Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 2: An orphan nuclear receptor that is found at high levels in BRAIN tissue. The protein is believed to play a role in development and maintenance of NEURONS, particularly dopaminergic neurons.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Hydroflumethiazide: A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p822)Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.YemenTechnetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Education, Nursing, Associate: A two-year program in nursing education in a community or junior college leading to an A.D. (Associate Degree). Graduates of this program are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: The World Health Organization's classification categories of health and health-related domains. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) consists of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. The ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)United StatesSuperior Vena Cava Syndrome: A condition that occurs when the obstruction of the thin-walled SUPERIOR VENA CAVA interrupts blood flow from the head, upper extremities, and thorax to the RIGHT ATRIUM. Obstruction can be caused by NEOPLASMS; THROMBOSIS; ANEURYSM; or external compression. The syndrome is characterized by swelling and/or CYANOSIS of the face, neck, and upper arms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.CitrullineComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Nursing Process: The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.RNA, Transfer, Glu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Deuteroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.omega-Crystallins: A type of crystallin that has been found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of certain species of MOLLUSCA such as SQUID and OCTOPUS. It is an inactivated form of aldehyde dehydrogenase.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Drug Recalls: Removal of a drug from the market due to a problem occurring in the manufacture or distribution of the product.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nursing: The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Receptors, Presynaptic: Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Weil Disease: A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.MutS Homolog 2 Protein: MutS homolog 2 protein is found throughout eukaryotes and is a homolog of the MUTS DNA MISMATCH-BINDING PROTEIN. It plays an essential role in meiotic RECOMBINATION and DNA REPAIR of mismatched NUCLEOTIDES.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)CholanesRadiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Escin: Pentacyclic triterpene saponins, biosynthesized from protoaescigenin and barringtogenol, occurring in the seeds of AESCULUS. It inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.JapanHealth Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Uridine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.GermanyThymoma: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.BrazilHaemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Urginea: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains bufadienolides (BUFANOLIDES). The common name of squill is also used for SCILLA.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Prochlorophytes: An order of GRAM-NEGATIVE OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA containing CHLOROPHYLL, a and b, but lacking PHYCOBILISOMES (light-harvesting antennae). There are three genera: PROCHLORON; PROCHLOROCOCCUS; and PROCHLOROTHRIX. This order was thought to be the missing link between CYANOBACTERIA and plant CHLOROPLASTS, hence the name.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

*  Europa - RAMON - Classification Detail List
Eurostat's classifications server aims at making available as much information as possible relating to the main international ... statistical classifications in various fields: economic analysis, environment, education, occupations, national accounts, etc. ...
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/nomenclatures/index.cfm?TargetUrl=LST_NOM_DTL&StrNom=CPC_1_0&StrLanguageCode=EN&IntPcKey=16999881&StrLayoutCode=HIERARCHIC
*  JOKER | British Board of Film Classification
... advance information about events and recent classifications or decisions which we think you may be interested in please ...
http://bbfc.co.uk/releases/joker-2012-1
*  1216.0 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2001
1216.0 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2001 Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 28/09 ...
http://abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/66f306f503e529a5ca25697e0017661f/16AD6DF6630C0F57CA256AD4007F67FB?opendocument
*  1234.0 - Australian Standard Offence Classification (ASOC), 1997
1234.0 - Australian Standard Offence Classification (ASOC), 1997 Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 14/10/1997 ...
http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/2C27E49FFEA540ABCA25697E00184AD0?opendocument
*  PUNJAB 1984 | British Board of Film Classification
... in order to obtain a 12A classification. Cut made in accordance with BBFC Guidelines and policy. An uncut 15 classification was ... advance information about events and recent classifications or decisions which we think you may be interested in please ...
http://bbfc.co.uk/releases/punjab-1984-film
*  1272.0 - Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001
The Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) is a new Australian standard classification and replaces the ABS ... 1272.0 - Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 22/08/ ... The publication provides details of the conceptual basis of ASCED, the structure of the classification, definitions for all ... Classification of Qualifications (ABSCQ). ASCED is comprised of two component classifications, Level of Education and
http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/1272.0Main Features12001?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=1272.0&issue=2001&num=&view=
*  HOUSE OF EVIL | British Board of Film Classification
This classification may also be used when the same work is made available on Digital Video Platforms (including Video On Demand ... advance information about events and recent classifications or decisions which we think you may be interested in please ...
http://bbfc.co.uk/releases/house-evil-video
*  San Francisco Bay View » ICC (Institutional Classification Committee)
Posts Tagged with 'ICC (Institutional Classification Committee)'. Folsom hunger strikers issue demands and grievances. May 27, ... Institutional Classification Committee) • Inmate Welfare Funds • NDS (Non Disciplinary Status) • no educational opportunities ...
http://sfbayview.com/tag/icc-institutional-classification-committee/
*  1266.0 - Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 1996
1266.0 - Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 1996 Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA ...
http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/66f306f503e529a5ca25697e0017661f/C891751C50FD8411CA25697E00184B6A?opendocument
*  classification authority | EUdict | Eng...
classification. classification authority. classification criteria. classification in insurance. classification of accounts. ... classification of chemicals. classification of goods. Classification of soil damages. Classification of soil damages in Croatia ... classification authority regeneracija in vitro rascal strat de zgură pomocný 河卵石 河卵石 pie server endormie prefixed close study ...
http://eudict.com/?lang=engcro&word=classification authority
*  scientific name: What two levels or classification are used in giving an organism a scientific name?
scientific name: What two levels or classification are used in giving an organism a scientific name. skip to sidebar. Sunday, November 15, 2009. What two levels or classification are used in giving an organism a scientific name. Thanks for your time and effort. What two levels or classification are used in giving an organism a scientific name. Family, Spieces and Genus... I believe the scientific name is its Species and Genus. Reply:nomenclature is one, not sure about the other one. Posted by. CHARLES. Post a Comment. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. November 144 What is the scientific name for the Metallic Sweat... What is the scientific name for the power/electric... What would be a good scientific name for a donkey ... What is the scientific name for the fear of not be... What is the scientific name for the longest bone i... What is scientific name for the common ohio earthw... What is the official scientific name for the stem ... What is the scientific name of a bacteria that is ... ...
http://scientific-name.blogspot.com/2009/11/what-two-levels-or-classification-are.html
*  AllTooHuman - Public - Profile
... paleo diet fat diet food weight loss carbs supplements meat ketosis weight exercise protein sugar low carb. PaleoHacks. Register Sign in. Questions Topics Recipes Blog Podcast About Contact. or. Ask a Question. AllTooHuman. Joshua. City Ohio, USA. Joined: August 19, 2014. Last seen: about 1 year. 357 Reputation. 0 Followers. 0 Following. Questions. 4. Answers. Comments. 13. Favorites. 0. About. This user has not filled out their profile yet :. Activity. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. AllTooHuman added an answer to the question How does one remove fluoride from water. Interests. Sugar Fruit Gluten Paleo Kids Babies. Badges. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. Taxonomist. ...
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*  Serrasalmus hollandi Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) - Encyclopedia of
Serrasalmus hollandi Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS - Encyclopedia of Life. You are viewing this Species as classified by:. Species 2000 ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013 FishBase Fish Species Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS NCBI Taxonomy Extant Habitat resource. Serrasalmus hollandi mdash; Overview. learn more about names for this taxon. Add to a collection. Species recognized by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS Remove classification filter. Overview Detail Data 1 Media 2 Maps Names Community Resources Literature Updates. Media. Serrasalmus hollandi Trusted. Wikipeixes. Source: Wikipeixes. Serrasalmus hollandi Trusted. Discover Life and original sources. Source: Discover Life. See all media. See all maps. Distribution. Read full entry. Learn more about this article. Madeira River basin and. Guyana rivers: Brazil and Guiana. Trusted. FishWise Professional. Source: FishWise Professional. Present in 12 collections. See all 12 collections in which ...
http://eol.org/pages/994005/hierarchy_entries/46529655/overview
*  Phenacogrammus deheyni Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) - Encyclopedia o
Phenacogrammus deheyni Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS - Encyclopedia of Life. You are viewing this Species as classified by:. FishBase Fish Species Species 2000 ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013 Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS Extant Habitat resource. Phenacogrammus deheyni mdash; Overview. learn more about names for this taxon. Species recognized by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS Remove classification filter. Overview Detail Data 0 Media 0 Maps Names Community Resources Literature Updates. Media. No one has contributed any images to this page yet. Learn how to contribute images to EOL. See all media. Distribution. Learn more about this article. Phenacogrammus deheyni is known from the Central Congo River basin. See all 10 collections in which this page appears. 731489 other items. 164757 other items. Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS. 513573 other items. Learn more about Communities. EOL has data for 7 traits. See all 7 traits for ...
http://eol.org/pages/223043/hierarchy_entries/55864333/overview
*  Discover Nature at JCU - JCU
... Email for students. Email for staff. Email for students. Email for staff. About JCU email. Campus Maps. Cairns. Townsville. Students. Current students. New students. Study at JCU. Subject search. Find an advisor. About JCU. Campuses. Divisions, Colleges and Directorates. Plants. Plants by scientific name. Plants by common name. Plants by family inc NQ weeds. Plants on Cairns campus. Plants on Townsville campus. NQ Weeds by scientific name. NQ Weeds by common name. Fungi by scientific name. Fungi by common name. Birds by scientific name. Birds by common name. Butterflies and moths by scientific name. Butterflies and moths by common name. Fish by scientific name. Fish by common name. Mammals by scientific name. Mammals by common name. Reptiles and amphibians by scientific name. Reptiles and amphibians by common name. Discover Nature at JCU This site is a public reference of the plants, animals and fungi found on James Cook University's campuses and nearby locations. If you have a question about the ...
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*  Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)) - Encyc
Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS - Encyclopedia of Life. You are viewing this Species as classified by:. IUCN Red List Species Assessed for Global Conservation Species 2000 ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013 Clements Checklist resource Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS WORMS Species Information Marine Species NCBI Taxonomy. Anas cyanoptera mdash; Overview. Cinnamon Teal learn more about names for this taxon. Species recognized by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS Remove classification filter. Overview Detail Data 252 Media 5 Maps Names Community Resources Literature Updates. Media. Anas cyanoptera Trusted. Anas cyanoptera Trusted. Source: Flickr: EOL Images. Anas cyanoptera Trusted. Anas cyanoptera Trusted. Discover Life and original sources. Source: Discover Life. See all media. See all maps. A small brightly colored duck, the Cinnamon Teal is found in ponds throughout the American West. The Cinnamon Teal is the only duck ...
http://eol.org/pages/1048954/hierarchy_entries/46566779/overview
*  Birds (Aves Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)) - Encyclopedia of Life
Birds Aves Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS - Encyclopedia of Life. IUCN Red List Species Assessed for Global Conservation Taxonomic Hierarchy of COL-China 2012 South African Vertebrates Species 2000 ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013 Clements Checklist resource Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS WORMS Species Information Marine Species FALO Classification Extant Habitat resource Paleobiology Database NCBI Taxonomy. Aves mdash; Overview. Birds learn more about names for this taxon. Class recognized by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS Remove classification filter. Overview Detail Data 350074 Media 2 Maps Names Community Resources Literature Updates. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Aves Trusted. Barcode of Life Data Systems. Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems BOLD. All living species of birds have wings. Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animal species; a number of bird species have ...
http://eol.org/pages/695/hierarchy_entries/46565705/overview
*  Swinhoe's Egret (Egretta eulophotes Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)) -
Swinhoe's Egret Egretta eulophotes Classified by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS - Encyclopedia of Life. You are viewing this Species as classified by:. IUCN Red List Species Assessed for Global Conservation Taxonomic Hierarchy of COL-China 2012 Species 2000 ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013 Clements Checklist resource Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS WORMS Species Information Marine Species NCBI Taxonomy. Egretta eulophotes mdash; Overview. Swinhoe's Egret learn more about names for this taxon. Species recognized by Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS Remove classification filter. Overview Detail Data 4 Media 4 Maps Names Community Resources Literature Updates. Egretta eulophotes Trusted. Egretta eulophotes Unreviewed. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Egretta eulophotes Unreviewed. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Egretta eulophotes Trusted. Discover Life and original sources. Source: Discover Life. IUCN threat status:. Shortly before the spring migration to the breeding ...
http://eol.org/pages/1048697/hierarchy_entries/55901049/overview
*  Taxonomic Information for Dorylus atratus - Biological Classifications & Names - Encyclopedia of Lif
... e. Dorylus atratus mdash; Classifications. learn more about names for this taxon. Add to a collection. Overview Detail Data 0 Media 0 Maps Names Community Resources Literature Updates. Scientists aim to describe a single 'tree of life' that reflects the evolutionary relationships of living things. However, evolutionary relationships are a matter of ongoing discovery, and there are different opinions about how living things should be grouped and named. EOL reflects these differences by supporting several different scientific 'classifications'. Some species have been named more than once. Such duplicates are listed under synonyms. EOL also provides support for common names which may vary across regions as well as languages. 3 classifications. 2 related names. 0 common names. 0 synonyms. marks the preferred classification for this taxon. Recognized By Rank Classification. Species 2000 ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013. view in classification. Species. Animalia +. ...
http://eol.org/pages/394467/names
*  Taxonomic Information for Eurycotis opaca - Biological Classifications & Names - Encyclopedia of Lif
... e. Eurycotis opaca mdash; Classifications. learn more about names for this taxon. Overview Detail Data 0 Media 0 Maps Names Community Resources Literature Updates. Scientists aim to describe a single 'tree of life' that reflects the evolutionary relationships of living things. However, evolutionary relationships are a matter of ongoing discovery, and there are different opinions about how living things should be grouped and named. EOL reflects these differences by supporting several different scientific 'classifications'. Some species have been named more than once. Such duplicates are listed under synonyms. EOL also provides support for common names which may vary across regions as well as languages. 2 classifications. 2 related names. 0 common names. 3 synonyms. marks the preferred classification for this taxon. Species 2000 ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013. view in classification. Species. Animalia +. Arthropoda +. Insecta +. Blattodea +. Blattidae +. Eurycotis +. ...
http://eol.org/pages/1076531/names
*  Glossary of scientific names
... a glossary of the meaning of scientific names of living things viruses and prions key a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z see also references key no preference is given to masculine m feminine f or neuter n forms of a term language of origin d german g greek gae gaelic l latin sv swedish a aculeatum l m furnished with needles or spines alba f of albus latin for white alpinum m literally of the alps typically used for mountain species antarctica f of the southern hemisphere aquilinum l m of the eagle eagle like archeo g ancient b baccata l f bearing berries c capillus veneris l hair of venus cordatum l having a spine crypto g hidden d dilatata l widened e f g glutinosa f sticky grandiflora f large flowered h histrix l f literally porcupine like spiky heterophylla l f having different shaped or sized leaves i j japonica from or associated with japan k kaempferi d n of kaempfer l m menziesii gae n of menzies n nigra l f black nordmanniana sv f of nordmann o p palustre l n of the bog or ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_scientific_names
*  David Moss - Public - Profile
... paleo diet fat diet food weight loss carbs supplements meat ketosis weight exercise protein sugar low carb. PaleoHacks. Register Sign in. Questions Topics Recipes Blog Podcast About Contact. David Moss. David Moss. Questions. Answers. 9 MONTHS AGO. David Moss added a comment to an answer for the question Butter vs. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. David Moss added an answer to the question What is a good, interesting paleo topic for my genetics course. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. David Moss added an answer to the question Can a paleo dieter consume close to 9000 calories, if so how would you do it. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. David Moss added an answer to the question Medium-weight trail shoes. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. David Moss added an answer to the question Best strategies on a budget. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. David Moss added an answer to the question Eating more to lose weight. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. David Moss added an answer to the question How much Protein vs ...
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*  Eva - Public - Profile
... paleo diet fat diet food weight loss carbs supplements meat ketosis weight exercise protein sugar low carb. PaleoHacks. Register Sign in. Questions Topics Recipes Blog Podcast About Contact. Eva. Eva. City San Diego. Last seen: about 1 year. Questions. Answers. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer to the question Which fruits and vegetables are heathier cooked than raw. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer to the question Could we modern paleos be eating too much saturated fat. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer to the question Plant Roots as Food/medicine. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer to the question Are Taro Roots Paleo. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer to the question What are your Favorite Paleo Franken-Foods. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer to the question Skin Cancer Danger. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer to the question How has our gut flora changed since the paleolithicum. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. ABOUT 1 YEAR AGO. Eva added an answer ...
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*  Surfbirds Video - Bird Videos - Black-winged stilt. Scientific name: Himantopus himantopus. Italian:
... CAVALIERE D ITALIA. Fam.: Recurvirostridae. May 2006, Saline di Margherita di Savoia, FG, Southern Italy. Breeding species. Canon MVX 300. Sign Up. Log In. Help Surfbirds Video Video Sharing Community. Home. Upload. Watch. Channels. Groups. Community. Friends. Most Recent. Most Viewed. Most Discussed. Top Favorites. Top Rated. Recently Featured. Random. Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus. Runtime: 0m 25s. Views: 6955. Comments: 0 Login to Rate Video. Add To Favorites. Write Comments. Flag This Video. Login to Download. Add Video To Your Social Bookmarks. Spurl. Digg. Del.icio.us. Blinklist. Furl. Y!MyWeb. Simpy. Google. Comment On This Video. Please help keep this site FUN, CLEAR, and REAL. Flag this video : Feature This. Inappropriate. Advertisement. Video Infomation. Rating 0 Votes Not yet rated Added on: 03-01-2008 From:. Fab. Send PM 5. 0. 0 Description: Black-winged stilt. Scientific name: Himantopus himantopus. Italian: CAVALIERE D ITALIA. Fam.: Recurvirostridae. May 2006, Saline di ...
http://surfbirds.com/video2/view_video.php?viewkey=0db309e056e3d2dcd7d6&page=11&viewtype=detailed&category=mv
*  .. Scientific Name: Balearica regulorum gibbericeps .. Fast Fact: .. Smooth Moves
scientific name balearica regulorum gibbericeps fast fact both the gray crowned crane and the black crowned crane lack the coiled windpipe that other cranes use to produce their loud calls â these two cranes are also unique in that they cannot perch in the trees unlike other cranes thanks to their long hind toes the gray crowned crane is a social creature often seen in flocks in the marshlands of africa status the primary threats to these birds are habitat loss and illegal removal of birds and eggs from the wild for trade habitat they live throughout much of eastern africa in wetland and grassland habitats although they may travel somewhat depending on the abundance of food and water sources these birds do not migrate diet cranes feed on insects grass seeds invertebrates reptiles and some small mammals physical characteristics the average adult gray crowned crane is just over three feet tall and weighs about seven pounds these cranes have a dark gray body and wings that are mostly white but with various ...
http://lazoo.org/animals/birds/east-african-grey-crowned-crane/
*  List of Danionin species
... In the last few decades, many Danionin species have been moved into different genera, in some cases repeatedly, similarly some species have been synonymised with other species and even in some cases later unsynonymised, all of which has caused a lot of confusion. With a large amount of recent discoveries particularly in Myanmar in recent years a lot of confusion has been caused. As a result a separate page has been created which lists all danionin species and also lists defunct species which have since been synonymised or renamed. Individual Danionin species are listed below in order of Genera: Species, listed in order of scientific name, categorised by genus [[Danio]] [[Devario]] Little known [[Devario]] [[Tanichthys]] [[Esomus]] [[Chela (fish)|Chela]] [[Parachela]] [[Inlecypris]] "Miniature" danionins Danionins renamed or wrongly identified See also External links Species, listed in order of scientific name, categorised by genus Danio The species remaining in the 'Danio' genus comprise most of the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Danionin_species
*  List of biology websites
Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS - involving government agencies in Canada, the US, and Mexico—providing an automated reference database of scientific and common names for species NeuroLex - dynamic lexicon of neuroscience concepts Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences - an exclusively electronic, free-of-charge peer-reviewed scientific journal PDBWiki - discussion forum for macromolecular structures Plant DNA C-values Database - created in the UK—a comprehensive catalogue of C-value nuclear DNA content, or in diploids, genome size data for land plants and algae Plants for a Future PFAF - based in the UK—for those interested in edible and useful plants of temperate regions Postcodes Plant Database - based in the UK—for identifying locally native plant and species according to postcode Proteopedia - annotation of protein structures and other biomolecules TOPSAN - annotation of protein structures Transterm - hosted at the University of Otago in New Zealand—a database of mRNA sequences, codon ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_biology_websites
*  Diagnosis (taxonomy)
diagnosis taxonomy diagnosis taxonomy redirect taxonomy biology taxonomic descriptions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagnosis_(taxonomy)
*  Category:Diagnosis classification
category diagnosis classification category diagnosis classification category medical diagnosis category medical classification category nosology
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Diagnosis_classification
*  Bamford classification
... redirect stroke classification
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamford_classification
*  Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
... The 'middle pharyngeal constrictor' is a fanshaped muscle located in the neck. It is one of three pharyngeal constrictor s. Similarly to the superior and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle s, the middle pharyngeal constrictor is innervated by a branch of the vagus nerve through the pharyngeal plexus. The middle pharyngeal constrictor is smaller than the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Structure Function Additional images References Further reading External links. Structure. The middle pharyngeal constrictor arises from the whole length of the upper border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, from the lesser cornu, and from the stylohyoid ligament. The fibers diverge from their origin: the lower ones descend beneath the constrictor inferior, the middle fibers pass transversely, and the upper fibers ascend and overlap the constrictor superior. It is inserted into the posterior median fibrous raphe, blending in the middle line with the muscle of the opposite side. Function. As soon as the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_pharyngeal_constrictor_muscle
*  Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
... The 'Inferior pharyngeal constrictor', the thickest of the three constrictors, arises from the sides of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage. Similarly to the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscles, it is innervated by the vagus nerve cranial nerve X, specifically, by branches from the pharyngeal plexus and by neuronal branches from the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Origin and insertion Action Role in human disease See also Additional images References External links. Origin and insertion. The muscle is composed of two parts. The first and more superior arising from the thyroid cartilage 'thyropharyngeal part' and the second arising from the cricoid cartilage 'cricopharyngeal part'. On the 'thyroid cartilage' it arises from the oblique line on the side of the lamina, from the surface behind this nearly as far as the posterior border and from the inferior cornu. From the 'cricoid cartilage' it arises in the interval between the Cricothyreoideus in front, and the articular facet for the inferior ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferior_pharyngeal_constrictor_muscle
*  Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
... The 'superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle' is a muscle in the pharynx. It is the highest located muscle of the three pharyngeal constrictor s. The muscle is a quadrilateral muscle, thinner and paler than the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle. The muscle can divided into four parts: A pterygopharyngeal, buccopharyngeal, myolopharyngeal and a glossopharyngeal part. Origin and insertion Relations Action Innervation Additional images References External links. Origin and insertion. The four parts of this muscle arise from: - the lower third of the posterior margin of the medial pterygoid plate and its hamulus 'Pterygopharyngeal part' - from the pterygomandibular raphe 'Buccopharyngeal part' - from the alveolar process of the mandible above the posterior end of the mylohyoid line 'Myolopharyngeal part' - and by a few fibers from the side of the tongue 'Glossopharyngeal part'. The fibers curve backward to be inserted into the median raphe, being also prolonged ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superior_pharyngeal_constrictor_muscle
*  Buccopharyngeal fascia
... the buccopharyngeal fascia is a fascia in the head parallel to the carotid sheath and along its medial aspect the pretracheal fascia gives off a thin lamina the buccopharyngeal fascia which closely invests the constrictor muscles of the pharynx and is continued forward from the constrictor pharyngis superior onto the buccinator it is attached to the prevertebral layer by loose connective tissue only and thus an easily distended space the retropharyngeal space is found between them additional images image slide kaka jpg floor of mouth deep dissection anterior view references external links pharynx the pharyngeal constrictor muscles category fascial spaces of the head and neck
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buccopharyngeal_fascia
*  Sinus of Morgagni (pharynx)
sinus of morgagni pharynx sinus of morgagni pharynx in the pharynx the sinus of morgagni is the enclosed space between the upper border of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle the base of the skull and the pharyngeal aponeurosis gray s anatomy chapter in nasopharyngeal carcinoma the tumor may extend laterally and involve this sinus involving the mandibular nerve this produces a triad of symptoms known as trotter s triad these symptoms are conductive deafness due to eustachian tube involvement ipsilateral immobility of the soft palate trigeminal neuralgia references category human head and neck
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinus_of_Morgagni_(pharynx)
*  Cricopharyngeal spasm
... 'Cricopharyngeal spasms' occur in the cricopharyngeus muscle of the pharynx. These spasms are frequently misunderstood by the patient to be cancer due to the 'lump in the throat' feeling Globus pharyngis that is symptomatic of this syndrome. In practice, real lumps in the throat, such as a cancer, are generally not felt until they impede ingestion of food 1. This is one of the reasons that a cancer can get so big before it is discovered. However, a cricopharyngeal spasm is a harmless, if uncomfortable, self-limiting disorder and will resolve itself over a period of time. Physiology Symptoms Causes Cures References External links. Physiology. There are two sphincters in the oesophagus. They are normally contracted and they relax when one swallows so that food can pass through them going to the stomach. If this normal contraction becomes a spasm, these symptoms begin. Symptoms. Sensation of a 'lump' in the back of the throat Throat feels swollen Discomfort - Lump can often feel quite big and pain is ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cricopharyngeal_spasm
*  Dose to the Larynx Predicts for Swallowing Complications Following IMRT and Chemotherapy | Oncol
Dose to the Larynx Predicts for Swallowing Complications Following IMRT and Chemotherapy. Cancer Types. Cancer Types. Bone Cancers. Head and Neck Cancers. Leukemia. Pediatric Cancers. Skin Cancers. Patients. Cancer Treatment. Caglar, MD Presenter's Affiliation: Head and Neck Oncology Program Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA Type of Session: Scientific Background The combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy has improved survival and local control outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate swallowing function after chemotherapy and radiation and to determine which factors are associated with aspiration and stricture. Squamous cell carcinomas from all head and neck sites were included: 43/96 patients had orpharyngeal cancers 17/96 patients had hypopharynx/larynx cancers 13/96 patients had oral cavity cancers 11/96 patients had nasopharyngeal cancers 2/96 patients had maxillary sinus cancers 10/96 patients had unknown ...
http://oncolink.org/conferences/article1.cfm?id=1692&c=295
*  SLUDGE syndrome
... sludge is a mnemonic for the pathological effects indicative of massive discharge of the parasympathetic nervous system unlikely to occur naturally sludge is usually encountered only in cases of drug overdose ingestion of certain poisonous mushroom s particularly the muscarine containing members of the genera inocybe and clitocybe or exposure to nerve gases the symptoms of sludge are due to chronic stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in organs and muscles innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system it is useful to remember some of the symptoms of increased cholinergic stimulation through the mnemonic sludge salivation stimulation of the salivary glands lacrimation stimulation of the lacrimal glands tearing urination relaxation of the internal sphincter muscle of urethra and contraction of the detrusor muscles diaphoresis sweating gastrointestinal upset smooth muscle tone changes causing gastrointestinal problems including diarrhea emesis vomiting an extension is sludgem where the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SLUDGE_syndrome
*  Dose to the Larynx Predicts for Swallowing Complications Following IMRT and Chemotherapy | Oncol
Dose to the Larynx Predicts for Swallowing Complications Following IMRT and Chemotherapy. Oncolink - Cancer Resources. Cancer resources for patients and healthcare professionals. Bone Cancers. Head and Neck Cancers. Cancer Treatment. Distress Screening Response Tools DSRT. Distress Screening Response Tools DSRT. OncoLink University. Find My Cancer Drug A B C D E F G H. The present study was designed to evaluate swallowing function after chemotherapy and radiation and to determine which factors are associated with aspiration and stricture. Materials and Methods The present study is a retrospective analysis of 96 patients treated with chemoradiation from September 2004 to August 2006. Squamous cell carcinomas from all head and neck sites were included: 43/96 patients had orpharyngeal cancers 17/96 patients had hypopharynx/larynx cancers 13/96 patients had oral cavity cancers 11/96 patients had nasopharyngeal cancers 2/96 patients had maxillary sinus cancers 10/96 patients had unknown primaries. No aspiration ...
http://oncolink.org/types/article1.cfm?c=562&id=6214
*  Clean Air Watch: UAW "Proud to Support" EPA Clean-Gas, Clean-Vehicle Proposal
... Clean Air Watch. Resources. Home Donate About Us Blog In the News Resources Sustainability Degrees Contact. Tuesday, April 02, 2013. UAW "Proud to Support" EPA Clean-Gas, Clean-Vehicle Proposal. For immediate release: April 2, 2013. UAW statement on proposed tier 3 standards. DETROIT The UAW commends the Obama administration for proposing new fuel and tailpipe emission standards that will help ensure the U.S. auto industry remains the most advanced and competitive in the world. When combined with the already finalized CAFE standards, the American people can see the commitment of this administration to ensure we continue producing vehicles of the future. Upon full implementation, the proposed rule will reduce the amount of sulfur in our gasoline by two-thirds. This is one of the most cost-effective ways for us to get cleaner and healthier air while strengthening our domestic auto sector and creating thousands of new jobs. The proposed rule is a win for our economy and a win for public health. It is ...
http://cleanairwatch.org/2013/04/uaw-proud-to-support-epa-clean-gas.html
*  Plastics News
UAW presses Flex-N-Gate on wages, worker treatment By: By Brianna Valleskey AUTOMOTIVE NEWS February 14, 2013. DETROIT -- UAW members and supporters rallied Wednesday at a Flex-N-Gate plant in Warren, Mich., and other company facilities to bring attention to what the union cites as mistreatment of workers and lagging wages and benefits. The automotive supplier -- owned by billionaire Shahid Khan and based in Urbana, Ill. UAW President Bob King has made organizing a top priority to rebuild the union's membership ranks. The union held rallies at seven Flex-N-Gate plants in five states to secure a better contract for employees and organize workers at another plant. operations are unionized. Ahead of Wednesday's rallies, the UAW said the demonstrations would "shine a light on the company's treatment of workers at its nonunion facilities" and "support workers bargaining for new contracts." Greg Stoey, vice president of the UAW local that represents employees at Chrysler's proving grounds in Chelsea, Mich., said ...
http://plasticsnews.com/article/20130214/NEWS/130219948/uaw-presses-flex-n-gate-on-wages-worker-treatment&template=printthis&template=printthis
*  Tools - Diabetes Treatment Algorithms
... Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention - Leading the effort to treat and prevent diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives. TRAINING CME/CE Online Education SDPI Grant Training Other Trainings. CLINICAL TOOLS Treatment Algorithms Standards of Care Quick Guide Cards. clinician tools : diabetes treatment algorithms Diabetes Treatment Algorithms The Diabetes Treatment Algorithms were developed to provide clinicians with a quick reference to treatment algorithms based on national guidelines and the Standards of Care and Clinical Practice Recommendations: Type 2 Diabetes. The algorithms are a collaborative effort between Indian health system professionals and have been reviewed by the IHS Division of Diabetes. The Diabetes Treatment Algorithms were developed to provide clinicians with a quick reference to treatment algorithms based on national guidelines and the Standards of Care and Clinical Practice Recommendations: Type 2 Diabetes. The algorithms are a collaborative effort between Indian ...
http://ihs.gov/MedicalPrograms/diabetes/index.cfm?module=toolsDTTreatmentAlgorithm
*  Gene Assessment and Sample Classification for Gene Expression Data Using a Genetic Algorithm / k-ne
... arest Neighbor Method. Immunodeficiency Disorders. Abstracted/Indexed in Gene Assessment and Sample Classification for Gene Expression Data Using a Genetic Algorithm / k-nearest Neighbor Method. Gene Assessment and Sample Classification for Gene Expression Data Using a Genetic Algorithm / k-nearest Neighbor Method Author s : Leping Li, Thomas A. We describe a new method for assessing the importance of genes for sample classification based on expression data. Our approach combines a genetic algorithm GA and the k-nearest neighbor KNN method to identify genes that jointly can discriminate between two types of samples e.g. Identification of a set of differentially expressed genes could aid in tumor diagnosis and could also serve to identify disease subtypes that may benefit from distinct clinical approaches to treatment. Title: Gene Assessment and Sample Classification for Gene Expression Data Using a Genetic Algorithm / k-nearest Neighbor Method VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 8 Author s : ...
http://eurekaselect.com/65075/article
*  .. Coursera course review: Algorithms: Design and Analysis, Part 2 .. Greedy Algorithms .. Dynamic
In the second part the main themes were greedy algorithms, dynamic programming and NP-Complete problems. The greedy algorithms covered were:. Independent set of maximum weight Knapsack problem Sequence alignment Optimal binary search trees Bellman-Ford single-source shortest path Floyd-Warshall all pairs shortest path Johnson’s all pairs shortest path. In the second part, there are 500 items, and the knapsack capacity is 2,000,000. For optimal binary search trees, given n items, each with a given probability of being selected, construct the binary search tree that will minimize the average search time for the items. Next were three different algorithms for finding shortest paths in directed graphs. The Bellman-Ford algorithm finds the shortest path from a source node to all other nodes in the graph, and is developed by using the dynamic programming idea of building the solution from the solution to sub-problems. In this case, the sub-problems consist of the shortest path using only a fixed number of edges. ...
http://henrikwarne.com/2013/02/18/coursera-algorithms-course-part2/
*  Robust Perceptual Image Hashing Based on Ring Partition and NMFRobust Perceptual Image Hashing Based
Robust Perceptual Image Hashing Based on Ring Partition and NMF. Robust Perceptual Image Hashing Based on Ring Partition and NMF. Robust Perceptual Image Hashing Based on Ring Partition and NMF. Zhenjun Tang, Dept. This paper designs an efficient image hashing with a ring partition and a nonnegative matrix factorization NMF, which has both the rotation robustness and good discriminative capability. Robustness, Image coding, Algorithm design and analysis, Vectors, Transform coding, Feature extraction, Watermarking,ring partition, Image hashing, multimedia security, nonnegative matrix factorization. Zhenjun Tang, Xianquan Zhang, Shichao Zhang, "Robust Perceptual Image Hashing Based on Ring Partition and NMF", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol.26, no. Wu, C.C. S Wang and X. Zhang, "Recent Development of Perceptual Image Hashing," J. Abbas, "A Secure and Robust Hash-Based Scheme for Image Authentication," Signal Processing, vol. IEEE Int'l Conf. Z Tang, S. Wang, X. Zhang, W. Su, "Robust ...
http://computer.org/csdl/trans/tk/2014/03/ttk2014030711-abs.html
*  Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications
... A volume edited by Raymond Chiong, Thomas Weise and Zbigniew Michalewicz. Proposals Submission Deadline: 15 DECEMBER 2009 Full Chapters Due: 15 FEBRUARY 2010 Website: http://www.it-weise.de/documents/files/ea-app-book/ Book Objectives Mission: Started as a mere academic curiosity, Evolutionary Algorithms EAs first came into sight back in the 1960s. Standard EAs such as Genetic Algorithms, Evolutionary Programming, Evolution Strategies and Genetic Programming are becoming more and more accepted in the industry and commercial sectors. At the same time, new variants and classes of evolutionary optimisation methods such as Differential Evolution, Estimation of Distribution Algorithms, Cultural Algorithms, Grammatical Evolution, Gene Expression Programming, Cooperative and Competitive Co-evolutionary Algorithms, Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithms, to name just a few, emerged. Recommended topics include, but are not limited to, the following: Methods variants of : Genetic Algorithms Genetic Programming ...
http://it-weise.de/documents/files/ea-app-book/index.html
*  Development and validation of a predictive algorithm to identify adult asthmatics from medical servi
... ces and pharmacy claims databases. The University of British Columbia. Centre for Health Services and Policy Research. Development and validation of a predictive algorithm to identify adult asthmatics from medical services and pharmacy claims databases. Development and validation of a predictive algorithm to identify adult asthmatics from medical services and pharmacy claims databases. Journal Health Services Research. Keywords Adult, Aged, Algorithms, Asthma/epidemiology/prevention control, Drug Prescriptions/statistics numerical data, Female, Health Status Indicators, Humans, Insurance Claim Review/statistics numerical data, Logistic Models, Male, Management Information Systems/statistics numerical data, Mass Screening/methods, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Quebec/epidemiology, Reproducibility of Results, Sensitivity and Specificity, Severity of Illness Index. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate the accuracy of a predictive model to identify adult asthmatics from administrative health ...
http://chspr.ubc.ca/pubs/journal-article/development-and-validation-predictive-algorithm-identify-adult-asthmatics
*  Clonal Selection Algorithm
... in artificial immune systems clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how b and t lymphocyte s improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation these algorithms focus on the darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen antibody interactions reproduction is inspired by cell division and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation clonal selection algorithms are most commonly applied to optimization and pattern recognition domains some of which resemble parallel hill climbing and the genetic algorithm without the recombination operator techniques see also notes external links techniques clonalg the clon al selection alg orithm airs the artificial immune recognition system bca the b cell algorithm see also artificial immune system biologically inspired computing computational immunology computational intelligence evolutionary computation ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clonal_Selection_Algorithm
*  Companion Algorithm
... Skip to Content Skip over Generic Navigation Roche.com. Products. Customer Support. Skip over Search Search. Products. Customer Support. Skip over Breadcrumb You are here: Home. Products. Companion Algorithm. Companion Algorithm image analysis software. A comprehensive, integrated approach VENTANA Companion Algorithm image analysis software is integrated with Virtuoso image and workflow management software, BenchMark IHC/ISH staining instruments and the iScan Coreo slide scanner. Our full breast panel includes HER2 4B5, ER SP1, PR 1E2, Ki-67 30-9 and p53 DO-7 image analysis algorithms for use along with their accompanying VENTANA IHC assays. * All IHC breast markers in the VENTANA portfolio have both image analysis and digital read application FDA 510 k clearances. There are two intended uses obtained with the 510 k clearance: Clinical use of the software algorithm to semi-quantify the biomarker Digital read, or clearance to manually read and score the biomarker using a computer monitor in lieu of a ...
http://ventana.com/products/companionalgorithm
*  CU Aerospace | Genetic Algorithm
CU Aerospace. Genetic Algorithm. Home Technology Gas Phase Lasers Space Propulsion Space Systems Software Aircraft Safety Aerospace Materials Modeling Simulation Genetic Algorithm Microvascular Composites. Products Small-Satellite Propulsion THERMOSYS MATLAB Toolbox BLAZE Multiphysics Simulation Suite VascTech Microvascular Composites. News Publications About The Company The Partners The Engineering Team The Laboratories Engineering Services. Technology > Genetic Algorithm. Genetic Algorithm. What is a Genetic Algorithm. A genetic algorithm is a search/optimization technique based on natural selection. Any users new to the GA world are encouraged to read David Goldberg's Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, 1989. David Carroll My first exposure to genetic algorithms was through Steven Levy's book entitled "Artificial Life." While making a frozen pizza one night, I realized that I could use this fascinating technique as a search method for some of my research. With ...
http://cuaerospace.com/Technology/GeneticAlgorithm.aspx
*  Automatic Calibration of a Hydrological Model Using Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization and T
... OPSIS. Automatic Calibration of a Hydrological Model Using Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization and TOPSIS. The Community for Technology Leaders. CSDL. Institutions and Libraries. Resources. RSS Feeds. Newsletter. Terms of Use. Subscribe. CSDL Home. CSIE. Computer Science and Information Engineering, World Congress on. Subscribe. Automatic Calibration of a Hydrological Model Using Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization and TOPSIS. Los Angeles, California USA. 31, 2009 to Apr. Lei Zhang. Guangbai Cui. DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/CSIE.2009.802. The performance of a hydrological model heavily depends on choosing suitable model parameters. A framework for automatic calibration of a hydrological model named the Xinanjiang model with multiobjectives has been presented. In the calibration framework, a MOPSO algorithm was employed to find the non-dominated front in the objective space, and an entropy-based TOPSIS ranking method was used to rank the non-dominated solutions. ...
http://computer.org/csdl/proceedings/csie/2009/3507/04/3507d617-abs.html
*  IEEE Xplore Abstract - The Fusion Algorithm of
... Genetic and Ant Colony and Its Application. IEEE.org IEEE Xplore Digital Library. IEEE-SA. IEEE Spectrum. Personal Sign In. Personal Sign In. Username. Password. Sign In Forgot Username or Password. Signal Processing & Analysis. Search Alerts. Purchase History. Search History. Get Help. About IEEE Xplore. Feedback. Terms of Use. Author Search. Advanced Search Other Search Options. Citation Search. Search Alerts. Search History. The Fusion Algorithm of Genetic and Ant Colony and Its Application. Username. Password. Forgot Username/Password. Forgot Institutional Username/Password. Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing. IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses. Learn more about: IEEE membership IEEE Xplore subscriptions. No additional formats available for this document. Genetic algorithm GA has ...
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?reload=true&arnumber=5364916&contentType=Conference Publications
*  Discriminative Motif Finding for Predicting Protein Subcellular LocalizationDiscriminative Motif Fin
Discriminative Motif Finding for Predicting Protein Subcellular Localization. Discriminative Motif Finding for Predicting Protein Subcellular Localization. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Discriminative Motif Finding for Predicting Protein Subcellular Localization. Many methods have been described to predict the subcellular location of proteins from sequence information. However, most of these methods either rely on global sequence properties or use a set of known protein targeting motifs to predict protein localization. Here, we develop and test a novel method that identifies potential targeting motifs using a discriminative approach based on hidden Markov models discriminative HMMs. Hidden Markov models, maximal mutual information estimate, discriminative motif finding, protein localization. Tien-ho Lin, Robert F. Murphy, Ziv Bar-Joseph, "Discriminative Motif Finding for Predicting Protein Subcellular Localization", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and ...
http://computer.org/csdl/trans/tb/2011/02/ttb2011020441-abs.html
*  Mean absolute error
... in statistics the mean absolute error mae is a quantity used to measure how close forecasts or predictions are to the eventual outcomes the mean absolute error is given by mathrm mae frac n sum i n left f i y i right frac n sum i n left e i right as the name suggests the mean absolute error is an average of the absolute errors e i f i y i where f i is the prediction and y i the true value note that alternative formulations may include relative frequencies as weight factors the mean absolute error is a common measure of forecast error in time series analysis where the terms mean absolute deviation is sometimes used in confusion with the more standard definition of mean absolute deviation the same confusion exists more generally related measures the mean absolute error is one of a number of ways of comparing forecasts with their eventual outcomes well established alternatives are the mean absolute scaled error mase and the mean squared error these all summarize performance in ways that disregard the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mean_absolute_error
*  A Novel Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Large Scale QoS-Based Service Selection Problem : Algo
a novel ant colony optimization algorithm for large scale qos based service selection problem algorithm x x x set parameters and initialize pheromone trails begin x x x x x x x x x take cost x x x repeat x x x x for each ant k do x x x x x x construct an assignment x x x x x x if fit x c fit then x x x x x x x x x x x x endfor x x x x update pheromone trails x x x until the maximum evaluation number is arrived or x x x x x the other termination condition is satisfied x x x return x x end algorithm aco x f basic
http://hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2013/815193/alg1/
*  4 projects tagged "Genetic Algorithms" – Freecode
... Effective 2014-06-18 Freecode is no longer being updated content may be stale. Browse Projects by Tag. Mac OS X. 4 projects tagged Genetic Algorithms. Genetic Algorit.. AI 3. Artificial Inte.. Optimization 2. artificial life 1. cellular automata 1. genetics 1. Neural Networks 1. Library 1. Astronomy 1. OSCL Type C 1. Freeware 1. LGPL 1. Java 1. Java3D 1. Linux 3. Mac OS X 2. Windows 2. The dANN project is a library to help facilitate artificial neural networks, artificial intelligence, and artificial genetics within other applications. It provides a powerful interface for programs to include conventional artificial intelligence technology and artificial genetics into their code. ca-ga is a toy artificial life simulation that uses genetic algorithms on large cellular automata. The simulation features a mutating fitness function, emergent sex, and a proof of concept real world fitness function. EO is a template-based, ANSI-C++ evolutionary computation library that helps you to write your own stochastic ...
http://freecode.com/tags/genetic-algorithms?page=1&with=&without=23281
*  4 projects tagged "Genetic Algorithms" – Freecode
... Effective 2014-06-18 Freecode is no longer being updated content may be stale. Browse Projects by Tag. Mac OS X. 4 projects tagged Genetic Algorithms. Genetic Algorit.. AI 3. Artificial Inte.. Optimization 2. artificial life 1. cellular automata 1. genetics 1. Neural Networks 1. Library 1. Astronomy 1. OSCL Type C 1. Freeware 1. LGPL 1. Java 1. Java3D 1. Linux 3. Mac OS X 2. Windows 2. The dANN project is a library to help facilitate artificial neural networks, artificial intelligence, and artificial genetics within other applications. It provides a powerful interface for programs to include conventional artificial intelligence technology and artificial genetics into their code. ca-ga is a toy artificial life simulation that uses genetic algorithms on large cellular automata. The simulation features a mutating fitness function, emergent sex, and a proof of concept real world fitness function. EO is a template-based, ANSI-C++ evolutionary computation library that helps you to write your own stochastic ...
http://freecode.com/tags/genetic-algorithms?page=1&with=15976&without=
*  4 projects tagged "Genetic Algorithms" – Freecode
... Effective 2014-06-18 Freecode is no longer being updated content may be stale. Browse Projects by Tag. Mac OS X. 4 projects tagged Genetic Algorithms. Genetic Algorit.. AI 3. Artificial Inte.. Optimization 2. artificial life 1. cellular automata 1. genetics 1. Neural Networks 1. Library 1. Astronomy 1. OSCL Type C 1. Freeware 1. LGPL 1. Java 1. Java3D 1. Linux 3. Mac OS X 2. Windows 2. The dANN project is a library to help facilitate artificial neural networks, artificial intelligence, and artificial genetics within other applications. It provides a powerful interface for programs to include conventional artificial intelligence technology and artificial genetics into their code. ca-ga is a toy artificial life simulation that uses genetic algorithms on large cellular automata. The simulation features a mutating fitness function, emergent sex, and a proof of concept real world fitness function. EO is a template-based, ANSI-C++ evolutionary computation library that helps you to write your own stochastic ...
http://freecode.com/tags/genetic-algorithms?page=1&with=7268&without=
*  4 projects tagged "Genetic Algorithms" – Freecode
... Effective 2014-06-18 Freecode is no longer being updated content may be stale. Browse Projects by Tag. Mac OS X. 4 projects tagged Genetic Algorithms. Genetic Algorit.. AI 3. Artificial Inte.. Optimization 2. artificial life 1. genetics 1. Neural Networks 1. Library 1. Astronomy 1. OSCL Type C 1. Freeware 1. LGPL 1. Java 1. Java3D 1. Linux 3. Mac OS X 2. Windows 2. The dANN project is a library to help facilitate artificial neural networks, artificial intelligence, and artificial genetics within other applications. It provides a powerful interface for programs to include conventional artificial intelligence technology and artificial genetics into their code. EO is a template-based, ANSI-C++ evolutionary computation library that helps you to write your own stochastic optimization algorithms quickly. Evolutionary algorithms form a family of algorithms inspired by the theory of evolution, and solve various problems. The vast majority of these methods are used to solve optimization problems, and may be also ...
http://freecode.com/tags/genetic-algorithms?sort=popularity&with=&without=
*  Case-base retrieval of childhood leukaemia patients using gene expression data
... This thesis proposes a case-base retrieval framework for ALL using a nearest neighbour classifier that can retrieve previously treated patients based on their gene expression data. The main contributions of this thesis are: i a case-base retrieval framework, ii a Balanced Iterative Random Forest algorithm for feature selection, iii a Local Principal Component algorithm for dimensionality reduction and visualization and iv a Weight Learning Genetic algorithm for feature weighting. This thesis introduces Balanced Iterative Random Forest BIRF algorithm for selecting the most relevant features to the disease and discarding the non-relevant genes. Balanced iterative random forest is applied on four cancer microarray datasets: Childhood Leukaemia dataset, Golub Leukaemia dataset, Colon dataset and Lung cancer dataset. The Local Principal Component LPC algorithm introduced in this thesis for visualization is validated on three datasets: Childhood Leukaemia, Swiss-roll and Iris datasets. Significant ...
https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/research/handle/10453/23486
*  .. What Google Won’t Find .. 60 Responses to “What Google Won’t Find”
And the reason is this: if you had a fast algorithm for solving NP-complete problems, then not only could you solve P vs. We believe there’s no algorithm to solve NP-complete problems in deterministic polynomial time. There is no physical means to solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time — not with classical computers, not with quantum computers, not with anything else. We might hope to at least prove that quantum computers can’t solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time unless classical computers can also — but even that, alas, seems far beyond our ability to prove. If quantum computers can’t solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time, it raises an extremely interesting question: is there any physical means to solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time. So, it looks like Nature is solving NP-hard problems in polynomial time. But that didn’t stop two guys a few years ago from writing a paper in which they claimed, not only that soap bubbles solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time, but ...
http://scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=266
*  An Optimal Algorithm for Scheduling Requests on Interleaved Memories for a Pipelined ProcessorAn Opt
An Optimal Algorithm for Scheduling Requests on Interleaved Memories for a Pipelined Processor. An Optimal Algorithm for Scheduling Requests on Interleaved Memories for a Pipelined Processor. CSDL. RSS Feeds. Subscribe. CSDL Home. IEEE Transactions on Computers. Issue No.10 - October. Subscribe. An Optimal Algorithm for Scheduling Requests on Interleaved Memories for a Pipelined Processor. Issue No.10 - October 1981 vol.30. Wah. DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TC.1981.1675697. In this paper an optimal algorithm for scheduling requests on interleaved memories is presented. With this algorithm the average completion time for servicing a finite set of randomly generated requests is proved to be minimum. Performance of this algorithm for nonrandom requests has not been proved. A pipelined processor is used as an example for the generation of nonrandom requests to the memories. Two alternative organizations are investigated, one with a common set of fixed size buffers to store conflicting ...
http://computer.org/csdl/trans/tc/1981/10/01675697-abs.html
*  Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithms for Maximum a Posteriori ECT Reconstruction.
... We propose a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm PAPA for solving the maximum a posteriori MAP emission computed tomography ECT reconstruction problem. We then characterize the solution of the constrained convex optimization problem and show that it satisfies a system of fixed-point equations defined in terms of two proximity operators raised from the convex functions that define the TV-norm and the constrain involved in the problem. The characterization of the solution via the proximity operators that define two projection operators naturally leads to an alternating projection algorithm for finding the solution. For efficient numerical computation, we introduce to the alternating projection algorithm a preconditioning matrix the EM-preconditioner for the dense system matrix involved in the optimization problem. In numerical experiments, performance of our algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioning matrix, is compared with performance of the conventional MAP ...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Preconditioned-Alternating-Projection-Algorithms-Maximum/23271835.html
*  Synthesis of a systolic array genetic algorithm - WestminsterResearch
... . Home. About. Browse. Browse by Year. Browse by Research Community. Browse by Type. Browse by People. Browse by Full text. Advanced Search. Latest Additions. Login repository administrators only. Statistics. Synthesis of a systolic array genetic algorithm. Megson, Graham M. and Bland, Ian M. 1998 Synthesis of a systolic array genetic algorithm. In: Proceedings of the first merged International Parallel Processing Symposium Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing, March 30-April 3, 1998, Orlando, Florida. IEEE, Los Alamitos, USA, pp. 316-320. ISBN 0818684046. Full text not available from this repository. Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IPPS.1998.669933. Abstract. The paper presents the design of a hardware genetic algorithm which uses a pipeline of systolic arrays. Demonstrated is the design methodology where a simple genetic algorithm expressed in C source code is progressively re-written into a recurrence form from which systolic structures can be deduced. The paper extends previous ...
http://westminsterresearch.wmin.ac.uk/5711/
*  Nonnegative matrix
... In mathematics, a 'nonnegative matrix' is a matrix in which all the elements are equal to or greater than zero \mathbf{X} \geq 0, \qquad \forall {i,j}\quad x {ij} \geq 0. A 'positive matrix' is a matrix in which all the elements are greater than zero. The set of positive matrices is a subset of all non-negative matrices. While such matrices are commonly found, the term is only occasionally used due to the possible confusion with positive-definite matrices, which are different. A rectangular non-negative matrix can be approximated by a decomposition with two other non-negative matrices via non-negative matrix factorization. A positive matrix is not the same as a positive-definite matrix. A matrix that is both non-negative and positive semidefinite is called a 'doubly non-negative matrix'. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of square positive matrices are described by the Perron–Frobenius theorem. Inversion Specializations See also Bibliography. Inversion. The inverse of any non-singular M-matrix is a ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonnegative_matrix
*  E-3 SENSOR DATA FUSION ALGORITHM | SBIR.gov
E-3 SENSOR DATA FUSION ALGORITHM. SBIR.gov. SBIR. The SBIR Program SBIR Mission and Program Goals SBIR Participation Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business SBIR Policy Directive SBIR/STTR Inter-agency Policy Committee: Fueling Small Business Innovation Reports Annual Report Transmittal Letters STTR. The STTR Program STTR Mission and Program Goals STTR Participating Agencies Three-Phase Program Competitive Opportunity for Small Business STTR Policy Directive Tibbetts Awards and Hall of Fame. Recognizing Excellence SBIR Hall of Fame Tibbetts Awards Roland Tibbetts SBIR Tibbetts Award Eligibility Selection Process Recent Awards Award Ceremonies FAST Partnership Program. Open Future Closed Solicitation Listing Health-Related Funding Awards. News SBIR Pulse Success Stories SBA Blog SBA Newsletter OSTP Events. Events Webinars Calendar SBIR Road Tour National SBIR/STTR Conference SBIR/STTR Innovation Summit Resources. Home E-3 SENSOR DATA FUSION ALGORITHM E-3 SENSOR DATA FUSION ...
https://sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/85489
*  9780262033848 | Introduction to Algorithms | Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronal
Introduction to Algorithms. FREE SHIPPING ON EVERY ORDER. RENT TEXTBOOKS. RETURN MY RENTAL. SELL TEXTBOOKS. HELP. FREE SHIPPING ON EVERY ORDER. RETURN BY: 12/21/2015 You may extend rentals at any time. Introduction to Algorithms by: Cormen, Thomas H. Our rental program is designed to save you time and money. Top 5 reasons to order all your textbooks from Knetbooks: We have the lowest prices on thousands of popular textbooks Free shipping both ways on ALL orders Most orders ship within 48 hours Need your book longer than expected. Introduction to Algorithms uniquely combines rigor and comprehensiveness. The book covers a broad range of algorithms in depth, yet makes their design and analysis accessible to all levels of readers. The explanations have been kept elementary without sacrificing depth of coverage or mathematical rigor. The second edition featured new chapters on the role of algorithms, probabilistic analysis and randomized algorithms, and linear programming. It includes two completely new chapters, ...
http://knetbooks.com/introduction-algorithms-3rd-cormen-thomas/bk/9780262033848
*  HX100V and HX200V image quality comparison on DPREVIEW: Sony Cyber-shot Talk Forum: Digital Photogra
... phy Review. Log in / Register. News. Reviews. Features. Buying Guide. Sample Images. Videos. Cameras. Lenses. Phones. Printers. Forums. Galleries. Challenges. Forum index. Sony Cyber-shot Talk Change forum HX100V and HX200V image quality comparison on DPREVIEW Started May 9, 2012. Discussions thread. Shop cameras lenses ▾. Forum Parent First Previous Next Next unread. Flat view. SATBIR BILLING. Forum Member. Posts: 58. Like. HX100V and HX200V image quality comparison on DPREVIEW May 9, 2012. Studio images of HX200V are now available on DPREVIEW.When compared to HX100V the HX200V certainly has better resolution on all sensitivity values. Please put your comments also. Reply to thread Reply with quote. Complain. Forum Parent First Previous Next Next unread. Flat view. Post hide subjects. Posted by When HX100V and HX200V image quality comparison on DPREVIEW New. SATBIR BILLING. May 9, 2012. Re: HX100V and HX200V image quality comparison on DPREVIEW New. DavePlugh. May 9, 2012. Re: HX100V and HX200V ...
http://dpreview.com/forums/post/41463008
*  Fast Stochastic Global Optimization Methods and Their Applications to Cluster Crystallization and Pr
... otein Folding - OpenThesis. Upload and Search Theses and Dissertations - OpenThesis. Upload. Search. Help. Fast Stochastic Global Optimization Methods and Their Applications to Cluster Crystallization and Protein Folding. Two global optimization methods are proposed in this thesis. They are the multicanonical basin hopping MUBH method and the basin paving BP method. The MUBH method combines the basin hopping BH method, which can be used to efficiently map out an energy landscape associated with local minima, with the multicanonical Monte Carlo MUCA method, which encourages the system to move out of energy traps during the computation. It is found to be more efficient than the original BH method when applied to the Lennard-Jones systems containing 150-185 particles. The asynchronous multicanonical basin hopping AMUBH method, a parallelization of the MUBH method, is also implemented using the message passing interface MPI to take advantage of the full usage of multiprocessors in either a homogeneous or a ...
http://openthesis.org/documents/Fast-Stochastic-Global-Optimization-Methods-162990.html
*  An ESPC algorithm based approach to solve inventory deployment problem - DORAS - DCU
... Login DCU Staff Only. Browse DORAS. DCU Faculties and Centres. Browse Theses. Search. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed for use under a: Creative Commons Licence. An ESPC algorithm based approach to solve inventory deployment problem Chan, F.T.S. 2007 An ESPC algorithm based approach to solve inventory deployment problem. In: OSCM07 - 2nd International Conference on Operations and Supply Chain Management, 18–20 May 2007, Bangkok, Thailand. In this paper, authors have proposed a new hybrid evolutionary algorithm named Endosymbiotic-Psychoclonal ESPC algorithm to determine the amount and type of product to stock as a semi product in inventory. In the proposed work the ability of previously proposed Psychoclonal algorithm to exploit the search space has been increased by making antibodies and antigen more cooperative interacting species. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm has been tested on randomly generated datasets and the results obtained, are compared with other ...
http://doras.dcu.ie/15779/
*  A topological algorithm for identification of structural domains of proteins
... Library : Archie Home : School of Medicine : SOM Faculty and Staff Research : View Item. A topological algorithm for identification of structural domains of proteins. A topological algorithm for identification of structural domains of proteins. Algorithmic methods of dissecting protein of known structure into domains developed so far are based on an examination of multiple geometrical, physical and topological features. These methods are applicable to sequences with known and unknown structure alike, and their success highlights a fundamental principle of protein modularity, but this does not directly improve our understanding of protein spatial structure.RESULTS:We present a novel graph-theoretical algorithm for the identification of domains in proteins with known three-dimensional structure. We represent the protein structure as an undirected, unweighted and unlabeled graph whose nodes correspond to the secondary structure elements and edges represent physical proximity of at least one pair of alpha ...
http://archie.kumc.edu/handle/2271/586
*  [Solved][Get Rid of PC Optimizer Pro Virus ]How to remove/clean PC Optimizer Pro Virus (Removal Gui
How to remove/clean PC Optimizer Pro Virus Removal Guide. YAC PC Cleaner. GUIDES. Last Virus Guides. How to remove/clean PC Optimizer Pro Virus Removal Guide Have you noticed that your computer is running slowly. Infected by PC Optimizer Pro Virus. PC Optimizer Pro Virus Introduction: There is a new malware infection attacking computers and its name is PC Optimizer Pro. If you see this scam program, you should not waste time and remove PC Optimizer Pro as soon as you can. How to remove PC Optimizer Pro Virus. This antivirus program has proven to be able to remove the virus completely and also clean your system from other infections that might have been downloaded to it. YAC also helps clean up browser homepage and search that are bundled via malicious plug-ins. You can Remove "PC Optimizer Pro Virus " and any other Malware, Virus and Spyware through the next 3 steps. Free Download and Run the virus removal tool: YAC Virus Removal Tool. PC Optimizer Pro Virus should be removed as early as possible. Click the ...
http://yac.mx/en/guides/virus-guides/how-to-remove-pc-optimizer-pro-virus-through-isafe-virus-removal-tool.html
*  Are Google's Algorithms Global & The Same Worldwide?
Are Google's Algorithms Global & The Same Worldwide. Google News. Google SEO. Google Algorithms Are Not The Same In All Countries Google Algorithms Are Not The Same In All Countries Jul 24, 2014 8:20 am. Filed Under Google Search Engine Optimization. Prev Story Next story Tweet. Prev Story Next Story A Black Hat World forum thread asks if Google's algorithms work the same in all the various countries throughout the world. Specific examples include the Google Panda algorithm that launched initially for English language Google engines in February 2011. Then 17 months later, Google pushed it out in Korea and Japan to target Asian languages. While the Google Penguin algorithm was more global, impacting sites in any language. Well, if the algorithm is around language and content, then different languages require different algorithms or support for those languages. Then you have algorithms like spam algorithm aka Payday Loan algorithm that target specific niches and not countries. So the long answer is that some ...
https://seroundtable.com/global-google-algorithms-18896.html
*  Peterson's algorithm
... The algorithm Mutual exclusion. Filter algorithm: Peterson's algorithm for more than two processes. The filter algorithm generalizes Peterson's algorithm to processes. The registers can be represented in pseudocode as arrays: level : array of N integers last to enter : array of N−1 integers. Process exits the inner loop when there is either no process with a higher level than, so the next waiting room is free; or, when, so another process joined its waiting room. At level zero, then, even if all processes were to enter waiting room zero at the same time, no more than will proceed to the next room, the final one finding itself the last to enter the room., until at the final level, only one process is allowed to leave the waiting room and enter the critical section, giving mutual exclusion. The algorithm can also be shown to be starvation-free, meaning that all processes that enter the loop eventually exit it assuming they don't stay in the critical section indefinitely. At all lower levels, it is ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peterson's_algorithm
*  Google Releases Version 2 Of Spam Algorithm Over Weekend
... Google News. Google Updates. Google Spam Algorithm Version 2.0 Released Over Weekend Google Spam Algorithm Version 2.0 Released Over Weekend May 21, 2014 8:02 am. Filed Under Google PageRank & Algorithm Updates. Prev Story Next story Tweet. Prev Story Next Story As I broke last night, Google has released an update to the Payday Loan Algorithm also known as the Google Spam Algorithm over the weekend. The Spam Algorithm specifically targets spammy queries such as payday loan, viagra, and the related types of queries that spammers target heavily. Matt Cutts described the algorithm before they launched it initially a year ago in this video:. This update impacted English queries by about 0.2% to a noticeable degree, Google's Matt Cutts told me. The previous one impacted impacted English queries by 0.3% but was much more noticeable outside of the English language. I suspect those were tests for both this Google Spam Algorithm version 2.0 and the Panda 4.0 release. This past weekend we started rolling out a ...
https://seroundtable.com/google-spam-algorithm-updated-18580.html
*  Singular Value Decomposition | Mathematical Association of America
Singular Value Decomposition. Member Discount Programs. Portrait Gallery. Calendar of Events. MAA Distinguished Lecture Series. MAA MathFest. Mathematical Sessions. Minicourses. Other Mathematical Sessions. Undergraduate Student Activities. SIGMAA Activities. MAA Policies. MAA Section Meetings. You are here Home » Singular Value Decomposition Singular Value Decomposition. A fresh approach to the singular value decomposition Course Community A Singularly Valuable Decomposition: The SVD of a Matrix Course Community Surface Approximation and Interpolation via Matrix SVD Course Community Full Rank Factorization of Matrices Course Community Singular Vectors Subtle Secrets Course Community Understanding Singular Vectors Course Community Conceptual Linear Algebra Online Course Community Pseudoinverse Course Community We Recommend a Singular Value Decomposition Course Community A Constructive Approach to Singular Value Decomposition and Symmetric Schur Factorization Course Community Online Matrix Calculator Course ...
http://maa.org/topics/singular-value-decomposition
*  Inogen One G2 Gross Particle Filter
... 1st Class Medical. Call For Daily Specials. 1-800-520-5726. . Your Subtitle text. Home AirSep Focus AirSep FreeStyle AirSep Freestyle 5 Inogen One Inogen One G2 Inogen One G3 Invacare XPO2 LifeChoice Lifechoice Activox Oxus Reliability Plus Respironics Evergo Devilbiss iGO Invacare SOLO2 Oxlife Independence Respironics SimplyGo SeQual Eclipse 5 Used Oxygen Concentrator Rental Oxygen AirSep VisionAire Invacare HomeFill 2 Invacare Perfecto 2 Respironics Everflo Q Respironics SimplyFlo Cough Assist Pulse Oximeters About Us Contact Us Privacy Policy Return Policy. Inogen One G2 Gross Particle Filter. The Inogen One G2 Gross Particle Filter is designed to filter out any pieces of matter from getting inside the machine. The gross particle filter plays an essential role in your machine's filtration process. Without the Inogen One G2 Gross Particle Filter your machine would struggle to provide medical grade oxygen and it will need to be sent in for servicing. Make sure you wash your gross particle filters with ...
http://portable-oxygen-concentrators.net/Inogen_One_G2_Filter.html
*  Level-wise Frequent Pattern Discovery
level wise frequent pattern discovery next experiments up adapting ilp algorithms to previous other algorithms based on level wise frequent pattern discovery an alternative family of data mining algorithms scans the refinement lattice in a breadth first manner for queries whose frequency exceeds some user defined threshold the best known instance of these level wise algorithms is the a priori method for finding frequent item sets w armr is an ilp variant of attribute value based a priori query packs in w armr correspond to hash trees of item sets in a priori both are used to store a subgraph of the total refinement lattice down to level the paths from the root down to level in that subgraph correspond to frequent patterns the paths from root to the leaves at depth correspond to candidates whose frequency has to be computed like hash trees in a priori query packs in w armr exploit massive similarity between candidates to make their evaluation more efficient essentially the w armr algorithm starts with an ...
http://cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/jair/pub/volume16/blockeel02a-html/node14.html
*  Java Evolutionary Computation Toolkit
... ECJ is a freeware evolutionary computation research system written in Java. It is a framework that supports a variety of evolutionary computation techniques, such as genetic algorithms, genetic programming, evolution strategies, coevolution, particle swarm optimization, and differential evolution. The framework models iterative evolutionary processes using a series of pipelines arranged to connect one or more subpopulations of individuals with selection, breeding such as crossover, and mutation operators that produce new individuals. Asynchronous island models over TCP/IP Master/Slave evaluation over multiple processors Genetic Algorithms/Programming style Steady State and Generational evolution, with or without Elitism Evolutionary-Strategies style mu,lambda and mu+lambda evolution Very flexible breeding architecture Many selection operators Multiple subpopulations and species Inter-subpopulation exchanges Reading populations from files Single- and Multi-population coevolution SPEA2 multiobjective ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_Evolutionary_Computation_Toolkit
*  algorithm - Worst Case Performance of Quicksort - Stack Overflow
... Stack Overflow. Meta Stack Overflow. Stack Overflow Careers. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. stack overflow careers. Stack Overflow Questions. Worst Case Performance of Quicksort. I am trying to prove the following worst-case scenario for the Quicksort algorithm but am having some trouble. I have drawn out the recursive tree of some examples and understand why this is a worst-case scenario and that the running time will be theta n 2. algorithm quicksort asymptotic-complexity share. Pay attention, the quicksort algorithm worst case scenario is when you have two subproblems of size 0 and n-1. In this scenario, you have this recurrence equations for each level: T n = T n-1 + T 0 -- at first level of tree T n-1 = T n-2 + T 0 -- at second level of tree T n-2 = T n-3 + T 0 -- at third level of tree. user1609518 Aug 19 '12 at 13:29. Based on the algorithms literature, this is the only worst-case scenario for quick sort algorithm. There aren't other worst case ...
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/12023760/worst-case-performance-of-quicksort
*  A Minimax Fitting Algorithm for Ultra-Precision Aspheric Surfaces - University of Huddersfield Rep
... ository. Our Schools and Departments. A Minimax Fitting Algorithm for Ultra-Precision Aspheric Surfaces. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RIOXX2 XML RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. 2011 A Minimax Fitting Algorithm for Ultra-Precision Aspheric Surfaces. In: The 13th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 12-15 April 2011, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK. Abstract Aspheric lenses show significant superiority over traditional spherical ones. The peak-to-valley form deviation is an important criterion for surface qualities of optical lenses. In this paper the form errors of aspheric surfaces are evaluated in the sense of minimum zone, i.e. to directly minimize the peak-to-valley deviation from the data points to the nominal surface. The control parameters are obtained ...
http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/9417/
*  Merge Algorithm Common Lisp | RM.com ®
Merge Algorithm Common Lisp. Merge Algorithm Common Lisp A selection of articles related to merge algorithm common lisp. Original articles from our library related to the Merge Algorithm Common Lisp. See Table of Contents for further available material downloadable resources on Merge Algorithm Common Lisp. Religion & Philosophy >> Religions Religions >> Paganism & Wicca All One People Standing in their Circle, a group of people reverently turn to face and address the four directions. Religions >> Paganism & Wicca Religions >> Native American, Shamanism Archetypal Astrology Jungian Psychology. Paganism & Wicca >> Holidays Story of the Celts: Who are the Celts. History & Anthropology >> Celtic & Irish Merge Algorithm Common Lisp is described in multiple online sources, as addition to our editors' articles, see section below for printable documents, Merge Algorithm Common Lisp books and related discussion. Suggested Pdf Resources COMMON LISP : A Gentle Introduction to Symbolic Computation the Common Lisp ...
http://realmagick.com/merge-algorithm-common-lisp/
*  The Department of Computational & Applied Mathematics at Rice University
PDF File 265 KB Mixed Variable Optimization of a Load-Bearing Thermal Insulation System Using a Filter Pattern Search Algorithm Mark A. However, this algorithm may not work for problems with general nonlinear constraints. Key words : Optimization, nonsmooth optimization, thermal insulation, heat intercepts, categorical variables, mixed variable programming, pattern search algortihm, filter algorithm, nonlinear constraints. PDF File 960 KB Pattern Search Algorithms for Mixed Variable General Constrained Optimization Problems Mark A. The Audet-Dennis Generalized Pattern Search GPS algorithm for bound constrained mixed variable optimization problems is extended to problems with general nonlinear constraints by incorporating a filter, in which new iterates are accepted whenever they decrease the incumbent objective function value or constraint violation function value. PS File 1120 KB A Global Optimization Method for the Molecular Replacement Problem in X-ray Crystallography Diane C. Key words : Molecular ...
http://caam.rice.edu/caam/trs/2002_abstracts.html
*  HeuristicLab
History Features Supported Algorithms Supported Problems See also References External links. 'Algorithm Designer' One of the features that distinguishes HeuristicLab from many other metaheuristic software frameworks is the algorithm designer. HeuristicLab allows to model algorithms in a graphical way without having to write any source code. Genetic Algorithm Age-layered Population Structure ALPS Genetic Programming Evolution Strategy Island Genetic Algorithm Island Offspring Selection Genetic Algorithm RAPGA SASEGASA. 3 Offspring Selection Evolution Strategy OSES Offspring Selection Genetic Algorithm CMA-ES. Ensemble Modeling Gaussian Process Regression and Classification Gradient Boosted Trees Local Search Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II Particle Swarm Optimization Parameter-less population pyramid P3 Robust Taboo Search Scatter Search Simulated Annealing Tabu Search Variable Neighborhood Search Performance Benchmarks Cross Validation k-Means Linear Discriminant Analysis Linear Regression ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HeuristicLab
*  Bühlmann decompression algorithm
... The 'Bühlmann decompression algorithm' is a mathematical model algorithm of the way in which inert gases enter and leave the human body as the ambient pressure changes. It is used to create 'Bühlmann tables'. These are decompression tables which allow divers to plan the depth and duration for dives and show decompression stops when necessary. The algorithm was developed by Swiss physician Dr. Albert A. Bühlmann, who did research into decompression theory at the Laboratory of Hyperbaric Physiology at the University Hospital in Zürich, Switzerland. The book was regarded as the most complete public reference on decompression calculations and was used soon after in dive computer algorithms. Principles Tables References Further reading External links. Principles. Building on the previous work of John Scott Haldane and Robert Workman, and working off funding from Shell Oil Company, Bühlmann designed studies to establish the longest half-times of nitrogen and helium in human tissues. The naming convention he ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bühlmann_decompression_algorithm
*  Robotics/Computer Control/Control Architectures/Swarm Robotics - Wikibooks, open books for an open w
... orld. Robotics/Computer Control/Control Architectures/Swarm Robotics From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Robotics. Computer Control/Control Architectures Jump to: navigation, search. 3 Ant Colony Optimization ACO : 4 Particle Swarm Optimization PSO. Swarm robotics is a relatively new study in the world of autonomous robotics. On first hearing the phrase “swarm robotics” many simply think of basic interactions of robots such as follow the leader or simply data relayed between robots all traveling towards a common goal. Robots may now be given a goal and a basic suggestion on how to meet that goal. Several techniques covered here include Ant Colony Optimization ACO and Particle Swarm Optimization PSO. Basic Swarm Robotics:. Ant Colony Optimization ACO :. This means, ants are more likely to travel a trail with a stronger intensity of pheromones. However if the same number of ants travel a long trail and a short trail over the same period of time the intensity of pheromones will be greater on the ...
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Robotics/Computer_Control/Control_Architectures/Swarm_Robotics
*  Multi-response optimization strategy for catalyst compositions and process parameters design for CO
... 2-OCM process over CaO-MnO/CeO2 catalyst - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository Home. About. Browse by Year. Browse by Subject. Browse by Division. Browse by Types. Login. Multi-response optimization strategy for catalyst compositions and process parameters design for CO2-OCM process over CaO-MnO/CeO2 catalyst. Istadi, Istadi and Saidina Amin, Nor Aishah 2004 Multi-response optimization strategy for catalyst compositions and process parameters design for CO2-OCM process over CaO-MnO/CeO2 catalyst. In: 18th Symposium of Malaysian Chemical Engineers SOMChe 2004, 13 - 14 Dec. 2004, UTP, Perak, Malaysia. Preview. PDF. 1MB. Abstract The catalytic CO2-OCM Carbon Dioxide Oxidative Coupling of Methane reaction to produce C2+ hydrocarbons is considered to be one of the most effective uses of natural gas in the gas-based petrochemical industries. A new hybrid numerical approach, using Weighted Sum of Squared Objective Functions WSSOF ...
http://eprints.utm.my/5976/
*  GLGETTEXIMAGE(3G) manual page
The supported types are GL UNSIGNED BYTE, GL BYTE, GL UNSIGNED SHORT, GL SHORT, GL UNSIGNED INT, GL INT, GL FLOAT, GL UNSIGNED BYTE 3 3 2, GL UNSIGNED BYTE 2 3 3 REV, GL UNSIGNED SHORT 5 6 5, GL UNSIGNED SHORT 5 6 5 REV, GL UNSIGNED SHORT 4 4 4 4, GL UNSIGNED SHORT 4 4 4 4 REV, GL UNSIGNED SHORT 5 5 5 1, GL UNSIGNED SHORT 1 5 5 5 REV, GL UNSIGNED INT 8 8 8 8, GL UNSIGNED INT 8 8 8 8 REV, GL UNSIGNED INT 10 10 10 2, and GL UNSIGNED INT 2 10 10 10 REV. Single-component textures are treated as RGBA buffers with red set to the single-component value, green set to 0, blue set to 0, and alpha set to 1. Two-component textures are treated as RGBA buffers with red set to the value of component zero, alpha set to the value of component one, and green and blue set to 0. Finally, three-component textures are treated as RGBA buffers with red set to component zero, green set to component one, blue set to component two, and alpha set to 1. The types GL UNSIGNED BYTE 3 3 2, GL UNSIGNED BYTE 2 3 3 REV, GL UNSIGNED SHORT 5 6 ...
http://x.org/releases/X11R7.0/doc/html/glGetTexImage.3.html
*  DSpace at IIT Bombay: Fast on-line/off-line algorithms for optimal reinforcement of a network and it
... s connections with principal partition. Search DSpace. Issue Date. Title. Receive email updates. Edit Profile. Help. About DSpace. DSpace at IIT Bombay. IITB Publications. Proceedings papers. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://dspace.library.iitb.ac.in/jspui/handle/100/1898. Title: Fast on-line/off-line algorithms for optimal reinforcement of a network and its connections with principal partition. Keywords: lattice polymatroids strength. Issue Date: 2000. Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. Abstract: The problem of computing the strength and performing optimal reinforcement for an edge-weighted graph G V, E, w is well-studied. In this paper, we present fast sequential linear time and parallel logarithmic time on-line algorithms for optimally reinforcing the graph when the reinforcement material is available continuosly online. Although we invest some time in preprocessing the graph before the start of our algorithms, it is also shown that the output of our on-line algorithms ...
http://dspace.library.iitb.ac.in/jspui/handle/100/1898
*  Design and multiobjective optimization of a novel reactive extrusion process for the production of n
... anostructured PA12/ PDMS blends. Design and multiobjective optimization of a novel reactive extrusion process for the production of nanostructured PA12/ PDMS blends. Keywords: PA12/PDMS nanosturured blends, reactive extrusion, process design, multiobjective optimization. This work deals with the manufacture, by reactive extrusion, of Polyamide 12 PA12 / Polydimethylsiloxane PDMS nanostructured blends, with the purpose of improving the mechanical properties of PA12. In this process, the continuous phase PA12 is synthesized in the extruder in the presence of i the dispersed phase PDMS, ii a new and particularly efficient catalytic system composed of aluminium hydride as catalyst and MDI caprolactam as activator and iii a macro-activator functionalized PDMS: dicarbamoyloxy caprolactam-PDMS well suited to develop in situ a tri-block PA12-PDMS-PA12 copolymer acting as compatibilizer. Preliminary reactive extrusion experiments were then carried out to study the effect of the ...
http://nsti.org/procs/Nanotech2010v1/6/T30.704
*  Neville's algorithm
... In mathematics, 'Neville's algorithm' is an algorithm used for polynomial interpolation that was derived by the mathematician Eric Harold Neville. Given 'n' + 1 points, there is a unique polynomial of degree '≤ n' which goes through the given points. Neville's algorithm evaluates this polynomial. Neville's algorithm is based on the Newton form of the interpolating polynomial and the recursion relation for the divided differences. It is similar to Aitken's algorithm named after Alexander Aitken, which is nowadays not used. The algorithm Application to numerical differentiation References External links. The algorithm. Given a set of 'n'+1 data points 'x' 'i', 'y' 'i' where no two 'x' 'i' are the same, the interpolating polynomial is the polynomial 'p' of degree at most 'n' with the property. :'p' 'x' 'i' = 'y' 'i' for all 'i' = 0,,'n' This polynomial exists and it is unique. Neville's algorithm evaluates the polynomial at some point 'x'. Let 'p' 'i','j' denote the polynomial of degree 'j' 'i' which goes ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neville's_algorithm
*  Advanced Vista Optimizer 2009 - Free download and software reviews - CNET Download.com
... REVIEWS. DOWNLOAD. Diagnostic Software Advanced Vista Optimizer 2009 Advanced Vista Optimizer 2009 Download Now Secure Download. Advanced Vista Optimizer is a comprehensive set of 25+ tools to boost up your system's performance. User Reviews +. Since you've already submitted a review for this product, this submission will be added as an update to your original review. Previous Versions: Select a version Advanced Vista Optimizer 2009 3.5 Advanced Vista Optimizer 2008 3.0 Advanced Vista Optimizer 2008 Boost XP 2.00 Boost XP 2.00 BoostXP 2.00 Boost XP 1.47 Boost XP 1.46 Boost XP 1.45 Boost XP 1.45 Boost XP 1.44 Boost XP 1.44 Boost XP 1.29 Boost XP 1.28.9 Boost XP 1.28.8 Boost XP 1.28.8 Boost XP 1.28.7 Boost XP 1.28.6 Boost XP 1.28.5 Boost XP 1.28.4 Boost XP 1.1.7.9 Boost XP 1.18 Boost XP 1.17.9 Boost XP 1.1 Boost XP 1.1 Boost XP 1.02 Boost XP 1.01.1 Boost XP 1.01.1 Boost XP 1.01 Boost XP 1.0.2 Boost XP 1.01 Boost XP 1.00.1 Boost XP 1.0 Boost XP 1.0 Advanced Vista Optimizer 2008 3 Advanced Vista Optimizer ...
http://download.cnet.com/Advanced-Vista-Optimizer-2009/3000-2086_4-10162883.html
*  A Hybrid Metaheuristic for Multiple Runways Aircraft Landing Problem Based on Bat Algorithm
... Hybrid metaheuristic based on bat algorithm is proposed in detail to solve multiple runways aircraft landing problem in Section 3. = the number of runways;., then a new position is generated around the current global best position for each individual, which is the equal to local search. is greater than a random number, then the new position is accepted and its pulse emission rate. For example, if we have three runways and ten aircrafts, the coded individual with integer is 1→3→2→2→3→2→1→2→1→3 Figure 1 shows that the aircrafts 1, 7, and 9 land on runway number 1, the aircrafts 3, 4, 6 and 8 land on runway number 2, the aircrafts 2, 5, and 10 land on runway number 3. Hybrid Bat Algorithm In original bat algorithm framework, the idea is that, firstly, the bat individual randomly selects a certain frequency of sonic pulse, and the position of bat individual is updated according to its selected frequency; secondly, if a random number is greater than its pulse emission rate., then a new position is generated ...
http://hindawi.com/journals/jam/2013/742653/
*  Official Google statements about the latest algorithm update
... Free SEO news SEO software Link building Keyword suggestion tool Ranking checker. Weekly SEO news: 8 March 2011. Welcome to the latest issue of the Search Engine Facts newsletter. Google's Amit Singhal and Matt Cutts commented on Google's latest ranking algorithm update. Their comments reveal why Google released the update which was named Panda. Also in the news: a new Google patent reveals more information about Google's plans, there's an official online discussion for people who have been hit by the update, is a California IP address good for high rankings and more. Table of contents: Facts of the week. Search engine news and articles of the week. Success stories. Previous articles. We hope that you enjoy this newsletter and that it helps you to get more out of your website. Please pass this newsletter on to your friends. Best regards,. 1 Official Google statements about the latest algorithm update. Google's Amit Singhal and Matt Cutts commented on Google's latest ranking algorithm update. Their ...
http://free-seo-news.com/newsletter463.htm
*  Significance of cross correlations in the stress relaxation of polymer melts
... all Scitation. The Journal of Chemical Physics. AIP Publishing AVS: Science Technology of Materials, Interfaces, and Processing Acoustical Society of America American Association of Physicists in Medicine American Association of Physics Teachers American Crystallographic Association, Inc. The Journal of Chemical Physics Recommend this title to your library. AIP Publishing. The Journal of Chemical Physics. Article. Significance of cross correlations in the stress relaxation of polymer melts. Scitation Author Page. PubMed. Google Scholar. 126, 244904 2007 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2746867. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cross correlations make a significant contribution to the partial stress relaxationfunctions in polymer melts. We present two illustrations in the context of polymer rheology using 1 Brownian dynamics simulations of a single chain model for entangled polymers, the slip-spring model, and 2 molecular dynamics simulations of a multichain model. Using the single chain model, we ...
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jcp/126/24/10.1063/1.2746867
*  dblp: Raul Baños
dblp: Raul Ba os. Raul Ba os. export bibliography BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp keys. dblp key: homepages/b/RaulBanos. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: journals/eswa/KimovskiOOB15. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. PubZone Dragi Kimovski,. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: conf/evoW/KimovskiOOB15. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. PubZone Dragi Kimovski,. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: conf/cluster/KimovskiOOB14. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. PubZone Dragi Kimovski,. view electronic edition via DOI. export record BibTeX. RIS. RDF. XML. dblp key: conf/evoW/BanosOG14. ask others Google. Google Scholar. MS Academic Search. PubZone Raul Ba os,. Consolaci n Gil : Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms for Vehicle Routing Problems. view ...
http://dblp.uni-trier.de/pers/hd/b/Ba=ntilde=os:Raul.html
*  lo.logic - practical algorithms for np complete problems - MathOverflow
... Stack Exchange. practical algorithms for np complete problems. up vote 5 down vote favorite 2. Inspired by: Conjecture on NP-completeness of tesselation of Wang Tile up to finite size And the practicality of this topic solving tessellation on a lattice : coloring in lattice Computational approach deciding whether a set of Wang Tile could tile the space up to some size Reference for Wang Tile I want to ask for practitioner what kind of software/programmes/algorithms that are usually used to tackle NP complete problems. lo.logic computational-complexity computability-theory open-problem share. add a comment. SAT/CP are really good at decision-problems Mathematical Programming is really good at optimization problems discrete vs. answered Mar 28 '14 at 23:11. add a comment. up vote 6 down vote. I've been told that SAT-solvers have gotten good enough that the known reductions of other NP problems to SAT are often a reasonable approach to solving those other problems. answered Mar 28 '14 at 21:32. add a ...
http://mathoverflow.net/questions/161731/practical-algorithms-for-np-complete-problems
*  Petkovšek's algorithm
petkovšek s algorithm petkovšek s algorithm petkovšek s algorithm is a computer algebra algorithm that computes a basis of hypergeometric terms solution of its input linear recurrence equation with polynomial coefficients equivalently it computes a first order right factor of linear difference operator s with polynomial coefficients this algorithm is implemented in all the major computer algebra systems examples given the linear recurrence n n n a n n n n a n n n n a n the algorithm finds two linearly independent hypergeometric terms that are solution frac gamma left n right gamma left n right left frac right n qquad frac gamma left n right gamma left n right gamma left n right gamma left n right left frac right n here gamma denotes euler s gamma function note that the second solution is also a binomial coefficient binom n n but it is not the aim of this algorithm to produce binomial expressions given the sum a n sum k n binom n k binom n k k coming from apéry s proof of the irrationality of zeta zeilberger ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petkovšek's_algorithm
*  Computer Science Theses
... Toggle navigation. Toggle navigation. Computer Science Theses. LoboVault Home. UNM Academic and Scholarly Communications. Computer Science. Computer Science Theses. LoboVault Home. UNM Academic and Scholarly Communications. Computer Science Computer Science Theses. Computer Science Theses. Date Authors Titles Subjects. Search within this collection:. Treating cancer using charged particles heavier than electrons is becoming more and more popular in modern cancer management due to its increased dose to the targeted tumors and improved sparing of surrounding normal tissues ... Improving peer review with ACORN : Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for Reviewer's Network . Flynn, Mark. Spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of food is an important determinant of species' optimal foraging strategies, and of the dynamics of populations and communities. Fleharty, Mark. Photon-based radiosurgery is widely used for treating local and regional tumors. The key to improving the quality of radiosurgery is to ...
https://repository.unm.edu/handle/1928/10608
*  Pololu AVR Library Command Reference
static unsigned int OrangutanAnalog:: readMillivolts unsigned char channel. static unsigned int OrangutanAnalog:: readAverage unsigned char channel, unsigned int numSamples. unsigned int analog read average unsigned char channel, unsigned int numSamples. static unsigned int OrangutanAnalog:: readAverageMillivolts unsigned char channel, unsigned int numSamples. unsigned int analog read average millivolts unsigned char channel, unsigned int numSamples. static void OrangutanBuzzer:: playFrequency unsigned int frequency, unsigned int duration, unsigned char volume. void play frequency unsigned int freq, unsigned int duration, unsigned char volume. static void OrangutanLCD:: scroll unsigned char direction, unsigned char distance, unsigned int delay time. // configure pins PD0 and PD1 as pulse input channels pulse in start unsigned char {IO D0, IO D1}, 2 ; // configure pins PD0 and PD1 as pulse input channels OrangutanPulseIn::start unsigned char {IO D0, IO D1}, 2 ; static void ...
https://pololu.com/docs/0J18/all

Glossary of scientific names: A glossary of the meaning of scientific names of living things, viruses and prions .Sinus of Morgagni (pharynx): In the pharynx, the sinus of Morgagni is the enclosed space between the upper border of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, the base of the skull and the pharyngeal aponeurosis.Gray's Anatomy 1918, Chapter: The PharynxClonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Nuclear receptor related-1 protein: The Nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1) also known as NR4A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR4A2 gene. NURR1 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors.Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: MICAI (short for Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence) is the name of an annual conference covering all areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI), held in Mexico. The first MICAI conference was held in 2000.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityHydroflumethiazideCorinna CortesAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.List of birds of Yemen: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Yemen. The avifauna of Yemen include a total of 432 species, of which thirteen are endemic, two have been introduced by humans and twenty-five are rare or accidental.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Computer-aided diagnosis: In radiology, computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are procedures in medicine that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images. Imaging techniques in X-ray, MRI, and Ultrasound diagnostics yield a great deal of information, which the radiologist has to analyze and evaluate comprehensively in a short time.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Physical neural network: A physical neural network is a type of artificial neural network in which an electrically adjustable resistance material is used to emulate the function of a neural synapse. "Physical" neural network is used to emphasize the reliance on physical hardware used to emulate neurons as opposed to software-based approaches which simulate neural networks.List of diseases (Y): This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "Y".Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.Recursive partitioning: Recursive partitioning is a statistical method for multivariable analysis. Recursive partitioning creates a decision tree that strives to correctly classify members of the population by splitting it into sub-populations based on several dichotomous independent variables. The process is termed recursive because each sub-population may in turn be split an indefinite number of times until the splitting process terminates after a particular stopping criterion is reached.Protein subcellular localization prediction: Protein subcellular localization prediction (or just protein localization prediction) involves the computational prediction of where a protein resides in a cell.Child Health International: Child Health International (CHI) is a Winchester (UK)-based charity, with a proven record of success in improving the healthcare of children in Russia, Eastern Europe and a new project to help children with cystic fibrosis in India.Winchester City Council - Child Health International exhibition, 5 - 21 August 2005.Oculomotor nerve palsyInverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Human Proteinpedia: Human Proteinpedia is a portal for sharing and integration of human proteomic data,.Kandasamy et al.RV coefficient: In statistics, the RV coefficientVague setDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Coles PhillipsHyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.CholecystographyMedical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Process mining: Process mining is a process management technique that allows for the analysis of business processes based on event logs. The basic idea is to extract knowledge from event logs recorded by an information system.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.CS-BLASTConference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.HyperintensityQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry: Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique formed by the combination of the liquid separation process of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. CE-MS combines advantages of both CE and MS to provide high separation efficiency and molecular mass information in a single analysis.AlprazolamList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Superior vena cava syndromeTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingWKT (sealant): WKT is sealing compound which was developed by Paul Pietzschke, Chemisch-Technische Fabrik, Hamburg, Germany in 1962 specifically to meet the stringent requirements in the yacht and ship building industry. WKT belongs to the silicone group of sealants.Nventa Biopharmaceuticals CorporationRhizobiaImmersive technologySemantic translation: Semantic translation is the process of using semantic information to aid in the translation of data in one representation or data model to another representation or data model. Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system.CitrullineInterval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.VisionxNursing care plan: A nursing care plan outlines the nursing care to be provided to an individual/family/community. It is a set of actions the nurse will implement to resolve/support nursing diagnoses identified by nursing assessment.DBASS3/5The Unscrambler: The Unscrambler® X is a commercial software product for multivariate data analysis, used for calibration of multivariate data which is often in the application of analytical data such as near infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and development of predictive models for use in real-time spectroscopic analysis of materials. The software was originally developed in 1986 by Harald MartensHarald Martens, Terje Karstang, Tormod Næs (1987) Improved selectivity in spectroscopy by multivariate calibration Journal of Chemometrics 1(4):201-219 and later by CAMO Software.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element: The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) is a sequence element found in the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNA. The most common CPE sequence is UUUUAU, though there are other variations.World Lymphoma Awareness Day: World Lymphoma Awareness Day (WLAD) is held on September 15 every year and is a day dedicated to raising awareness of lymphoma, an increasingly common form of cancer. It is a global initiative hosted by the Lymphoma Coalition (LC), a non-profit network organisation of 63 lymphoma patient groups from 44 countries around the world.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Gross Motor Function Classification System: The Gross Motor Function Classification System or GMFCS is a 5 level clinical classification system that describes the gross motor function of people with cerebral palsy on the basis of self-initiated movement abilities. Particular emphasis in creating and maintaining the GMFCS scale rests on evaluating sitting, walking, and wheeled mobility.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Primary Health Care and Resource Centre: The Primary Health Care and Resource Center (PHCRC) is in the rural village of Chapagaun, Lalitpur in Nepal. Chapagaun is in the wider Kathmandu Valley.St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church (Calgary, Alberta): St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church is an historic Carpenter Gothic style Roman Catholic church building located at 14608 Macleod Trail in the Midnapore neighbourhood in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.STO-nG basis sets: STO-nG basis sets are minimal basis sets, where n primitive Gaussian orbitals are fitted to a single Slater-type orbital (STO). n originally took the values 2 - 6.Proteasome: Proteasomes are protein complexes inside all eukaryotes and archaea, and in some bacteria. The main function of the proteasome is to degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.

(1/1056) HICLAS: a taxonomic database system for displaying and comparing biological classification and phylogenetic trees.

MOTIVATION: Numerous database management systems have been developed for processing various taxonomic data bases on biological classification or phylogenetic information. In this paper, we present an integrated system to deal with interacting classifications and phylogenies concerning particular taxonomic groups. RESULTS: An information-theoretic view (taxon view) has been applied to capture taxonomic concepts as taxonomic data entities. A data model which is suitable for supporting semantically interacting dynamic views of hierarchic classifications and a query method for interacting classifications have been developed. The concept of taxonomic view and the data model can also be expanded to carry phylogenetic information in phylogenetic trees. We have designed a prototype taxonomic database system called HICLAS (HIerarchical CLAssification System) based on the concept of taxon view, and the data models and query methods have been designed and implemented. This system can be effectively used in the taxonomic revisionary process, especially when databases are being constructed by specialists in particular groups, and the system can be used to compare classifications and phylogenetic trees. AVAILABILITY: Freely available at the WWW URL: http://aims.cps.msu.edu/hiclas/ CONTACT: pramanik@cps.msu.edu; lotus@wipm.whcnc.ac.cn  (+info)

(2/1056) Genomic fingerprinting and development of a dendrogram for Brucella spp. isolated from seals, porpoises, and dolphins.

Genomic DNA from reference strains and biovars of the genus Brucella was analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fingerprints were compared to estimate genetic relatedness among the strains and to obtain information on evolutionary relationships. Electrophoresis of DNA digested with the restriction endonuclease XbaI produced fragment profiles for the reference type strains that distinguished these strains to the level of species. Included in this study were strains isolated from marine mammals. The PFGE profiles from these strains were compared with those obtained from the reference strains and biovars. Isolates from dolphins had similar profiles that were distinct from profiles of Brucella isolates from seals and porpoises. Distance matrix analyses were used to produce a dendrogram. Biovars of B. abortus were clustered together in the dendrogram; similar clusters were shown for biovars of B. melitensis and for biovars of B. suis. Brucella ovis, B. canis, and B. neotomae differed from each other and from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. The relationship between B. abortus strain RB51 and other Brucella biovars was compared because this strain has replaced B. abortus strain 19 for use as a live vaccine in cattle and possibly in bison and elk. These results support the current taxonomy of Brucella species and the designation of an additional genomic group(s) of Brucella. The PFGE analysis in conjunction with distance matrix analysis was a useful tool for calculating genetic relatedness among the Brucella species.  (+info)

(3/1056) Numerical taxonomy of some yellow-pigmented bacteria isolated from plants.

Phenetic data on over 60 heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow chromogenic bacteria from plant material were collected and analysed using numerical taxonomic methods. Marker strains representing 42 taxa were included in the analyses. At similarity levels of 80% or above, eight distinct clusters were obtained, the first four of which included yellow chromogens. Custer I contained isolates from green healthy leaves of Agrostis tenuis, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanata, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis, and clusters 2 and 3 consisted of isolates from Holcus lanata seeds and leaves of P. pratensis respectively. Cluster 4 contained seven subgroups and was equated with the family Enterobacteriaceae. Erwinia herbicola strains from a variety of sources formed a homogeneous subgroup, readily distinguishable from authentic strains of E. amylovora, E. carotovora, other representative erwiniae, and from all other enterobacteria studied. These data emphasize the heterogeneous nature of yellow-pigmented bacteria from plants, and support the inclusion of E. herbicola and other Erwinia species in the Enterobacteriaceae.  (+info)

(4/1056) Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

(5/1056) Zebrafish in context: uses of a laboratory model in comparative studies.

With the recent interest in the reintegration of evolutionary and developmental biology has come a growing need for understanding the phylogenetic relations and degree of generality of the model organisms upon which we rely so heavily. In vertebrate biology the zebrafish Danio rerio has become a paradigmatic system for studies at levels of organization from molecular to interspecific. Studies of model systems in development are often techniques-driven rather than questions-based; however, informative hypotheses for developmental research can be derived from phylogenetic distributions of characters. With some understanding of how general the characters of interest are, a thoughtful comparison of the requirements of the questions with the lists of available embryos, reagents, and protocols can guide choices of new vertebrate models. We describe here the phylogenetic placement of zebrafish within the vertebrate world and discuss how generally observations on zebrafish can be taken to apply. We outline a practical protocol for investigating development in a comparative context, illustrated with an example from an ongoing study of teleost tail fin evolution. The principles and procedures presented here apply equally well to any comparative study with an interest in evolution, at any level of phylogeny from intraspecific studies to comparisons across phyla.  (+info)

(6/1056) Proposal for a standardized temporal scheme of biological classification for extant species.

With respect to conveying useful comparative information, current biological classifications are seriously flawed because they fail to (i) standardize criteria for taxonomic ranking and (ii) equilibrate assignments of taxonomic rank across disparate kinds of organisms. In principle, these problems could be rectified by adopting a universal taxonomic yardstick based on absolute dates of the nodes in evolutionary trees. By using procedures of temporal banding described herein, a simple philosophy of biological classification is proposed that would retain a manageable number of categorical ranks yet apply them in standardized fashion to time-dated phylogenies. The phylogenetic knowledge required for a time-standardized nomenclature arguably may emerge in the foreseeable future from vast increases in multilocus DNA sequence information (coupled with continued attention to phylogeny estimation from traditional systematic data). By someday encapsulating time-dated phylogenies in a familiar yet modified hierarchical ranking scheme, a temporal-banding approach would improve the comparative information content of biological classifications.  (+info)

(7/1056) The classification of smile patterns.

Although "smile therapy" is still in its infancy, society has already placed a great demand on dentists to evaluate and treat smiles. The smile classification scheme and vocabulary presented in this article will aid in discussions between patient and dentist regarding esthetic treatment.  (+info)

(8/1056) An ontology for bioinformatics applications.

MOTIVATION: An ontology of biological terminology provides a model of biological concepts that can be used to form a semantic framework for many data storage, retrieval and analysis tasks. Such a semantic framework could be used to underpin a range of important bioinformatics tasks, such as the querying of heterogeneous bioinformatics sources or the systematic annotation of experimental results. RESULTS: This paper provides an overview of an ontology [the Transparent Access to Multiple Biological Information Sources (TAMBIS) ontology or TaO] that describes a wide range of bioinformatics concepts. The present paper describes the mechanisms used for delivering the ontology and discusses the ontology's design and organization, which are crucial for maintaining the coherence of a large collection of concepts and their relationships. AVAILABILITY: The TAMBIS system, which uses a subset of the TaO described here, is accessible over the Web via http://img.cs.man.ac.uk/tambis (although in the first instance, we will use a password mechanism to limit the load on our server). The complete model is also available on the Web at the above URL.  (+info)


standard classification


  • The Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) is a new Australian standard classification and replaces the ABS Classification of Qualifications (ABSCQ). (abs.gov.au)


British Library EThOS


  • British Library EThOS: A geomorphological Engineering Approach to Terrain Classification. (bl.uk)


ASGC


  • The Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) is a hierarchical classification system of geographical areas and consists of a number of interrelated structures. (abs.gov.au)
  • The product Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Correspondences (cat. (abs.gov.au)


Central Product Classification


  • It covers all goods and services and uses the Central Product Classification Version 1.0 as its framework. (abs.gov.au)
  • Links are specified to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification, the Harmonised System, the Standard International Trade Classification and the Central Product Classification. (abs.gov.au)


concordances


  • The publication provides details of the conceptual basis of ASCED, the structure of the classification, definitions for all categories of level and field and concordances with other education classifications. (abs.gov.au)
  • It also includes concordances with the Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC), the New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (NZSIC) and the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC). (abs.gov.au)


diagnosis and treatment


  • However, this classification has some drawbacks in clinical practice, some of which result in flawed classification and failure to properly guide diagnosis and treatment. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new classification demonstrates significant advantages for guiding the diagnosis and treatment of SOD patients in China, as compared with the conventional Milwaukee criteria. (bio-medicine.org)


Australian


  • 14/08/2008 Note: The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is decommissioning the Australian and New Zealand Standard Product Classification (ANZSPC) as the Australian statistical standard for products. (abs.gov.au)


conceptual basis


  • Comprises an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, the classification structure, and coding indexes in alphabetical and numerical order. (abs.gov.au)


Variants


  • In machine learning , multi-label classification and the strongly related problem of multi-output classification are variants of the classification problem where multiple target labels must be assigned to each instance. (wikia.com)


scheme


  • Reserving 1-9 for dual carriage-ways (motorway,semi-motorway,trunk,primary if dual-carriageway), 10-19 for primary roads (and equivalents in other countries), 20-29 for secondary (and equivalents), 30-39 for tertiary(and equivalents), 40-59 for urban avenues, 70-79 for residential roads makes map rendering easy regardless of the country and classification scheme. (openstreetmap.org)
  • As Martin's note [2] suggests, this calls into question the usefulness of the current classification scheme. (worldbank.org)


Approach


  • In this thesis, we are aiming for optimising network traffic classification based on the statistical approach. (bl.uk)
  • the baseline approach [2] amounts to training one classifier per label, similar to the one-vs.-all (OvA, also one-vs.-rest, OvR) method for multiclass classification. (wikia.com)


definitions


  • The first volume, which runs well over 1,000 pages, contains the classification at the three- and four-character levels, the classification of the morphology of neoplasms, special tabulation lists for mortality and morbidity, definitions, and the nomenclature regulations. (who.int)


system


  • For this reason the Data Group [3] at the World Bank is reviewing income classification system. (worldbank.org)
  • The authors proposed a new classification system for SOD according to anatomy, symptoms, endoscope tests and radiological imaging, i.e. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Nonetheless, further investigations on the applicability of this quaternary classification system to patients in other regions are needed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • SMU's rise in the Carnegie classification system is further evidence of the growing quality and research productivity of our faculty. (smu.edu)


algorithms


  • Algorithm adaptation methods adapt the algorithms to directly perform multi-label classification. (wikia.com)
  • This expansion is made possible though Google's understanding and classification of information, facilitated by the application of algorithms in the domains of Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence. (blogmarks.net)


available


  • An uncut 15 classification was available. (bbfc.co.uk)
  • This classification may also be used when the same work is made available on Digital Video Platforms (including Video On Demand) provided that the platform is licenced to use BBFC ratings. (bbfc.co.uk)


practice


  • Robert Bothmann's expert cataloging instructions offer you a comprehensive grounding in Library of Congress Classification (LCC) principles and practice. (ala.org)


made


  • For each country a list of all classifications is made and simply numbered from most important to least important. (openstreetmap.org)


Title


  • book{bhl23393, title = {The classification of lower organisms. (biodiversitylibrary.org)


Page


  • This page focuses on assisting you with situations that you might encounter and questions or concerns that you might have concerning the classification of individual State positions as it pertains to the work of your department, division, unit, and staff. (alaska.gov)
  • I have gathered the entire set of articles under my own research page on the Theory of Classification , if you find that some of the above links don't work for you. (lambda-the-ultimate.org)


research


  • Does a classification of economies by development status have some usefulness in analysis and research? (worldbank.org)
  • The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has raised SMU's classification among institutions of higher education, reflecting dramatic growth in the University's research activity since it was last measured in 2005. (smu.edu)
  • The Carnegie Foundation assigns doctorate-granting institutions to categories based on a measure of research activity occurring at a particular period in time, basing these latest classifications on data from 2008-2009. (smu.edu)


Problems


  • Problem transformation methods transform the multi-label problem into a set of binary classification problems. (wikia.com)


Guidelines


  • Although the income classification is sometimes confused with the World Bank's operational guidelines, which set lending terms and are determined only in part by average income, the classification is provided purely for analytical convenience and has no official status. (worldbank.org)


terms


  • An architecture has been proposed for improving the classification performance, in terms of accuracy and response time. (bl.uk)


News


  • He is a standing member of the editorial board and former Cataloging News editor for Cataloging & Classification Quarterly . (ala.org)


role


  • Within the following you will find information and guidance on the role of Classification in personnel administration and dealing with various issues related to employee turnover. (alaska.gov)
  • Within the following you will find information and guidance on the role of Classification in personnel administration. (alaska.gov)
  • Nowadays, with the increasing deployment of modern packet-switching networks, traffic classification is playing an important role in network administration. (bl.uk)


review


  • There are too many variables to give a definitive answer but Classification has Client Service Standards for completing the review and allocation of PDs. (alaska.gov)
  • When am I required to submit a full PD to Classification for review of a permanent position? (alaska.gov)


further


  • Nevertheless, the performance of the classification using statistical methods can be further improved. (bl.uk)


various


  • There are various traditional techniques for traffic classification. (bl.uk)


European


  • The European patent classification codes are searchable in the fields /EPC (ECLA codes) and /ICO (in computer only codes), respectively. (cas.org)


Year


  • The classification is based on gross national income per capita, calculated annually in U.S. dollars using a three-year average exchange rate, the so-called Atlas methodology. (worldbank.org)


offer


  • If approved, you will be able to start the recruitment process, but will not be able to make a job offer or hire until Classification has approved the position and it is finalized and public in OPD. (alaska.gov)


Solutions


  • Chicago-ALA Publishing eLearning Solutions announces a new iteration of our popular eCourse, Using and Understanding Library of Congress Classification . (ala.org)


work


  • Because of the popularity of the TCP protocol, and the difficulties for classification introduced by TCP traffic controls, our work is focusing on classifying network traffic based on TCP protocol. (bl.uk)


What is the classification of herpes simplex?


  • Okay, so can someone give me a website with the information with the classification of herpes simplex on it? I've been trying to look for one, but have had no luck. I need the type of bacterium (gram positive/negative, shape, etc.) type of virus (DNA, RNA, etc.) or other parasites. do you know of a website that has any of this? that would be a lot of help. thank you!
  • wikipedia


What is the difference between drug schedule and drug classification?


  • If you have the schedule and classification for these drugs could you please tell me them. I have searched online but can't find them ANYWHERE. this is for a health project I'm doing. The drugs are GHB, Rohypnol. and Ketamine.
  • Shedule deals with the level of illegality. Schedule I is illegal for any reason, while II, III, and IV are available with a doctor's prescription. It also goes by the potential of abuse. Classification is what kind of drug it is like stimulant, hallucinogen, etc. The ones you listed are kinda underground, so I'm not sure what they are classified as, but I'm sure you can find it online.


What does it mean when it asks the classification of alcohol?


  • Heres what my paper says: The classification of alcohol as a drug. *Health class
  • It is a depressant.


what is the origin of the French Bordeaux wine classification system ?


  • Bordeaux wines are classified into first to fifth growth wines. There are only 5 first growth wines. Why did this classification come into being and why is it still in place
  • The Bordeaux classification system was introduced in 1855.

    More information is in the attached link.


What classification would a birth control patch be under?


  • For example, a condom's classification would be barrier.
  • barrier methods- condoms, diaphragms and cervical caps with spermicides and a copper IUD hormonal contraceptive methods- the pill, patch, ring, shot, norplant and the Mirena IUD


Can someone please give me the classification, the scientific name, and the common name of hepatitis b?


  • I need the common name of Hepatitis B. The scientific name of hepatitis B. And the classification of Hepatitis B. I am not sure if the names are just Hepatitis B and HBV and if the 'classification' refers to it being a virus. PLEASE HELP!
  • Hepadnavirus From the website listed below: Hepatitis B is caused by the etiological agent hepatitis B virus (HBV), classified as hepadnavirus type 1, which makes up the virus family Hepadnaviridae. HBV is a hepatotropic DNA virus that attacks the liver cell.


what is classification of the liver cancer ?


  • classification for the cancer is it mean that the benign or malignant tumour ? or is mean staging ?
  • the most common form of liver tumor is metastases (i.e., the spread of a cancer from another part of the body). In 40 - 80% of patients with cancer of the colon, the tumor will eventually spread from the colon to the liver. This event may occur at any time, beginning from the time of diagnosis of the colon cancer to many years after treatment of the cancer. Primary liver cancer (or hepatocellular cancer), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma), are diseases that occur when the tumor originates in the liver and did not spread from another organ. Staging In the United States, the most common form of liver tumor is metastases (i.e., the spread of a cancer from another part of the body). In 40 - 80% of patients with cancer of the colon, the tumor will eventually spread from the colon to the liver. This event may occur at any time, beginning from the time of diagnosis of the colon cancer to many years after treatment of the cancer. Other types of cancer (i.e. pancreas, stomach, breast, lung, etc.) may also spread to the liver during the course of the disease. Primary liver cancer (or hepatocellular cancer), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma), are diseases that occur when the tumor originates in the liver and did not spread from another organ. In Asia and Africa, hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of malignancy and frequently develops in patients who have liver cirrhosis. Staging is part of the diagnostic process and consists of gathering detailed information about the tumor to determine its stage of development. Staging is critical in determining if your cancer is advanced. To determine the stage of your disease, your physician uses a variety of diagnostic procedures to determine the type of tumor, size and location, and whether the tumor has metastasized or spread to another region of the body. The most common system is called TNM. T classifies the size of the tumor and is usually followed by a number from 1 to 4. Classification of T1 for example, designates a relatively small tumor. T4 represents a more advanced tumor or multiple tumors in both lobes of the liver. TX is used to denote an inaccessible tumor (one that cannot be adequately classified because it cannot easily be observed.) N classifies the lymph nodes. A NO indicates no lymph node involvement with cancer. N1 indicates that the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes. NX means that the lymph nodes cannot be accessed. M classifies the spread of the tumor to other organs. MO reflects an absence of spread. Ml means the tumor has spread to a distant organ. MX means that the metastases are not accessible. Check out these sites to know more infos: cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/childliver/healthprofessional http://www.livercancer.com/diagnosis/staging.html www.oncologychannel.com/staging.shtml


What is Chronic pain and do I fit into the classification?


  • I've had headaches everyday for 6 years and I'm not sure what kind of headaches they are and neither does my neurologist. The levels of pain vary everyday. They are kind of a mixture of migraines, tension headaches and sinus headaches. I was just wondering if I could call that chronic pain.
  • Chronic pain is continuous pain affecting the same area every day. Yes, you do fit into that classification.