Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.PolysaccharidesGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Glycoside HydrolasesBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.FucoseHexosesSialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.GlycogenDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.DextrinsAmino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.GlucosamineMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)HexosaminesLactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Neuraminic AcidsEating: The consumption of edible substances.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.TriglyceridesTunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.XyloseDigestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)TrehaloseChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Ovomucin: A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.GalactosamineMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)

*  NUTRITION GUIDES AND ARTICLES
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*  Iced Hot Chocolate Coconut, small (Dunkin' Donuts) - MyFoodAdvisor™
... iced hot chocolate coconut small dunkin donuts myfoodadvisor login en español explore foods recipes create a dish your food advisor help register for account to access some areas of the site you need to register for an account register now or login username password forgot password login cancel food display iced hot chocolate coconut small dunkin donuts add to dish quick view serving serving calories saturated fat g carbohydrate g sodium mg fiber g other carbohydrate details daily value calories calories from fat total fat g saturated fat g trans fat g poly fat n a mono fat n a cholesterol mg sodium mg total carbohydrate g dietary fiber g sugars g sugar alcohol n a protein g vitamins daily value vitamin a vitamin c calcium iron magnesium n a folate n a potassium n a vitamin b n a phosphorus n a find a healthier alternative compare this food to what is a healthier alternative healthier alternatives are foods within the same food group that are overall lower in saturated fat and sodium and higher in fiber o...
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*  11 Proven Health Benefits of Chia Seeds (No. 3 is Best)
... 11 Proven Health Benefits of Chia Seeds No. 11 Proven Health Benefits of Chia Seeds No. Here are 11 health benefits of chia seeds that are supported by human studies. They also have various benefits for health. Chia seeds are 40% fiber, by weight. Fiber also has various beneficial effects on health. Protein has all sorts of benefits for health. It is also the most weight loss friendly nutrient in the diet, by far. Bottom Line: Chia seeds are high in quality protein, much higher than most plant foods. 5 Due to The High Fiber and Protein Content, Chia Seeds Should be Able to Help You Lose Weight. Many health experts believe that chia seeds can help with weight loss. Then the protein in chia seeds could help to reduce appetite and food intake. Although one study showed that chia seeds can reduce appetite, there was no significant effect on body weight 18. In a study on 90 overweight people, 50 grams of chia seeds per day for 12 weeks had no effect on body weight or health markers 19. In another 10 week study...
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*  Calories in Yakult Yakult and Nutrition Facts
... Calories in Yakult Yakult and Nutrition Facts. Search in:. Foods. Recipes. Challenges. Members. Diets. My FatSecret. Foods Recipes. Challenges. Fitness. Diets. Community. Foods. Brand List. Yakult. Yakult. Food database and calorie counter Source: Mobile User. Yakult Yakult. Nutrition Facts. Serving Size 1 bottle 80ml. Amount Per Serving. Calories from Fat 0 Calories 50. % Daily Values*. Total Fat 0g 0 %. Trans Fat 0g. Cholesterol 0mg 0 %. Sodium 20mg 1 %. Potassium 0mg. Total Carbohydrate 12g 4 %. Protein 1g. Vitamin A 0%. Vitamin C 0%. * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. Information for this food was submitted to the FatSecret food database by a Mobile User on 13 Jan 10. of RDI* 50 calories. Calorie Breakdown:. Carbohydrate 92%. Fat 0%. Protein 8%. * Based on a RDI of 2000 calories. What is my Recommended Daily Intake RDI. Nutrition summary: Calories 50. Fat 0g. Carbs 12g. Protein 1g. There are 50 calories in ...
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*  GU Roctane Energy Drink 24-Serve Canister - TrekBicycleStores.com - Bikes, Cycling Clothing, Gear an
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*  URMC Research Network - Organic Chemicals
Dental Materials. Carbohydrates. Chemical Actions and Uses. Complex ... URMC Research Network - Organic Chemicals. Patients Families. About URMC. URMC Research Network URMC. URMC Research Network. New Search. Find People Keyword. More Search Options. Organic Chemicals. "Organic Chemicals" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH Medical Subject Headings. Descriptors are arranged in a hierarchical structure, which enables searching at various levels of specificity. MeSH information Definition. More General Concepts. Related Concepts. More Specific Concepts A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. MeSH Number s D02. Concept/Terms Organic Chemicals Organic Chemicals Chemicals, Organic. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Organic Chemicals". Chemicals and Drugs. Organic Chemicals. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Organic Chemicals". Chemicals and Drugs. Biomedical and Dental Materials...
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*  Baked Vegetable Omelet
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*  Indian Journals Example of HTML Menu
rich in vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and fibers. ... Indian Journals. 54.226.175.88 Users online: 4125. Example of HTML Menu. My Profile. Registration. Products. Journals. Subjects Collection. Archives. Directory. Sabinet. Article Submission. Usage Statistics. News Events. Introduction. Advisory Board. Contact Us. Contact Details. Feedback Form. Downloads. FAQs. Guidelines. Related Links. Journal Home. Current Issue. TOC. Prev Article. Next Article. Registration. Subscribe. Editorial Board. Aims & Scope. Author   Guidelines. News & Events. Subscribe TOC  Alerts. FREE Sample Issue. Vegetos- An International Journal of Plant Research Year : 2006, Volume : 19, Issue : 1and2 First page : 81. Solanum melongena and Wild Allies: Potential Birth Control Resource Kumar B., Chaudhary B.R. Center of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi–221 005, India. Abstract Solanum melongena L. the egg plant is a widely-grown, cheap and popular vegetable crop of India. Generally ...
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*  Bound Carbohydrates in Nature 1st edition | Rent 9780521442312 | Chegg.com
Bound Carbohydrates in Nature 1st edition. Rent 9780521442312. Chegg.com. Chegg. BOOKS. Rent / Buy Books Sell books. STUDY. Textbook Solutions Q&A Tutors. INTERNSHIPS. Internships & Jobs Career Profiles Advice. COLLEGES. Explore My List Advice Scholarships SAT Test Prep ACT Test Prep. PLAY. home / textbooks / science / chemistry / organic / bound carbohydrates in nature / 1st edition. Bound Carbohydrates in Nature 1st edition. Note: Chegg does not guarantee supplemental material with textbooks e.g. ISBN:. ISBN-13:. Authors:. Leonard Warren. Popular Textbooks. Organic Chemistry Klein, David R. Organic Chemistry Bruice, Paula Yurkanis. Organic Chemistry Wade, Leroy G. Organic Chemistry McMurry, John E. Organic Chemistry Solomons, T. General, Organic and Biochemistry Denniston, Katherine. Details about Bound Carbohydrates in Nature:. Bound carbohydrates are an important and fascinating topic in biochemical and cancer research. Based on a series of invited lectures, this book focuses on the special role that boun...
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*  Carbohydrate chemistry
... 'Carbohydrate chemistry' is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrate s. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups. Monosaccharides Carbohydrate synthesis Glycosidic bond formation Protecting groups Oligosaccharides Reactions of carbohydrates Functions of carbohydrates Energy supply, particularly for the brain in the form of glucose. Avoiding the breakdown of amino acids for energy. Avoiding ketosis from the breakdown of fatty acids. Cellular and protein recognition. Dietary fiber. See also Carbohydrate Structure. Carbohydrate function & Biology. Individual saccharide residues are termed monosaccharides. Carbohydrate synthesis. Carbohydrate synthesis. Glycosidic bond formation. Protecting groups. Reactions of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates ...
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*  Search › carbohydrates | Quizlet
Search carbohydrates. Quizlet. . Quizlet. . .  Create a Study Set. Log In .  Log In with Google.  Log In with Facebook. Keep me logged in. Forgot password. Log In. Forgot password. Sign Up.  Google Sign In Give us Feedback. If you re having trouble, want to report a bug, provide a suggestion, or just want to say hello please fill out the form below. Choose Type Question / Need Help Suggestion Bug Report Just Saying Thanks Other Comment / Feedback. What is your email. Send Message. Search results for:. carbohydrates.  500+ Study Sets 500+ Sets.  10 Classes.  3 Users.  1 Definition 1 Def. Most relevant. Image sets only. Carbohydrates. 14 terms By oet10 Teacher . 14 terms Preview . Carbohydrates. 9 terms By aprilidar Teacher . 9 terms Preview . carbohydrates. 28 terms By mahmoud_gholipour . 28 terms Preview . Carbohydrates. 10 terms By kedstbio Teacher . 10 terms...
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*  Diabetes, Carbohydrates and the Grocery Store!
Diabetes, Carbohydrates and the Grocery Store. Eating Well With Kim. Diabetes, Carbohydrates and the Grocery Store. / Eating Well With Kim. Therefore, understanding carbohydrates and the food label is particularly important in the control of blood sugar levels. Most of the carbohydrates you eat are broken down to glucose sugar and absorbed into the blood stream. It is true that we should focus on eating high-fiber healthy carbohydrates in lieu of less healthy carbohydrates. Examples include: -Whole grain cereal with 5grams fiber -Whole grain breads and pasta with 3g fiber -Whole fruits and vegetables -Beans, peas, legumes -Wild rice and brown rice -Other healthy carbohydrates include low fat and fat-free milk as well as yogurt lower sugar varieties preferable. How do you know how many carbohydrates to eat each day. One carbohydrate choice or serving is about 15g of carbohydrate this is important to remember for label reading purposes. Fruit and vegetables generally do not have a label so weighing foods is a g...
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*  Protein–carbohydrate interactions
... 'Carbohydrate–protein interactions' form the basis of specific recognition of carbohydrates by lectins. Often carbohydrates serve a function as a recognition element. Compared to the study of protein–protein and protein–DNA interaction, it is the recent even those scientists get to know the protein–carbohydrate binding. Many of these interactions involved carbohydrates found at the cell surface, as part of a membrane glycoprotein or glycolipid. These interactions can play a role in cellular adhesion and other cellular recognition events. Biological function Methods of study Advances in the study of protein–carbohydrate binding References. Generally, there are two types of protein carbohydrate binding important in biological processes: Lectin and antibody. Lectin. lectin. Lectin is a kind of protein that can bind to carbohydrate with their carbohydrate recognition domains CRDs. Mannose-binding protein MBP contains the C-type CRD. When the antigen is a kind of carbohydrate Polysaccharide, the binding could...
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*  Carbohydrates Explained & Carbs in Your Diet
... Follow Us. Join Us. Updates. Search. Netfit. Home. Fitness. Workouts. 'How to' Videos. Fitness Equipment. Nutrition. Weight Loss. Health. Jobs. Quizzes. Articles. eBooks. Food Facts. Carbohydrates. Cholesterol. Fibre Advice. Glycemic Index. Health Foods. Proteins. Salt. Good Fats - Bad Fats. Water. Tweet. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a primary source of energy, found in most foods, especially in the form of sugar in today's junk food carbohydrate diet. Carbohydrates are broken down into two main carbohydrate groups, complex carbohydrates and simple sugars, aiming for a carbohydrate deficiency diet will be hard to achieve. Complex Carbohydrate's Natural, raw, unrefined, or unprocessed carbohydrates are surrounded by other factors such as proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates in the natural form should be the only ones we consume in any quantity. All of these carbohydrates contain some fiber cellulose which is impossible to digest, thereby giving bulk to the foods we eat. Good ex...
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*  Sugar signal transduction
... is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by organisms to survive sugar s have an overwhelming effect on gene expression in yeast glucose levels are managed by controlling the mrna levels of hexose transporters while in mammals the response to glucose is more tightly controlled with glucose metabolism and is therefore much more complex several glucose responsive dna motifs and dna binding protein complexes have been identified in liver and b cells although not proven glucose repression appears to be conserved in plants because in many cases both sugar induction and sugar repression are initiated by turning off transcription factors see also glycobiology references xiao w sheen j jang jc the role of hexokinase in plant sugar signal transduction and growth and development plant molecular biology nov category evolutionary biology category glycobiology...
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*  The Importance Of Carbohydrates - The carbohydrates are very important for the body's metabolism as
... it is the main source of energy which fuels our body cells. There are two types of carbohydrates namely refined carbohydrates and unrefined natural carbohydrates. - Read it at RSS2.com. Home Sign in New User Signup Featuring 17,191,873 items from 261,638 fine feeds added by 60,003 users from around the world... All the Best RSS Feeds For Your Guilt-Free Reading and Enjoyment. Read the most popular feeds: MacRumors Forums. Boing Boing. Recent Uploads tagged graffiti. Engadget RSS Feed. Joystiq RSS Feed. NYT > Home Page. Recent Uploads tagged screenshot. Latest Items from TreeHugger. Engadget RSS Feed. Recent Uploads tagged moleskine. All Stories. Recent Uploads tagged tatoo. Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories. Recent Uploads tagged rust. NYT > Technology. The Importance Of Carbohydrates The carbohydrates are very important for the body s metabolism as it is the main source of energy which fuels our body cells. There are two types of carbohydrates namely refined carbohydrates and unrefin...
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*  .. Chemical Composition of Carbohydrate: .. Types of Carbohydrates: .. Chapter 4: Chemical Composit
Home. Uncategorized Chapter 4: Chemical Composition of the Cell Chapter 4: Chemical Composition of the Cell March 24, 2011. biologystation. Leave a comment. Go to comments. Chemical Composition of Carbohydrate:. A carbohydrate is any member of a widespread class of natural organic substances that includes sugars, starch and cellulose. The chemical composition of carbohydrates – as analysed in the nineteenth century – is a combination of carbon C, hydrogen H and water H 2 O. Many carbs have the general chemical formula Cx H 2 O x, but the class is too large to fit into a simple chemical formula. Carbohydrates are often isomers – meaning, they have the same atomic composition but different structures. Fructose, galactose and glucose are isomers with the chemical formula C 6 H 12 O 6. There are many classification schemes for carbohydrates. The most common one separates them into 4 major groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Types of Carbohydrates:. Molecules of mono...
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*  Chemistry Carbohydrates - Chemistry Video by Brightstorm
... Toggle navigation. Browse Subjects. Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Geometry. Algebra 2. Trigonometry. Precalculus. Calculus. Science. Biology. Chemistry. Physics. English. Grammar. Writing. Literature. Test Prep. SAT. ACT. ACT Red Book. PSAT. AP US Gov. AP US History. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. College. Get Better Grades. College Application. College Essay. Financial Aid. Search. or Find by textbook. Study. Math. Science. English. Test Prep. Sign in. Teacher membership. School membership. Start Your Free Trial. Chemistry. / Biochemistry. / Chemistry Carbohydrates. Overview. Learn math, science, English SAT ACT from high-quaility study videos by expert teachers Video playing in 3. Looking for study help. Learn from experts. Thank you for watching the video. To unlock all 5,300 videos, start your free trial. Start Your Free Trial Learn more. Chemistry Carbohydrates - Chemistry Carbohydrates. 72,874 views. Patrick Roisen Patrick Roisen M.Ed., Stanford University Winner of multiple teaching awards. Patrick has...
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*  .. Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Ratio Calculator .. Carbohydrates .. Proteins .. Fats .. Carbohydr
Don't Miss Paying Women to Have Mammograms Presents Ethical Problems Acupuncture Treatments Benefit Breast Cancer Survivors Download a Free e-Book to Reduce Your Breast Cancer Risk Accurately Assessing Breast Cancer Risk Biomarker Holds Promise for Treating Breast and Prostate Cancers Smoking Lowers Breast Cancer Survival Rates Understanding the Link Between Phthlate Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Young Women with Breast Cancer Have Unique Needs Texts Boost Breast Cancer Screening Numbers Promoting Effective Communication About Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the nutrients that provide the body with energy, measured in calories. Carbohydrates are broken down in the intestine into sugars, proteins into amino acids, and fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Carbohydrates are the major energy source in human nutrition. Carbohydrates are a primary fuel source for some cells and a readily available fuel for all cells in the form of blood glucose. Carbohydrates are stored in the hu...
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*  Living a Changed Life: Carbohydrates
... Pages. Home About Me My Recipe Collection Helpful Tips Low PointPlus Foods Favorite Websites Exercise Blog Awards Contact Me. Saturday, April 16, 2011. Carbohydrates. source. Here is the latest Get Fit email from Dr. Jacobs. Foods that Fuel By: Cooper Clinic Nutrition. While carbohydrates sometimes get a bad rep, they are a great source of fuel food. Carbs are imperative for muscle, brain, and nervous system function. Read more about picking the right carbohydrates and how they can fuel our system to a top performance. As a dietitian, I know that power comes from more than just good genetics; it comes from food fuel, commonly known as carbohydrates. Carbs have unfairly been given a bad reputation. Some people believe carbohydrates are the culprit for weight gain. More often, weight gain is the result of too many calories total and too little exercise. An adequate intake of carbohydrates are necessary for muscle, brain, and nervous system function. After you realize that carbs do have health benefits, you...
http://livingachangedlife.blogspot.com/2011/04/carbohydrates.html
*  Glycoinformatics
... 'Glycoinformatics' is a relatively new field of bioinformatics that pertains to the study of carbohydrates. It broadly includes but is not restricted to database, software, and algorithm development for the study of carbohydrate structures, glycoconjugates, enzymatic carbohydrate synthesis and degradation, as well as carbohydrate interactions. Conventional usage of the term does not currently include the treatment of carbohydrates from the more well-known nutritive aspect. Complexity. Carbohydrates or "sugars" this term should not be confused with simple sugars - monosaccharides and disaccharides as they are generally called, Flitsch SL and Ulijn RV 2003. Nature 421:219-220. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v421/n6920/pdf/421219a.pdf form the third class of biopolymers, other two being proteins and nucleic acids. Unlike proteins and nucleic acids which are linear, carbohydrates are often branched and extremely complex. Nature 437:1239. For instance, just four sugars can be strung together to form mor...
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*  Carbohydrates help immune response to exercise - Nutrition Express Articles
Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Sports Nutrition > Immune Health for Athletes Carbohydrates help immune response to exercise by Edmund R. Burke, Ph.D. We are all aware of the need for carbohydrates for aerobic performance. Now it appears not only do carbohydrates aid endurance performance, but also help the immune response to exercise. Triathletes ran or cycled for 2.5 hours at 75% of maximal aerobic capacity on two occasions. On one occasion they drank a carbohydrate drink and on another, a placebo containing no carbohydrate. When drinking the carbohydrate drink, the triathletes showed higher blood sugar and insulin levels, and lower blood cortisol and growth hormone levels. A lower cortisol level is an indicator of less stress. When drinking the carbohydrate drink they also showed lower white blood cell counts. The authors conclude that carbohydrate ingestion during activity lessens hormonal responses indicative of stress and raises the immune response. The lowered immune response when not inge...
http://nutritionexpress.com/article index/sports nutrition/immune health for athletes/showarticle.aspx?articleid=23
*  Crich beta-mannosylation
... The 'Crich β-mannosylation' is a synthetic strategy which is used in carbohydrate synthesis to generate a 1,2-cis- glycosidic bond. This type of linkate is generally very difficult to make, and specific methods like the Crich β-mannosylation are used to overcome these issues. Background Mechanistic Studies Reaction Scope Solid-Phase Synthesis See also References. Among many diverse type of glycosidic linkages, the 1,2-'cis'-β-glycoside, which exists in many biologically relevant glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides, is arguably one of the most difficult to synthesize. Crich, D.; Sun, S. Crich, D.; Sun, S. Crich, D.; Sun, S. center|500px. The mechanistic details of this reaction have been extensively explored by Crich’s laboratories. Crich, D.; Sun, S. This might be rationalized either by 1 a dissociative mechanism involving the intermediacy of either a transient contact ion pair CIP '4' or a solvent-separated ion pair SSIP '5', or 2 a mechanistically variant transition state '7' Scheme 2. center|800px. F...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crich_beta-mannosylation
*  Videos for carbohydrate - Homework Help Videos - Brightstorm
... Toggle navigation. Browse Subjects. Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Geometry. Algebra 2. Trigonometry. Precalculus. Calculus. Science. Biology. Chemistry. Physics. English. Grammar. Writing. Literature. Test Prep. SAT. ACT. ACT Red Book. PSAT. AP US Gov. AP US History. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. College. Get Better Grades. College Application. College Essay. Financial Aid. Search. or Find by textbook. Study. Math. Science. English. Test Prep. Sign in. Teacher membership. School membership. Start Your Free Trial. 3 Videos for "carbohydrate" Chemistry Carbohydrates Science › Chemistry › Biochemistry An introduction to chemistry carbohydrates. Tags: carbohydrate sugar starch cellulose monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide glucose fructose. Chemistry Carbohydrates Science › Biology › Chemical Basis of Life An introduction to chemistry carbohydrates. Tags: carbohydrate sugar starch cellulose monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide glucose fructose. Organic Molecules Test Prep › AP Biology › AP Biology Vi...
http://brightstorm.com/tag/carbohydrate/
*  Videos for carbohydrates - Homework Help Videos - Brightstorm
... Toggle navigation. Browse Subjects. Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Geometry. Algebra 2. Trigonometry. Precalculus. Calculus. Science. Biology. Chemistry. Physics. English. Grammar. Writing. Literature. Test Prep. SAT. ACT. ACT Red Book. PSAT. AP US Gov. AP US History. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. College. Get Better Grades. College Application. College Essay. Financial Aid. Search. or Find by textbook. Study. Math. Science. English. Test Prep. Sign in. Teacher membership. School membership. Start Your Free Trial. 3 Videos for "carbohydrates" Chemistry Carbohydrates Science › Chemistry › Biochemistry An introduction to chemistry carbohydrates. Tags: carbohydrate sugar starch cellulose monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide glucose fructose. Chemistry Carbohydrates Science › Biology › Chemical Basis of Life An introduction to chemistry carbohydrates. Tags: carbohydrate sugar starch cellulose monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide glucose fructose. Organic Molecules Test Prep › AP Biology › AP Biology V...
http://brightstorm.com/tag/carbohydrates/
*  Carbohydrate and protein speed up recovery - Nutrition Express Articles
... Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Authors > Edmund R. Burke, Ph.D. Carbohydrate and protein speed up recovery by Edmund R. Burke, Ph.D. Drinking a carbohydrate sports drink right after a tough workout in the gym is a great way to replenish fluids, but it may not be the best way to replenish the fuel in your muscles. That is, unless you consume some protein along with the drink. In a study done by exercise physiologists Donovan Fogt from the University of Texas, endurance cyclists rode a grueling 2 hours on stationary bikes, depleting their muscle-glycogen stores. Immediately following exercise and again 2 hours later, the riders drank 12 ounces of a carbohydrate-protein beverage 53 grams of carbohydrate and 14 grams of protein or a carbohydrate sports drink 20 grams of carbohydrate, no protein. When the researchers extracted muscle samples from the cyclists 2 hours after the exercise session, they found that the carbohydrate-protein beverage resulted in a 128 percent greater restocking of glyc...
http://nutritionexpress.com/article index/authors/edmund r burke phd/showarticle.aspx?id=117
*  .. Processed carbohydrates are addictive, brain study suggests .. Post navigation
home the nutrition source nutrition news processed carbohydrates are addictive brain study suggests processed carbohydrates are addictive brain study suggests in stumbleupon jun coverage by cbs news featuring hsph s david ludwig this entry was posted in faculty in the media on june by tweet post navigation eating red meat associated with increased risk of diabetes video breakfast and heart disease risk...
https://hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2013/06/27/processed-carbohydrates-are-addictive-brain-study-suggests/
*  Science aid: Carbohydrates
science aid carbohydrates home biology chemistry physics psychology atp and exercise biochemical tests carbohydrates enzymes lipids photosynthesis proteins respiration other sections biochemistry cell biology ecology genetics human biology microbiology plant biology carbohydrates carbohydrates are molecules that contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen and sometimes sulphur and nitrogen they are extremely important for life since they are used for storing and transporting energy to learn how to test for them see tests monosaccharides these are the simplest form of carbohydrates being made of only one sugar and often have a sweet taste an example of a monsaccharide you may remember from previous study is glucose it has the formula c h o and the following structure glucose consists of a ring of carbons and an oxygen atom around which is a series of h oh and a ch oh the strcuture can be simplified to a polygon where each point represents a carbon fructose has the same formula as glucose but a different structure consi...
http://scienceaid.co.uk/biology/biochemistry/carbohydrates.html
*  Carbohydrates
... 2-D says, “Yum. The flower nectar I like to drink contains lots of sugar, and that gives me lots of energy!”. Monosaccharides. Glucose Straight Structure Carbohydrates are defined as sugars and their derivatives. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides. The most common monosaccharide is glucose. and this is the most important one for living organisms. Note that it contains one carbonyl group, and since this is on an end carbon, this makes the molecule an aldehyde. A sugar like fructose with the carbonyl group in the middle would be a ketone note proper spelling. Glucose also contains five hydroxyl groups, which officially makes it an alcohol. It is important to note on which “side” of the molecule the hydroxyl groups may be found because the mirror image molecule is not the same thing. Notice that all of the –OH groups except the one on the third carbon are on the right side. These hydroxyl groups. function differently than hydroxide ions. Thus, the straight structure of glucose includes a car...
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/carbohydrates.htm
*  YDJC - Carbohydrate deacetylase - human protein (Function)
YDJC - Carbohydrate deacetylase - human protein Function. YDJC - Carbohydrate deacetylase - human protein Function. Login or Sign up now. x loading ... close X. Oooops, an error occured. YDJC - Carbohydrate deacetylase - human protein Function. Home Recent activites. My favorites. My labels. Downloads Login or Sign up. x. Login Or Sign up Now. Try our new search. Protein. Function. Medical. Expression. Interactions. Localisation. Sequence. Proteomics. Structures. Identifiers. Gene. Exons. Identifiers. References. Curated publications 9. Additional publications 0. Patents 0. Submissions 1. Web resources 0. YDJC Carbohydrate deacetylase [ EC 3.5.1.- ]. favorite. label. cancel. Login or Sign up now. x Gene name: YDJC Family name:. UPF0249. Entry whose protein s existence is based on evidence at protein level. Protein Recommended name Carbohydrate deacetylase [ EC 3.5.1.- ]. Spliced into the following 3 isoforms Iso 1. Iso 2. Iso 3. . Gene Recommended name YDJC. Family Family. UPF0249. History neXtProt Integrated...
http://nextprot.org/db/entry/NX_A8MPS7
*  Organic Molecules, Laboratory Notes for BIO 1003
... Laboratory Notes for BIO 1003. 30 August 1999, Mary Jean Holland. ORGANIC MOLECULES. Organic compounds contain carbon atoms linked together to form chains or rings. . The chemical properties of the different classes depend on the presence of specific functional groups. In general, the larger molecules in each class are formed by joining one or more building block molecules together in a dehydration synthesis reaction during which a molecule of water is formed for each building block added. Large molecules are broken down into the smaller building block molecules by a reverse reaction called hydrolysis during which water is added. In this exercise you will learn about the structure and properties of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and how to test for the presence of these organic molecules. Supply solutions and dry chemicals must be kept pure. Never pour extra fluid back into a stock bottle. This direction applies to all labs with chemical experiments. I Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the main energy...
http://baruch.cuny.edu/wsas/departments/natural_science/biology/bio1003/organic.html
*  Antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate
antigens tumor associated carbohydrate antigens tumor associated carbohydrate redirect tumor marker...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_tumor-associated,_carbohydrate
*  LAB COURSES - Glycoprotein/Complex Carbohydrate Characterization
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/glycosci/1996-April/000617.html
*  Category:Sugar
category sugar category sugar category carbohydrates category foods...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Sugar
*  .. Low Blood Sugars at Night? .. Related Posts: .. Related terms: .. Related terms:
Low Blood Sugars at Night. Low Blood Sugars at Night. No Comments on Low Blood Sugars at Night. How can the elderly keep from having low blood sugars at night. low blood sugar at night LOW BLOOD SUGARS AT NIGHT blood sugar low at night low blood sugars diabetic elderly blood sugars at night diabetic low blood sugar at night diabetes low blood sugar at night Symptoms of low blood sugar at night how to avoid low bloos sugars at night in type 1 diabetics LOW BLOOD SUGAR AT NIGHT FOR DIABETICS how to prevent low blood sugar at night low nighttime blood sugars how to prevent low blood sugars at night sugar lows at night dangerous low blood sugar at night how to keep blood sugar low at night low blood glucose at night avoid hypoglycemia at night blood sugar lows at night low blood sugar at night in elderly diabetics. Truth About Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is a medical term to describe a situation where the amount of circulating useful blood sugar is lower than normal—a level low enough to. Hypoglycemia: More Sugar...
http://allaboutdiabetes.net/low-blood-sugars-at-night/
*  Sugar Metabolism Support Supplements | Sugar Metabolism Support Products | Puritan's Pride
Sugar Metabolism Support Supplements. Sugar Metabolism Support Products. Puritan's Pride. Home Page Shop By Brand Top Sellers New Products On Sale Clearance Quick Order Help Center My Favorites. Lowest Prices, Buy Direct From The Manufacturer, Guaranteed Highest Quality. Sugar Metabolism Support Supplements. Sugar Metabolism Support Products. Puritan's Pride sugar metabolism support supplements, sugar metabolism support, energy supplements, vitamins for metabolism, sugar metabolism, metabolism supplements, metabolism supplement, sugar supplements, sugar support, metabolic support, metabolism support, metabolism support vitamins, metabolism support supplements Sugar Metabolism Support is important because keeping your blood sugar levels within a normal range is essential for optimal health. Promote healthy sugar metabolism. http://www.puritan.com/sugar-metabolism-support-210. Shop All Categories. Puritan's Pride. Shop By Categories. Sugar Metabolism Support. Share With Friends Sugar Metabolism Support ...
http://puritan.com/sugar-metabolism-support-210?filter=Form|Powder
*  Modeling and Simulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism using Petri Net
... Nanotech Conference Technical Proceedings. 1 Technical Proceedings of the 2005 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 1. Modeling and Simulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism using Petri Net. Keywords: Petri-nets, Glycolytic, Simulation. Abstract: In this paper Petri net modeling technique is used to model and simulate biological processes. Glycolosis is the beginning of generation of metabolic energy from Carbohydrates metabolism, where in this process one molecule of Glucose is converted into two molecules of Pyrovate, with concomitant generation of two molecules of ATP. There will be give an overview of the carbohydrate metabolism and a Petri net model would be constructed for the carbohydrate metabolism, which will show all the involved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism. The main purpose of this paper was to develop a modeling methodology for the process of glycolosis using Petri nets. Well, the answer is that: first to develop an abstract description of dynamic system in this case the ...
http://nsti.org/procs/Nanotech2005v1/9/T69.04
*  Nestle Nutren Pulmonary Ultrapak
Nestle Nutritional Nutren Pulmonary Ultrapak Features: Complete formula for tube feeding or oral supplement High calorie formula meets elevated energy requirements Low carbohydrate concentration to reduce CO2 production Elevated protein to support lean body mass Lactose and gluten free Kosher Meets 100% RDI for 20 key micronutrients Balanced lipid profile with MCT to facilitate tolerance Nestle Nutritional Nutren Pulmonar View more Now available in the unique Ultrapak 1000mL hanging bag design with patented Spikeright enteral port, these are the most efficient, safe and easy to use enteral feeding delivery methods currently available to the public. Customer Reviews Write Your Own Review You're reviewing: Nestle Nutren Pulmonary Ultrapak How do you rate this product. Nestle Nutritional Nutren Pulmonary Ultrapak Features: Complete formula for tube feeding or oral supplement High calorie formula meets elevated energy requirements Low carbohydrate concentration to reduce CO2 production Elevated protein to support...
https://activeforever.com/nestle-nutren-pulmonary-ultrapak?productId=5138
*  www.biomedcentral.com - Table
sa_c6812s5946_a_at. SA0265. Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane. sa_c7382s10191_a_at. SA0423*. sa_c7698s6703_a_at. SA0519. Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane. sa_c8045s7032_at. SA0620. hypothetical protein, similar to secretory antigen precursor SsaA. sa_c592s9345_a_at. SA0905. Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane. sa_c1007s793_a_at. SA1003. fibrinogen-binding protein precursor. hypothetical protein. sa_c4394s3743_a_at. SA1898. hypothetical protein. sa_c4612s9984cs_s_at. SA1972. multidrug resistance protein efflux transporter. hypothetical protein. sa_c5066s4362_a_at. SA2093*. hypothetical protein, similar to secretory antigen precursor SsaA. ssa A. sa_c5082s4380_a_at. SA2097*. hypothetical protein, similar to secretory antigen precursor SsaA. Amino acid transport and metabolism, Inorganic ion transport and metabolism. Amino acid transport and metabolism, Inorganic ion transport and metabolism. Amino acid transport and metabolism, Inorganic ion transport and metabolism. ABC transporter membrane...
http://biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/9/411/table/T1
*  Other Aspects of Carbohydrate metabolism Flashcards - Cram.com
... www.cram.com Create Flashcards. Share This Flashcard Set Close Please sign in to share these flashcards. Set the Language Close We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. Chinese, Pinyin Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional English French German Italian Japanese Japanese, Romaji Korean Math / Symbols Russian Spanish. Chinese, Pinyin Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional English French German Italian Japanese Japanese, Romaji Korean Math / Symbols Russian Spanish. Other Aspects of Carbohydrate metabolism. Other Aspects Of Carbohydrate Metabolism by. 2010 Subjects: aspects carbohydrate dangarrison metabolism of other Click to Rate Hated It. Add to Folders Close Please sign in to add to folders. Upgrade to Cram Premium Close You have created 2 folders. Please upgrade to Cram Premium to create hundreds of folders. Shuffle Toggle On Toggle Off Alphabetize Toggle On Toggle Off Front First Toggle On Toggle Off Both Sides Toggle On Toggle Off Read Toggle On Toggle Off. Front How to s...
http://cram.com/flashcards/other-aspects-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-1553416
*  Carbohydrate metabolism assistance please - -Biochemistry-
carbohydrate metabolism assistance please biochemistry biojob bioblog pubalert biotool bioproduct bioforum protocol home forum index home forum index home live discussion top new forum archives biochemistry carbohydrate metabolism assistance please dec visit this topic in live forum printer friendly version i need to do an essay titled discuss the biochemical principles behind carbohydrate metabolism can anyone give me an idea how to start this and what to include thanks biologymad read about carbohydrate chemistry first then biochemical mechanism now think about food items and what carbohydrates they produce consider living organism e g cow eating food correlate food metabolism with energy production in animal rough points ofcourse essay will need most of non jargon words so readers will not be scared off inbox visit this topic in bioforum printer friendly version about terms of service privacy feedback sponsorship protocol online all rights reserved...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums-2/posts/27779.html
*  Transform Plain White Sugar into Powdered Sugar at Home
......
http://lifehacker.com/5971187/transform-plain-white-sugar-into-confectioners-sugar-at-home?tag=kitchen-tips
*  Template:PBB/6527
template pbb template pbb gnf protein box name solute carrier family glucose activated ion channel member image image source pdb hgncid mgiid symbol slc a altsymbols dj g saat sglt iuphar yes chembl omim ecnumber homologene geneatlas image geneatlas image geneatlas image protein domain image function component gnf go id go text integral component of membrane process gnf go id go text sodium ion transport gnf go id go text carbohydrate transport gnf go id go text transmembrane transport hs entrezgene hs ensembl ensg hs refseqmrna nm hs refseqprotein np hs genloc db hg hs genloc chr hs genloc start hs genloc end hs uniprot q ny mm entrezgene mm ensembl ensmusg mm refseqmrna nm mm refseqprotein np mm genloc db mm mm genloc chr mm genloc start mm genloc end mm uniprot q et path pbb...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:PBB/6527
*  Juice Fasting
In its wisdom, the organism recognizes the need to preserve its lean mass muscle and chooses to replace its source of fuel as quickly as possible with expendable, and abundantly available, fat tissue. In 30 - 36 hours following the last intake of food, that body will progressively undergo a transition into phase 4, the final state of adaptation in the fast. Phase 4 - The catabolism of fat lipidolysis provides the body with another alternative way of providing fuel. Due to the prolific availability of fat, even in slender individuals, supplying the body’s energy needs, this way can continued for an extended period of time. Provision by lipidolysis will continue until re-alimentation re-feeding or starvation is allowed to begin. Whereas carbohydrates and amino acids provide only 4 calories per gram, fat contains over double that - yielding 9 calories per gram. In a state of complete rest, the body requires an average of only 900 calories per day, which can be provided by 100 grams of fat. There have been many r...
http://jimtibbetts.com/Juice_Fasting.html
*  Carbohydrate loading | Define Carbohydrate loading at Dictionary.com
Carbohydrate loading. Define Carbohydrate loading at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Word of the Day Translate Games Blog. Thesaurus.com Apps. Log Out Log In. follow Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. Thesaurus.com. My Account Log Out Log In. Try Our Apps. Word of the Day. Translate. Games. Blog. definitions. definitions synonyms translations. Follow @dictionarycom. follow Dictionary.com. Pore Over vs. CITE. Translate. Facebook Share. Twitter Tweet. Google+ Share. carbohydrate loading. noun 1. the practice of eating high amounts of carbohydrates, sometimes after a period of low carbohydrate intake, for several days immediately before competing in an athletic event, especially a marathon, in order to store glycogen in the body, thereby providing greater reserves of energy. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. Cite This Source. carbohydrate loading in Medicine Expand. carbohydrate loading n. A dietary practice that increases carbohydrate reserves in muscle tissue thr...
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbohydrate loading?qsrc=2446
*  List of Carbohydrate Foods - IronStruck
... ABOUT Pages IronStruck books Testimonials Product Reviews Advertise HOW TO CONTACT ME. LIST OF CARBOHYDRATE FOODS. Do you know how to tell the difference when you see a list of carbohydrate foods. It s important to know the difference between complex and simple carbohydrates, especially when it comes to athletic performance. It s important to have a list of carbohydrate foods before going on a low or high carbohydrate diet or simple or complex carbohydrate diet. There is a huge difference between the two. It s best to break down carbohydrate foods into two categories. Simple and complex carbohydrates and low and high carbohydrate foods. SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES. As a rule, simple carbohydrates are easily broken down and quickly enter the bloodstream. This is often why when too many simple carbohydrates are consumed they will cause wild fluctuations in energy levels. Sometimes this is referred to as an energy crash. This is a simple carbohydrate. Here is a list of simple carbohydrates that should be eaten in ...
http://ironstruck.com/list-of-carbohydrate-foods
*  USA Swimming - Carbohydrate Loading for Young Swimmers
... Contact Us. Contact Us. FOR YOU Swimmers. America's Swim Team. Featured Articles. Swimming 101. Coaches. Clinics & Workshops. Clinics & Workshops. National Opportunities. Tips & Training. High Performance Tips. In-Water Training Videos. Coaches In The Know Videos. Strength & Conditioning. Nutrition Center. AT&T Winter Nationals. Speedo Winter Jr Championships. Phillips 66 Nationals. Speedo Junior Nationals. Home / Tips & Training / Nutrition Center / Nutrition Articles Back. By Jill Castle, MS, RDN It s not uncommon to see teams of young swimmers filing into the local Italian restaurant to load up on pasta the night before a big meet. The common conception is that loading up on a high carbohydrate meal will prepare the muscles with a ready source of glycogen stored carbohydrate in the muscle the following day, usually a race day. The problem with the idea of carbohydrate loading in young athletes is that it is an approach based on what we know about the adult metabolism of carbohydrate. Young swimmers an...
http://usaswimming.org/ViewNewsArticle.aspx?TabId=1635&itemid=5143&mid=11541
*  What are Complex Carbohydrates? (with pictures)
What are Complex Carbohydrates. What are Complex Carbohydrates. Certain vegetables, like peppers, are considered fibrous carbohydrates, which are categorized as complex. Potatoes are a starchy carbohydrate, which is a complex carbohydrate. Broccoli and other fibrous vegetables are complex carbohydrates. Lentils are a type of complex carbohydrate. The fiber in mushrooms is of the fibrous, complex type. Top 10 facts about the world. All carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules; when three or more of these molecules are bound together, it is considered complex. Complex carbohydrates differ from simple carbohydrates in that simple carbohydrates digest or break down into sugar quickly. Processed foods are the most common source of simple carbohydrates. Potatoes are considered a starchy carbohydrate, which is another type of complex carbohydrate. Most experts recommend reducing simple carbohydrates and increasing complex ones for a healthy, even source of energy throughout the day. Often, people who reduce simp...
http://wisegeek.org/what-are-complex-carbohydrates.htm
*  Anybody heard of "carbohydrate loading?" [Archive] - CavalierTalk: Cavalier King Charles Spaniel B
Anybody heard of carbohydrate loading. General cavalier chat discussion Anybody heard of carbohydrate loading. View Full Version : Anybody heard of carbohydrate loading. arasara 24th January 2007, 06:51 PM. Hi guys ~ 6 more days until Faith comes!. Continental Airlines' consulting Veterinarian recommends that customers shipping small or toy breeds that are less than 12 weeks old and less than 3 lb approx 1.5 kg follow these precautionary steps to ensure their safe transportation: Do not vaccinate these puppies within 3 days of transport Do not worm these puppies within 3 days of transport Ensure that no medical procedures are performed on the puppy within 3 days of transport Use honey or White Karo syrup for carbohydrate loading for the 24-hour period just prior to shipping to help maintain glucose levels in the puppy while in transit. Zippy 24th January 2007, 07:13 PM. :lol: :lol:. arasara 24th January 2007, 07:29 PM. :lol: :lol: He's very excited to have a friend come - he just doesn't understand that she's...
http://cavaliertalk.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-15290.html
*  Effect of prolonged, submaximal exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on monocyte intracellular cytoki
... ne production in humans - Starkie - 2004 - The Journal of Physiology - Wiley Online Library. The Journal of Physiology. Get New Content Alerts. FIND ISSUES. FIND ARTICLES. You have free access to this content Effect of prolonged, submaximal exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on monocyte intracellular cytokine production in humans. A Febbraio 1,* Article first published online: 12 AUG 2004. The Journal of Physiology. A 2000, Effect of prolonged, submaximal exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on monocyte intracellular cytokine production in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 528: 647 655. 1 Exercise Physiology and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria. A Febbraio: Exercise Physiology and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia. Issue published online: 12 AUG 2004 Article first published online: 12 AUG 2004 Received 1 July 2000; accepted 21 July 2000. SEARCH BY CITATION....
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.t01-1-00647.x/abstract
*  What Are Complex Carbohydrates? / Nutrition / Carbs
What Are Complex Carbohydrates. / Nutrition / Carbs. Nutrition. Articles Fitness Nutrition. Nutrition. Carbs What Are Complex Carbohydrates. What Are Complex Carbohydrates. And Complex Carbohydrates. Polysaccharide means "many sugars." Polysaccharides, or complex carbohydrates, are several simple sugar molecules linked together. They can be as many as 10,000 simple sugar molecules linked together. Starch and fiber are complex carbohydrates because they are polysaccharides. Simple or Complex. For most people, it's better to choose more complex carbohydrate foods over simple carbohydrate foods. The first reason is that complex carbohydrates usually take longer to be broken down into glucose in your blood, meaning they provide prolonged energy and stabilize your blood sugar rather than spiking it up like simple carbohydrates do. A blood sugar spike, such as one resulting from eating food high in simple carbohydrates like candy, can be bad for your health if it happens too often, which is part of the reason you s...
http://fitday.com/fitness-articles/nutrition/carbs/what-are-complex-carbohydrates.html
*  ARS | Publication request: Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Fram
Publication request: Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort ARS : Research. Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Dietary GI was positively associated with fasting triglycerides, fasting insulin, and inversely associated with HDL cholesterol and ISI0,120. Intakes of total carbohydrate were inversely associated with waist circumference and HDL cholesterol, and positively associated with fasting triglycerides. These findings support the hypothesis that a high GI diet unfavorably affects CVD risk factors and therefore, substitution of high with low GI dietary carbohydrates may reduce the risk of CVD. We examined cross-sectional associations between total carbohydrate and dietary glycemic index GI intakes and several cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors in a sample of 2,941 Framingham Offspring Participants. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary GI was positively associate...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=260956
*  Rapid carbohydrate loading after a short bout of near maximal-intensity exercise - Murdoch Research
... Repository. Rapid carbohydrate loading after a short bout of near maximal-intensity exercise. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core OAI-ORE Resource Map Atom Format Simple Metadata Refer METS OAI-ORE Resource Map RDF Format HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote MODS OpenURL ContextObject in Span DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Eprints Application Profile. 2002 Rapid carbohydrate loading after a short bout of near maximal-intensity exercise. *Subscription may be required Abstract Purpose: One limitation shared by all published carbohydrate-loading regimens is that 2-6 d are required for the attainment of supranormal muscle glycogen levels. Because high rates of glycogen resynthesis are reported during recovery from exercise of near-maximal intensity and that these rates could in theory allow muscle to attain supranormal glycogen levels in less than 24 h, the purpose of this study was to examine whether a combination of a short bout of high-int...
http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/10603/
*  .. A Primer on Dietary Carbohydrates – Part 2 .. A Primer on Dietary Carbohydrates – Part 1 ..
A Primer on Dietary Carbohydrates – Part 2 In a Primer on Dietary Carbohydrates – Part 1, I took a brief look at what carbohydrates are and listed the three primary categories of dietary carbohydrates which are monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. As well, I looked in some detail at the monosaccharides simple sugars which are glucose dextrose , fructose and galactose. A Primer on Dietary Carbohydrates – Part 1 Having previously done a fairly detailed Primer on Dietary Fats, I wanted to do something similar on the topic of carbohydrates in the future I’ll do one for protein as well. In this article, I’m not going to look at many of the debates surrounding the issues of carbohydrate intake in terms of body weight, body fat, or health , you can read Carbohydrate and Fat Conteroversies Part 1 and Carbohdyrate and Fat Controversies Part 2 for somewhat of an examination of that. Rather, I just want to focus on some basic definitions and concepts since there tends to be a lot of general confusion o...
http://bodyrecomposition.com/category/nutrition/carbohydrate/
*  .. Tag Archives: overweight .. High protein beats high carbohydrate diet for biomarkers of metabol
Tag Archives: overweight. Post navigation. ← Older posts. High protein beats high carbohydrate diet for biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. Posted on. March 3, 2013. by. Dr. Jonathan Miller. Reply. Regulating insulin is the key factor metabolic syndrome, diabetes and weight loss. In accordance with that, a randomized controlled trial just published in the journal Diabetes Care offers more evidence that a higher protein with carbohydrate diet improves multiple biomarkers better than a high carbohydrate diet. The authors determined to…. “……study the effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on various metabolic end points glucoregulation, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and resting energy expenditure with high protein–low carbohydrate HP and high carbohydrate–low protein HC diets at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention.”. In other words, how does high protein compare with high carbohydrate in the regulation of blood sugar, inflammation, ...
http://lapislight.com/wp/tag/overweight/
*  » simple carbohydrates
simple carbohydrates. MOVIES. FITNESS. GROOMING. ON LOCATION. GEAR. DRINKS. VICES. GADGETS. DATING. Dating. Fitness. Gadgets. Gear. Grooming. Movies. On Location. Vices. Drink of the Week. Staff Picks - Movies. Entertainment. Grub for Guys. Videos. The dangers of sugar consumption Posted by Bullz-Eye Staff 06/25/2012 @ 8:00 am If you ve been a regular reader of Mike Furci, Bullz-Eye.com s Fitness Editor, you ve known for a long time that you should be limiting the amount of sugar and simple carbohydrates in your diet. The dangers of sugar consumption are now getting much more attention, and a recent 60 Minutes story is getting a lot of attention. Sanjay Gupta discusses the dangers of sugar with Dr. Lustig, who explains how many of our health problems like obesity and Type 2 diabetes. His YouTube video, Sugar: The Bitter Truth, has over 2.5 million views. This isn t just about the table sugar you put in your coffee. Most processed foods you buy at the store are loaded with sugars or high fructose corn syrup wh...
http://blog.bullz-eye.com/tag/simple-carbohydrates/
*  List of Slow-Release Carbohydrate Foods | Live Well - Jillian Michaels
List of Slow-Release Carbohydrate Foods. Live Well - Jillian Michaels. Jillian Michaels. Sample Fitness Plan. Sample Meal Plan. 25-50 Lbs. Lost. 50-75 Lbs. Lost. 75-100 Lbs. Lost. 100-125 Lbs. Lost. 125+ Lbs. Lost. Live Well. About Jillian. Jillian's Bio. Live Well. Fitness Exercise. List of Slow-Release Carbohydrate Foods. by Gianna Rose. About Gianna Rose. Slow-release carbohydrate foods -- carbs that are absorbed slowly and keep your blood sugar steady -- keep hunger pangs away and help prevent chronic diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Feel better and stay healthier with slow-release carbohydrates. Whole Grains. Your body digests whole grains more slowly than refined grains, which have been stripped of their bran and germ, and thus fiber, and are absorbed almost as quickly as pure glucose. Quickly absorbed, refined carbohydrates are linked to Type 2 diabetes, heart disease and weight gain, notes the Harvard School of Public Health. Fruits and Vegetables. Most fruits and vegetables are sl...
http://livewell.jillianmichaels.com/list-slowrelease-carbohydrate-foods-5115.html
*  Carbohydrate Loading Keep
... Article submitted by Don Blansett. Carbohydrate Loading Keep. Foreword. The sport of cockfighting has existed for hundreds of years, but like most sciences, more progress has been made in the past fifty than all those preceding years. The average cocks of today could defeat those cocks bred and fed in the 1920's. Why. For the same reasons human beings today are stronger, bigger and faster than their grandparents: breeding and feeding. Great strides have been made in genetics and nutrition in the past fifty, and particularly, the last twenty years. Consequently, average life expectancy, general health, and size have increased by leaps and bounds. In the animal world horses run faster, cows produce more milk and beef, hens lay more eggs, and so on. Cockers of today are more knowledgeable and generally better educated, with more available information, than ever before. But, while most cockers are great students of experience, as a rule, they do little to actually study genetics and nutrition with an eye tow...
http://gamerooster.com/spotlight/carb_keep.html
*  .. Examples of Simple and Complex Carbohydrates .. Many health experts recommend cutting down or el
Examples of Simple and Complex Carbohydrates. Many health experts recommend cutting down or eliminating sugar and other simple carbohydrates, and increasing the servings of complex carbohydrates in the diet. Unfortunately, over-consumption of sugar, high-fructose corn syrup and other highly refined carbohydrates has been associated with a higher incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even breast cancer. And eating refined carbs can, over time, result in almost uncontrollable sugar cravings. With the popularity of low-carb diets, many people are afraid to eat any carbohydrates, but it is important to distinguish between the health-robbing effects of simple sugars and other carbs, and the health-giving properties of complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are high-fiber foods, which improve your digestion. Examples: simple and complex carbohydrates. Some examples of healthy foods containing complex carbohydrates:. Some examples of foods containing simple carbohydrates:. Corn syrup. Bread made w...
http://howtothinkthin.com/instincts2.htm
*  Eviscerate WITHOUT a low CHO diet? - AnabolicMinds.com
Eviscerate WITHOUT a low CHO diet. News. Supplement News. Nutrition News. Weight Loss News. Training News. Men's Health News. Contest News. Research News. Forum. Supplement Forum. Nutrition Forum. Weight Loss Forum. Training Forum. Supplement Forum. Nutrition Forum. Weight Loss Forum. Training Forum. Album Gallery. Forum. Supplement Forum. Eviscerate WITHOUT a low CHO diet. Eviscerate WITHOUT a low CHO diet. 03-16-2010, 09:41 PM. Eviscerate WITHOUT a low CHO diet. I know that cho intake just about fully negates the desired effect of yohimboine HCL and as I can no longer realy be super functioning on lower cho/keto type diets I'm wondering what else in the Eviscerate line up gets screwed over by cho intake. FWIW,my sources of cho are fairly decent;like 2 slices of toast in the AM or 200kcals worth of oatmeal along with a low cho pro shake.Though the oatmeal I use has another 10 or so grams of cho due to added sugar.I'm between 100-200 grams of cho per day but still in a signifigant kcal deficit 500-1000. 03-16...
http://anabolicminds.com/forum/recomp-performance-nutrition/148610-eviscerate-without-low-post2382489.html
*  Insulin index
The index is similar to the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load, but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. Insulin index represents a comparison food portions with equal overall caloric content 250 kcal or 1000 kJ, while GI and GL represents a comparison of portions with equal digestible carbohydrate content typically 50 g. This measure can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain foods e.g., lean meats and proteins cause an insulin response despite there being no carbohydrate s present, and some foods cause a disproportionate insulin response relative to their carbohydrate load. 1 but high-protein foods and bakery products that are rich in fat and refined carbohydrates "elicit insulin responses that were disproportionately higher than their glycemic responses." They also conclude that insulin indices may be useful for dietary management and avoidance of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemi...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_index
*  Carbohydrate loading
'Carbohydrate loading', commonly referred to as 'carb-loading' or 'carbo-loading', is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen or energy in the muscles and liver. 1 Carbohydrate loading is generally recommended for endurance events lasting longer than 90 minutes. 2 Many endurance athletes prefer foods with low glycemic indices for carbo-loading due to their minimal effect on serum glucose levels. Without depletion Short workout Transient hypoglycemia Diet composition References Further reading. 4 Most athletes now follow this modified regimen and it is recommended by many coaches. Some athletes still follow the original carbo-loading regimen. 5 Short workout. On the day before the race, the athlete performs a very short, extremely high-intensity workout such as a few minutes of sprinting then consumes of carbohydrate per kilogram of lean mass over the next 24 hours. The regimen resulted in a 90% increase in glycogen storage when compared to before th...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate_loading
*  Carbohydrates: To Use or Abuse? | Deepak Chopra
Deepak Chopra. Huffpost Healthy Living. Follow Newsletters. Get Healthy LivingNewsletters Email address. Huffington Post Search. iOS app. Android app. Women. Go to Women More in Women. Women's Health. Style. Weddings. Parents. Healthy Living. Taste. Go to Taste More in Taste. Healthy Eating. Healthy Living. Travel. Good News. Go to Good News You Might Also Like. GPS for the Soul. Healthy Living. Parents. Go to Parents More in Parents. Taste. Style. Go to Style More in Style. There are three main categories of carbohydrates : Simple sugars simple carbohydrates, such as those responsible for the sweetness in fruit fructose and table sugar sucrose. Carbs have long been neatly grouped into two categories that also make diet choice more clear cut: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. You've heard many times that we should be eating complex carbohydrates and shunning simple carbohydrates. It would be convenient if one group represents "good" carbs and the other "bad" carbs. Simple carbohydrates are so na...
http://huffingtonpost.com/deepak-chopra/good-bad-carbohydrates-_b_1512269.html
*  Preservation of the gut by preoperative carbohydrate loading improves postoperative food intake.
... Advanced Search. Document Detail. Preservation of the gut by preoperative carbohydrate loading improves postoperative food intake. MedLine Citation:. BACKGROUND AIMS: A carbohydrate CHO drink given preoperatively changes the fasted state into a fed state. An intestinal ischaemia reperfusion IR animal model was used to investigate whether preoperative CHO loading increases spontaneous postoperative food intake, intestinal barrier function and the catabolic response. METHODS: Male Wistar rats n = 65 were subjected to 16 h fasting with ad libitum water and: A sham laparotomy Sham fasted, n = 24 ; B intestinal ischaemia IR fasted, n = 27 ; and C intestinal ischaemia with preoperatively access to a CHO drink IR CHO, n = 14. Spontaneous food intake, intestinal barrier function, insulin sensitivity, intestinal motility and plasma amino acids were measured after surgery. RESULTS: The IR CHO animals started eating significantly earlier and also ate significantly more than the IR fasted animals. Furthermore, preop...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Preservation-gut-by-preoperative-carbohydrate/23219717.html
*  .. Carbohydrates – Are They All Bad? .. Subscribe to Good For You .. .. .. Recent Comments ..
Amateur sports Beauty health Rockford. Uncategorized Carbohydrates – Are They All Bad. Carbohydrates – Are They All Bad. Comments Off on Carbohydrates – Are They All Bad. That energy comes from protein, fat, and carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose which the body uses as its primary and most efficient source of energy. Carbohydrates are the only energy source the brain, nerves, and developing red cells can use for energy. Protein and fat are used as sources of energy only when carbohydrates are depleted. Complex carbohydrates include potatoes, oats, corn, peas, whole wheat pasta, beans, and brown rice and are excellent sources of energy. They are also a good source of protein, vitamins, and minerals. Complex carbohydrates contain fiber which will slow down the release of glucose. Simple carbohydrates white flour, white sugar raise glucose level, giving the body a burst of energy that burns quickly, causing a sudden drop in glucose levels, making us feel tired and hungry. Simple carbohydra...
http://blogs.e-rockford.com/goodforyou/2012/12/05/carbohydrates-are-they-all-bad/
*  high-carbohydrate - definition and meaning
... Community. Word of the day. Random word. Log in or Sign up. high-carbohydrate love. Define. Relate. List. Discuss. Hear. Help Wordnik hunt for a million missing words by backing our Kickstarter. high-carbohydrate. Define. Relate. List. Discuss. Hear. un Love. Definitions. Sorry, no definitions found. Etymologies. Sorry, no etymologies found. While weight loss was similar for both diets approximately 4.0 kg, reductions in LDL-C concentration were greater for the low-carbohydrate compared with the high-carbohydrate diet. Sharma’s Obesity Notes Blog Archive “Eco Atkins” Beats High-Carb Ovo-Lacto Vegetarian. From the limited information that one can derive from such a short-term study, it seems that the low-carbohydrate plant-based diet Eco Atkins has some advantages with regard to lowering lipids compared to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diet. Sharma’s Obesity Notes Blog Archive “Eco Atkins” Beats High-Carb Ovo-Lacto Vegetarian. The causes include low levels of so-called good cholesterol and life...
https://wordnik.com/words/high-carbohydrate
*  ARS | Publication request: Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic live
Publication request: Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition TEN ARS : Research. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition TEN Authors. Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition TEN. Technical Abstract: Few studies have examined the effects of diet on the dynamics of injury progression or on alcohol-induced bone loss. Dietary fat content was either 5% high carbohydrate, HC or 45% high fat, with or without ethanol EtOH substitution for carbohydrate calories to a final level of 13 g/kg/d. HC rats gained more weight and had larger fat pads than HF rats with or without EtOH, but blood EtOH values did not differ. Liver fat content increased more rapidly in EtOH/HC rats than EtOH/HF ...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=274833&pf=1
*  ARS | Publication request: Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic live
ARS. Publication request: Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition TEN ARS : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. International Programs. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. Title: Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition TEN Authors. Submitted to: Toxicologist Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: November 1, 2011 Publication Date: March 15, 2012 Repository URL: http://www.toxicology.org/AI/PUB/Toxicologist12.pdf Citation: Ronis, M.J., Mercer, K., Suva, L., Badeaux, J., Ferguson, M., Hogue, W., Sharma, N., Badger, T.M. Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition TEN. Technical Abstract: Few studies have examined the effects of diet on the dynamics of injury progression or on alcoho...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=274833
*  .. The flat stomach diet .. The big three .. Carbohydrates .. Protein .. Fat .. Other foods to avoi
The flat stomach diet Diet. The flat stomach diet is not a fad diet promising miracle weight loss. Fad diets are generally deficient in essential nutrients. They may deliver weight loss but this is often at the expense of your health. Further more they are unsustainable and when these diets are stopped, the weight comes piling back on. Fad diets are to be avoided. Instead you should eat according to sound nutritional principles which encourage the growth of lean muscle and discourage the storage of excess calories as fat. This key in understanding how to get flat stomach. The big three. The food you eat can be broken down in to three major macronutrient groups, ‘the big three’:. Carbohydrates Proteins Fats You need to learn about each one to understand how to plan your diet. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of fuel for physical activity. Foods high in carbohydrates are bread, pasta, cereals and potatoes. Carbohydrates can be divided up into two categories:. Simple Carbohydrates Comple...
http://flatstomachguru.com/flat-stomach-diet/
*  The Value Of Complex Carbs In Your Diet : Lakisha Toussaint & Beyond The Uniform Client Care
To get fit and turn into healthy, dieting and exercise go hand in hand. Although some diets advise the lowering of fats and carbohydrates, others recommend only the reduction of fats. Even though some diet programs recommend lower carbohydrate intake, now you ask, raised whether it will have any effect on weight reduction and the unsafe effects of weight. When the carbohydrate intake is reduced, there's no question that many people might see some initial reduction in weight loss, however, this just isn't sustained in the long run. Using a low carbohydrate diet will gradually result in a boost in lethargy and definately will result in a gradual increase in weight following your initial weight reduction. Often the initial weight reduction is really just the reduction in fluids from the cells, or water weight. This loss in fluids is not always healthy. What are the different forms of Carbohydrates and which of those forms ought to be consumed for promoting health insurance and improving weight-loss. There are tw...
https://beyondtheuniform.zendesk.com/entries/36251679-The-Value-Of-Complex-Carbs-In-Your-Diet
*  - NEL
Intakes of fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate and the risk of CVD. Statistical Analysis Three groups were defined based on the percentage of energy derived from carbohydrate low, less than 40%; moderate, less than 40% to 55%; and high, less than 55% Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess whether a high intake of total or specific fruits and vegetables was associated with reduced risk of ischemic CVD among the three carbohydrate intake groups Analyses was performed separately for each cohort, and the results were also pooled to obtain overall estimates For the categorical analyses, the lowest quintile of intake formed the reference category The relative risk for the continuous measures was calculated and adjusted for standard CVD risk factors For each two-year follow-up period in which events were reported, the intake for each composite item was computed as a cumulative average of intake from all available food-frequency questionnaires FFQ up to the start of the follow-up period. No s...
http://nel.gov/worksheet.cfm?worksheet_id=250657
*  Here is a list of low carbohydrate foods
HEALTH and FITNESS.com : BACK To Diet FAQ's || Fitness FAQ's || Advice || Forums Here is a list of low carbohydrate foods In Reply to: low carb foods posted by vickie on March 07 at 10:30:30: This list is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and has about 1000 low carbohydrate foods. Also, the amount of calories, protein, cholesterol and sodium are included for you to monitor your diet better. I am just starting too. Enjoy SUPERFOOD Protein Shakes are low-carb, low-sugar and very low fat. This is the Highest Quality Protein for Meal Replacement or to use for adding lean body weight. 30ways30days.com Only on H&F: Kangoo Jumps U.S. Department of Agriculture Description of food Weight Food Energy CarbohydrateProtein Fat CholesterolSodium (Grams)(Kilocalorie) (Grams) (Grams) (Grams)(Milligrams)(Milligram) BROWN AND SERVE SAUSAGE,BRWND 1 LINK 13 50 0 2 5 9 105 PORK, LUNCHEON MEAT,CHOPPD HAM2 SLICES 42 95 0 7 7 21 576 SUNFLOWER OIL 1 TBSP 14 125 0 0 14 0 0 PORK, CURED, HAM, ROSTED,LN+FT3 OZ 85 205 0 18 14 53 100...
http://healthandfitness.com/bbs/nutri/messages/2300.html
*  Carbohydrates
Diet and nutrition. StayQuit - 90-day stop smoking programme. Weight loss programme. Diet and nutrition. Diet and nutrition Health centre. Diet and nutrition facts Healthy menu choices when eating out. Healthy eating 12 things you never knew could make you fat. Weight loss tips. Weight problems. Weight problems. Complex carbohydrates, as natural starches, are found in wholegrain cereals and brown rice. This is because they can be converted more readily into glucose, the form of sugar that's transported and used by the body, than proteins or fats can. It is better to balance your intake of carbohydrates with protein, a little fat and fibre. Complex carbohydrates as refined starches are found in: biscuits, pastries and cakes pizzas sugary processed breakfast cereals white bread white flour white pasta white rice. The difference between complex and simple carbohydrates All carbohydrates form glucose when digested. Complex carbohydrates provide a slower and more sustained release of energy than simple carbohydrat...
http://netdoctor.co.uk/focus/nutrition/facts/lifestylemanagement/carbohydrates.htm
*  High Protein & Carbohydrate Foods | Get Fit - Jillian Michaels
High Protein Carbohydrate Foods. Get Fit - Jillian Michaels. Skip to main content. Jillian Michaels. The Regimen. The Routine. Sample Fitness Plan. The Fuel. Sample Meal Plan. The Tools. The App. Why it Works. The Results. 25-50 Lbs. Lost. 50-75 Lbs. Lost. 75-100 Lbs. Lost. 100-125 Lbs. Lost. 125+ Lbs. Lost. The Community. The Challenges. The Moderators. The Message Boards. Get Fit. Live Well. The Store. About Jillian. Jillian's Bio. Press. Books DVDs. Partners. Downloads. Business Inquiries. Register Now. Advertisement. Get Fit. Menu. Home. Diet Nutrition. Fitness Exercise. . High Protein Carbohydrate Foods. by Andrea Cespedes. About Andrea Cespedes. Andrea Cespedes is a professionally trained chef who has focused studies in nutrition. With more than 20 years of experience in the fitness industry, she coaches cycling and running and teaches Pilates and yoga. She is an American Council on Exercise-certified personal trainer, RYT-200 and has degrees from Princeton and Columbia University. X. Related Articles. ...
http://getfit.jillianmichaels.com/high-protein-carbohydrate-foods-1176.html
*  Karin R Sargrad
... add/edit. You are here: Scientific Experts USA. Drexel University Sargrad Karin R Sargrad. Research Topics indirect calorimetry glucose clamp technique reducing diet dietary carbohydrates electric impedance dietary proteins glycosylated hemoglobin a anthropometry area under curve energy metabolism type 2 diabetes mellitus blood glucose insulin body weight obesity blood pressure analysis of variance. Karin R Sargrad Summary Affiliation: Drexel University Country: USA. Publications Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Karin R Sargrad Nutrition Center, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA J Am Diet Assoc 105:573-80. 2005. Collaborators Guenther Boden. Detail Information Publications 1 Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/drexel/sargrad/karin-r-sargrad-225232.html
*  FARK.com: (7458064) New study finds that countries that use a lot of HFCS have more type 2 diabetic
FARK.com: 7458064 New study finds that countries that use a lot of HFCS have more type 2 diabetics than countries that don't use as much HFCS. Fark. my Fark. New study finds that countries that use a lot of HFCS have more type 2 diabetics than countries that don't use as much HFCS labspaces.net. 4 votes:. ZipSplat : Keep f*ckin' that HFCS chicken. Eating multiple times over the amount of simple carbohydrates that you should is going to result in diabetes. 4 votes:. 3 votes:. 3 votes:. The study reports that countries that use HFCS in their food supply had a 20 percent higher prevalence of diabetes than countries that did not use HFCS. So why would sugars be any different. 3 votes:. People somehow think that high glycemic index leads to high blood sugar leads to insulin leads to fat leads to diabetes. Eating multiple times over the amount of simple carbohydrates that you should is going to result in diabetes. Eating multiple times over the amount of simple carbohydrates that you should is going to resu...
http://fark.com/comments/7458064?tt=voteresults0&startid=80977514
*  High-Carbohydrate Diet Important For Young Athletes | MomsTeam
High-Carbohydrate Diet Important For Young Athletes. MomsTeam. My Account Sign In Sign Up. Connect with us:. Health Safety. Nutrition. Successful Parenting. Sports. Team Moms/Coaches. Team of Experts. Videos Blogs. Home. Nutrition Channel High-Carbohydrate Diet Important For Young Athletes 26848 reads Flag as offensive Printer-friendly version. High-Carbohydrate Diet Important For Young Athletes. Daily consumption of whole grain foods, vegetables and fruits is essential. By Suzanne Nelson, Sc.D., RD. carbohydrates diet FDA food guidance system glycogen MyPlate Nutrition Nutritional Needs Guidelines Sports Nutrition Basics youth athletes 8 to 10 11 to 13 14 to 18. When you or your child athlete thinks of food, you should think about carbohydrates, with the primary food sources being the whole-grain products, vegetables, and fruits that make up three quarters of the FDA's new MyPlate food guidance system. Studies have shown that adequate dietary carbohydrate must be consumed on a daily basis, especially after e...
http://momsteam.com/nutrition/youth-athletes-need-high-carbohydrate-diet-for-sports
*  Articles about Carbohydrates - tribunedigital-chicagotribune
News. News. IN THE NEWS. Diet. ENTERTAINMENT. Even 40 years after the introduction of insulin allowed them to control their blood sugars, diabetics were advised to restrict carbohydrate intake to between 30 and 40 percent of the day's calories. This means giving your body the carbohydrates and protein it needs. NEWS. ENTERTAINMENT. High-protein diet may help some people shed pounds. NEW YORK Reuters Health - Dieters who eat meals and snacks high in protein might lose a bit more weight than those who get less protein and more carbohydrates - all other things being equal, a new analysis of past studies suggests. Carbohydrates, Not Protein, Provide Energy. You mentioned that they might load up on foods like pasta, and I believe you called it "carbohydrate loading." My question is, if they want more energy, why don't they stock up on protein instead. By Tim Bongartz, M.D., Tribune Media Services and Premium Health News Service. You may be ready to accept the fact that carbohydrates are no more fattening than prot...
http://articles.chicagotribune.com/keyword/carbohydrates
*  Muscle and Brawn Forums - View Single Post - Karbolyn logers.
... Thread : Karbolyn logers. View Single Post. 04-09-2012, 09:49 AM # 3. Rich Knapp. Wheelchair Pro Max Brawn. Join Date: Mar 2010 Location: Appleton, WI Posts: 6,046 Training Exp: 13 years Training Type: Bodybuilding Fav Supp: AAEFX's whole line. Reputation: 148270. Quote: Originally Posted by Chillen. what is it. Quote: A Bio-Engineered High-Performance Carbohydrate Karbolyn® represents the dawn of a new era of carbohydrate supplementation. Unlike other carbohydrate sources, Karbolyn® is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream like a simple sugar but without the typical spike or crash caused when your muscles run out of fuel. In fact, Karbolyn® is a “homopolysaccharide” relatively complex carbohydrate, proven to be absorbed 18.21% faster than pure Dextrose a simple carbohydrate. Yet it still provides the sustained energy of complex carbohydrates. Only One Carbohydrate Source On Earth Can Make All 10 Of These Incredible Claims: All American EFX’s Karbolyn. Quickly hyper-loads muscle tissue with glycogen for ...
http://muscleandbrawn.com/forum/231155-post3.html
*  24Medica - The best foods for type 2 diabetics
... Nutrition Diet. The best foods for type 2 diabetics. People diagnosed with diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association, should take steps to control their blood sugar. Below are some foods that can help in weight management and the prevention dangerous spikes in blood glucose:. 1 Choose complex carbohydrates over simple carbohydrates - Keeping sugar levels stable is a top priority for diabetics. That is why complex carbohydrates are a better source of energy compared to simple carbohydrates that produce spikes in the bloodstream and cause serious problems. Instead, choose complex carbohydrates like whole wheat, brown rice, beans, oats, quinoa and whole wheat pasta as they are slowly digested and absorbed into the blood, thus producing a gradual and consistent sugar level instead of unpredictable spikes. whole wheat bran while soluble fiber can lower cholesterol. The New England Journal of Medicine featured a study where diabetics more or less consumed 50 grams of soluble fiber daily. The stu...
http://24medica.com/content/view/2785/1/
*  Carbohydrate | NorthShore Carbohydrate
Carbohydrate. NorthShore. Online Community Login. Site Map. Online Community Login. Health Encyclopedia. Request Appointment. Health Encyclopedia. About the Health Encyclopedia. How We Can Help. Internet Resources. Health Care Reform. Online Community Login. Health Resources. Health Encyclopedia. Request Appointment. Carbohydrate is an essential nutrient that is an excellent source of energy measured as calories for the body and is the preferred fuel for the brain and nervous system. All forms of carbohydrate increase a person's blood sugar level, depending on the amount of carbohydrate in the food. Carbohydrate comes in two forms: starch and sugar. Starch complex carbohydrate is found in foods such as breads, cereals, grains, pasta, rice, flour, legumes, and vegetables. Foods high in starch provide longer-lasting energy than simple carbohydrates. Sugar simple carbohydrate is found in foods such as fruits, juices, milk, honey, desserts, and candy. Foods high in simple sugar provide quick energy. Healthwise St...
http://northshore.org/healthresources/encyclopedia/encyclopedia.aspx?DocumentHwid=stc15525
*  .. Vähähiilihydraattinen dieetti .. Mitä, miksi, kenelle ja miten? .. Yhteenveto niille, j
Esim. esim. Esim. esim. A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity ja A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity. Käytännössä vähähiilihydraattiset dieetit ovat runsasproteiinisempia kuin runsashiilihydraattiset dieetit. Tyydyttyneen rasvan vaihtaminen tyydyttymättömään rasvaan tai jopa hiilihydraattiin näyttää joidenkin tutkimusten mukaan johtavan suoraan rasvan määrän vähenemiseen kehossa. A reduction in dietary saturated fat decreases body fat content in overweight, hypercholesterolemic males. Atkins pudottavat aluksi esim puolessa vuodessa painoa tehokkaammin kuin vähärasvaiset runsashiilihydraattiset dieetit rasvaa alle 25-30 E% ja hiilihydraattia n. dieetti on jotenkin poikkeuksellinen ja mullistava ja siksi parempi kuin muut dieetit. Lähes poikkeuksetta tutkimuksissa ja “oikeassa elämässä” vähähiilihydraattiset dieetit ovat runsasproteiinisempia kuin runsashiilihydraattiset dieetit. Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate...
http://kutri.net/kevyt-keho/ravinto/lowcarb/
*  st: RE: repeated ANOVA
... From. Ganesh, Saravana SGanesh@rcseng.ac.uk. To. statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu. Subject. st: RE: repeated ANOVA. Date. Tue, 17 Sep 2002 16:10:00 +0100. help search -pkcross should answer your question -----Original Message----- From: Ricardo Ovaldia Sent: 17 September 2002 3:52 To: statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu Subject: st: repeated ANOVA Yesterday I posted a question to the list and received no response. Although I though the question was clear. Let me put it another way. I want the syntax statement in Stata for a one factor cross-over design when order matters. Is it that Stata can't do this. If so, please let me know. Thank you, Ricardo. Here is my original post: I am analyzing an experiment in which half of a set subjects received a HIGH carbohydrate diet first and then the low carbohydrate diet, and the other half of subjects received the LOW carbohydrate diet first and then the high carbohydrate diet. There was no wash-out period. At the end of each diet regimen high, low serum glucose and other ...
http://stata.com/statalist/archive/2002-09/msg00286.html
*  high carbohydrates | FitHo
high carbohydrates. FitHo. High Carbohydrates. . How It works. Take The Tour. 8860633501/2. fitness@fitho.in. Home The FitHo Plan. How FitHo Works. Fitho Plan features. Your Nutrition Plan. Your Exercise Plan. Your Health Coach. Why FitHo Works. Health Conditions. Success Stories. Plans About. About FitHo. Press Coverage. Sign up • Log in. . Username. Password. Forgot password. Not a member yet. Sign up now. Please enter your registered email address. Home. Tag. High Carbohydrates. High Carbohydrates. Find informative articles on High Carbohydrates, related to health. Stay updated with the latest and most comprehensive information related to High Carbohydrates. Benefits of Seasonal Fruits Eat a fruit every time you have a growling stomach. Its the healthiest substitute for a snack as it is packed with nutrition and can actually boost your metabolism. There are variety of fruits present through out the year offering loads of nutrition packed in different flavors. Binging on fruits is specially helpful when you...
http://fitho.in/tag/high-carbohydrates/
*  Substrate Utilization
Low intensity, high duration aerobics Low intense exercise 30% VO2 max relies primarily on fat, whereas, high intense exercise 70% VO2 max primarily utilized carbohydrate. On a low carbohydrate diet, you burn a higher proportion of energy from fat Endurance can be reduced up to 50% until body adapts Adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet is possible if calories from protein and fat are sufficient If calories are not sufficient, lean tissue muscle is utilized by gluconeogenesis conversion of protein to glucose On a high carbohydrate diet, you burn a higher proportion of energy from carbohydrates. Tremblay, et al., 1994 All substrates are being utilized by the body at any given time, but the magnitudes can dramatically vary depending on the metabolic demands eg: intensity, duration, fitness level, and available substrates ATP and Creatine Phosphate stores are typically taxed after several seconds Can be prolonged with intermittent activity such as swimming Lactacid energy system are typically taxed around 45 sec...
http://exrx.net/Nutrition/Substrates.html
*  Carbohydrate Powders | Myprotein.com
Carbohydrate Powders. Myprotein.com. Myprotein. Myprotein. Our range. Your sport. Batch Tested. Clothing. Energy Endurance. Protein. Whey Protein. Bars. Foods. Drinks. Creatine. Creapure®. Creatine Monohydrate. Powders. Tablets Capsules. Powders. Tablets Capsules. Carbohydrates. Instant Oats. Powders. Energy Gels. Energy Bars. Energy Drinks. Fibre. Protein. As the body's primary source of energy, Carbohydrates are vitally important for those looking to optimise their athletic performance. Our Carbohydrates range includes everything from low-GI sources such as Instant Oats to fast-releasing carbohydrates including Dextrose, Maltodextrin and Waxy Maize. Relevance Popularity Price: Low to high Price: High to low Name - Alphabetically. Source of low GI carbohydrates Can help to reduce blood cholesterol Great taste and easy to mix. Fast acting carbohydrate 100% sugar and lactose free High GI carbohydrate. High GI carbohydrate Great source of energy Rapidly replenish glycogen stores. Excellent source of energy High...
http://myprotein.com/carbohydrate/powders.list?switchcurrency=EUR&switchcurrency=EUR
*  8 Tips for Improving Your Diet - Nutritional Advice for Eating Healthier
By Patty Hartong. Walla You will lose weight!. Vegetables are very high in fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and minerals. One of the best ways to lose weight is to eat plenty of fiber. 3 Avoid deep fried food, Trans fats, partially hydrogenated oil and hydrogenated oil: As time passes, we keep finding more bad things about hydrogenated oil and fried foods. Hydrogenation produces trans fats, which have been linked to a number of health problems such as the following: Cancer: Women with higher levels of Trans fats in their cells are much more likely to develop breast cancer than women with low levels of Trans fats. Heart disease: High levels of Trans fats create platelet aggregation, which is the beginning of the plaque associated with coronary heart disease. There may be a link between Trans fats and ADD, depression and fatigue. Hydrogenated oils are found in a lot of packaged foods like crackers, cereals and even bread. 4 Avoid refined sugar: The average American eats 150 pounds of refined sugar per year. Refined...
http://blog.ideafit.com/blogs/patty-hartong/8-tips-for-improving-your-diet-nutritional-advice-for-eating-healthier
*  The best protein - Nutrition Express Articles
Order 1-800-338-7979 24-hrs. Article Index > Sports Nutrition > Meal Timing The best protein by Jeff S. Volek, Ph.D., R.D. Choosing the right proteins at the right times of the day can maximize your weight loss and help ensure you lose fat and build muscle. Common protein supplements include whey, casein (milk), egg and soy . We are now learning protein quality is just as important as quantity in determining the effects on thermogenesis, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Here is what we know. Protein is the Most Thermogenic Thermogenesis, or more appropriately the thermic effect of feeding, refers to the generation of heat due to digestion and metabolism of food. Several studies show protein to be more thermogenic than carbohydrates and fat. That means calorie for calorie more of the energy from protein is given off as heat and less is available for storage as fat. In one study comparing high protein meals to high carbohydrate meals fed over a 9-hour period, it was found the thermic effect of protei...
http://nutritionexpress.com/article index/sports nutrition/meal timing/showarticle.aspx?id=353
*  Carbohydrates | Myprotein.com
Carbohydrates. Myprotein.com. Myprotein. Myprotein. Our range. Your sport. 0 Account. Your Account. Batch Tested. Clothing. Energy Endurance. Protein. Whey Protein. Bars. Foods. Drinks. Powders. Tablets Capsules. Powders. Tablets Capsules. Carbohydrates. Instant Oats. Powders. Energy Gels. Energy Bars. Energy Drinks. Fibre. Protein. Carbohydrates are the most common source of energy for our bodies and should account for 55%-75% of dietary intake. Our carb range contains only the very latest powders at unbeatable direct prices. Relevance Popularity Price: Low to high Price: High to low Name - Alphabetically. Excellent source of energy High GI carbohydrate Sweet tasting and instant mixing. Source of low GI carbohydrates Can help to reduce blood cholesterol Great taste and easy to mix. High GI carbohydrate Great source of energy Rapidly replenish glycogen stores. Fast acting carbohydrate 100% sugar and lactose free High GI carbohydrate. Low GI source of carbohydrate Great for recovery and performance Great value...
http://myprotein.com/our-range/bulk-powders/carbohydrates.list
*  Carbohydrates | Myprotein.com
Carbohydrates. Myprotein.com. Myprotein. Myprotein. Our range. Your sport. 0 Account. Your Account. Batch Tested. Clothing. Energy Endurance. Protein. Whey Protein. Bars. Foods. Drinks. Powders. Tablets Capsules. Powders. Tablets Capsules. Carbohydrates. Instant Oats. Powders. Energy Gels. Energy Bars. Energy Drinks. Fibre. Protein. Carbohydrates are the most common source of energy for our bodies and should account for 55%-75% of dietary intake. Our carb range contains only the very latest powders at unbeatable direct prices. Relevance Popularity Price: Low to high Price: High to low Name - Alphabetically. Excellent source of energy High GI carbohydrate Sweet tasting and instant mixing. Source of low GI carbohydrates Can help to reduce blood cholesterol Great taste and easy to mix. High GI carbohydrate Great source of energy Rapidly replenish glycogen stores. Fast acting carbohydrate 100% sugar and lactose free High GI carbohydrate. Low GI source of carbohydrate Great for recovery and performance Great value...
http://myprotein.com/our-range/bulk-powders/carbohydrates.list?pageNumber=1
*  Analytical Techniques in Aquaculture Research
Analysis of Feed Feed Ingredients Proximate Analysis. Proximate Analysis. Crude protein. Crude lipid. Crude fibre. Nitrogen-free extracts digestible carbohydrates. Van Soest Detergent Fiber analysis. A method for the quantitative analysis of the different macronutrients in feed is the Weende or proximate analysis, based on the Weende analysis that was developed in 1860 by Henneberg and Stohmann in Germany. Proximate Analysis is a partitioning of compounds in a feed into six categories based on the chemical properties of the compounds. The six categories are: moisture ash crude protein or Kjeldahl protein crude lipid crude fibre nitrogen-free extracts digestible carbohydrates. After extracting the fat, the sample is subjected to an acid digestion, simulating the acid present in the stomach, followed by an alkaline digestion, simulating the alkaline environment in the small intestine. The crude fiber remaining after digestion is the portion of the sample assumed not digestible by monogastric animals. In the pro...
http://aquaculture.ugent.be/Education/coursematerial/online courses/ATA/analysis/proxi.htm
*  Carbohydrates: Fuel of Choice - FamilyEducation.com
Food for Thought Carbohydrate-rich foods are the fuel of choice for athletes. For example: here's the carbo requirement for a 150-pound elite runner training several hours each day: 150 pounds 4.5 grams = 675 grams of carbohydrate Because 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories, we can now convert 675 carb grams into carb calories by using the following equation: 675 4 = 2,700 carbohydrate calories Now, let's look at a typical 150-pound health club member, working out at a moderate intensity approximately 45 minutes, 4 5 days a week: 150 pounds 3.0 grams = 450 grams of carbohydrate Now, convert into carb calories: 450 4 = 1,800 carbohydrate calories As you can see, a more intense endurance exercise program will demand more carbohydrate. The Starchy Carbs Generally speaking, breads, grains, and other starchy foods contain approximately 15 grams give or take a few of carbohydrate per serving 1 slice bread, cup pasta, 1 serving of cereal. For instance, a pasta entree can easily total five grain servings, and because...
http://life.familyeducation.com/carbohydrates/nutrition-and-diet/48812.html
*  How To Get Fit Over 40
... Post Ad. My Account. Help. Affiliate Program. Local Classifieds. Keyword Alerts. Username:. Password:. Post Ad. Enter your zip to find stuff near you. All Pages Classified Ads Catalogs Categories Help Topics. Show Images Hide Images. Classifieds. Health & Fitness. Fitness Affiliate Ad info An affiliate ad has been posted by a person or company who markets/sells products for another person or company. - Flag Click here to flag this ad for review or to report a problem. This classified ad has expired Click here to view current advertisements similar to this one. How To Get Fit Over 40 If You Are Over 40 And Concerned With All Your New "Mushy" Spots It's Time You Discover How To Get Fit Over 40 Click Here For a Free Mini-Course Learn Everything You Need To Know About Nutrition, Training, and Even Mental-Condition...At Any Age. The mindset and belief systems of excellence at any age... Learn the hard to believe, but scientifically proven facts about how you can harness "BELIEF POWER" to release natural chemi...
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*  Albertsons » Arugula, Pear, and Bacon Pizza with Honey Poppy Seed Sauce
Eating Healthy with Diabetes. We assume 2,200-calories per day as appropriate for a moderately-active, average adult, and divided these calories into carbohydrate, protein, and fat, as follows: 50 to 55% from carbohydrates 15 to 20% from protein No more than 30% from fat Since most people don’t think in percentages, you can roughly translate them into the following approximate amounts each day: 275 to 300 grams of carbohydrate 83 to 110 gram of protein No more than 73 grams of fat Next we made sure our diabetes-friendly recipes meet basic guidelines for good health in terms of the amount of sodium, fiber, and saturated fat: Eating no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day Making sure to get at least 21 to 38 grams of fiber each day; the more total calories you eat, the more fiber you need Eating no more than 7% of total calories, or about 17 grams, of saturated fat per day Finally, we divided these basic daily goals into three meals and two to three snacks per day. For many people, having about 45 to 60 grams o...
http://albertsons.com/recipe-box/diabetic-friendly-collection/arugula-pear-and-bacon-pizza/?resource=/us/assets/feature/diabetes-friendly-defined/~default
*  Metabolic advantage
... is a term used in nutrition to describe the ability of a diet to achieve greater weight loss or less weight gain than another diet of equivalent calories it is a claimed effect of low carbohydrate diet s and was popularised by the atkins diet but although several mechanisms exist to make it biologically plausible it has yet to be definitively demonstrated as a significant factor in weight control some studies that have specifically measured the changes in basal metabolic rate under isocaloric very high fat and very high carbohydrate diets have failed to find any statistically significant differences cause gluconeogenesis references external links cause the human body obtains the majority of its energy through the citric acid cycle which can use any of the macronutrients to generate adenosine triphosphate atp used to transport chemical energy within cells the chemical processes involved use energy themselves so variations in the efficiency of these processes will have the same effect as variations in calo...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolic_advantage
*  .. What to eat before a 5K race .. Related content .. Related posts .. Strength and cardio training
Traditional endurance wisdom encourages carbohydrate loading or “carbo-loading,” by eating large amounts of carbohydrates the day before and the day of your race. The logic behind this is that carbohydrates are the body’s primary fuel, especially during exercise, when they account for 40 to 50 percent of energy production. The problem with this theory becomes clear when you understand that the fuel used during exercise is stored in your muscles and liver. If you think of these stored carbohydrates as fuel in a car, then your muscles and liver can be compared to the gas tank. Like a car’s gas tank, there is a limit to how much fuel can be stored. Numerous studies have shown that not only does the carbo-loading myth offer no benefit to  runners – it could actually slow you down. Another common practice is to eat simple carbohydrates, like honey or sugar, shortly before the race for a quick boost of energy. This, however, can lead to dehydration: your cells need excess water to absorb the sugar. The meal shou...
https://johnsonfit.com/blog/what-to-eat-before-a-5k-race
*  Browse by People - WestminsterResearch
... Browse. Browse by Year. Browse by Type. Browse by People. Browse by People. Export as ASCII Citation BibTeX Dublin Core EP3 XML EndNote Grid abstract HTML Citation JSON METS Multiline CSV Object IDs OpenURL ContextObject RDF+N-Triples RDF+N3 RDF+XML Refer Reference Manager. RSS 1.0. RSS 2.0. Brown, Ian J. and Stamler, Jeremiah and Van Horn, Linda and Robertson, Claire E. and Chan, Queenie and Dyer, Alan R. and Huang, Chiang-Ching and Rodriguez, Beatriz L. and Zhao, Liancheng and Daviglus, Martha L. and Ueshima, Hirotsugu and Elliott, Paul 2011 Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension, 57 4. ISSN 0194-911X. Brown, Ian J. and Elliott, Paul and Robertson, Claire E. and Chan, Queenie and Daviglus, Martha L. and Dyer, Alan R. and Huang, Chiang-Ching and Rodriguez, Beatriz L. and Sakata, Kiyomi and Ueshima, Hirotsugu and Van Horn, Linda and Zhao, Liancheng and Stamler, Jeremiah 2009 Dietary star...
http://westminsterresearch.wmin.ac.uk/view/people/Daviglus=3AMartha_L=2E=3A=3A.default.html
*  Need Meal planner diabetics on low carbohydrates | SparkPeople
Need Meal planner diabetics on low carbohydrates. SparkPeople. Join Now for Free. Help. site recipes. my Nutrition. Articles Videos. Articles & Videos Home. Nutrition. Healthy Cooking. Healthy Heart. Weight Loss. Healthy Home. SparkRecipes.com. The SparkPeople Blog. Message Boards. Today on SparkPeople. Hot Message Board Topics Just for Fun. What is healthy eating to you. Foods for Weight Loss. This includes: Calorie counter with over 2 million foods Fitness plans and videos Recipes, articles, and quizzes Support from our community. TOPIC: Need Meal planner diabetics on low carbohydrates Click here to read our frequently asked Diet and Nutrition questions. Bearclaw, thank you for the advice of keeping track of fiber on the meal planner and subtracting the fiber from the net carbs. JUSTBIRDY SparkPoints: 0 Fitness Minutes: 67,620 Posts: 9,840 6/12/12 6:49 P. BEARCLAW6 SparkPoints: 27,813 Fitness Minutes: 15,376 Posts: 1,939 6/12/12 10:35 A. You can definitely change your tracker, but the low-carb diet plan is ...
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Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.N-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Glycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.MonosaccharideMannose 6-phosphateTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Animal fatGlucose transporterColes PhillipsProtein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.GalactoseList of glycoside hydrolase families: Glycoside hydrolases (O-Glycosyl hydrolases) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of numerous different families.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Jacalin: Jacalin is a plant based lectin, but not a legume lectin, found in jackfruit. It has been studied for capturing O-glycoproteins such as mucins and IgA1, for potential applications in human immunology.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Fructose malabsorptionProteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Disaccharide: A disaccharide or bioseBiose on www.merriam-webster.FucoseGlucuronamideSialic acid: Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.Glycogen synthase: ; ; rendered using PyMOL.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Lactic acid fermentationCellodextrin: Cellodextrins are glucose polymers of varying length (two or more glucose monomers) resulting from cellulolysis, the breakdown of cellulose.Amino sugarInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Complete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Sodium periodateProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.GlucosamineMolar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.MelezitoseMargaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.CD33: CD33 or Siglec-3 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage. It is usually considered myeloid-specific, but it can also be found on some lymphoid cells.MannosamineAllolactoseLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GISulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol: Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols, abbreviated SQDG, are a class of sulfur-containing but phosphorus-free lipids (sulfolipids) found in many photosynthetic organisms.Galectin: Galectins are a family of proteins defined by their binding specificity for β-galactoside sugars, such as N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-3GlcNAc or Galβ1-4GlcNAc), which can be bound to proteins by either N-linked or O-linked glycosylation. They are also termed S-type lectins due to their dependency on disulphide bonds for stability and carbohydrate binding.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Neuraminic acidPRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Size-exclusion chromatography: Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight. It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.High maltose corn syrup: High maltose corn syrup is a food additive used as a sweetener and preservative. The majority sugar is maltose.Neuraminidase inhibitor: Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme. They are commonly used as antiviral drugs because they block the function of viral neuraminidases of the influenza virus, by preventing its reproduction by budding from the host cell.AsparagineGlycobiology: Defined in the narrowest sense, glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis, and biology of saccharides (sugar chains or glycans) that are widely distributed in nature. Sugars or saccharides are essential components of all living things and aspects of the various roles they play in biology are researched in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological fields.Heptadecanoic acidD-arabitol-phosphate dehydrogenase: D-arabitol-phosphate dehydrogenase (, APDH, D-arabitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase, D-arabitol 5-phosphate dehydrogenase) is an enzyme with system name D-arabitol-phosphate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAffinity chromatography: Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand.Nitrogen deficiencyTriglycerideTable of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Mannose receptor: The mannose receptor (Cluster of Differentiation 206) is a C-type lectin primarily present on the surface of macrophages and immature dendritic cells, but is also expressed on the surface of skin cells such as human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. It is the first member of a family of endocytic receptors that includes Endo180 (CD280), M-type PLA2R, and DEC-205 (CD205).Cell envelope: The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane, if one is present (i.e.RhamnoseD-xylose reductase: D-xylose reductase (, XylR, XyrA, msXR, dsXR, monospecific xylose reductase, dual specific xylose reductase, NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase, xylose reductase) is an enzyme with system name xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionMonoclonal antibody therapyDiabetic diet: Diabetic diet refers to the diet that is recommended for people with diabetes mellitus, or high blood glucose. There is much disagreement regarding what this diet should consist of.Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaMannan: Mannan may refer to a plant polysaccharide that is a linear polymer of the sugar mannose. Plant mannans have β(1-4) linkages.Endoglycosidase H: The enzyme Endoglycosidase H (, Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, N,N'-diacetylchitobiosyl beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosamidase, di-N-acetylchitobiosyl beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, endo-beta-acetylglucosaminidase, endo-beta-(1->4)-N-acetylglucosaminidase, mannosyl-glycoprotein 1,4-N-acetamidodeoxy-beta-D-glycohydrolase, endoglycosidase S, endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, endo-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase D, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase L, glycopeptide-D-mannosyl-4-N-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)2-asparagine 1,4-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminohydrolase, endoglycosidase H) is an enzyme with system name glycopeptide-D-mannosyl-N4-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)2-asparagine 1,4-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminohydrolase. It is a highly specific endoglycosidase which cleaves asparagine-linked mannose rich oligosaccharides, but not highly processed complex oligosaccharidesDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.

(1/4726) Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein.

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

(2/4726) The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase.

Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC 3.2.1.24] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II.  (+info)

(3/4726) Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin.

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

(4/4726) A new sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya.

The structure of a sugar chain of the proteinase inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya was studied. Sugar chains liberated on hydrazinolysis were N-acetylated, and their reducing-end residues were tagged with 2-aminopyridine. One major sugar chain was detected on size-fractionation and reversed-phase HPLC analyses. The structure of the PA-sugar chain was determined by two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with sequential exoglycosidase digestion and partial acid hydrolysis, and by 750 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The structure found was Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3)Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3) (Xylbeta1-2)Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc. This sugar chain represents a new plant-type sugar chain with five mannose residues.  (+info)

(5/4726) Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning.

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

(6/4726) Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog.

Traditionally, intestinal glucose absorption was thought to occur through active, carrier-mediated transport. However, proponents of paracellular transport have argued that previous experiments neglected effects of solvent drag coming from high local concentrations of glucose at the brush-border membrane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose absorption in the awake dog under conditions that would maximize any contribution of paracellular transport. Jejunal Thiry-Vella loops were constructed in six female mongrel dogs. After surgical recovery, isotonic buffers containing L-glucose as the probe for paracellular permeability were given over 2-h periods by constant infusion pump. At physiological concentrations of D-glucose (1-50 mM), the fractional absorption of L-glucose was only 4-7% of total glucose absorption. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations (150 mM) of D-glucose, D-maltose, or D-mannitol yielded low-fractional absorptions of L-glucose (2-5%), so too did complex or nonabsorbable carbohydrates. In all experiments, there was significant fractional water absorption (5-19%), a prerequisite for solvent drag. Therefore, with even up to high concentrations of luminal carbohydrates in the presence of significant water absorption, the relative contribution of paracellular glucose absorption remained low.  (+info)

(7/4726) Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene.

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

(8/4726) Lack of effect of carbohydrate depletion on some properties of human mast cell chymase.

Human chymase from vascular tissues was purified to homogeneity by heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Treatment of human chymase with endoglycosidase F resulted in cleavage of the carbohydrate moiety yielding a deglycosylation product that did not lose its catalytic activity. This enzymatic deglycosylation product was enough to explore possibilities that N-glycan might modify some properties of human chymase. Substrate specificity, optimum pH and the elution profile from the heparin affinity gel were not affected by the deglycosylation. Only a slight but significant difference was observed in the Km value for conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Other kinetic constants such as kcat were not influenced. The kinetics of conversion of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1(1-31) were not significantly affected. The deglycosylated human chymase was more susceptible to deactivation under alkaline pH and thermal stress. Even at physiological temperature and pH, the activity of glycosylated human chymase was more stable. From these results, it appears that the N-glycan of human chymase contributes to the stability of this enzyme but not to its functional properties.  (+info)


carbohydrates?


how many carbohydrates are in an omlet made with 3 eggs 2 slices of turkey ham an fried in half cube of margarine?
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No carbs in eggs or meats and generally no carbs in margarine


Carbohydrates?;;;;;;!?


Carbohydrates?
Some diets like the Atkins diet severely limit the intake of carbohydrates, but allow food thats are high in fat and protein. What changes would such a diet cause in the metabolism of the dieter?
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Carbs are your energy, so anything high in carbs gives you energy if you dont use that energy it turns into fat. so by limiting the carbs you are forcing your body to use up body fat for energy, so thats how you lose the weight by burning and running on your own body fat. While on this kinda diet you feel hungry but your not, it is just that you are not having much carbs that your body thinks you need, but you dont when you have so much body fat to run off of. But when you lose the weight, then start eating more carbs but still try to limit them otherwise you will be right back to where you started. Hope that helped.  If you need more info donr hesitate to ask me.


How many carbohydrates should I consume if I want to lose weight?


I weigh193 and have been losing weight steadily over the past 6 months.  I have lost a total of 40 pounds.  I started eating a diet very low in carbohydrates (20-30).  Should I continue eating this few?
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Losing weight is a simple equation: if you burn more calories than you eat, the weight will come off. Start off by estimating how many calories you burn each day using the calorie calculator http://straighthealth.com/pages/tools/caloriecalclb.html  This will give you an idea of how many calories to eat. Healthy weight loss is 1-2 pounds per week. To lose 1 pound per week you need to create a calorie deficit (burn more than you eat) of 500 calories per day. To lose 2 pounds a week, you have to double the deficit to 1000 calories per day. You can achieve this by eating less, exercising more or a combination of both.

Guide to Dieting - http://straighthealth.com/pages/guides/dieting.html
Health, Exercise and Diets - http://straighthealth.com


What are good vegetarian sources of carbohydrates and proteins for infants?


My son is now almost 11 months old and prefers eating dairy products and fruits. I'm trying to introduce him to rice and potatoes. He doesn't seem to like rice pasta or potatoes in any form.Does anyone know alternate carbohydrate and protein sources. Plus any secret recipes that have worked well to make your young ones eat those carbohydrates up?
Many thanks.
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I like the Morningstar Farms/Boca "chicken" nuggets. They're so much healthier than real chicken, and young kids love them. They're really soft and easy to chew, so a young toddler will be able to eat them without a problem. And sooo easy and quick to prepare.

Also raw or cooked soybeans-They taste kind of sweet, so kids will be more likely to eat them than some other veggies. Mashed potatoes are good-If your son won't eat them, you could try adding a crop of food coloring to make them more "fun." That always worked for my son. Cut up cheese is good as well. 

Once he turns 12 months, you'll be able to give him whole milk, which is a great source of protein.


How does burning carbohydrates while exercising work?


I'm curious as to how carbohydrates are used while exercising (I know during high intensity workouts) but as far as how fast do you burn them up when exercising.  The harder you do cardio, the more calories you burn right, I assume carbs are the same, but are they used up at the same rate?  I'm 18 and I am trying to perfect my diet as much as possible.
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What are complex carbohydrates and is sweet potato one of them and are they good for me?


Waht are these complex carbohydrates and if they are good for me,how are the good for me and what can i find them in.
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What's the difference between complex carbohydrates and simple sugars?


Aren't they basically the same and make you gain weight?  Why do some people think complex carbohydrates or starches are good for you while simple sugars or simple carbohydrates are not?
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Both have the same amount of calories (4 per gram of carbohydrate) but their nutritional value is very different. Complex carbohydrates are what you find in whole grains (brown rice, whole wheat, quinoa, etc), beans/legumes, vegetables. 
Complex carbohydrates are better for you, and are an essential part of your diet, because foods with complex carbs have high amounts of fiber in them, which improves digestion. Foods that are more digestible have their nutrients better absorbed into the body and give you better energy. Foods with complex carbohydrates also have more protein.
Simple carbohydrates include fruit, which should be a part of your diet as well. Foods with lots of added sugar, like cake, candy, soda and honey, have little nutritional value and are likely to make you gain weight.
Don't be afraid of carbohydrates, your body needs them to function properly.


Does simple carbohydrates still work to fuel the body?


I have ate a lot of brown rice today and i dont want to cook any more pastas or anything but does simple carbohydates still work to fuel the body? Ive been trying to read online and all they say about simple carbohydrates is that its bad for u and etc. I don't care about the calories or getting fatter because i have a sport event that i need energy for. So does simple carbohydrates still help give u more energy?
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Yeah definitely.  Think about Gatorade or Powerade.