Engineering Plastics Specialty Chemicals Fine Chemicals/Biotech Alternative Fuels Industrial Gases. IHS Chemical. BLOG premium services BUSINESS DAILY IHS CHEMICAL events IHS CHEMICAL EVENTS IHS TRAINING AND EDUCATION INDUSTRY EVENTS CALENDAR WEBCASTS online directory BUYERS' GUIDE resources FEATURED REPORTS WHITE PAPERS advertising ADVERTISE CUSTOM PUBLISHING DIRECTORIES AND PROFILES customer care CUSTOMER CARE FAQ. Find related resources at IHS Chemical More Fertilizers PotashCorp withdraws proposal to acquire K+S EuroChem begins shipping phosphate rock from Kazakhstan to Russia, Belgium to follow Uralkali to invest R1.9 billion in power supply facilities for potash mine project Grupa Azoty signs gas supply agreements for Pulawy fertilizer complex LSB brings Pryor ammonia back online Related Stories Petrobras and Vale to Study Joint Potash, Fertilizer Projects Vale de...
http://chemweek.com/markets/basic_chemicals/inorganic_chemicals/fertilizers/Reports-Local-tax-disagreement-threatens-Vale-potash-project-in-Brazil_58533.html
*  Indian buyers to renegotiate potash contracts following collapse of cartel :: Chemical Week
... Click here... Basic Chemicals Plastics Engineering Plastics Specialty Chemicals Fine Chemicals/Biotech Alternative Fuels Industrial Gases. IHS Chemical. BLOG premium services BUSINESS DAILY IHS CHEMICAL events IHS CHEMICAL EVENTS IHS TRAINING AND EDUCATION INDUSTRY EVENTS CALENDAR WEBCASTS online directory BUYERS' GUIDE resources FEATURED REPORTS WHITE PAPERS advertising ADVERTISE CUSTOM PUBLISHING DIRECTORIES AND PROFILES customer care CUSTOMER CARE FAQ. Find related resources at IHS Chemical More India/Pakistan Asia's evolving PTA market LyondellBasell completes acquisition of PP compounds manufacturer in India Clariant to acquire personal care products of Indian firm Zeon establishes subsidiary in India Indian fertilizer firm to diversify to phosphate and potash production Related Stories India Interested in Buying Stake in Potash Producer Belaruskali Belarusian Potash to supply 1 million m.t. of potash to Chinese importers in the first half of 2013 Report: Three groups eye Kerimov's stake, potash pri...
http://chemweek.com/regions/india_pakistan/Indian-buyers-to-renegotiate-potash-contracts-following-collapse-of-cartel_54186.html
*  Rising Global Food Prices, Regional Potash Impacts - Investing News Network
... Potash. Investing News. Potash. Critical Metals. Potash. Technology Investing. About Technology Investing. Life Science Investing. About Life Science Investing. Technology Investing. Life Science Investing. Potash Investing. Rising Global Food Prices, Regional Potash Impacts. Investing News Network April 13, 2011. Increasing commodity prices and tightness in grain supply have led governments and investors to act in the face of rising food prices. Concerns that grain surpluses are quickly being depleted have impacted regional markets in a variety of ways. After the recent successful $24 billion merger of Russian and Belarusian firms Silvinit and Uralkali – now the world’s largest potash producer – European potash producers have demanded the European Commission continue the 1992 import tariffs imposed on the Eastern European fertilizer market. The current tariff of 27.5 percent is said to protect European producers of the critical farm input from soaring fertilizer costs for cash-strapped farmers from what...
http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/agriculture-investing/potash-investing/rising-global-food-prices-regional-potash-impacts/
*  Potash Corp.’s guidance disappoints despite improving demand | Financial Post
Potash Corp. s guidance disappoints despite improving demand. Financial Post. Financial Post. Home National Post News Opinion Markets Investing Personal Finance Mortgages Real Estate Tech Executive Entrepreneur Jobs Subscribe News Mining Small Cap CEO Interviews News Releases. Mining. Trending VW Crisis | Apple | Oil | China | Housing Market | Alberta | Markets | Debt | Recession. Potash Corp. s guidance disappoints despite improving demand. Peter Koven. January 30, 2014 5:00 PM ET More from Peter Koven. @peterkoven. Twitter. Google+. LinkedIn. Email. Typo. More. Comments. Tumblr. Pinterest. Reddit. Digg. FarkIt. StumbleUpon. Bill Doyle thinks the potash market is slowly turning a corner. But his company’s own guidance has left investors skeptical. Potash Corp. of Saskatchewan Inc. reported disappointing fourth quarter earnings on Thursday, and its outlook for 2014 was also weaker than expected. The simple culprit is low potash prices, which have been under pressure because of long-stagnant demand and uncerta...
http://business.financialpost.com/news/mining/potash-corp-s-guidance-disappoints-despite-improving-demand
*  ASX-listed Potash Companies
... ASX-listed companies are exploring and developing potash projects in Australia, as well as other parts of the world. With that in mind, it s interesting to look at the ASX-listed potash companies that are exploring and developing projects in Australia and other parts of the world. Fully focused on potash exploration, Reward Minerals has multiple advanced exploration projects in Australia; however, its primary focus is on developing its 100-percent-owned LD project in Western Australia. Those include its 100-percent-owned Karinga Lake and Lake Amadeus projects in the Northern Territory, as well as its Lake Frome and Lake Torrens projects in South Australia and the Lake Hopkins project in Western Australia. It also announced a maiden inferred potash resource of 4.5 million tonnes of K2SO4 at Lake Hopkins and reported a maiden JORC brine potash resource of 13 million tonnes at Lake Mackay South. ActivEX is focused on different minerals, with a string of gold, silver and copper projects under its belt, but i...
http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/agriculture-investing/potash-investing/asx-listed-potash-companies/
*  Potash
Terminology Production History of production Consumption Fertilizers. Potash refers to potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials, the most common being potassium chloride KCl. Potash fertilizer. c.1942 potassium carbonate K 2 CO 3 ; c.1950 any one or more of potassium chloride KCl, potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 or potassium nitrate KNO 3. potassium carbonate. potassium chloride. Sulfate of potash. potassium sulfate. The amine coats the KCl but not NaCl. Potash deposits can be found all over the world, at present deposits are being mined in Canada, Russia, China, Belarus, Israel, Germany, Chile, United States, Jordan, Spain, United Kingdom and Brazil. History of production Image:FirstUSpatent.jpg Potash especially potassium carbonate has been used in bleaching textiles, making glass, and making soap, since about AD 500. Retrieved on 2013-06-21. Potash was one of the most important industrial chemicals in Canada. The industry declined in the late 19th century when large-scale production of potash from mi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potash
*  Intrepid Potash, Inc.: NYSE:IPI quotes & news - Google Finance
... Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive. More. Help. Sign in. Company Summary News Option chain Related companies Historical prices Financials. Markets News Portfolios Stock screener Google Domestic Trends. Recent Quotes. 30 days You have no recent quotes chg. %. Intrepid Potash, Inc. Public, NYSE:IPI Watch this stock Find more results for IPI. 6.05. +0.19 3.24%. After Hours: 6.05 0.00 0.00% Oct 5, 4:33PM EDT NYSE real-time data - Disclaimer Currency in USD. Range. 5.93 - 6.24. 52 week. 5.33 - 15.57. Open. 5.94. Vol / Avg. 1.44M/719,501.00. Mkt cap. 446.36M. P/E. 74.54. Div/yield. - EPS. 0.08. Shares. 76.17M. Beta. 1.57. Inst. own. 81%. News. Relevance. Date. All news for Intrepid Potash, Inc. Subscribe. Advertisement. Events. Add IPI to my calendars. Oct 27, 2015. Q3 2015 Intrepid Potash Inc Earnings Release Estimated - 9:30AM EDT -. Jul 28, 2015. Q2 2015 Intrepid Potash Inc Earnings Call -. Jul 28, 2015. Q2 2015 Intrepid Potash Inc Earnings Release. More events from DailyFinance. Key stats and...
http://google.com/finance?q=NYSE:IPI
*  PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 11379706) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
PubChem Compound MeSH Keyword for PubMed Select 11379706 - PubChem Compound - NCBI. NCBI. Resources. All Resources. Chemicals Bioassays. PubChem Compound. PubChem Structure Search. All Chemicals Bioassays Resources... BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. PubChem Structure Search. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. All Domains Structures Resources... PubMed. Genomes Maps. Search database All Databases Assembly BioProject BioSample BioSystems Books ClinVar Clone Conserved Domains dbGaP dbVar Epigenomics EST Gene Genome GEO DataSets GEO Profiles GSS GTR HomoloGene MedGen MeSH NCBI Web Site NLM Catalog Nucleotide OMIM PMC PopSet Probe Protein Protein Clusters PubChem BioAssay PubChem Compound PubChem Substance PubMed PubMed Health SNP SRA Structure Taxonomy ToolKit ToolKitAll ToolKitBook UniGene Search term. Sort by Default order CID ▲ CID ▼ Active AIDs ▲ Active AIDs ▼ Total AIDs ▲...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pubmed_pccompound_mesh&from_uid=11379706
*  PubChem Compound (MeSH Keyword) for PubMed (Select 20466974) - PubChem Compound - NCBI
PubChem Compound MeSH Keyword for PubMed Select 20466974 - PubChem Compound - NCBI. NCBI. PubChem Structure Search. All Chemicals Bioassays Resources... BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST Stand-alone. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. PubChem Structure Search. Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search. Search database All Databases Assembly BioProject BioSample BioSystems Books ClinVar Clone Conserved Domains dbGaP dbVar Epigenomics EST Gene Genome GEO DataSets GEO Profiles GSS GTR HomoloGene MedGen MeSH NCBI Web Site NLM Catalog Nucleotide OMIM PMC PopSet Probe Protein Protein Clusters PubChem BioAssay PubChem Compound PubChem Substance PubMed PubMed Health SNP SRA Structure Taxonomy ToolKit ToolKitAll ToolKitBook UniGene Search term. Sort by Default order CID ▲ CID ▼ Active AIDs ▲ Active AIDs ▼ Total AIDs ▲ Total AIDs ▼ Create Date ▲ Create Date ▼ Complexity ▲ Complexity ▼ MW ▲ MW ▼ HBD ▲ HBD ▼ HBA ▲ HBA ▼ RBC ▲ RBC ▼. Summary ...
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound?LinkName=pubmed_pccompound_mesh&from_uid=20466974
*  Uralkali signs agreement on potash shipments to India :: Chemical Week
... PEOPLE and BUSINESS. People/Executives Companies Energy and Feedstocks Emerging Companies Corporate Social Responsibility Responsible Care Talent Management Reach Green Issues M A Earnings/Finance. Basic Chemicals Plastics Engineering Plastics Specialty Chemicals Fine Chemicals/Biotech Alternative Fuels Industrial Gases. IHS Chemical. BLOG premium services BUSINESS DAILY IHS CHEMICAL events IHS CHEMICAL EVENTS IHS TRAINING AND EDUCATION INDUSTRY EVENTS CALENDAR WEBCASTS online directory BUYERS' GUIDE resources FEATURED REPORTS WHITE PAPERS advertising ADVERTISE CUSTOM PUBLISHING DIRECTORIES AND PROFILES customer care CUSTOMER CARE FAQ. Find related resources at IHS Chemical More Russia EuroChem begins shipping phosphate rock from Kazakhstan to Russia, Belgium to follow BASF and Gazprom complete asset swap Uralkali to invest R1.9 billion in power supply facilities for potash mine project Sinopec likely to participate in Amur and ZapSibNeftekhim megaprojects in Russia Russia, Ukraine, EU agree on terms of ...
http://chemweek.com/regions/eastern_europe/russia/Uralkali-signs-agreement-on-potash-shipments-to-India_59968.html
*  Potash (disambiguation)
potash disambiguation potash disambiguation potash may refer to potash potassium carbonate potash suffolk united kingdom potash city jordan potash corporation of saskatchewan potashes gang a th century new york city street gang dan potash a television reporter for fsn pittsburgh...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potash_(disambiguation)
*  ICL to invest in major expansion of polyhalite potash capacity in the UK :: Chemical Week
... PEOPLE and BUSINESS. Basic Chemicals Plastics Engineering Plastics Specialty Chemicals Fine Chemicals/Biotech Alternative Fuels Industrial Gases. IHS Chemical. BLOG premium services BUSINESS DAILY IHS CHEMICAL events IHS CHEMICAL EVENTS IHS TRAINING AND EDUCATION INDUSTRY EVENTS CALENDAR WEBCASTS online directory BUYERS' GUIDE resources FEATURED REPORTS WHITE PAPERS advertising ADVERTISE CUSTOM PUBLISHING DIRECTORIES AND PROFILES customer care CUSTOMER CARE FAQ. Find related resources at IHS Chemical More Fertilizers PotashCorp withdraws proposal to acquire K+S EuroChem begins shipping phosphate rock from Kazakhstan to Russia, Belgium to follow Uralkali to invest R1.9 billion in power supply facilities for potash mine project Grupa Azoty signs gas supply agreements for Pulawy fertilizer complex LSB brings Pryor ammonia back online Related Stories U.K. Potash Study, Plans to Produce Potassium Sulfate in Early 2017 Sirius agrees to more potash offtake deals as consultant Amec questions project's viability ...
http://chemweek.com/markets/basic_chemicals/inorganic_chemicals/fertilizers/ICL-to-invest-in-major-expansion-of-polyhalite-potash-capacity-in-the-UK_60482.html
*  Potash pit
... 'Potash pits' were kiln sites which were dug and lined with drystone walling for the production of potash prior to the Industrial Revolution. The scouring or degreasing of the natural lanolin from wool requires the application of soft soap produced using fat and an alkaline potash solution that contains water-soluble potassium salts such as potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. Purpose Location Construction Geographical location Industrial archaeology References. thumb|left|150px|Potash The potash pit was a basic stone lined ashery in which hardwoods such as birch wood or bracken were burned to produce ashes which were then placed in a copper cauldron manufactured from strips of copper and boiled together with water and quicklime. The alkaline solution produced by the ashes and added quicklime could be filtered to remove particles and once the required alkalinity was reached fats were added to produce a soft soap for the scouring or degreasing of the wool as a vital step in the production of wool ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potash_pit
*  Allana Potash Corp ( T.AAA ) stock message board and forum - Bullboard Discussion - Stockhouse Co
Allana Potash Corp T.AAA stock message board and forum - Bullboard Discussion - Stockhouse Community. Welcome back to Stockhouse Member Sign In. Sign in Remember me I don't know my password. By providing my email, I consent to receiving investment related electronic messages from Stockhouse. Best of Stockhouse. Please enter your password to sign in. By providing my email address, I consent to receiving messages from Stockhouse. Credit Suisse cuts forecast for potash prices I wonder if the premium of SOP potash will increase over MOP potash even moreso. http://www.agrimoney.com/news/credit-suisse-cuts-forecast-for-potash-prices--5226.html. Prices of fertilizers, even potash, will fall next year, undermined by excess supply, Credit Suisse said, rating phosphate groups as the best bet for investors in fertilizer shares. World potash deliveries, which came in at 55m tonnes last year, will fall to 49m-50m tonnes in 2012, said the bank, which had previously pegged this year's figure at 50m-53m tonnes. 'Disc...
http://stockhouse.com/companies/bullboard/t.aaa/allana-potash?postid=20612768
*  Shares, prices under pressure following collapse of potash cartel :: Chemical Week
... PEOPLE and BUSINESS. Basic Chemicals Plastics Engineering Plastics Specialty Chemicals Fine Chemicals/Biotech Alternative Fuels Industrial Gases. IHS Chemical. BLOG premium services BUSINESS DAILY IHS CHEMICAL events IHS CHEMICAL EVENTS IHS TRAINING AND EDUCATION INDUSTRY EVENTS CALENDAR WEBCASTS online directory BUYERS' GUIDE resources FEATURED REPORTS WHITE PAPERS advertising ADVERTISE CUSTOM PUBLISHING DIRECTORIES AND PROFILES customer care CUSTOMER CARE FAQ. Find related resources at IHS Chemical More North America Kraton acquires Arizona Chemical for $1.37 billion Oxea pushes Bay City propanol start-up back one year, postpones 2-EH Updated ACC: Looming PTC deadline threatens economic chaos Univar builds ag business with Canadian acquisitions DuPont appoints new head of electronics and communications business Related Stories Fertilizer firms settle antitrust claims for $97.5 million Uralkali reports strong results, expects record potash deliveries this year DuPont Raises First-Quarter Estimates on St...
http://chemweek.com/regions/north_america/Shares-prices-under-pressure-following-collapse-of-potash-cartel_54118.html
*  Is Potash a Better Inflation Hedge Than Gold? -- The Motley Fool
Is Potash a Better Inflation Hedge Than Gold. -- The Motley Fool. Fool.com. Fool.ca. Fool.de. Hi, Fool. My Fool. My Services None Other Services None. Stocks. Your Stocks. News On Your Stocks. Investing Wiki. Investing News. Motley Fool Answers. Investing Wiki. Is Potash a Better Inflation Hedge Than Gold. Potash sellers like PotashCorp and Agrium offer inflation hedging that outshines gold in steady inflation environments. The bottom line: In times of falling and low inflation consider potash Gold is not automatically a great inflation hedge. Even with the Fed's recent quantitative easing, the rate of inflation has remained low and gold has not performed as well as many would have liked. NYSE:POT is a big potash miner with interests in the potash, nitrogen, and phosphate markets. Now that the wholesale markets are starting to calm down, Agrium is in a very good position. The other key part of a good inflation hedge One thing to remember when considering an equity investment as an inflation hedge is the impor...
http://fool.com/investing/general/2014/03/24/is-potash-a-better-inflation-hedge-than-gold.aspx?source=isesitlnk0000008
*  Mosaic: Expecting Strong Potash Sales And Expanding P/E - The Mosaic Company (NYSE:MOS) | Seeking Al
Mosaic: Expecting Strong Potash Sales And Expanding P/E - The Mosaic Company NYSE:MOS. Seeking Alpha. Seeking Alpha. Investing Ideas. Top Ideas. The Mosaic Company MOS, Includes:. Mosaic Co. By reducing the cash and increasing the leverage, more upside is expected for Mosaic with increased efficiency for its balance sheet. Management Calls Despite Q3 typically being the slowest quarter, Q3 this year is a solid quarter for MOS as net income rose to $344.6M 81 cents a share from $273.3M 64 cents a year earlier. For Q3, the company generated $371M in operating cash flow and continues to maintain a strong cash position with $3.3B of cash on hand. More Efficient Balance Sheet The management is working on a more efficient balance sheet, which means less cash and more debt. The priority for cash flow is to seek organic growth like current committed potash expansions, aiming strong long-term returns for shareholders. Strong Guidance For Q4, potash sales volumes are expected to be in the range of 2.3M-2.6M tons vs. Th...
http://seekingalpha.com/article/1315721-mosaic-expecting-strong-potash-sales-and-expanding-p-e
*  TMF: Jubak on Potash / GGS: Potash Corp.
... Fool.com. Fool.co.uk. Fool.com.au. Fool.ca. Fool.sg. Fool.de. My Services None Other Services. Fool One. Motley Fool Options. Motley Fool Pro. Rule Your Retirement. Help. The Motley Fool Home. All Fool Headlines. Fool Military. About The Motley Fool. My Fool. My Settings. Stocks Sectors. CAPS Community. Stocks. Contact Us. Help. Retirement. Favorites Replies. Start a New Board. Motley Fool PRO. Motley Fool Global Gains / GGS: Potash Corp. UnThreaded. Ignore Thread Prev. Post New. Post Reply. Reply Later. n my April 2 post http://jubakpicks.com/2012/04/03/cyclical-stocks-had-a-great... on the great first quarter turned in by cyclical stocks—and the lousy March–I said that in general I don’t see much to tempt me into putting money into cyclical stocks before first quarter earnings season which starts on April 10 and before we get some resolution of big macroeconomic questions on growth from Europe and China. A second report on corn stock inventory showed inventory on March 1, 2012 of just 6.01 billion bush...
http://boards.fool.com/jubak-on-potash-30054458.aspx?sort=postdate
*  Articles.org
... Browse By Category. Advices 2956. Trucks 656. Business. Advertising 7276. Audio-Streaming 639. Autoresponders 541. Change-Management 379. Home-Based-Business 8758. Management 4957. Network-Marketing 1357. Sales 5874. Sales-Management 568. Small-Business 6774. Team-Building 388. Broadband Internet 471. Internet 1293. Video-Conferencing 354. Site-Security 257. Personal-Tech 1049. Spam 142. Email-Entertainment 534. Language 366. Home-Audio-Video 358. 1 The potash-forming ages in China are mainly Quaternary, Cretaceous and Triassic. The representative deposits are clastic rock series type potash deposits and saline lake type potash deposits, e.g. The potash reserves abroad are mainly represented by those of ancient solid bedded potash deposits, which account for the greater majority of the total reserves; whereas potash reserves in China mainly come from liquid brine deposits. The bedded solid potash beds in modern saline lakes consist commonly of lean ores, and 96% of the ores are out-of-balance ores with a...
http://articles.org/unique-color-and-feature-of-potash/
*  Международный Институт Калия - The International Potash Institute - IPI ac
... tivites in India. English. Español. Français. Português. Regional activities. Potash Review 1956-1995. Infographics. @IPI Potash. Coordination: India. The main aim of IPI activity in India is to promote Balanced Nutrition with emphasis on K nutrition in the main crops. This mission is carried out via research and extension activities: field experiments, demonstration plots, farmers meetings, dealers training programs, field days, workshops and conferences, publications and awards and assistance for researchers. Partners Around the world, IPI works with numerous in-country partners. These include researchers, extension services, advisers, cooperatives, associations and farmers. New Publications :. Articles from the Region Published in e-ifc Enhanced Potassium Application Improves... Papers Presentations Enhanced Potassium Application Improves... Growth Rates for Potato in India and... IPI in pictures Review and Refinement of Fertilizer... The Effect of Potassium on the Yield... Refinement of K Recommendati...
http://ipipotash.org/ru/regional.php?reg=1
*  Category:Chemical mixtures - Wikimedia Commons
... Hulp. Category:Chemical mixtures Uit Wikimedia Commons. Ga naar: navigatie, zoeken. Ondercategorieën. Deze categorie bevat de volgende 9 ondercategorieën, van een totaal van 9. A ►. Aerosols ‎ 13 C, 49 B. ►. Alloys ‎ 20 C, 1 P, 29 B. ►. Azeotrope ‎ 1 C, 22 B. C ►. Colloids ‎ 11 C, 47 B. E ►. Electroacoustic phenomena ‎ 1 B. ►. Emulsions ‎ 2 C, 35 B. F ►. Formulation ‎ 2 C, 8 B. P ►. Plastic explosives ‎ 2 C, 2 B. S ►. Solutions ‎ 3 C, 32 B. Media in categorie "Chemical mixtures". Deze categorie bevat de volgende 49 bestanden, van in totaal 49. Bahco Example.JPG 515 kB. Blast furnace ingredie... 1,56 MB. Cementmortar1.jpg 1.021 kB. Colloidal dispersion.jpg 66 kB. ColloidalStability.png 50 kB. Coomassie3.jpg 107 kB. Demonstration of linse... 3,15 MB. Fe-S mixture 01.jpg 1,38 MB. Fe-S mixture 02.jpg 1,25 MB. Fe-S mixture 03.jpg 1,43 MB. Fe-S mixture 04.jpg 1,41 MB. Fe-S mixture 05.jpg 2,06 MB. Fe-S mixture 06.jpg 1,56 MB. Fischöl Omega3.jpg 71 kB. Formulation-industrial... 117 kB. Gasinsol.jpg 19 kB. Gasins...
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Chemical_mixtures?uselang=nl
*  The Banner-Democrat. (Lake Providence, East Carroll Parish, La.) 1892-current, October 06, 1900, Ima
1892-current, October 06, 1900, Image 4', download links: [ { link: 'http://www.loc.gov/rss/ndnp/ndnp.xml', label: 'application/rss+xml', meta: 'News about Chronicling America - RSS Feed', }, { link: '/lccn/sn88064237/1900-10-06/ed-1/seq-4.jp2', label: 'image/jp2', meta: ', }, { link: '/lccn/sn88064237/1900-10-06/ed-1/seq-4.pdf', label: 'application/pdf', meta: ', }, { link: '/lccn/sn88064237/1900-10-06/ed-1/seq-4/ocr.xml', label: 'application/xml', meta: ', }, { link: '/lccn/sn88064237/1900-10-06/ed-1/seq-4/ocr.txt', label: 'text/plain', meta: ', }, ] }. The Banner-Democrat., October 06, 1900, Image 4 About The Banner-Democrat. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88064237/1900-10-06/ed-1/seq-4/. Al druggists.' I have used your Hair Vigor now for about 25 years and I have found it splendid and satisfactory in every way. I belleve I have reconmmended this Hair Vigor to hundreds of my friends, and they all tell the same story. If any body wants the best kind of a Hair Vigor I shall certainly roommend t...
http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88064237/1900-10-06/ed-1/seq-4/
*  Colluli mine
... the colluli mine is a large potash mine located in southern eritrea colluli represents one of the largest potash reserves in eritrea having estimated reserves of billion tonnes of ore grading potassium chloride metal references category potash mines in eritrea...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colluli_mine
*  Atomic mass unit | Define Atomic mass unit at Dictionary.com
Atomic mass unit. Define Atomic mass unit at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Word of the Day Translate Games Blog. Thesaurus.com Apps. follow Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Try Our Apps. Word of the Day. Blog. follow Dictionary.com. CITE. atomic mass unit. Word Origin. 1 Also called dalton. a unit of mass, equal to 1/12 0.0833 the mass of the carbon-12 atom and used to express the mass of atomic and subatomic particles. 2 formerly a unit of mass, equal to 1/16 0.0625 the mass of an oxygen atom having atomic mass 16. Origin of atomic mass unit Expand. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. Cite This Source. British Dictionary definitions for atomic mass unit Expand. atomic mass unit. a unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular weights that is equal to one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12. It is equivalent to 1.66 × 10 –27 kg amu Also called unified atomic mass unit, dalton. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007...
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/atomic mass unit?qsrc=2446
*  Atomic mass
When divided by unified atomic mass units or daltons to form a pure number ratio, the atomic mass of an atom becomes a dimensionless number called the 'relative isotopic mass' see section below. Relative isotopic mass is similar to atomic mass and has exactly the same numerical value as atomic mass, whenever atomic mass is expressed in unified atomic mass units. As in the case of atomic mass, no nuclides other than carbon-12 have exactly whole-number values of relative isotopic mass. As is the case for the related 'atomic mass' when expressed in unified atomic mass units or daltons, the relative isotopic mass numbers of nuclides other than carbon-12 are not whole numbers, but are always close to whole numbers. The atomic mass or relative isotopic mass of each isotope and nuclide of a chemical element is therefore a number that can in principle be measured to a very great precision, since every specimen of such a nuclide is expected to be exactly identical to every other specimen, as all atoms of a given type ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass
*  If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it ha
... ve - If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. :: Xmms Answers. Health. Q If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. Atomic. Post to Facebook. Post to Twitter. Tweet. source : What is significance does carbon-12 have in the terms of atomic mass. Was this answer helpful. Comment. Add Your Answer If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. If it has an average atomic mass of 58 7 u present in 525 grams of nickel how many moles does it have. 64% - What is the amount of nickel which has an average atomic mass of 58 7 amu present in 525 g nickel. 17% - How many moles and grams of carbon are present in 7 1 g of aspirin c9h8o4 use th...
http://xmms.org/qna/If_it_has_an_average_atomic_mass_of_58_7_u__present_in_525_grams_of_nickel_how_many_moles_does_it_have-qna1018665.html
*  Calculating Atomic Mass ( Real World ) | Chemistry | CK-12 Foundation
Calculating Atomic Mass Real World. CK-12 Foundation meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/". iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-WVB47G" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden" /iframe. Help. Library. Help. Calculating Atomic Mass. Practice Calculating Atomic Mass Practice. 0% Practice Now. Real World. Resources. Published. Credit : William Lipscomb Source : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lipscomb-NMR-hexaborene-B6H10.png License : CC BY-NC 3.0. Use of atomic mass units permits calculation of the atomic weight, which can then be verified using experimental techniques. John Dalton’s atomic theory laid the groundwork for further investigation of atomic weights. Credit : Library of Congress Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John Dalton by Charles Turner.jpg License : CC BY-NC 3.0. Due to his earlier work on color blindness, "Daltonism" became a common term for color blindness and "Daltonien" is the actual French word for "colour blind". W...
http://ck12.org/chemistry/Calculating-Atomic-Mass/rwa/A-More-Specific-ID/r2/
*  Mass spectrometry
... Other ionization techniques. Detectors Tandem mass spectrometry Common mass spectrometer configurations and techniques Separation techniques combined with mass spectrometry Gas chromatography. Liquid chromatography. Data and analysis Data representations. Data analysis. The ions are then transported by magnetic or electric field s to the mass analyzer. Techniques for ionization have been key to determining what types of samples can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Electron ionization and chemical ionization are used for gas es and vapor s. Examples include fast atom bombardment FAB, chemical ionization CI, atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization APCI, electrospray ionization ESI, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MALDI. : \mathbf{F}=m\mathbf{a} Newton's second law of motion in non-relativistic case, i.e. Many mass spectrometers use two or more mass analyzers for tandem mass spectrometry MS/MS. The mass range is the range of 'm/z' amenable to analysis by a given analyzer. A linear quadrupo...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_spectrometry
*  Atomic mass constant
... in physics and chemistry the atomic mass constant m u is one twelfth of the mass of an unbound atom of carbon at rest and in its ground state it serves to define the atomic mass unit and is by definition equal to u the codata recommended value is in practice the atomic mass constant is determined as the ratio of the electron rest mass m e to the electron relative atomic mass a r e that is the mass of the electron on a scale where c the relative atomic mass of the electron can be measured in cyclotron experiments while the rest mass of the electron can be derived from other physical constants m rm u frac m rm e a rm r rm e frac r infty h a rm r rm e c alpha the current uncertainty in the value of the atomic mass constant one part in million is almost entirely due to the uncertainty in the value of the planck constant energy equivalents see also references external links energy equivalents the atomic mass constant can also be expressed as its energy equivalent that is m u c the codata recommended values ar...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass_constant
*  High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Instrumentation Analysis Resources - Preservation Science (Prese
High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Instrumentation Analysis Resources - Preservation Science Preservation, Library of Congress. skip navigation. Search. The Library of Congress. Preservation. Preservation Science. Instrumentation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Preservation Home. About Us. Collections Care. Conservation Highlights. Emergency Preparedness. Family Treasures. Outreach Opportunities. Preservation Science. Resources. Contact. Related Links Donate. Digital Preservation. Audio-Visual Preservation. Building Digital Collections: A Technical Overview. Preservation Metadata Maintenance Activity. National Film Preservation Board. . High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. { subscribe url: '/share/sites/Bapu4ruC/preservation.php' }. Back to Instrumentation Analysis Resources The JEOL JMS-GCMATE II is a high resolution mass spectrometer, coupled with gas chromatography GC, fast atom bombardment FAB, direct insertion probe DIP, and collision-induced decomposition CID. It provides a multitude of methods for pe...
http://loc.gov/preservation/scientists/instrumentation/high_resolution.html
*  Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over"
... conformation: evidence for positive cooperativity in binding - BIROn - Birkbeck Institutional Research Online. BIROn - Birkbeck Institutional Research Online. Browse by Year. Browse by School. Browse by Person. Browse by Journal. Browse by Types. Login. Create Account. Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over" conformation: evidence for positive cooperativity in binding. and Williams, Mark A. 2011 Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over" conformation: evidence for positive cooperativity in binding. Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi101691k. Here we present a mass spectrometry study of complexes formed between the A subunit of the topoisomerase DNA gyrase and the bifunctional inhibitor simocyclinone D8 SD8, an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces. These studies show that, in an alternative mode of interaction to that found by X-ray crystallography, each subunit binds a single bifun...
http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/5660/
*  Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry in Lipidomics | LCGC
Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Lipidomics. LCGC. LCGC North America Pre-2000 Issue Indexes LCGC Europe LCGC Asia Pacific The Column Special Issues Application Notebooks Newsletters E-Books. Liquid Chromatography LC/HPLC/UHPLC Gas Chromatography GC Mass Spectrometry Sample Prep. Editorial Staff Author Guidelines Editorial Advisory Board. LCGC North America EAB LCGC Europe LCGC Asia Pacific EAB. Liquid Chromatography. Mass Spectrometry. View the Issue. Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Lipidomics. An analytical method for the global profiling of molecular lipids in biological samples, with particular emphasis on the plasmalogen lipids, is described. The global profiling method is based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry UHPLC–QTOF-MS. The profiling approach is complemented by UHPLC–LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry in MS. Global characterization of lipids in biological samples — li...
http://chromatographyonline.com/ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry-lipidomics-0
*  Electron impact - Mass spectrometry - Centre for Chemical and Biochemical Analysis - University o
... f Birmingham. Browser does not support script. Browser does not support script. University of Birmingham. Alumni. Working here. Events. Visit. Menu. Study. Research. International. Business. News. About us. Alumni. Working here. Events. Visit. Search. Search for:. Search Popular pages Order a prospectus. Register for an open day. Search for vacancies. Contact us. Maps and directions. Browse our libraries. Buy from our online shop. Home > Facilities > Chemical analysis > Mass spectrometry > Electron impact. Electron impact. In 'Mass spectrometry' Mass spectrometry. Electron impact. Chemical ionisation. Fast atom bombardment. MALDI. Electrospray. Back to 'Chemical analysis'. Electron impact is the traditional and possibly the most common method of ionisation. The sample for analysis is introduced into the ion source, either through a solids inlet or through a gas chromatography column. It is essential that the sample enters the ion source in the gaseous state and the ability to heat the sour...
http://birmingham.ac.uk/facilities/chemical-analysis/mass-spec/electron-impact.aspx
*  Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Science Division Forum
Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry LC-MS Science Division Forum. Skip to content. Skip to navigation. Site Map. Accessibility. Contact Search Site. only in current section. Advanced Search. Sections Home. News Events. People. Teaching. Research. Facilities. Services. Administration. Contact. Personal tools Log in. You are here:. Home. Core Facilities. Mass Spectrometry. Navigation. LC-MS Request Form of The City College of New York. Mass Spectrometry User Fees. Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry LC-MS. Upcoming Events. Biochemistry seminar: Nina Papavasiliou, "Generators of diversity and the host-pathogen interface". Oct 07, 2015 12:00 PM - 01:00 PM CUNY-ASRC Auditorium. Physics Colloquium: Gregory D. Scholes, "Photosynthetic light harvesting and ultrafast energy transfer". Oct 07, 2015 04:00 PM - 05:00 PM MR418N. Women in Science. Oct 08, 2015 12:30 PM - 01:30 PM MR 502. Upcoming events. Info. Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry LC-MS. General information about the facility. Location: Mar...
http://forum.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/core_facilities/Mass-Spectrometry
*  Protein mass spectrometry
... Mass spectrometry is an important emerging method for the characterization of proteins. The two primary methods for ionization of whole proteins are electrospray ionization ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MALDI. Subsequently these peptides are introduced into the mass spectrometer and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting or tandem mass spectrometry. Mass analysis of proteolytic peptides is a much more popular method of protein characterization, as cheaper instrument designs can be used for characterization. 6 These ionization methods have made the study of protein applicable with mass spectrometry. In light of these problems, the methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography are widely used for separation of proteins. The peptide masses resulting from the digestion can be determined by mass spectrometry using peptide mass fingerprinting. If this information does not allow unequivocal identification of the protein, its peptides can be su...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_mass_spectrometry
*  Carbon Mitigation Initiative: Bibliography Search Results
Hamme, and Bronte Tilbrook, 2009: Continuous High-Frequency Dissolved O 2 /Ar Measurements by Equilibrator Inlet Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 81, doi: 10.1021/ac802300u 1855-1864 The oxygen O 2 concentration in the surface ocean is influenced by biological and physical processes. With concurrent measurements of argon Ar, which has similar solubility properties as oxygen, we can remove the physical contribution to O 2 supersaturation and determine the biological oxygen supersaturation. Biological O 2 supersaturation in the surface ocean reflects the net metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration, i.e., the net community productivity NCP. We present a new method for continuous shipboard measurements of O 2 /Ar by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry EIMS. Gases in the headspace of the cartridge equilibrate with dissolved gases in the flowing seawater. A fused-silica capillary continuously samples headspace gases, and the O 2 /Ar ratio is measured by mass spectrometry. The ion current m...
http://cmi.princeton.edu/bibliography/results.php?author=4039
*  Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
... 'Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry' 'LC-MS', or alternatively 'HPLC-MS' is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography or HPLC with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry MS. Liquid chromatography Flow splitting. Mass spectrometry Mass analyzer. Liquid chromatography. Present day liquid chromatography generally utilizes very small particles packed and operating at relatively high pressure, and is referred to as high performance liquid chromatography HPLC ; modern LC-MS methods use HPLC instrumentation, essentially exclusively, for sample introduction. Use of octadecylsilyl C18 and related organic-modified particles as stationary phase with pure or pH-adjusted water-organic mixtures such as water-acetonitrile and water-methanol are used in techniques termed reversed phase liquid chromatography RP-LC. Use of materials such as silica gel as stationary phase with neat or mixed organic mixtures are used in techniques termed n...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_chromatography–mass_spectrometry
*  Modeling Relative Atomic Mass - PhET Beiträge
... zur Hauptseite. Anmelden. Registrierung. Sign In Ein ungültiger Nutzername und/oder Passwort wurde eingegeben. Email Adresse: Passwort: Remember me Forgot password. No account. Resend email confirmation. Über 110 Millionen Simulationen abgerufen. Search the PhET Website. Support PhET:. Donate Today. HTML5 Sims. HTML. . Simulationen. Für Dozenten. Tips for Using PhET. Beiträge durchsuchen. Share your Activities. Meine Beiträge. Workshops. Anleitung zum Ausführen der Simulationen. Fehlerbehebung. Häufige Fragen. Für Übersetzer. Spenden Sie. Forschung. Licensing. Über PhET. Beiträge durchsuchen Modeling Relative Atomic Mass Modeling Relative Atomic Mass.doc - 39 kB. Download Sie können auch alle Dateien als komprimiertes ZIP Archiv downloaden Titel Modeling Relative Atomic Mass. Beschreibung The concept of average relative atomic mass is explored. Calculation of relative atomic masses from isotopic relative atomic mass and natural abundance percent composition is taught. Estimation of most abundant isotopes...
http://phet.colorado.edu/de/contributions/view/3419
*  Patent US6268144 - DNA diagnostics based on mass spectrometry - Google Patents
DNA diagnostics based on mass spectrometry US 6268144 B1 Abstract Fast and highly accurate mass spectrometry-based processes for detecting particular nucleic acid molecules and sequences in the molecules are provided. Tang et al., Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 8, 727-730 1994 ; and a double-stranded DNA of 28 base pairs Nelson et al., Time-of Flight Mass Spectrometry of Nucleic Acids by Laser Ablation and Ionization from a Frozen Aqueous Matrix, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 4, 348-351 1990. 36 shows the portion of the sequence of pRFc1 DNA, which was used as template for PCR amplification of unmodified and 7-deazapurine containing 99-mer and 200-mer nucleic acids as well as the sequences of the 19-primers and the two 18-mer reverse primers. 41B shows a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of the 7-deazapurine containing 99-mer PCR product sum of twelve single shot spectra. 42B shows a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of 7-deazapurine containing 200-mer PCR product sum of 30 single shot spectra. An anchor...
http://google.com/patents/US6268144?dq=7,003,515
*  Relative atomic mass
Image:Atomic number Atomic weight.jpg 'Relative atomic mass' symbol: 'A' is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the 'average' mass of atom s of an element from a single given sample or source to of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 known as the unified atomic mass unit. This isotope mix causes the standard atomic weight of ordinary Earthly boron samples to be expected to fall within the interval '10.806 to 10.821.' Boron samples from unusual sources, particularly non-terrestrial sources, might have measured atomic weights that fall outside this range. 'Standard' atomic weight' refers to the expected relative atomic mass or atomic weight of an element sample 'in the local environment of the Earth's crust and atmosphere as determined by the IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances.' Because these standard atomic weights are an average mean of relative isotopic masses for a given element from different sources places on Earth, standard atomic weights are subject to natural variation....
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_atomic_mass
*  Clarkson University: Facilities
About Clarkson. Early College Program: The Clarkson School. Clarkson in the News. The four major instruments are an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, an inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry system, a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometery system, and a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry A ThermoElectron LCQ Advantage Max LC-MS/MS Ion Trap System is available with a new high performance API source. We also have a Waters Xevo quadrupole time-of-flight QTof mass spectrometer MS. In addition, an Agilent 7890 can be attached to the QToF enabling Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography APGC mass spectrometry experiments. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Conventional We have two GC/MS systems including a BC-ion trap mass spectrometer ThermoElectron Polaris-Q mass spectrometer with TRACE GC and a GC- quadrupole mass spectrometer ThermoElectron DSQ II with TRACE GC. The Polaris-Q mass spectrometer system uses a quadrupole ion trap mass analyzer with ...
http://clarkson.edu/cares/facilities.html
*  Clarkson University: Facilities
About Clarkson. Early College Program: The Clarkson School. Clarkson in the News. The four major instruments are an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, an inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry system, a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometery system, and a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry A ThermoElectron LCQ Advantage Max LC-MS/MS Ion Trap System is available with a new high performance API source. We also have a Waters Xevo quadrupole time-of-flight QTof mass spectrometer MS. In addition, an Agilent 7890 can be attached to the QToF enabling Atmospheric Pressure Gas Chromatography APGC mass spectrometry experiments. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Conventional We have two GC/MS systems including a BC-ion trap mass spectrometer ThermoElectron Polaris-Q mass spectrometer with TRACE GC and a GC- quadrupole mass spectrometer ThermoElectron DSQ II with TRACE GC. The Polaris-Q mass spectrometer system uses a quadrupole ion trap mass analyzer with ...
https://clarkson.edu/cares/facilities.html
*  Combination of Edman degradation of peptides with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry workflow f
... or peptide identification in bottom-up proteomics. BioMedSearch. Home. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Create Free Account. Document Detail. Combination of Edman degradation of peptides with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry workflow for peptide identification in bottom-up proteomics. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 23280970 Owner: NLM Status: In-Data-Review. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. RATIONALE: High-throughput methods of proteomics are essential for identification of proteins in a cell or tissue under certain conditions. Most of these methods require tandem mass spectrometry MS/MS. A multidimensional approach including predictive chromatography and partial chemical degradation could be a valuable alternative and/or addition to MS/MS. METHODS: In the proposed strategy peptides are identified in a three-dimensional 3D search space consisting of retention time RT, mass, and reduced mass after one-step partial Edman degradation. The strategy was evaluated in silico for two databases: baker's ye...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Combination-Edman-degradation-peptides-with/23280970.html
*  Atomic mass unit
units2 = MeV/''c'' 2 inunits2 = The '''unified atomic mass unit''' symbol: '''u''' or '''dalton''' symbol: '''Da''' is the standard unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic or molecular scale atomic mass. Atomic mass unit does ''not'' stand for the unit of mass in the atomic units system, which is rather ''m'' e. The relative atomic mass atomic weight scale has traditionally been a relative scale, that is without an explicit unit, with the first relative atomic mass basis suggested by John Dalton in 1803 as 1 H. The discovery of isotopic oxygen in 1929 led to a divergence in relative atomic mass representation, with isotopically weighted oxygen i.e., naturally occurring oxygen relative atomic mass given a value of exactly 16 atomic mass units amu in chemistry, while pure 16 O oxygen-16 was given the mass value of exactly 16 amu in physics. The chemistry amu, based on the relative atomic mass atomic weight of natural oxygen including the heavy naturally-occurring isotopes 17 O and 18 O , was about as...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass_unit
*  Mass Spectrometry Technology
... Advertisement. Research Development. Topics. General Sciences. Materials. Manufacturing. Life Sciences. Information Technologies. Policy/Regulations. Lab Operations. Business of Innovation. All Topics. Products. Product Directory. Chemicals and Biochemicals. Chromatography Systems. Lab Equipment. Laboratory Building/Design. Manufacturing Systems. Awards. R D 100 Awards. Laboratory of the Year. Resources. Company Directory. R D Magazine Archive. Laboratory Design News. Blogs. News. Events. White Papers. R D 100 AWARDS. Company Profile Search. Advertisement. Advertisement. Mass Spectrometry Technology. Tue, 02/26/2013 - 2:51pm. GC/MS. Other Mass. Get today's R D headlines and news - Sign up now. ALMSCO International has announced it will showcase its latest suite of products for trace-level organic chemical analysis at Pittcon 2013. At Pittcon ALMSCO with showcase its high-performance time-of-flight TOF mass spectrometer, the Bench TOF-dx, which provides analysts the capability to capture reference-quality...
http://rdmag.com/product-releases/2013/02/mass-spectrometry-technology
*  Gram atomic mass
... is the mass in gram s of one mole of atom s in a monoatomic chemical element it is numerically equal to the relative atomic mass or atomic weight in grams the atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is called gram atomic mass for example oxygen is grams the quantity of the element which weighs equal to its gram atomic mass is called one gram atom of that element the atomic mass of oxygen atom is a m u therefore its gram atomic mass is g and a g sample of oxygen is equal to one atomic weight of oxygen category stoichiometry category mass...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_atomic_mass
*  Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry
... Introduction Gas source 'stable isotope' mass spectrometry Static gas 'noble gas' mass spectrometry Thermal ionization 'radiogenic isotope' mass spectrometry Secondary-ion mass spectrometry SIMS Multiple collector - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry MC-ICP-MS Accelerator mass spectrometry AMS Moving wire IRMS MW-irMS See also References Bibliography. 5 Gas source 'stable isotope' mass spectrometry. Static gas 'noble gas' mass spectrometry. This method can be used for 'stable isotope' analysis of light gases as above, but it is particularly used in the isotopic analysis of noble gases = rare or inert gases for radiometric dating or isotope geochemistry. Thermal ionization 'radiogenic isotope' mass spectrometry. Several of the isotope systems involved in radiometric dating depend on IRMS using thermal ionization of a solid sample loaded into the source of the mass spectrometer hence thermal ionization mass spectrometry, TIMS. This type of ion-microprobe analysis normally works by focusing a pr...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotope-ratio_mass_spectrometry
*  RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric
... assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry /. Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Volume 398 - Issue 1 p. We validated two new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assays to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations in whole blood and in plasma from HIV-1-infected children. Whole blood was blotted onto dried blood spot DBS collecting cards, and plasma was collected simultaneously. The application of DBS made it possible to measure lopinavir and ritonavir in whole blood in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS plasma assay was successfully cross-validated with a commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC -ultraviolet UV assay for the th...
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/28627/
*  A Novel Mass Spectrometry–Based Assay for the Accurate Measu... : Journal of Investigative Medi
... cine. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. Journal of Investigative Medicine Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. A Novel Mass Spectrometry–Based Assay for the Accurate Measu... A A You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you... If you have access to this article through your institution, you can view this article in. Journal of Investigative Medicine: December 2012 - Volume 60 - Issue 8 - p 1157–1163 doi: 10.231/JIM.0b013e318276deb4 Original Articles. A Novel Mass Spectrometry–Based Assay for the Accurate Measurement of Thyroglobulin From Patient Samples Containing Antithyroglobulin Autoantibodies Clarke, Nigel J. Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. This article describes a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS method for the measurement of serum Tg after tryptic digestion of ser...
http://journals.lww.com/jinvestigativemed/Abstract/2012/12000/A_Novel_Mass_Spectrometry_Based_Assay_for_the.9.aspx
*  Ion-mobility spectrometry
... Though heavily employed for military or security purposes, such as detecting drugs and explosives, the technique also has many laboratory analytical applications, recently being coupled with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Drift gas. Trapped ion mobility spectrometry. Combined IMS methods GC-IMS : gas chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry. IMS-MS : ion mobility spectrometry - mass spectrometry. LC-IMS : liquid chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry. LC-IMS-MS : liquid chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry - mass spectrometry. In the traditional method of drift-time IMS, commonly referred to as just IMS, produced ions travel through a drift tube which has an applied electric field and a carrier buffer gas that opposes the ion motion. Ion mobilities are commonly reported as a 'reduced mobilities', correcting to standard gas density 'n 0 ', which can be expressed in standard temperature 'T 0 ' = 273 K and standard pressure 'p 0 ' = 1013 mbar:. K 0 = K \frac{n}{n 0...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion-mobility_spectrometry
*  Mass spectrometry tackles big problem
... Doctors may one day diagnose viral diseases with mass spectrometers, according to a US chemist who has measured the mass spectrum of large viral protein shells and blood-clotting glycoproteins with unprecedented quality. Mark Bier, of Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, US, explained to the meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston that his team used a MALDI-TOF cryodetector to analyse the capsid head of the Hong Kong 97 virus, weighing 13 MDa, to within one percent mass accuracy. As he explained, mass spectrometers usually analyse protein composition by identifying their digested fragments - but this process takes too long for an instant clinical diagnosis. Yet soft ionisation techniques such as MALDI or electrospray mass spectrometry can produce a spectrum - identifying molecules in just a few minutes. If larger molecules could be fingerprinted accurately enough by being fragmented inside a spectrometer, doctors could hope to use mass spectrometry to diagnose a viral infection or a blood d...
http://rsc.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2007/October/MassSpectrometryTacklesBigProblem.asp
*  Resolution (mass spectrometry)
Resolution mass spectrometry. Resolution mass spectrometry. In mass spectrometry, 'resolution' measures of the ability to distinguish two peak s of slightly different mass-to-charge ratio s 'ΔM', in a mass spectrum. Resolution and resolving power IUPAC definition. Resolving power definition. Measuring peak separation Peak width definition. Valley definition. Resolution and resolving power. There are two different definitions of resolution and resolving power in mass spectrometry. The IUPAC definition for resolution in mass spectrometry is : R = \cfrac{M}{\Delta M} = resolution : \Delta M = resolving power : M = mass of the second peak. Where a larger resolution indicates a better separation of peaks. This definition is used in a number of mass spectrometry texts. This use is also implied by the term "high-resolution mass spectrometry.". A high value for resolution corresponding to good separation of peaks is similar to the convention used with chromatography separations, although it is important to note tha...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resolution_(mass_spectrometry)
*  HILIC 2009 09 |authorSTREAM
Featured Presentations. Today’s Focus : Today’s Focus Defining the problem HILIC retention mechanisms and characteristics Impact on mass spectrometry sensitivity Impact on sample handling steps The promise of smaller particles. Reversed-phase options for retaining polar analytes Reversed-phase low coverage C18 designed for the retention of polar analytes ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 or Atlantis T3 High aqueous conditions Manipulate pH to make compound neutral ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 or XBridgeTM C18 Low pH for acids, High pH for bases STILL have inadequate retention or insufficient MS Response??. Today’s Focus : Today’s Focus Defining the problem HILIC retention mechanisms and characteristics Multimodal HILIC retention mechanisms Retention comparison between hybrid and silica particles Solvent selectivity Influence of pH on retention Chemical stability Impact on mass spectrometry sensitivity Impact on sample handling steps The promise of smaller particles. Today’s Focus : Today’s Focus Defining the problem HILIC retentio...
http://authorstream.com/Presentation/cwigmore-257118-hilic-2009-09-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/
*  NOAA ESRL CSD: Tropospheric Chemistry: Instruments
... NOAA Research Earth System Research Laboratory Chemical Sciences Division. Search CSD:. Publications. Skip navigation. Site navigation: Group Home Research Groups Cloud & Aerosol Processes. Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Regional Chemical Modeling. Chemical Processes Instrument Development. Atmospheric Composition Chemical Processes. Tropospheric Chemistry. Chemistry & Climate Processes. Office of the Director. Administrative Office. Instruments Aircraft. Ship/Ground-based. Ground Sites. Tropospheric Chemistry: Instruments Aircraft Instruments. Abbreviation Instrument Species Measured Method Contacts. Airborne Cavity Enhanced Spectrometer. glyoxal CHOCHO , nitrous acid HONO , nitrogen dioxide NO2. Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. Bill Dub , Steve Brown. Atmospheric Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector. Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. Steve Brown , Bill Dub. Carbon Monoxide. Vacuum UV resonance fluorescence. John Holloway. Carbon Dioxide. Absorption of infrared light. Jeff Peischl , Tom Ryerson. Ca...
http://esrl.noaa.gov/csd/groups/csd7/instruments/
*  Dissolved Species Analysis from Hiden Analytical
... HIDEN ANALYTICAL. DISSOLVED SPECIES ANALYSIS. Get the IHS Engineering360 Lab Equipment Newsletter. Compact bench top analysis system. Other Products from Hiden Analytical in Mass Spectrometers. Dissolved Species Analysis Product Announcement from Hiden Analytical. Dissolved Species Analysis Dissolved species analysis employing Hiden's high sensitivity membrane sampling technology for analysis of respiratory gases, hydrocarbons and sulphides is applied to a wide range of application areas including: Ecolological studies in sea water Bio fuel production from algae Pollution monitoring in river, estuary and reservoir waters Soil core analyses Fermentation. Products: HPR-40 Dissolved species analysis system. The HPR-40 dissolved species gas analysis system is a compact bench-top gas analysis system for monitoring of dissolved / evolved gases, featuring: Compact bench-top / mobile cart / console rack construction. Brochures: Hiden HPR-40 Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer System 1.68MB QIC Series Gas Analysers ...
http://globalspec.com/FeaturedProducts/Detail/HidenAnalytical/Dissolved_Species_Analysis/207266/0
*  Concept - Chemistry Video by Brightstorm
/ Atomic Mass. Atomic Mass - Concept. 29,035 views. So we're going to focus mainly on the protons and neutrons within an element which gives it its mass. The first thing we have is potassium which is obviously is a chemical name, then we have the number 19 and that atomic mass, sorry our atomic number which means that it has 19 protons for every potassium atom. Well that is the atomic mass of all the potassium atoms that exist. Well protons and neutrons all have round numbers of 1amu however they have varying numbers of neutrons within every different number of different potassium atoms in the world. So when you average them all together you can get this funny number of 39.098 it's the average atomic mass in atomic mass unit. In my banana and in your banana and everybody's banana in the whole world if we pull out all potassium atoms and analyze them we find that 93.90% of potassium atoms in any banana has a mass number of 39. 5.81% of potassium atoms that are in analyzed has a mass number of 41, i...
http://brightstorm.com/science/chemistry/the-atom/atomic-mass/
*  EDTA, WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE OF EDTA TITRATION N?, Chemistry
... EDTA, Chemistry. WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE OF EDTA TITRATION N. Related Discussions:- EDTA, Assignment Help, Ask Question on EDTA, Get Answer, Expert's Help, EDTA Discussions Write discussion on EDTA Your posts are moderated. Leibermann nitro test, Leibermann nitro test why we add concentrated acid. Leibermann nitro test why we add concentrated acid. Define atomic mass units, Q. Define atomic mass units. Atomic mass Scie... Q Define atomic mass units. Atomic mass Scientists have set up a standard for the measurement of atomic mass by assigning the carbon-12 atom a mass of 12 atomic mass units a. Discuss the ion exchange process of water softening, Discuss the ion exchan... Discuss the ion exchange process of water softening. Physical chemistry, Conductometric titration. Borazine, define borazine. define borazine. Calculate the flow rate of nitrogen, 1. The feed to an ammonia synthesis re... 1 The feed to an ammonia synthesis reactor is 25% lbmole nitrogen with the balance hydrogen. The flow rate is 3000 kg/h...
http://expertsmind.com/questions/edta-301100119.aspx
*  Links to miniature mass spectrometer and mobile GC/MS
... Mobile GC/MS. mobile and miniature mass spectrometer -. HAPSITE the field-portable GC/MS from Inficon, Inc. Field-Portable Analytical Inc. CT-1128 Portable GC-MS from Constellation Technology. Laser Mass Spectrometer for the European Space Agency Highly miniaturised mass spectrometers to be deployed on an airless planetary surface pdf tiny TOF from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory APL. FieldMate a field portable Quadrupole Ion Trap, Time-Of-Flight mass analyzer from Syagen. Monolithic Electrostatic Sector for Miniature Mass Spectrometers Jet Propulsion Laboratory - JPL. Field-portable GC/MS, Forensic Science in the Field Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security, LLNL Mobile GC/MS at the Environmental Measurement Technology EMT which is part of the Department of Measurement Engineering TUHH. channel electron multipliers LIGA fabricated quadrupole for mass spectrometers by the Sandia National Laboratories for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Micromachined Ultra-Miniatu...
http://gcms.de/
*  Kendrick mass
It is different from the IUPAC definition, which is based on setting the mass of 12 C isotope to exactly 12 u. This definition of mass was first suggested in 1963 by chemist Edward Kendrick, and it has been adopted by scientists working in the area of high-resolution mass spectrometry, environmental analysis, proteomics, petroleomics, metabolomics, etc. Definition Kendrick mass defect Kendrick mass analysis See also Notes. According to the procedure outlined by Kendrick, the mass of CH 2 is defined as exactly 14 Da, instead of the IUPAC mass of 14.01565 Da. \textrm{Kendrick~mass} = \textrm{IUPAC~mass} \times \frac{14.00000}{14.01565}. : \textrm{Kendrick~mass~ F } = \textrm{ observed~mass } \times \frac{\textrm{nominal~mass~F}}{\textrm{exact~mass~F}}. The Kendrick mass defect is defined as the exact Kendrick mass subtracted from the nominal integer Kendrick mass:. : \textrm{Kendrick~mass~defect}= \textrm{nominal~Kendrick~mass} - \textrm{Kendrick~mass}. : \textrm{Kendrick~mass~defect}= \textrm{nominal~mass} - \...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kendrick_mass
*  Historical Standards for D4128
historical standards for d products and services standards publications d historical versions view historical versions of d document designation and title year select item s d standard guide for identification and quantitation of organic compounds in water by combined gas chromatography and electron impact mass spectrometry d standard guide for identification and quantitation of organic compounds in water by combined gas chromatography and electron impact mass spectrometry d standard practice for identification and quantitation of organic compounds in water by combined gas chromatography and electron impact mass spectrometry add to cart...
http://astm.org/DATABASE.CART/filtrexx40.cgi?-P DESIGNATIO D4128 historicalpick.frm
*  Mass number
The 'mass number' 'A', also called 'atomic mass number' or 'nucleon number', is the total number of proton s and neutron s together known as nucleon s in an atomic nucleus. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons 'N' in a given nucleus: 'N=A−Z'. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. Mass number changes in radioactive decay Mass number and isotopic mass Relative Atomic Mass of an element References Further reading. Mass number changes in radioactive decay. For example, uranium-238 usually decays by alpha decay, where the nucleus loses two neutrons and two protons in the form of an alpha particle. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12 C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons. A nucleus with greater binding energy has a lower total ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_number
*  Exploring Average Atomic Mass - PhET 貢献
... メインコンテンツへスキップ. ログイン. 登録. Sign In 入力されたユーザー名および/またはパスワードは無効です. メールアドレス: パスワード: Remember me Forgot password. No account. Register. Resend email confirmation. . 9千万を超えるシミュレーションを提供. Search the PhET Website. . Support PhET:. Donate Today. HTML5 Sims. HTML. . シミュレーション. インストラクターの皆様へ. Tips for Using PhET. アクティビティ一覧. Share your Activities. マイ アクティビティ. ワークショップ. シミュレーションの実行方法. トラブルシューティング. よくある質問集. 翻訳者の皆様へ. 寄付する. 研究. Licensing. PhETについて. アクティビティ一覧 Exploring Average Atomic Mass. Exploring Average Atomic Mass.docx - 319 kB. Download または、すべてのファイルをzip形式で圧縮したアーカイブとして ダウンロード できます. 題名 Exploring Average Atomic Mass. 内容. 課題 化学. レベル 高等学校. タイプ 実験教室. 解答を含む いいえ. 言語 英語. キーワード average atomic mass, isotopes, percent abundance. シミュレーション 同位体と原子の質量. 著者 Stephanie Davis. メールアドレス sldavi5@ilstu.edu. 学校 / 団体 University High School. 送信日 11/09/28. 更新日 11/09/28. コメント Comment on this activity. コメント. What do you think about this activity. How did you use it or change it for your class. Professionally constructive comments welcome. English. . ا...
http://phet.colorado.edu/ja/contributions/view/3470
*  DROPS - Document
License When quoting this document, please refer to the following URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-5431 URL: http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2006/543/. Glycosylation Patterns of Proteins Studied by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatic Tools. Despite the extremely high number of possible combinations of the glycans identified in the tryptic peptides by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 1000 for CG-alpha and 10.000 for CG-beta, the mass spectra of intact CG-alpha and CG-beta revealed only a limited number of glycoforms present in CG preparations from pools of pregnancy urines. For CG-beta, however, the relatively high mass accuracy of ± 2 Da was still insufficient to unambiguously assign the possible combinations of posttranslational modifications. BibTeX - Entry @InProceedings{toll et al:DSP:2006:543, author = {Hansj{\ o}rg Toll and Peter Berger and Andreas Hofmann and Andreas Hildebrandt and Herbert Oberacher and Hans Peter Lenhof and Christian G. Huber}, title =...
http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/frontdoor.php?source_opus=543
*  Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) | UCL Eastman Dental Institute
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS. UCL Eastman Dental Institute. UCL Eastman Dental Institute. ICP-MS. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS Introduction The ICP-MS is an analytical technique that determines the elemental content of samples. Most samples analyzed by ICP-MS are liquid. sample introduction system – consist of the peristaltic pump, nebulizer, and spray chamber that introduces sample to the instrument, ICP torch – generates the plasma which serves as the ion source of the ICP-MS, converting the atoms to be analysed to ions, interface – the sample ions are extracted from the central plasma channel and separated from the bulk ions by cooled conical aperture plates with apertureopenings of 1/0.8 mm in the vacuum interface vacuum 2mbar, vacuum system – provides high vacuum for ion optics, quadrupole and detector, quadrupole – the high frequency quadrupole acts as a mass filter to sort ions by their mass-to-charge ratio m/e. This enables the analysis technique known as ...
http://ucl.ac.uk/eastman/research/departments/biomaterials-and-tissue-engineering/facilities/inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
*  Isobaric labeling
... right|thumb|500px|'A schematic of isobaric labeling'. Proteins are extracted from different conditions or cell types, digested into peptides, and labeled with isobaric stable isotope tags. These tags consist of reporter, balance, and reactive regions. Lighter reporter regions are paired with heavier balance regions, such that the entire tag attached to the peptide adds the same mass shift. Therefore, after mixing, in MS 1, the peptides appear as a single precursor. However, when fragmented during MS 2, in addition to the normal fragment ions, the reporter regions dissociate to produce ion signals which provide quantitative information regarding the relative amount of the peptide in the samples. 'Isobaric labeling' is a mass spectrometry strategy used in quantitative proteomics. Peptides or proteins are labeled with various chemical groups that are at least nominally isobaric, or the same in mass, but which fragment during tandem mass spectrometry to yield reporter ions of different mass. In a typical bot...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isobaric_labeling
*  Mass Spectrometry Quantitation
... IonSource Home Page. Introduction to MS Quantitation and Modes of LC/MS Monitoring. Introduction. This tutorial applies to the quantitation of small molecules using mass spectrometry in pharmacokinetic analysis. In addition these very same principles can be applied to the quantitation of peptides and proteins in biological matrices. Traditionally before the advent of modern-day mass spectrometry quantitation was accomplished using HPLC and UV detection. HPLC PK analysis relied on: retention time, peak area and UV spectral character. Unfortunately the HPLC assay suffered from lack of sensitivity and specificity. We have seen examples where a molecule was extensively metabolized and yet the retention time and UV spectral character remained the same as the parent compound. This lack of specificity will from time to time mislead the investigator. MS characterization is now a vital new tool in pharmacokinetic analysis. The accepted way of performing mass spec quantitation is by using a mass spectrometer capab...
http://ionsource.com/tutorial/msquan/intro.htm
*  Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS - Penn State College of Medicine
... Core Research Facilities. 800-243-1455 Penn State Hershey Health Information Physicians Clinic Locations Faculty Profiles College Faculty/Staff. Basic Sciences. Faculty Profiles. Penn State Hershey. Proteins and Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS. Oligonucleotide and Peptide Synthesis. Flow Cytometry. Proteins and Mass Spectrometry. Core Facilities List. Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS. Flow Cytometry. Macromolecular Synthesis Core Overview. Mass Spectrometry and Tandem MS/MS. Instrumentation and Services Available An ABSciex TripleTOF 5600+, an ABSciex 5800 Proteomics Analyzer MALDI TOF-TOF, a Waters Synapt HDMS with Ion Mobility capacities, an MDS-Sciex 4000 QTrap, and a Voyager DE-PRO Perseptive Biosystems are available for analyses of protein, peptide, lipid, small. Analysis of digests of highly complex mixtures, such as whole cell lysates or serum proteins, commonly yield identification of 600-6000 proteins from single samples, identification of proteins purified by column chro...
http://med.psu.edu/web/core/proteinsmassspectometry/proteins-tandem
*  Protein Mass Spectrometry Analysis | Thermo Fisher Scientific
Protein Mass Spectrometry Analysis. Thermo Fisher Scientific. Order Support. Custom Products & Projects. Quick Order. Ship To Lab Supply Center Order Supply Centre Order. Life Sciences Most Popular Products. Cell Analysis. Protein Biology. Thermo Scientific. Thermo Scientific. Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry. Services. New Products. CaptureSelect™ Products & Services. Custom Gibco® Cell Culture. Diagnostic Products & Services. Thermo Scientific. Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry. Clinical. Pre-clinical to Companion Diagnostic Development. Use our optimized kits, reagents, and devices for a variety of mass spectrometry workflows and applications, including protein peptide quantitation, sample preparation, instrument calibration and QC, and plasma protein binding assays. Reagents and kits that enable multiplex discovery research, utilizing SILAC technology or isobaric labeling; targeted research is enabled by isotopically labeled peptide standards using HeavyPeptide technology. Reagents, kits and devices th...
http://thermofisher.com/us/en/home/life-science/protein-biology/protein-mass-spectrometry-analysis.html
*  Molecular mass
It is calculated as the sum of the mass of each constituent atom multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available. Definitions Determination of molecular mass Mass spectrometry. Hydrodynamic methods. Static light scattering. Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12 C carbon 12, which by definition. Relative atomic and molecular mass values are dimensionless but are given the "unit" Dalton formerly atomic mass unit to indicate that the number is equal to the mass of one molecule divided by of the mass of one atom of 12 C. This is because naturally occurring carbon is a mixture of the isotope s 12 C, 13 C and 14 C which have relative atomic masses of 12, 13...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_mass
*  UCR Newsroom: UCR Facilty, Chemist Aid Discovery
... University of California, Riverside. UCR Facilty, Chemist Aid Discovery. UCR Facilty, Chemist Aid Discovery Main Navigation Home Newsroom. UCR Chemist Part of Team Identifying New Areas of Gene Regulation Discovery of new location in a key protein that activates genetic activity aided with use of mass spectrometry at UCR. NEWS MEDIA CONTACT Name: Kris Lovekin Tel: 951 827-2495 E-mail: kris.lovekin@ucr.edu. www.ucr.edu Researcher Kangling Zhang at the University of California, Riverside is part of a team that has discovered a new way that yeast governs genetic expression and repression, a finding that could be repeated in cells of other organisms. Zhang, an academic coordinator at the Mass Spectrometry Facility of the Department of Chemistry at UCR, worked with Feng Xu and Michael Grunstein of the Department of Biological Chemistry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA on a paper titled Acetylation in Histone H3 Globular Domain Regulates Gene Expression in Yeast, which was published today in the ...
http://newsroom.ucr.edu/1065
*  mass spectrometry | Britannica.com
mass spectrometry. Britannica.com. Mass spectrometry. Ion-velocity spectrometers. Ion-beam analysis. ions in electric and magnetic fields according to their. mass spectrometers and. Ion-velocity spectrometers The energy of an ion is proportional to the square of its velocity, so ions of constant energy can be separated through the use of fields that vary with time. Sources with magnetic fields parallel to the electric fields can yield beams greater than one milliampere. impact has remained the most widely used method of ionization in mass spectrometry. Negative ions Discussions of the above methods have assumed that the ionization process removes one or more electrons from the atom or molecule to produce a positive ion. Negative ions are formed by many of these same methods as well and can be useful in mass spectrometry. Negative ions can be formed in a two-stage process wherein positive ions are accelerated into a gas from which they capture two electrons, a technique infrequently used in mass spectrometry. ...
http://britannica.com/science/mass-spectrometry
*  Videos for atomic mass - Homework Help Videos - Brightstorm
... Toggle navigation. Browse Subjects. Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Geometry. Algebra 2. Trigonometry. Precalculus. Calculus. Science. Biology. Chemistry. Physics. English. Grammar. Writing. Literature. Test Prep. SAT. ACT. ACT Red Book. PSAT. AP US Gov. AP US History. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. College. Get Better Grades. College Application. College Essay. Financial Aid. Search. or Find by textbook. Study. Math. Science. English. Test Prep. Sign in. Teacher membership. School membership. Start Your Free Trial. 5 Videos for "atomic mass" Concept Science › Chemistry › The Atom Using atomic mass to understand isotopes. Tags: atomic mass isotopes average amu. Problem 3 Science › Chemistry › The Atom. Tags:. Problem 2 Science › Chemistry › The Atom. Tags:. Problem 1 Science › Chemistry › The Atom. Tags:. Atomic Number - Isotopes Science › Chemistry › The Atom The meaning and uses of atomic numbers. Tags: atomic number mass number isotopes ions. 1 About How to use. About Us. Our Teachers. Jobs. Press. Webinars....
http://brightstorm.com/tag/atomic-mass/
*  US Patent # 5,808,300. Method and apparatus for imaging biological samples with MALDI MS - Patents.c
The method of analyzing a test sample, comprising: a obtaining a sample solution including test sample molecules of interest; b passing the sample solution through a capillary tube and depositing the sample solution in a linear track on an electrically-conductive target plate by capillary electrophoresis; c drying the sample solution while in the linear track on the target plate; d striking the dried linear track with a laser beam such that the linear track releases molecules of interest; e measuring the molecular atomic mass of the released molecules of interest over a range of atomic masses; and f analyzing the molecular atomic masses as a function of time indicative of the position of the molecules of interest along the linear track to analyze the test sample. Apparatus for analyzing a test sample containing molecules of interest, comprising: a test specimen containing sample molecules of interest and an energy-absorbant matrix; a laser source for sequentially striking the test specimen with a laser beam a...
http://patents.com/us-5808300.html
*  PNNL: Now It's Molecular: New Understanding of Radiation Effects on Cells
... Results: In recent proteomics studies on radiation effects on cells, new molecular data indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria cause elevated reactive oxygen species in the offspring of cells that survived radiation exposure. However, environmental stress, such as radiation exposure, can cause ROS levels to increase through a mechanism that can be passed on to the daughters of cells that survive radiation exposure. Seventy-four mitochondria were identified using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and 12 were identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in at least one unstable cell line. Scientists do not yet understand the mechanisms of radiation-induced genome instability; however, in the case of cell lines with persistently elevated oxidative stress it could result from ROS-induced DNA changes. Methods: Previous work at the University of Maryland on radiation-induced genome instability in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines showed that some of these unstable cells had persistently elevated level...
http://pnl.gov/science/highlights/highlight.asp?id=469
*  Patent US7560689 - High-sensitivity mass spectrometer and method - Google Patents
A mass spectrometer comprising: a slice preparing section for preparing a slice of a sample for analysis; and a mass spectrometry section for performing time-of-flight mass spectrometry on the slice of the sample prepared in the slice preparing section, wherein the slice preparing section comprises: a sample holding mechanism for holding a sample; a blade having a metal thin film on a blade surface at least in part; and a blade position control mechanism for controlling the position of the blade and thereby performing both sample cutting and mounting of the slice of the sample obtained by cutting onto the blade surface, and. Specifically, the present invention provides a mass spectrometer including: a slice preparing section for preparing a slice of a sample for analysis; and a mass spectrometry section for performing time-of-flight mass spectrometry on the slice of the sample prepared in the slice preparing section, wherein the slice preparing section includes: a sample holding mechanism for holding a sample...
http://google.com/patents/US7560689?ie=ISO-8859-1&dq=6,123,819
*  Mass (mass spectrometry)
mass mass spectrometry mass mass spectrometry image discovery of neon isotopes jpg the mass recorded by a mass spectrometer can refer to different physical quantities depending on the characteristics of the instrument and the manner in which the mass spectrum is displayed units molecular mass mass number average mass nominal mass monoisotopic mass most abundant mass accurate mass exact mass isotopomer and isotopologue kendrick mass nitrogen rule prout s hypothesis and the whole number rule image francis william aston jpg the whole number rule states that the masses of the isotopes are integer multiples of the mass of the hydrogen atom the rule is a modified version of prout s hypothesis proposed in to the effect that atomic weight s are multiples of the weight of the hydrogen atom see also list of elements by atomic mass references external links category mass category mass spectrometry...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_(mass_spectrometry)
*  SIRCAMS
... The 'Scottish Instrumentation and Research Centre for Advanced Mass Spectrometry SIRCAMS ' is a facility for ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry of biomolecule s, based at the University of Edinburgh. SIRCAMS is part of the RCUK Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Proteomic Technologies RASOR; Radical Solutions for Researching the Proteome, a consortium of the Universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee. Much of its research activity is focused toward the development and application of mass spectrometry for the analysis of intact peptide s, protein s, protein–protein and protein– RNA / DNA complexes. Recent studies have included: identification of platination sites in peptides bombesin, substance P, angiotensin, bradykinin using Infrared multiphoton dissociation IRMPD, Collision-induced dissociation CID and Electron-capture dissociation ECD, accurate mass measurements on intact proteins YdaE 6.5kDa, ubiquitin 8.6kDa, trypsinogen 24kDa, carbonic anhydrase 28kDa, beSOD 31kDa, FbpA 33kDa, BSA ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIRCAMS
*  Stoichiometry
... Definition of Terms. Atomic Mass. Isotopes. Atomic Weight. The Mole. Molecular Weight. Avogadro's Constant. Converting Grams Into Moles. Atomic Mass. The units in which the mass of an atom are expressed are atomic mass units. At one time, the lightest atom was assigned a mass of 1 amu and the mass of any other atom was expressed in terms of this standard. Today atomic mass units are defined in terms of the 12 C isotope, which is assigned a mass of exactly 12.000... amu. Isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons, such as the 20 Ne and 22 Ne isotopes of neon or the 35 Cl and 37 Cl isotopes of chlorine. Atomic Weight. The atomic weight of an element is the weighted average of the atomic masses of the different isotopes of an element. Naturally occurring carbon, for example, is a mixture of two isotopes, 12 C 98.89% and 13 C 1.11 %. Individual carbon atoms therefore have a mass of either 12.000 or 13.03354 amu. But the average mass of the different isotopes of carbon...
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch3/massmolframe.html
*  New mass spectrometer, analysis of contaminants from Campden BRI
... site map. contact us. sign in. Menu News channels. Blogs. Case studies. Newsletter items. In the press. Media enquiries. News archive. Opt in to newsfeeds. Other news. Our experts at events. Podcasts. Press releases. Vacancies. Videos. Technical services. Sector specific. Analysis and testing. Food chemistry. Food hygiene. Legislation services. Packaging. Technical information. UKAS, 17025, 9001, ORETO. Sector activities. Baking and cereals technology. Packaging. Project summaries. Project websites. Food law services. Training and events. Members. Campden BRI Day. news new mass spectrometer. From June 2010 newsletter New mass spectrometer. The acquisition of a new mass spectrometer through a collaborative agreement with Agilent Technologies will enable us to further improve our services in the analysis of a range of contaminants, as Julian South, Head of Chemistry, explains:. This state of the art machine will allow us to perform a range of analyses, which were originally carried out using HPLC, with imp...
http://campdenbri.co.uk/news/june10c.php

Potash: Potash is any of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.Potash, USGS 2008 Minerals Yearbook The name derives from "pot ash", which refers to plant ashes soaked in water in a pot, the primary means of manufacturing the product before the industrial era.Atomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Electrospray ionizationP-AnisidineUnsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Glen Davis Shale Oil Works: The Glen Davis Shale Oil Works was a shale oil extraction plant in Glen Davis, New South Wales, Australia which operated from 1940 until 1952 and was the last oil-shale operation in Australia until the Stuart Oil Shale Project in the late 1990s.Donora Smog Museum: Donora Smog Museum features a collection of archival materials documenting the Donora Smog of 1948, an air inversion of smog containing fluorine that killed 20 people in Donora, Pennsylvania, United States, a mill town 20 miles south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela River.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.Benzo(k)fluorantheneSealcoat: Sealcoat is a bituminous liquid mixture that is applied to asphalt.Coles PhillipsTandem mass spectrometry: 300 px|right|thumb|A [[Quadrupole mass analyzer|quadrupole time-of-flight hybrid tandem mass spectrometer.]]Benzo(e)pyreneSEA Native Peptide LigationPrinomastatGas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbNational Ambient Air Quality Standards: The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.Plant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Ammonia volatilization from urea: Urea (46-0-0) accounts for more than fifty percent of the world’s nitrogenous fertilizers.Schwab, G.Soft laser desorption: Soft laser desorption is laser desorption of large molecules that results in ionization without fragmentation. "Soft" in the context of ion formation means forming ions without breaking chemical bonds.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds: Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are by-products of various industrial processes, and are commonly regarded as highly toxic compounds that are environmental pollutants and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They include:ToxicityLattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.List of Superfund sites in the United States: These are lists of Superfund sites in the United States, designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Superfund sites are polluted locations requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contaminations.Nucleoside phosphoramiditeElectron-capture mass spectrometry: Electron-capture mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses electron capture ionization (ECI) to form negative ions from chemical compounds with positive electron affinities. The approach is particularly effective for electrophiles.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Particulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.Transition metal benzyne complex: Transition metal benzyne complexes are organometallic complexes that contain benzyne ligands (C6H4). Unlike benzyne itself, these complexes are less reactive although they undergo a number of insertion reactions.Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.Animals and tobacco smoke: Animals are exposed to tobacco smoke and other cigarette by-products through their use as experimental subjects and through contact with smokers, as in the case of pets in houses where smoking takes place.Xenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.PhytomedicineBenzofuranSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Chromatographic response function: Chromatographic response function, often abbreviated to CRF, is a coefficient which measures the quality of the separation in the result of a chromatography.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Shape theory of olfaction: The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups. It has also been described by a 'lock and key' mechanism by which a scent molecule fits into olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium.Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, typically in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. This syndrome can also be referred to as "psycho-organic syndrome", "organic solvent syndrome", "chronic painter's syndrome", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic syndrome", "chronic toxic encephalopathy", and "neurasthenic syndrome".Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Mutagen: In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens.N-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Exhaust gasCoulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Metabolomics: Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Biotransformation: Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Smokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Isotope-coded affinity tag: An Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) is an isotopic labeling method used for quantitative proteomics by mass spectrometry that uses chemical labeling reagents. "Rapid quantitative analysis of proteins or protein function in complex mixtures," Rudolf Hans Aebersold et al.ForskolinDrug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Isomerization: In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform: Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)C.-P.

(1/369) Cell death during corneal storage at 4 degrees C.

PURPOSE: To evaluate cell death in human donor corneas stored at 4 degrees C, to determine whether terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labeling (TUNEL) discriminates between apoptosis and necrosis in corneas stored at 4 degrees C. METHODS: Ten human corneas were stored in Optisol (Chiron Ophthalmics, Irvine, CA) at 4 degrees C for periods ranging from 0 to 21 days and then fixed for histologic examination. Central corneal sections from each cornea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by the TUNEL assay. Electron micrographs of at least 15 keratocytes each from the anterior, middle, and posterior stroma were examined by three masked observers who graded each cell as normal, apoptotic, or necrotic. Central sections from the same corneas were processed by the TUNEL assay and evaluated with a laser scanning confocal microscope to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells. RESULTS: By TEM, apoptosis occurred in 23% of the keratocytes and necrosis in 12%. By TUNEL assay, apoptosis occurred in 11% of the keratocytes, with the results in individual corneas being similar to the findings by TEM for apoptosis, rather than for necrosis. By TUNEL assay, apoptosis occurred in 13% of the epithelial cells and in 8% of the endothelial cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells and storage time correlated significantly for the epithelium, but not for the keratocytes or endothelium in this small sample. CONCLUSIONS: Both apoptosis and necrosis occur in cells during corneal storage at 4 degrees C, with apoptosis appearing to predominate. The TUNEL assay identifies cells undergoing apoptosis, but not necrosis, in corneal tissue. Inhibition of apoptosis in corneas stored at 4 degrees C may prolong acceptable storage times.  (+info)

(2/369) Effectiveness of microabrasion technique for improvement of dental aesthetics.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate which types of enamel opacity are effectively treated by the microabrasion technique and whether this technique could be used as a diagnostic aid to determine the aetiology of these defects. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty two patients who had enamel opacities affecting both upper central incisors were selected and the disfigurements were classified into four types: single line, multi-line, patched and diffused. The patient's previous medical history, possible history of fluoride ingestion, presence of taurodontism and family history of similar enamel defects were recorded. Both incisors were treated with Prema abrasive paste mixed with 18% hydrochloric acid. The aesthetic improvements were assessed by the patients and their parents and their satisfaction level after the treatment was recorded. RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds (65.6%) of the patients were satisfied with their appearance after microabrasion. Apart from four patients, the improved appearance was stable and acceptable to the remaining patients at the six month recall. Statistical analysis showed that acceptable improvement was found in patients with single line/patched types of defects but not in multi-line/diffused types (P = 0.03). However, the aesthetic improvement was not related to the patient's fluoride history, presence of taurodontism or the family history of enamel defects. CONCLUSION: Microabrasion using Prema abrasives with 1 8% HCI is effective in improving the appearance of enamel with single-line or patched opacities, indicating that these defects are a surface phenomenon. For the multi-line and diffused types, the defects appear to extend deeper into the enamel. The technique failed to assist in determining the aetiology of these defects.  (+info)

(3/369) GFS, a preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida is associated with healing and inhibition of reactivation of Herpes.

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess whether GFS, a proprietary preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida, has effects on healing or re-emergence of Herpetic infections, and additionally, to assess effects of GFS in vitro. Undaria is the most commonly eaten seaweed in Japan, and contains sulphated polyanions and other components with potential anti-viral activity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections have lower reactivation rates and Herpes type 2 (HSV-2) infections have lower incidence in Japan than in the west. METHODS: Patients with active (15 subjects) or latent (6 subjects) Herpetic infections (HSV-1, 2, EBV, Zoster) were monitored for response to ingestion of GFS. GFS extract was tested in vitro for human T cell mitogenicity and anti-Herpes activity. RESULTS: Ingestion of GFS was associated with increased healing rates in patients with active infections. In addition, patients with latent infection remained asymptomatic whilst ingesting GFS. GFS extract inhibited Herpes viruses in vitro and was mitogenic to human T cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of GFS has inhibitory effects on reactivation and is associated with increased rate of healing after Herpetic outbreaks. GFS extract potently inhibited Herpes virus in vitro, and had mitogenic effects on human T cells.  (+info)

(4/369) The use of antimicrobial peptides in ophthalmology: an experimental study in corneal preservation and the management of bacterial keratitis.

PURPOSE: Bacterial keratitis is an ocular infection with the potential to cause significant visual impairment. Increasing patterns of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the development of new antimicrobial agents for use in bacterial keratitis and other serious ocular infections. With a view to exploring the use of novel antimicrobial peptides in the management of ocular infection, we performed a series of experiments using synthetic antimicrobial peptides designed for the eradication of common and serious ophthalmic pathogens. METHODS: Experiments were performed with three clinical ocular isolates--Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis--in three experimental settings: (1) in vitro in a controlled system of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, (2) in vitro in modified chondroitin sulfate-based corneal preservation media (Optisol), and (3) in an in vivo animal model (rabbit) simulating bacterial keratitis. In all cases, outcomes were measured by quantitative microbiological techniques. RESULTS: The candidate peptides (CCI A, B, and C and COL-1) produced a total reduction of the test pathogens in phosphate buffered saline. In modified Optisol, the peptides were effective against S epidermidis at all temperatures, demonstrated augmented activity at 23 degrees C against the gram-positive organisms, but were ineffective against P aeruginosa. The addition of EDTA to the medium augmented the killing of P aeruginosa but made no difference in the reduction of gram-positive organisms. In an in vivo rabbit model of Pseudomonas keratitis, COL-1 demonstrated neither clinical nor microbicidal efficacy and appeared to have a very narrow dosage range, outside of which it appeared to be toxic to the ocular surface. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the antimicrobial peptides we tested were effective in vitro but not in vivo. In an age of increasing antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides, developed over millions of years as innate defense mechanisms by plants and animals, may have significant potential for development as topical agents for the management of severe bacterial keratitis. However, modifications of the peptides, the drug delivery systems, or both, will be necessary for effective clinical application.  (+info)

(5/369) Crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNA can be used to protect plants against virus infections.

BACKGROUND: Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a potent initiator of gene silencing in a diverse group of organisms that includes plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mammals. We have previously shown and patented that mechanical inoculation of in vitro-transcribed dsRNA derived from viral sequences specifically prevents virus infection in plants. The approach required the in vitro synthesis of large amounts of RNA involving high cost and considerable labour. RESULTS: We have developed an in vivo expression system to produce large amounts of virus-derived dsRNAs in bacteria, with a view to providing a practical control of virus diseases in plants. Partially purified bacterial dsRNAs promoted specific interference with the infection in plants by two viruses belonging to the tobamovirus and potyvirus groups. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that easy to obtain, crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNAs are equally effective protecting plants against virus infections when sprayed onto plant surfaces by a simple procedure. Virus infectivity was significantly abolished when plants were sprayed with French Press lysates several days before virus inoculation. CONCLUSION: Our approach provides an alternative to genetic transformation of plant species with dsRNA-expressing constructs capable to interfere with plant viruses. The main advantage of this mode of dsRNA production is its simplicity and its extremely low cost compared with the requirements for regenerating transgenic plants. This approach provides a reliable and potential tool, not only for plant protection against virus diseases, but also for the study of gene silencing mechanisms in plant virus infections.  (+info)

(6/369) Protein stability in mixed solvents: a balance of contact interaction and excluded volume.

Changes in excluded volume and contact interaction with the surface of a protein have been suggested as mechanisms for the changes in stability induced by cosolvents. The aim of the present paper is to present an analysis that combines both effects in a quantitative manner. The result is that both processes are present in both stabilizing and destabilizing interactions and neither can be ignored. Excluded volume was estimated using accessible surface area calculations of the kind introduced by Lee and Richards. The change in excluded volume on unfolding, deltaX, is quite large. For example, deltaX for ribonuclease is 6.7 L in urea and approximately 16 L in sucrose. The latter number is greater than the molar volume of the protein. Direct interaction with the protein is represented as the solvent exchange mechanism, which differs from ordinary association theory because of the weakness of the interaction and the high concentrations of cosolvents. The balance between the two effects and their contribution to overall stability are most simply presented as bar diagrams as in Fig. 3. Our finding for five proteins is that excluded volume contributes to the stabilization of the native structure and that contact interaction contributes to destabilization. This is true for five proteins and four cosolvents including both denaturants and osmolytes. Whether a substance stabilizes a protein or destabilizes it depends on the relative size of these two contributions. The constant for the cosolvent contact with the protein is remarkably uniform for four of the proteins, indicating a similarity of groups exposed during unfolding. One protein, staphylococcus nuclease, is anomalous in almost all respects. In general, the strength of the interaction with guanidinium is about twice that of urea, which is about twice that of trimethylamine-N-oxide and sucrose. Arguments are presented for the use of volume fractions in equilibrium equations and the ignoring of activity coefficients of the cosolvent. It is shown in the Appendix that both the excluded volume and the direct interaction can be extracted in a unified way from the McMillan-Mayer formula for the second virial coefficient.  (+info)

(7/369) Solvation of nucleosides in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents: relevance to DNA open basepairs.

Toward the goal of understanding how open basepairs in DNA interact with their heterogeneous environment, we have studied the steady-state intrinsic fluorescence properties of the purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleosides in organic solvents in the presence of small amounts of water. The organic solvents used in the present study were: n-butanol, acetonitrile, methanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and isobutanol. For n-butanol and acetonitrile, which have a high degree of amphiphilicity and weak hydrogen bonding ability, respectively, the fluorescence spectral properties of the purines are found to depend on the sequence of steps in which the aqueous mixtures were formed. By contrast, no such dependence was observed in the mixtures with any of the other solvents used in the present study. Moreover, no such dependence was observed for the pyrimidines. These findings suggest that the final solvation network around the purines is dependent on the nature of the environment to which they were initially exposed. This would tend to present an impediment to the closing of AT or GC basepairs in DNA that become open as a result of structural fluctuations, DNA bending, or protein-DNA interactions.  (+info)

(8/369) Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats.

BACKGROUND: Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. METHODS: The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. RESULTS: Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. CONCLUSION: Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied.  (+info)


What are complex carbohydrates and is sweet potato one of them and are they good for me?


Waht are these complex carbohydrates and if they are good for me,how are the good for me and what can i find them in.
----------

Complex carbs are the opposite of simple carbs. When your body takes them in, it converts them to sugar that your body uses for energy. (On a much more complex level, they go through Glycolisis, Pyruvate formation, Krebs, and ETC) but carbs are simply a compliment to proteins that your body craves for energy. Complex carbs are good for you because they provide you with energy longer than simple carbs. Whole grains, sweet and white potatos, pasta, beans, and oatmeal are all great sources.


What could a complex mass on the ovary be?


My ultrasound showed a complex mass on my left ovary. I have a followup ultrasound next week. I already had one ovary removed due to a large tumor that was precancer. Could a complex mass be a cyst that will go away on its own? Or since it has solid tissue will it need surgery?
----------

I think I have explained this to you before.
A mass is solid. If it is complex it is a cyst.
Yes it could go away on its own most cysts do.


What is the difference between a Skincare Complex and a Cream or Moisturizer?


If they are different, could you use the complex in place of the moisturizer if it contains vitamin E and fatty acids?
----------

Hi skin care complex contains numerous different ingredients and treatments within the one product.  For example they contain a blend of different ingredients such as Aloe Vera Gel, Witch Hazel & Rosemary and Green Tea Extract, Soy Protein, Kelp Powder, Vitamin E, Vitamin C,  Antioxidents etc.The main difference is, skin care complex's are more sophisticated and more advanced, if depends what you want from your skin cream, if you just want a something to make your skin soft then just go with a moisturizer but if your looking for skin healing, anti ageing etc then you will need a mre advanced 'complex' skin care regeime. Hope this helps!!


What is a website that I can see what the distance is around my apartment complex is?


I want to run around my apartment complex but I have no idea how long around in miles it is. Is there a website that I can tell the distance around my apartment complex is?
----------

Go to Google Earth. Find your city and zoom in on your complex. Use the measuring tool (on the toolbar at the top of the screen) to trace around your complex. The tool window will read out the distance in whatever increments of measure you want. The resolution should be good down to a few feet.

Hope this helps.


When using Murad Acne Complex how can you tell if your skin is experiencing irritation or is just purging?


I recently began using Murad Acne Complex and Iam planning to stick with for a good 3 to 4 weeks for good results, I hope. My skin doesn't usually experience sensativity but after using the products my skin sometimes burns and doesn't feel totally soft and smooth. Iam wondering if my recent breakouts are my skin purging or irritation...
----------

The same exact thing happended to me. You have to just be careful, it is very strong so I would not overuse some of it, especially the cleanser. I haven't been that happy with the results, it dries my skin out like crazy and pimples come back a lot of the time.


What's the difference between B-Complex and Super B-Complex vitamins?


My doctor prescribed Super B-Complex, fish oil omega 3, and vitamin E. The stores have so many brands and Super B is the hardest to find.  Also, which brand is the best?
----------

It just has more B-vitamins than regular B-complex. Nature made makes Super B-complex vitamins and they are suppose to be one of the best.


How effective is a vitamin B complex in prevention of miscarriage?


They say to take a vitamin B complex and folic acid when trying to get pregnant and to continue after pregnant and this helps in the prevention of miscarriage.  Is this true?  How effective is it?  Also, where can I get progesterone cream? Does it need to be prescribed? thanks!
----------

I've taken B complex and a Multi with Folic Acid  for several years.  Folic Acid is a B vitamin btw...so you'll get plenty with just those two.  I've had miscarriages and a very healthy pregancy in a 2 year time frame. 

Here is my take: there is no foolproof way of preventing miscarriage.  I would def. recommend taking care of yourself, eating healthy, and taking your vitamins.  But miscarriages may still happen, because not every egg/sperm combo is going to be healthy enough to produce a baby.  Sometimes there are genetic glitches that won't work no matter what vitamins you are taking, and so a miscarriage is your body's natural way of starting over.  But you should be very aware of your progesterone levels before you begin trying to concieve.   

I'd ask the Dr. about your progesterone levels, and using cream to boost to them if necessary.  Progesterone is not just a pregnancy hormone, it's the one that regulates the thickness of your womb's lining every month.  If you have very light periods, then more than likely, you have low progesterone.  Many women aren't aware that chemical forms of birth control intentionally supress your progestrone levels to prevent implantation if fertilization occurs. (totally true! ask your Dr.)  Even after coming off of chemical birth control, your body may not 'bounce back' with healthy progesterone levels.  So what happens is that if the egg does get fertilized, there is not enough lining there for the baby to attach to and to sustain life.  

My progesterone experience: I followed my Dr.'s advice an had a DNC after getting pregnant with an IUD (it was in position and in place for over a year when I got pregnant with it in...I lost the baby).  After the DNC, my periods were very light.  I got pregnant again, and lost that baby because my lining was too thin to support life.  I opted to miscarry naturally that time.  My periods returned to a healthy flow, and I was able to quickly get pregnant and had a very healthy pregnancy that time.  

My Mom orders progesterone cream from a natual foods website for her menopause symptoms...so if you confirm with your doctor that you want to use progesterone, then that may be less expensive than getting a prescription.

Best of luck!


Does anyone know of a way to control complex partial seizures naturally?


I've had complex partial seizures for the past 3.5 years (since I was 21).  I don't have them too frequently but I would like to know if someone has done something that has cured them completely or at least controlled them quite well.  I would like to resume a normal lifestyle like a normal 24 year old but I'm scared because of these seizures!  If anyone knows of a way that has controlled or cured them, I would like to know your suggestions!  Thanks in advance!
----------

As a nurse, I have to say not really - unless you mean taking medications and easing your stress level to provoke them by eating well, not drinking, and getting enough sleep. Medication is meant to prevent your seizures from occurring, and going off these anti-epileptic medications can put you at risk of seizing again. I imagine it's a real bummer to have to take medication for a problem which is totally out of your control, but it's safer for you and possibly society. If you were to drive and have a seizure you could kill yourself and/or others, and that would not be a good plan. 

Now, if it's about side effects, and that's why you don't feel like you lead a *normal lifestyle*, please work with your doc to find another drug which doesn't bother you as much. I know these medications can cause problems for people with feeling dizzy, sleepy, lose hair, have gum problems, nausea, and feeling spacey. There are many, many newer meds out and one may be a better choice than another for you.

Good luck to you, and I hope you stay seizure-free!

And for the other person who commented about *partial* seizures, that just means they start in one part of the brain, rather than the whole brain at one time. And NOT all people have seizures which make them shake all over with their arms and legs going. Partial seizures can spread to make that happen, but not all the time. Also, someone may or may not have seizures which make them unconscious - some people have *Simple* partial seizures where their mind isn't affected and the person knows it's happening. When the consciousness is affected with Partial Epilepsy, it's called a Complex Partial Seizure.