Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell SeparationHypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).ChlorobenzenesAntigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

*  Does HIV status affect the aetiology, bacterial resistance patterns and...
CD4-lymphocyte counts are measured at baseline and every 6 months using a FACScount (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). ART ... For the HIV-positive patients, median CD4 count was 159 (IQR 45-256) cells/μl; 51 (60.0%) episodes occurred in patients on ART ... in patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/μl (Tumbarello et al. 1995; Perello et al. 2010). Moreover, many HIV-positive ... different level of CD4 cell counts, no children included) or genuine differences in local microbiological ecology.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tmi.12060/full?globalMessage=0
*  Outcome After Negative Colposcopy Among Human Immunodeficien... : Obstetrics &...
Among HIV-seropositive women, higher CD4 lymphocyte counts were associated with lower risk of incident high-grade disease. ... women with CD4 counts of 200-500/μL were less likely to progress (HR 0.40 compared with women with CD4 counts , 200/μL, 95% CI ... with CD4 lymphocyte count and HIV RNA level included for HIV-seropositive women. Except where noted, time varying factors were ... while those with CD4 counts in the mid but not upper range were less likely to progress. In a model incorporating ...
http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2005/09000/Outcome_After_Negative_Colposcopy_Among_Human.13.aspx
*  Accutane
CD4-Absolute Count Only. 6. CD4-Percent & Absolute. 7. Eosinophils Count, Absolute. 8. Lymphocyte Subset CD4 & CD8-Absolute ... Lymphocyte Subset Panel 3-T-Cell Subsets (CD4 & CD8), Absolute Counts Only. 11. Lymphocyte Subset Panel 1-CD4 Absolute Count ... Absolute Eosinophils Count. 3. Absolute CD4 & CD8. 4. Absolute Eosinophils, Nasal. 5. ... Counts Only. 9. Lymphocyte Subset Panel 2-CD4 Percent & Absolute. 10. ...
http://bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Accutane-20895-1/
*  Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis Based on National HIV Su... : JAIDS Journal...
CD4+ T-lymphocyte count at or within 6 months after diagnosis [AIDS opportunistic infection or CD4 count ,200 cells/μL or ... CD4 count ,500 cells/μL or 14≤ CD4 percent ,27 (stage 2), CD4 count ≥500 or CD4 percent ≥27 (stage 1), and other or missing CD4 ... had a first CD4 count of at least 200 but not more than 499, 9% had a first CD4 count ≥500, and 42% had a missing CD4 count or ... Relationship of CD4 Lymphocyte Counts to Survival in a Cohort of Hemophiliacs... ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2010/01010/Life_Expectancy_After_HIV_Diagnosis_Based_on.19.aspx
*  Diagnosis of anal cancer - Canadian Cancer Society
... or lymphocyte. Doctors will usually get a CD4 count for people with anal cancer that have an HIV infection. The CD4 count helps ... HIV infects a type of cell called CD4. CD4 is a type of T cell, which is a type of white blood cell, ... Complete blood count (CBC). A CBC measures the number and quality of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. A CBC is ... Find out more about complete blood count (CBC).. Blood chemistry tests. Blood chemistry tests measure certain chemicals in the ...
http://cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/anal/diagnosis/?region=bc
*  "Detraining on functional fitness and lymphocyte subsets in postmenopausal...
Blood cell counts (WBC, RBC, HCT, LYM) were measured using an automated cell counter and lymphocyte subsets (CD4, CD8, CD19, ... Blood cell counts were not changed and all in normal range. A significant difference in CD19 counts were observed between TG ... CD19 counts in TG were increased at Detraining compared with Mid-training and Post-training (138.08±50.22 vs. 74.92±31.20, ... 71.23±32.05 103/mL). No alterations in quantity and percentage of CD4, CD8, and CD56 were observed in this study. ...
http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijesab/vol10/iss1/32/
*  I Survived AIDS: Sigh... CD4 is Still Low
... since my latest lymphocyte count was lower than in Dec. ... but the absolute CD4 count didn't increase as much. Hope it's ... I haven't consulted my ID yet on my latest CD4 result. It seems like the CD4% did a good increase, ... Sigh! CD4... why do you take so long to go up?. Date. ... My Low CD4: TheBody's Opinion. *Anxious of Annual Physical Exam ...
http://pinoyhiv.blogspot.com/2014/04/sigh-cd4-is-still-low.html
*  "Missed visits and mortality among patients establishing initial outpat" by...
... and baseline CD4+ cell count , 200 cells/mm(3) (hazard ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-7.30). CONCLUSIONS: Patients ... Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Alabama; Ambulatory Care; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Female; HIV Infections; Health Behavior; Humans; Male ... and baseline CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/mm(3) (hazard ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-7.30). ...
http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/qhs_pp/830/
*  I Survived AIDS: My Low CD4: TheBody's Opinion
Date - CD4 Count - CD4% - Lymphocyte Count - WBC: June, 2013 - 14 CD4 - 1.77% - 774 - no WBC data; Sept, 2013 - 90 CD4 - no ... Your CD4 count results are excellent ones an indicate your initial immune system recovery from very advanced illness. The CD4 ... Having a respiratory tract infection can indeed influence CD4 counts, especially the absolute count. For this reason, I ... CD4 counts typically increase about 150-250 cells in the first year of treatment- sometimes less for people who start ...
http://pinoyhiv.blogspot.com/2014/04/my-low-cd4-thebodys-opinion.html
*  AIDS Patient With False-Positive Cerebrospinal Fluid VDRL, B... : Infectious...
... lymphocytes. His HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis were both positive, and the CD4 count ... It showed glucose of 58 mg/dL, protein of 59 mg/dL, 50cells/μL white blood cells with 91% lymphocytes, and a nonreactive VDRL. ... Changes in CSF VDRL or CSF protein occur more slowly than cell counts. Recent data on HIV-infected patients suggest that CSF ... Initial laboratory studies revealed a white blood cell count of4500/μL, a negative rheumatologic workup, and
http://journals.lww.com/infectdis/Fulltext/2008/11000/AIDS_Patient_With_False_Positive_Cerebrospinal.19.aspx
*  lymphocyte Methods, Protocols and Troubleshootings
... BioJob. BioBlog. PubAlert. BioTool. BioProduct. BioForum. Protocol. Forum Index Home. Top : Forum Archives : : Indexed by Topic Lymphocyte Related Discussions. Isolation of lymphocytes from mouse stomach. Major help needed. - reply: 5 MLR - Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction reply: 1 how can i preserve lymphocytes after isolation - keep lymphocyte pellets at -70 C. reply: 6 siRNA in primary lymphocyte B - Which reagent do you recomend. reply: 2 Lymphocyte Proliferation and BrdU - reply: 1 Does a B lymphocyte contain lysosome inside. - Cell Structure reply: 1 cryopreservation of lymphocytes - reply: 13 stimulating lymphocyte culture---HELP - PHA-M or PHA-L reply: 1 Mouse Splenocyte and splenic lymphocyte count - reply: 2 T lymphocytes fixation on microscope slide! - For lipid rafts polarization localisation reply: 7 Lymphocyte proliferation assay - reply: 2 A Simple Method for Human Peripheral Blood ...
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums/lymphocyte.html
*  Reactive lymphocyte
... thumb px reactive lymphocyte surrounded by red blood cells reactive lymphocytes or variant lymphocytes are lymphocytes that become large as a result of antigen stimulation typically they can be more than µm in diameter with varying size and shape the nucleus of a reactive lymphocyte can be round elliptic indented cleft or folded the cytoplasm is often abundant and can be basophilic vacuoles and or azurophilic granules are also sometimes present most often the cytoplasm is gray pale blue or deep blue in colour the distinctive cell associated with ebv or cmv is known as a downey cell after hal downey who contributed to the characterization of it in downey h mckinlay ca acute lymphadenosis compared with acute lymphatic leukemia arch intern med it is sometimes erroneously called a downy cell causes reactive lymphocytes are usually associated with viral illnesses however they can also be present as a result of drug reactions such as phenytoin immunisations radiation ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_lymphocyte
*  Lymph node, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes as stimulators of alloreactivity - Repozitorij M
... edicinskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Repozitorij Medicinskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Lymph node, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes as stimulators of alloreactivity. Puc, Maja and Humar, Ines and Bulić-Jakuš, Floriana 2011 Lymph node, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes as stimulators of alloreactivity. Kao stimulatore smo koristili ozračene limfocite iz uzoraka limfnog čvora, slezene i periferne krvi 12 mrtvih davatelja, dok su nam responderi bili limfociti periferne krvi zdravih osoba izabranih prema HLA-DRB1 alelima tako da su stimulatori i responderi bili HLA-DRB1 identični, poluidentični i različiti. Lymph node, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes are used for those purposes. To compare mitogenic ability of deceased donor lymph node, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes one-way mixed lymphocyte culture MLC was used. As stimulators irradiated lymphocytes from spleen, lymph node and peripheral blood samples of 12 deceased donors ...
http://medlib.mef.hr/1404/
*  Information About Lymphocytes Blood Test
... Medical Health Tests Blood Tests Lymphocytes Blood Test. What Is Lymphocytes Blood Test. Lymphocytes Blood Test. Blood Tests Eosinophils. What are Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are also an important part of the human immune system. This is the basic method of functioning for the immune system. A high lymphocyte blood test result will indicate that the person's immune system is active and fighting off an infection. A person who is suffering from an illness will have a high lymphocyte count. In the case of a low lymphocyte blood test result, the doctor will suspect a non functioning immune system or one that is suffering from trauma. A patient who has had a surgery may have a low lymphocyte count. Low lymphocyte levels can also indicate the effect of the HIV virus which destroys T cell lymphocytes in the body. High lymphocytosis test results will depend on the individual patient as the normal readings are based on a ...
http://medicalhealthtests.com/blood-tests/lymphocytes-blood-test.html
*  JAMA Network | JAMA Psychiatry | Differences in Lymphocyte Electron Transport Gene Expression Lev
View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. Probe sets of the electron transfer chain with P .05 t test in low glucose for bipolar disorder lymphocytes over normal control lymphocytes A, normal glucose for bipolar disorder lymphocytes over normal control lymphocytes B, low over normal glucose for normal control lymphocytes C, and low over normal glucose for bipolar disorder lymphocytes D. View Large | Save Figure | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Figure | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Figure | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Figure | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Figure | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide .ppt | View in Article Context. View Large | Save Table | Download Slide ...
http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=482293
*  CD4 Lymphoctye Percentage versus Absolute CD4 Lymphocyte Count in Predicting HIV Disease Progressio
... n: An Old Debate Revisited EDITORIAL. HIV Articles. Back  . CD4 Lymphoctye Percentage versus Absolute CD4 Lymphocyte Count in Predicting HIV Disease Progression: An Old Debate Revisited EDITORIAL. The Journal of Infectious Diseases Sept 15 2005;192:945-947 Miguel Goicoechea and Richard Haubrich Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Diego, San Diego HIV Antiretroviral Treatment: Early Versus Later JAIDS Aug 15 2005 Early therapy is more cost-effective when the impact of HAART on well-being is smaller. Conclusions: Initiation of HAART at a CD4+ T-cell count greater than ... ....Starting HAART when CD4s are >350 ......increases years of life by 1.21 years, increases... Even before the first effective antiretroviral therapy ART became available nearly 20 years ago, various staging systems were used to predict HIV disease progression, and, subsequently, these systems have been used to guide initiation of ...
http://natap.org/2005/HIV/090205_01.htm
*  How are the cells studied?
CHAPTER 2 Previous theme Next theme Course program. CELL SURFACE MARKERS AND RECEPTORS. CELL SURFACE MARKERS AND RECEPTORS. For B lymphocytes: B lymphocytes have in their membrane surface immunoglobulins that can be detected using anti-porcine-immunoglobulin sera or immunoglobulin. Surface immunoglobulins of a B lymphocyte observed by fluorescence microscopy. B Lymphocytes: Surface Immunoglobulins. The different porcine lymphocyte populations can be labeled using monoclonal antibodies. A flow cytometer allows in vitro characterization and even separation of the different lymphocyte populations by means of monoclonal antibodies labeled with fluoresceine, these antibodies are specific for the surface markers of each targeted population. Using monoclonal antibodies, labeled with fluoresceine or peroxidase, against the different porcine lymphocytes, it is possible to study these cells in any tissue. The most currently used techniques are: Induced lymphocyte ...
http://sanidadanimal.info/cursos/inmun/segun4.htm
*  Medical Xpress - lymphocytes
... Home lymphocytes. News tagged with lymphocytes. sort by:. Date. 6 hours. 12 hours. 1 day. 3 days. all. Rank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. LiveRank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Popular. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Related topics: cells · white blood cells · immune system. Sorry, no news articles match your request. Your search criteria may be too narrow. Lymphocyte. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system. Under the microscope, lymphocytes can be divided into large lymphocytes and small lymphocytes. Large granular lymphocytes include natural killer cells NK cells. Small lymphocytes consist of T cells and B cells. This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA. Subscribe to rss feed. Topics. Addiction. Alzheimer's disease & dementia. Arthritis & Rheumatism. Attention deficit disorders. Autism spectrum disorders. Cancer. Cardiology. Dentistry. Diabetes. Diseases, Conditions, ...
http://medicalxpress.com/tags/lymphocytes/sort/date/1d/
*  Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator
... 'Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator LTCI, Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator ' is an immune regulating polypeptide manufactured and distributed by T-Cyte Therapeutics. Lymphocyte T-Cell Immunomodulator is a potent regulator of CD-4 lymphocyte production and function. Discovery and Characterization Biological Properties Biochemical Properties Uses in Veterinary Medicine Links. It was not until 1971 that it was discovered that thymus-derived lymphocytes T-cells were important regulators of bone-marrow-derived antibody -producing lymphocytes B-cells. After the discovery that the thymus was producing profound regulatory factors, several groups of scientists began trying to extract and purify this factor from thymus glands in much the same manner that insulin was prepared from the pancreas for therapeutic use in diabetes. The difficulty was that the thymus is a very small gland and produces very small quantities of the factor. In 1983 scientists succeeded in ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphocyte_T-Cell_Immunomodulator
*  Lymphocyte
They include natural killer cell s NK cells which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity, T cell s for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity, and B cell s for humoral, antibody -driven adaptive immunity. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The three major types of lymphocyte are T cell s, B cell s and natural killer NK cells. T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity relating to antibodies. In response to pathogens some T cells, called ' T helper cell s', produce cytokine s that direct the immune response, while other T cells, called ' cytotoxic T cell s', produce toxic granules that contain powerful enzymes which induce the death of pathogen-infected cells. NK cells are a part of the innate immune system and play a major role in defending the host from both tumor s and viral ly infected cells. NK cells distinguish infected cells and tumors from normal and uninfected cells by recognizing changes of a surface ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphocyte
*  Diagnosis of Leukemia | Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point | Hudson, FL
Diagnosis of Leukemia. Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point. Cancer Care. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Patients & Visitors. Pay Bill Online. Health Info. Health Info Health Info. Health Library. Hospital Affiliation Letters for Medical Center Staff. Hospital Leadership. Cancer Care. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Classes & Events. Pay Bill Online. Health Info. Health Info Health Library. 10/01/2015 - Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point Continues Its Tuesday Tutorials Dedicated to Cancer Awareness With “Lung Cancer” by Domenick Sorresso Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point will continue its “Tuesday Tutorials” on October 20 when it will present “Lung Cancer: Prevention, Screening, Diagnosis & Treatment” at the Rao Musunuru, MD Conference... RMC Bayonet Point @RMCHealth Our Heart Institute proudly offers leading heart and #vascular treatment to fight #heartdisease. Bone Marrow Aspiration removal of a sample of liquid bone marrow to test for cancer cells. Bone Marrow Biopsy removal of ...
http://rmchealth.com/hl/?/2010814537/Diagnosis-of-Leukemia
*  Diagnosis of Leukemia | Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point | Hudson, FL
Diagnosis of Leukemia. Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point. Cancer Care. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Patients & Visitors. Pay Bill Online. Health Info. Health Info Health Info. Health Library. Hospital Affiliation Letters for Medical Center Staff. Hospital Leadership. Cancer Care. Patients & Visitors. Patients & Visitors Classes & Events. Pay Bill Online. Health Info. Health Info Health Library. 10/01/2015 - Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point Continues Its Tuesday Tutorials Dedicated to Cancer Awareness With “Lung Cancer” by Domenick Sorresso Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point will continue its “Tuesday Tutorials” on October 20 when it will present “Lung Cancer: Prevention, Screening, Diagnosis & Treatment” at the Rao Musunuru, MD Conference... RMC Bayonet Point @RMCHealth Our Heart Institute proudly offers leading heart and #vascular treatment to fight #heartdisease. Bone Marrow Aspiration removal of a sample of liquid bone marrow to test for cancer cells. Bone Marrow Biopsy removal of ...
http://rmchealth.com/hl/?/20370/Radiation-for-Leukemia~Diagnosis
*  Anti -RT 6.1, Pta.A2 (RT6 T Lymphocyte Marker, Peripheral T Cells) - United States Biological
anti rt pta a rt t lymphocyte marker peripheral t cells united states biological login email password forgot your password new user remember me home distributors technical about register antibodies biochemicals culture media custom services growth factors bioassay kits lectins molecular biology serum tissues protocols newsletter about us contact you are here home antibodies antibodies t cells anti rt pta a rt t lymphocyte marker peripheral t cells anti rt pta a rt t lymphocyte marker peripheral t cells pricing for pricing information usa customers sign in outside usa please contact your distributor for pricing specifications clone host grade applications monoclonal rat supernatant fc catalog r f ab goat anti rat igg rpe mouse adsorbed fusion partners spleen cells from an immunized aug rat were fused with cells of the mouse p ns ag myeloma cell line applications flow cytometry neat
http://usbio.net/item/R9480
*  Immunohistology of peripheral lymphocytes
... from david choi dchoi nimr mrc ac uk i m currently working on the histology of peripheral nerve xenografts and their rejection in a rat model i ve been trying to identify lymphocytes on frozen sections of peripheral nerve xenografts to look at the rejection process but am not having much success in labelling the lymphocytes i have tried ox cd antibodies and ox from serotec as primaries after paraformaldehyde fixation followed by vector abc secondaries kit and dab nickel god but i m not getting good labelling of the lymphocytes both in my experimental and control spleen thymus sections despite fiddling with concentrations and incubation times does anyone have a reliable protocol for pan lymphocyte staining that would work on cryo sections of rat material many thanks david choi national institute for medical research london uk previous message next message
http://histosearch.com/histonet/Mar01A/Immunohistologyofperipher.html
*  Intraepithelial lymphocyte
... thumb primary biliary cirrhosis bile duct intraepithelial lymphocytes intraepithelial lymphocytes iel are lymphocyte s found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings such as the gastrointestinal gi tract and reproductive tract however unlike other t cell s iels do not need priming upon encountering antigens they immediately release cytokines and cause killing of infected target cells in the gi tract they are components of gut associated lymphoid tissue galt defranco anthony l locksley richard m robertson miranda immunity the immune response in infection and inflammatory disease new science press ltd pathology an elevated iel population as determined by biopsy typically indicates ongoing inflammation within the mucosa in diseases such as celiac sprue iel elevation throughout the small intestine is one of many specific markers alternatively elevated iel populations can be a marker for developing neoplasia in the tissue such as found in cervical and prostate cancers ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intraepithelial_lymphocyte
*  Autologous lymphocyte
... in transplantation autologous lymphocytes refers to a person s white blood cells lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system including the production of antibodies and other substances that fight infections and other diseases external links category transplantation medicine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autologous_lymphocyte
*  Protein Lounge: NFAT Signaling and Lymphocyte Interactions
... Citations About Us Contact Us. Login to Protein Lounge. Home. Pathways. Databases. Kinase-Phosphatase. GPCR. Transcription Factors. Peptide Antigens. Protein Interaction. siRNA. Biochemical Compounds. Proteins. Tools. Pathway Builder. Protein Hydroplotter. Clone Easy. Peptide Finder. Easy siRNA. Protein Vision. Animations. News. Featured. Cell Biology. Health & Medicine. Genetics. Molecular Biology. Microbiology. ePath3D. Clientele. Video Tutorials. . NFAT Signaling and Lymphocyte Interactions. This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages. Description. The optimum functioning of the immune system is crucial for human survival. The invading pathogens are encountered by the cells of the immune system, which include T-Cells, B-Cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, endothelial cells, or mast cells. These cells have distinct roles in the immune system, and cell-to-cell communication among these ...
http://proteinlounge.com/Pathway/NFAT Signaling and Lymphocyte Interactions
*  Culture of lymphocytes
... jorg kirberg kirberg at bii ch mon feb est previous message affigel chromatography next message research studentship messages sorted by in article gatm c j at lynx unm edu inkim at carina unm edu in c kim wrote cell culture is performed generally in a humidified co incubator in order to prepare metaphase spreads lymphoyctes are cultured for only three days in the presence of a mitogen and colicimide i wonder if this condition requires co or not could anybody have experience in culturing human peripheral lymphocytes for genetic research dear inkim co and nahco in the culture medium are needed to get a high buffering capacity you might try without replacing the nahco with nacl in the absence of co but as you use highly activated cells i dont know if the resulting medium is buffered enough to keep the ph in a physiological range adding more hepes might help in that case maybe just try and look at the medium ...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1995-February/003022.html
*  Simple method for lymphocyte extraction - General Lab Techniques
simple method for lymphocyte extraction general lab techniques biojob bioblog pubalert biotool bioproduct bioforum protocol home forum index home live discussion top forum archives general lab techniques simple method for lymphocyte extraction jun has anyone got an easy straightforward quick method for lymphocyte purification from whole blood wdavis in this article there is a protocol of enzymatic extraction with collagenase but i can t access the full article so i don t know if it s what you really need fred quote wdavis jun pm has anyone got an easy straightforward quick method for lymphocyte purification from whole blood hello we are making lymphocytes extraction from whole blood using lymphoprep from axis shield it is cheaper than ficoll and very simple you could see it in the protocol that i have attached patri go to the forum page printer friendly version about terms of service privacy feedback sponsorship protocol online all rights reserved
http://protocol-online.org/biology-forums/posts/7488.html
*  Antibodies from Lymphocyte Secretions(ALS)
antibodies from lymphocyte secretions als antibodies from lymphocyte secretions als redirect antibodies from lymphocyte secretions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibodies_from_Lymphocyte_Secretions(ALS)
*  .. B lymphocyte
b lymphocyte lim foh site a type of white blood cell that makes antibodies b lymphocytes are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow also called b cell
http://uchospitals.edu/online-library/content=GLOSCDR44953
*  A Long Term Safety Study Of Lersivirine For The Treatment Of HIV-1 Infection In Subjects Who Have Co
Other Sites About Clinical Studies. About This Site. Linking to This Site. Sponsor: Pfizer Collaborator: ViiV Healthcare Information provided by Responsible Party : Pfizer. Further study details as provided by Pfizer:. Primary Outcome Measures: Number of Participants With Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus - 1 HIV 1 Ribonucleic Acid RNA Level 50 Copies/mL at 144 Weeks From Day 1 of the Parent Protocol Number of participants with HIV-1 RNA level 50 copies/mL plasma was summarized at 48 weeks i.e. 144 weeks from Day 1 of the parent protocol. Change From Baseline in CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Absolute at 144 Weeks From Day 1 of the Parent Protocol Participant's immunological status assessed by CD4+ lymphocyte count absolute and percentage at 48 weeks ie, 144 weeks from Day 1 of the parent protocol. Change From Baseline in CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Percentage at 144 Weeks From Day 1 of the Parent Protocol Participant's immunological status assessed by ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01254656?order=592
*  IL-2 effectively increases CD4 count in persons with low CD4 nadir
... Conference Reports for NATAP. 9th European AIDS Conference EACS Warsaw, Poland Oct 25-29, 2003. Back  . IL-2 effectively increases CD4 count in persons with low CD4 nadir. Reported by Graeme Moyle, MD, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London, UK Two large ongoing investigator led studies are evaluating the role of interleukin-2 IL-2 as an immune modulated in persons with treated HIV infection. The studies, known as SILCAAT and ESPRIT, are not simply evaluating CD4 numbers but are also looking for clinical endpoints such as new HIV related infections, AIDS defining events and deaths. Interleukin 2 is administered subcutaneously twice-daily for "cycles" of five days with subsequent cycles being given every eight weeks. During the administration of IL-2 the majority of individuals reported flu-like symptoms and may experience rashes or fluid retention. The symptoms generally resolve a few days after the completion of the cycle. As with the administration of enfuvirtide ...
http://natap.org/2003/EACS/day4_1.htm
*  High White Blood Cell Count and Stroke
... Log in What is Treato. About Treato. High White Blood Cell Count. High White Blood Cell Count and Stroke. High White Blood Cell Count. White blood cell analysis increased Leukocytosis is a raised white blood cell count the leukocyte count above the normal range in the blood. Common conditions & symptoms related to High White Blood Cell Count discussed around the web Infection Pain Fever Feeling Sick Cancer Tiredness UTI Leukemia Inflammation Swelling. 3,389 conversations around the web about High White Blood Cell Count to help you make a decision. 3,389 conversations around the web about High White Blood Cell Count to help you make a decision. Read more about High White Blood Cell Count Show less. High White Blood Cell Count and Stroke. Treato found 7 discussions about Stroke and High White Blood Cell Count on the web. Symptoms and conditions also mentioned with High White Blood Cell Count in patients discussions ...
http://treato.com/High White Blood Cell Count,Stroke/?a=s
*  Differential leukocyte count method for bovine low somatic cell count milk.
... Document Detail. Differential leukocyte count method for bovine low somatic cell count milk. MedLine Citation:. Whereas many differential leukocyte count methods for high somatic cell count SCC milk from mastitic cows are available, only a few have been developed for low SCC milk. We have developed a flow cytometric differential leukocyte count method for low SCC milk. Four major leukocyte populations can be clearly identified in the green fluorescence-side scatter dot plot: lymphocytes and monocytes LM, polymorphonuclear neutrophils PMN, mature macrophages Mphi, and cells with apoptotic features based on chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. Significant differences among samples with similar differential leukocyte counts were found. Storage of milk samples during 2 d at 7 degrees C had no effect on differential leukocyte count. Using the new method, differential leukocyte count was performed in low SCC milk samples from cows in ...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Differential-leukocyte-count-method-bovine/12703619.html
*  Ask.com - What's Your Question?
Please provide feedback before submitting your response. High White Blood Cell Count Can Mean. Symptoms of High White Cell Count. Diseases with Elevated White Blood Count. Normal White Blood Cell Count. High White Blood Cells. Abnormal White Blood Cells. Elevated White Blood Count. Reasons for High White Blood Count. White Blood Cell Count Range. Find Health Information on Healthline. Source. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leukocytosis. Leukocytosis is a white blood cell count the leukocyte count above the normal range in the blood. High white blood cell count - Mayo Clinic. www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/high-white-blood-cell-count/basics/definition/sym-20050611. High white blood cell count is an increase in disease-fighting cells leukocytes circulating in your blood. High white blood cell count is also ... High white blood cell count Causes - Mayo Clinic. ...
http://ask.com/web?qsrc=6&o=102140&oo=102140&l=dir&gc=1&qo=popularsearches&ad=dirN&q=High White Count Means
*  Low white blood cell count and Abscess - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis
... About Us. Give Feedback. Bookmark this page. HOME. SYMPTOMS. DISEASES. DIAGNOSIS. VIDEOS. TOOLS. COMMUNITY. MISDIAGNOSIS. DOCTORS. HOSPITALS. DRUGS. Low white blood cell count: Introduction Introduction: Low white blood cell count Videos about Low white blood cell count. Deaths and Low white blood cell count. Causes Causes of Low white blood cell count Medications causing Low white blood cell count. Drug interactions causing Low white blood cell count. Symptom Checker: Low white blood cell count. Common causes of Low white blood cell count Travel-related causes of Low white blood cell count. Treatments Treatments for Low white blood cell count Diagnosis Home Diagnostic Testing. Misdiagnosis Misdiagnosis and Low white blood cell count. Community Videos relating to Low white blood cell count. Glossary. Self Assessment Have a symptom. See what questions a doctor would ask. Choose... Rash Fever Pain Headache Fatigue ...
http://symptoms.rightdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/low-white-blood-cell-count/abscess.htm
*  Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Elevated white blood cell count
wikipedia articles for deletion elevated white blood cell count wikipedia articles for deletion elevated white blood cell count the following discussion is an archived debate of the proposed deletion of the article below please do not modify it subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page such as the article s talk page or in a deletion review no further edits should be made to this page the result was redirected to leukocytosis nawlinwiki talk september utc elevated white blood cell count view afd view log plainlink http toolserver org betacommand cgi bin afdparser afd afd statistics nothing here that isn t already in the article on leukocytes kat talk september utc merge or redirect to leukocytosis carrite talk september utc a valid topic but already covered by leukocytosis so merge or redirect to leukocytosis is the right move chris c t september utc redirect to leukocytosis i don t see much in the article that warrants merger p d cook talk to me september utc ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Elevated_white_blood_cell_count
*  Anemia and Low white blood cell count - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis
Rash Fever Pain Headache Fatigue Diarrhea All checklists. Anemia Low white blood cell count. Anemia AND Low white blood cell count: Causes of All Symptoms Anemia OR Low white blood cell count: 884 causes Anemia : 878 causes Anemia: Introduction Low white blood cell count : Causes Low white blood cell count: Introduction Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Abdominal symptoms 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Abnormal blood test symptoms 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Blood symptoms 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Enlarged liver 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Enlarged liver and spleen 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Fever 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Head symptoms 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and Red blood cell symptoms 9 causes Anemia and Low white blood cell count and ...
http://symptoms.rightdiagnosis.com/cosymptoms/anemia/low-white-blood-cell-count.htm
*  Elevated white blood cell count
... redirect leukocytosis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elevated_white_blood_cell_count
*  High White Blood Cells And Hiv - The Body
... TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. Arts, Media HIV/AIDS. High White Blood Cells And Hiv. high white blood cell count, no HIV. they did a urine test and blood test and i was not pregnant, but found thru blood tests and urine tests that i had UTI, kidney infection, and... You wonder if a high white blood cell count is an indicator of HIV. Read more ». white blood cells please please help. Read more ». Read more ». Understanding HIV-Related Lab Tests I: Complete Blood Count and Blood Chemistry. Complete Blood Count CBC Blood is made up of different types of cells including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The complete blood count CBC is a test thatmeasures the amount of these cells in a... Read more ». Complete Blood Count CBC. CBC The most common laboratory test is the complete blood count CBC. White Blood Cells : Infection Fighters White Blood Cell WBC Count WBCs, or leukocyte s, help prevent and fight infections. ...
http://thebody.com/h/high-white-blood-cells-and-hiv.html
*  Low White Blood Cell Count - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Information
Low White Blood Cell Count. An unusually high white blood cell count can indicate an infection, hypersplenism , bone marrow depression drugs, radiation or heavy metal poisoning or primary bone marrow disorders such as leukemia. There are many different types and forms of white cells. On This Page Low White Blood Cell Count:. Signs, symptoms & indicators of Low White Blood Cell Count: Lab Values - Cells Very low white blood cell count confirmed Counter-indicators High white blood cell count confirmed. Risk factors for Low White Blood Cell Count: Autoimmune Lupus, SLE Systemic Lupus Erythromatosis Active lupus and an infection may share many symptoms. Further, infection can induce a lupus flare or be difficult to distinguish from a lupus flare. A low white blood cell count is suggestive of active lupus although certain viruses can also give a low white count while a high count suggests infection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy ...
http://diagnose-me.com/symptoms-of/low-white-blood-cell-count.html
*  Low white blood count yet again : General Discussion - This Is MS Multiple Sclerosis Community: Know
... ledge Support. This Is MS Multiple Sclerosis Community: Knowledge Support Welcome to the world's leading forum on Multiple Sclerosis research, support, and knowledge. For over 10 years, This is MS has provided an unbiased community dedicated to Multiple Sclerosis patients, caregivers, and affected loved ones. Skip to content. Board index. Multiple Sclerosis. General Discussion. Change font size. View unanswered posts. View active topics. Print view. FAQ. Register. Login. Low white blood count yet again. If it's on your mind and it has to do with multiple sclerosis in any way, post it here. Post a reply. 6 posts Page 1 of 1. Low white blood count yet again by Wonderfulworld. Thu May 22, 2008 3:02 am I've been freezing at night since i gave birth 3 month ago. Got bloods done. Thyroid ok, iron ok, but for about fifth time in last 8 years, I have a low white blood count. My gp is going to retest in a few weeks. But just wondering if any other MS'ers have had a low white blood ...
http://thisisms.com/forum/general-discussion-f1/topic5615.html
*  White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count - LabTestHelp | Understanding Medical Lab Tests
White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count - LabTestHelp. Understanding Medical Lab Tests. LabTestHelp Understanding Medical Lab Tests. Inherited bone marrow disease. Autoimmune disease. Inflammation or infection. Normal Values Normal: Total WBCs: Newborn: 9,000-30,000/mm3 Child less than 2 years old: 6,200-17,000/mm3 Child older than 2 years old through adult: 5,000-10,000/mm3 Differential count: Absolute: Neutrophils: 2,500-8,000/mm3 Lymphocytes: 1,000-4,000/mm3 Monocytes: 100-700/mm3 Eosinophils: 50-500/mm3 Basophils: 25-100/mm3 Percent: Neutrophils: 55-70 percent Lymphocytes: 20-40 percent Monocytes: 2-8 percent Eosinophils: 1-4 percent Basophils: 0.5-1 percent Critical levels: WBC level is less than 2,500/mm3, or greater than 30,000/mm3. White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count WBC and Diff. Alternate Names WBC Count Leukocyte Count White Count WBC and Differential Leukocyte Count. WBCs are produced in the bone marrow, ...
http://labtesthelp.com/test/White_Blood_Cell_Count_and_Differential_Count
*  White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count - LabTestHelp | Understanding Medical Lab Tests
White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count - LabTestHelp. Understanding Medical Lab Tests. LabTestHelp Understanding Medical Lab Tests. Inherited bone marrow disease. Autoimmune disease. Inflammation or infection. Normal Values Normal: Total WBCs: Newborn: 9,000-30,000/mm3 Child less than 2 years old: 6,200-17,000/mm3 Child older than 2 years old through adult: 5,000-10,000/mm3 Differential count: Absolute: Neutrophils: 2,500-8,000/mm3 Lymphocytes: 1,000-4,000/mm3 Monocytes: 100-700/mm3 Eosinophils: 50-500/mm3 Basophils: 25-100/mm3 Percent: Neutrophils: 55-70 percent Lymphocytes: 20-40 percent Monocytes: 2-8 percent Eosinophils: 1-4 percent Basophils: 0.5-1 percent Critical levels: WBC level is less than 2,500/mm3, or greater than 30,000/mm3. White Blood Cell Count and Differential Count WBC and Diff. Alternate Names WBC Count Leukocyte Count White Count WBC and Differential Leukocyte Count. WBCs are produced in the bone marrow, ...
http://labtesthelp.com/test/White_Blood_Cell_Count_and_Differential_Count
*  White Blood Count - Blood Disorders Forum - eHealthForum
... Health Forums. Medical Questions. Conditions and Diseases. Blood Disorders Forum White Blood Count. Must Read. What is Anemia. Learn how doctors define anemia...plus more information on what causes anemia and who is at risk of developing anemia.... Read more. Anemia Causes and Risk Factors Anemia is caused by a range of diseases and conditions. Learn which factors contribute to anemia and how you can avoid some of the risk factors of anemia here.... Read more. Anemia Symptoms Anemia can make you feel tired. But what other some other signs of anemia. Click here for more on anemia complications and when you should seek medical help.... Read more. Conditions and Diseases White Bumps. Zoom Whitening System Whitening With Retainer. Blood Disorders White Cell Count Elevated White Blood Count 60,000 White Cellcount Up. The problem she said was with my white blood count it was 0.6. Well she called me this morning and told me the second set of blood tests came back with about ...
http://ehealthforum.com/health/topic61453.html
*  Persistent high white count, raised platelets, clotting out??? - Blood and Blood Vessel Message Boa
Persistent high white count, raised platelets, clotting out??. Blood and Blood Vessel > Persistent high white count, raised platelets, clotting out??. Persistent high white count, raised platelets, clotting out??. I have had high white cells for a few years, high platelets and a clotting test is out. Quote: Originally Posted by Pottsey1. just very high white blood cell count. Re: Persistent high white count, raised platelets, clotting out??. Quote: Originally Posted by kmarshy. I have had high white cells for a few years, high platelets and a clotting test is out. Kmarshy Thankyou for responding back to me Yes it does make you nervous Anxious and I Have Anxiety disorder anyway so its even harder but I've been ok trying to think positive see 5 years ago I Had a different doctor at that point then I Had an infection was put on Antibiotics but he said the differential kind was fine and my white blood cell count was high then I Beleive 18,000 and he just kept taking ...
http://healthboards.com/boards/blood-blood-vessel/650714-persistent-high-white-count-raised-platelets-clotting-out.html
*  HIVworker...Please Come In...Astounding Lab Results for Zephyr!
HIVworker...Please Come In...Astounding Lab Results for Zephyr. POZ Community Forums. HIVworker...Please Come In...Astounding Lab Results for Zephyr. Members Total Members: 26569 Latest: COMC1973. Stats Total Posts: 675717 Total Topics: 52424 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Click on the links below to browse our various forums; scroll down for a glance at the most recent posts; or join in the conversation yourself by registering on the left side of this page. Author Topic: HIVworker...Please Come In...Astounding Lab Results for Zephyr. zephyr Member. Posts: 459. HIVworker...Please Come In...Astounding Lab Results for Zephyr. on: June 01, 2006, 07:36:49 PM. Or, would it show up somewhere else on the standard labs, that perhaps I m not seeing. Logged Diagnosed 11/05 Life is too important to be taken seriously Oscar Wilde. I didn t get upset at HIVworker s reference to Leukemia, I seriously doubt that I have it. Therefore one symptom can be an elevated CD4 count ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=307.msg2562
*  Low white blood cell count
... Forum. New Posts. Mark Forums Read. Forum. Systemic Lupus Talk General Forums. Lupus Erythematosus Symptoms. Low white blood cell count. Welcome to the WeHaveLupus.com forums. By joining our free community you will have access to post topics, communicate privately with other members PM, respond to polls, upload content and access many other special features. Thread: Low white blood cell count. Marine wife. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Private Message. View Blog Entries. Goldfish. Join Date Mar 2012 Location Lakeland, FL Posts 62 Thanks 13 Thanked 19 Times in 17 Posts. Low white blood cell count. I went to my rheumy the other day and my white blood cell count was low. Reply With Quote. View Profile. View Forum Posts. Private Message. View Blog Entries. Super Moderator. Join Date Jan 2010 Location Houston, Texas Posts 4,526 Thanks 1,548 Thanked 1,748 Times in 1,214 Posts. Low White Blood Cell Count can mean one of several things. Reply With Quote. View Profile. View ...
http://forum.wehavelupus.com/showthread.php?11907-Random-Update-MTX-SSI-etc-blah&goto=nextoldest
*  Monocyte Absolute test immune system macrophages dendritic cells pyogranulomatous disorder necrosis
... red cell regeneration sarcoidosis. Monocyte is a type of white blood cell, part of the human body's immune system. Monocytes have several roles in the immune system and this includes: 1 replenish resident macrophages and dendritic cells under normal states, and 2 in response to inflammation signals, monocytes can move quickly approx. 8-12 hours to sites of infection in the tissues and divide/differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to elicit an immune response. Depending on a patient's level of health, monocytes make up between one and three percent of the total white blood cells in the body. Classically, they attack any foreign material, such as a bacteria or virus, consuming it so that it cannot hurt the body and preserving an antigen so that the body will be able to recognize the foreign material in the future. Any infection or acute stress increases your number of white blood cells. High white blood cell counts may be due to inflammation, an immune response, or blood disorders such ...
http://smrtx.com/1_2_19_monocyte.htm
*  Megan R Smith
... add/edit. You are here: Scientific Experts UK. University of Cambridge Smith Megan R Smith. Research Topics granulocytes lymphocyte count smoking cessation leukocyte count smoking cross sectional studies. Megan R Smith Summary Affiliation: University of Cambridge Country: UK. Publications Smoking status and differential white cell count in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk population Megan R Smith Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 2SR, UK Atherosclerosis 169:331-7. 2003. Collaborators Sheila Bingham Ailsa Welch K-T Khaw. Detail Information Publications 1 Smoking status and differential white cell count in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk population Megan R Smith Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 2SR, UK Atherosclerosis 169:331-7. 2003 ..The apparent almost immediate ...
http://labome.org/expert/uk/university/smith/megan-r-smith-460137.html
*  What Kind Of Infection With High Wbc - The Body
... TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. TOPICS IN HIV/AIDS. Arts, Media HIV/AIDS. Stories About Women. RESOURCE CENTERS. What Kind Of Infection With High Wbc. High WBC. Does a high white blood cell count indcate early stages of hepatitis. ...there is nothing about an elevate d white blood cell count that would make me think specifically about hepatitis. This may be related to other kind s of infections as well and also Read more ». high WBC - is it normal. Holodniy!I have 300 CD4, VL 44K.My WBC were always in the 5-7 range. Read more ». WBC 7.2LYMPHS 31LYMPHYS ABSOLUTE 2.2ABSOLUTE CD 3 1599�3 POS LYMPH72.7CD4 HELPER 719CD8 POS LYMPH... Read more ». Understanding HIV-Related Lab Tests I: Complete Blood Count and Blood Chemistry. Complete Blood Count CBC Blood is made up of different type s of cells including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The complete blood count CBC is a test thatmeasures the amount of these cells in a... Read more ». White ...
http://thebody.com/h/what-kind-of-infection-with-high-wbc.html
*  cholangiocarcinoma.org :: Low white cells blood count — Adverse Reactions & Side Effects — discu
cholangiocarcinoma.org :: Low white cells blood count — Adverse Reactions Side Effects — discussion boards. Home About the Foundation The Foundation. Discussion Boards. Skip to forum content cholangiocarcinoma.org :: discussion boards a resource for patients, friends, caregivers and loved ones. Please login or register. Low white cells blood count discussion boards. Adverse Reactions Side Effects. Low white cells blood count. Pages 1 You must login or register to post a reply. Topic RSS feed Posts: 8. 1 Topic by sharonlee. Thu, 12 Jan 2012 16:28:48. sharonlee. Senior Member. Offline. Registered: Fri, 02 Dec 2011. Posts: 89. Re: Low white cells blood count Thank you Lainy for your support and for always helping everyone on this board. Re: Low white cells blood count Hi Sharon, I too hope that your mum is feeling better today after having the shot and the antibiotics. Best wishes to you and your mum, Gavin Any advice or comments I give are based on personal experiences and ...
http://cholangiocarcinoma.org/punbb/viewtopic.php?pid=54455
*  cholangiocarcinoma.org :: Low white cells blood count — Adverse Reactions & Side Effects — discu
cholangiocarcinoma.org :: Low white cells blood count — Adverse Reactions Side Effects — discussion boards. Home About the Foundation The Foundation. Discussion Boards. Skip to forum content cholangiocarcinoma.org :: discussion boards a resource for patients, friends, caregivers and loved ones. Please login or register. Low white cells blood count discussion boards. Adverse Reactions Side Effects. Low white cells blood count. Pages 1 You must login or register to post a reply. Topic RSS feed Posts: 8. 1 Topic by sharonlee. Thu, 12 Jan 2012 16:28:48. sharonlee. Senior Member. Offline. Registered: Fri, 02 Dec 2011. Posts: 89. Re: Low white cells blood count Thank you Lainy for your support and for always helping everyone on this board. Re: Low white cells blood count Hi Sharon, I too hope that your mum is feeling better today after having the shot and the antibiotics. Best wishes to you and your mum, Gavin Any advice or comments I give are based on personal experiences and ...
http://cholangiocarcinoma.org/punbb/viewtopic.php?pid=54545
*  Low White Blood Cell Count/Neutropenia | Oncolink - Cancer Resources
Low White Blood Cell Count/Neutropenia. Cancer Types. Cancer Types. Skin Cancers. oral temperature above 100.5o degrees, chills or sweats cough, excess mucous, shortness of breath or painful breathing soreness or swelling in your mouth, ulcers or white patches in your mouth, or a change in the color of your gums pain or burning with urination or an odor to your urine change in the odor, character or frequency of your stool, especially diarrhea redness, pain or swelling of any area of your skin redness, pain, swelling or drainage from any tube you may have e.g., Hickman catheter, feeding tube, urinary catheter pus or drainage from any open cut or sore an overall feeling of being sick, even if you don't have a temperature or any other sign of an infection. oral temperature above 100.5o degrees, chills or sweats cough, excess mucous, shortness of breath or painful breathing soreness or swelling in your mouth or throat, ulcers or white patches in your mouth, or a change in the color of your gums pain or ...
http://oncolink.org/resources/article.cfm?c=6&s=64&ss=235&id=981
*  White Blood Cell Count: Common Questions | White Blood Cell Count Test: WBC Count; Leukocyte Count;
White Blood Cell Count: Common Questions. White Blood Cell Count Test: WBC Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count. Lab Tests Online. Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising Sponsorship: Policy. Opportunities. PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript, your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. Home Visit Global Sites. Search Help. Tests List of all tests and synonyms Test not listed. 5-HIAA 17-Hydroxyprogesterone A/G Ratio A1c Absolute neutrophils ACE Acetaminophen Acetylcholinesterase AChR Antibody ACR ACT ACTH Adenosine Deaminase ADH AFB Testing AFP Maternal AFP Tumor Markers Albumin Aldolase Aldosterone ALK Mutation Gene Rearrangement Allergy Blood Testing ALP Alpha-1 Antitrypsin ALT AMA Amikacin Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANA ...
https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/wbc/tab/faq/
*  Buckeye Surgeon: Blunt
... Buckeye Surgeon. Ruminations by a non-academic general surgeon from the heart of the rust belt. Friday, July 22, 2011. Blunt. I took care of a trauma patient a few months ago who was in a motor vehicle crash on her prom night. Initial imaging showed some left sided rib fractures and a broken leg. She was admitted to the regular nursing floor for further observation. When I saw her in the morning 4 hours after arrival I found that she had one of those classic " seat belt signs". She was also was quite tender on abdominal exam. Her labs revealed an elevated white blood cell count, in itself not necessarily a concerning thing as young trauma patients with broken limbs will often mount a reactive leukocytosis. But her abdominal exam bothered me. I reviewed the CT with the radiologist. She didn't see anything unusual. So I repeated the CT and the blood work 2 hours later. Her WBC count was now over 20. The CT scan, however, was again read as "normal". When I examined her, she had frank ...
http://ohiosurgery.blogspot.com/2011/07/blunt.html?showComment=1312292380954
*  The Wholistic Research Company
Healthy Eating. Complementary Medicine: Treatment Therapies. Health Issues In The News. Meet The Health Team. Positive News Towards Health, Harmony, Happiness. Health Issues In The News back. Once you understand that teeth are living structures, an organ so to speak, it's easy to see the importance of the communication between medicine and dentistry. So, if teeth are in fact living parts of the body, is it not possible that dental treatments could also affect the whole body. The silent poison - mercury Once I accepted the interconnectedness between dentistry and medicine and recognised the incredible healing potential in a complementary approach, I also realised the implications of my treatments and the dangers that lie in traditional dentistry. He pointed out that white blood cells are especially sensitive to dental mercury and that I should monitor their levels while placing or removing silver/mercury-amalgam fillings. The leukaemia connection - dismissed In fact, I realised that there might be a link ...
http://wholisticresearch.com/info/artshow.php3?artid=10
*  Interpretation for 9184 Morphology Evaluation (Special Smear)
Interpretation for 9184 Morphology Evaluation Special Smear. MayoACCESS. Test Catalog Test Information New Tests Test Updates Reflex Tests Referred Tests NYS Informed Consent Test List Download Catalog References Critical Values and Semi-Urgent Results Performing Locations Policies. Setup Information Test Setup AOE Codes LOINC Codes Units of Measurement. Test Ordering MayoACCESS Overview References MayoLINK Overview References. Specimen Handling Collection and Preparation Instructions by Specimen Type Category A Infectious Substances Light Protection Tests Microbiology Culture Tests Resources Supply Catalog FAQ Dangerous Goods Training. Outreach Resources Outreach Areas Outreach Education Support Services Operations Sales and Marketing Billing and Finance Examples. My Account Report Portal Client Price Portal Additional Test Report Quality Report Portal Reportable Disease Portal Electronic Invoices Supply Catalog. Test 9184 : Morphology Evaluation Special Smear Clinical Information. Under normal ...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/index.html?alpha=M&unit_code=9184
*  Leukemia Board Index: normal wbc elevated lymphocytes
... health boards health message boards. Message Boards. Posting Policy. Advanced Search. FAQ. Find a Board. Best Entries. Best Blogs. Search Blogs. Register FAQ Posting Policy Today's Posts Mark Boards Read Advanced Search Find A Board Site Map. Message Board. HealthBoards. Board Index. Leukemia. N > normal wbc elevated lymphocytes. Leukemia Board Index Board Index > Leukemia. Pages: 1 Showing 1 - 12 of 12 for normal wbc elevated lymphocytes. Is your WBC 107,000. 9 replies Worried about WBC. I've had several elevated WBC over the last 8 months and a couple taken with the manual differentials. I was told that it is a sign of infection not to worry. 8 replies 7 year old undiagnosed as of now Apr 26, 2015. 0 replies. 3 replies Quick question MPV. Since macrocytic RBCs are larger than either normal or microcytic RBCs, they would also tend to have higher MCH values. Apr 18, 2007. i did read they can be elevated because of inflammation, but i don't have any joint pain. 3 replies Lab Results ...
http://index.healthboards.com/leukemia/normal-wbc-elevated-lymphocytes/1/
*  .. Protect Your Child from Cold and Flu this Fall and Winter by Eliminating Sugar
Protect Your Child from Cold and Flu this Fall and Winter by Eliminating Sugar. If you are like most parents that have walked down the store aisle with your child, you understand how many sugary treats await you at the end of your shopping experience. Never before has it been more obvious of sugars deep dark secrets. But do we ever question the impact it is having on our youth. According to Nickelodeon Youth Monitor, kids spend fifty billion dollars annually on candy. At the same time, with the fall season quickly upon us, it’s important to find out what we can do stop harming and start healing our children. Once sugars enter the bloodstream, Neutrophils -small white blood cells that protect us against common bacterial infections – were severely compromised. Neutrophils account for 58% of the average total white blood cell count. In addition, white blood cells have the amazing ability to kill bacteria, stave off allergic responses, recycle damaged cells, and keep foreign organisms in check. ...
http://thesilverclouddiet.com/2012/09/cold-and-flu-prevention/
*  Clinical Trials sub-cluster 86
METHODS: A total of ... The early and late outcomes after carotid artery stenting CAS were evaluated in patients at high risk for CEA. The aim of the study was to investigate serum EMMPRIN levels in patients with ALS. Methods: One hundred eighty-four HD patients were evaluated. METHODS: A total of 94 individuals consisting of 19 allergic asthmatics; 17 non-allergic asthmatics; 22 patients with allergic rhinitis; and 36 healthy control ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between TOS and the first rib in TOS operative patients and normal population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels and patterns of total and differential leukocyte counts and their prognostic importance in a cohort of people with and without chronic kidney disease CKD. The study groups included 33 patients with uncomplicated FMF and 39 control subjects. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with eGFR 60 mL/min n = 411, Grp 1, CKD were compared to ... Incidence of Contrast-Induced ...
http://biomedsearch.com/cluster/19/Clinical-Trials/sub-86-p5.html
*  Interpreting White Blood Cell Counts - Colon Cancer Center - Everyday Health
... Recommended For You. What Are Colon Polyps. Eat Right to Prevent Colon Cancer. Living With Colon Cancer. Living With a Colostomy. Could Eating More Soy Protect You From Colon Cancer. Search. Home. Health A-Z. Common Conditions. ADD/ADHD. Ankylosing Spondylitis. Atrial Fibrillation. Cancer. COPD. Crohn's Disease. Depression. Digestive Health. Flu. Headache and Migraine. Heart Health. Hepatitis C. Low Testosterone. Multiple Sclerosis. Pain. Psoriasis. Psoriatic Arthritis. Rheumatoid Arthritis. Senior Health. Sexual Health. Sleep. Type 2 Diabetes. Ulcerative Colitis. All Conditions. Making Sense of Lactose Intolerance. Drugs. Find Review Drugs. Drugs A-Z. Vitamins Supplements. All Drugs. 6 Essential Facts About Aspirin Therapy for Your Heart. Healthy Living. Popular Topics. Alternative Health. Beauty. Better Sex. Columns. Dental Health. Fitness. Kids' Health. Men's Health. Senior Health. Vision. Women's Health. All Healthy Living. Which Costs More: Gaining Weight or Losing It. Food. Popular ...
http://everydayhealth.com/colon-cancer/specialists/interpreting-white-blood-cell-counts.aspx
*  Things to Do When You're Dead
Friday, March 14, 2014. In two hours time, I will pay the bill for the diagnosis, say goodbye and pick up my shiny new car. Posted by. Kate Katcher. No comments:. Wednesday, August 14, 2013. Each year for the past several, I have approached the moment when the ball drops in Times Square with a sense of relief a Thank God that s over sense of relief. Inherent in that relief is the hope that the next year will be better. It s time for a change. Posted by. Kate Katcher. at 2:44 PM. No comments:. Posted by. Kate Katcher. I was careful not to wake the beast as I rolled; careful not to disturb the IV in my left arm; careful not to wake up the pain that had taken up residence in my right arm like a guest that stayed too long at a Holiday Inn. at the emergency room a few weeks ago who tested me for everything, found nothing but a mysteriously high white blood cell count, gave a diagnosis of a mysteriously high white blood cell count, and sent me home with the list of doctors, two prescriptions and a ...
http://straykats.blogspot.com/
*  Low white blood cell count
... redirect leukopenia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_white_blood_cell_count
*  low count of white blood cells!!??
low count of white blood cells!!?. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits. Questions About Treatment Side Effects. low count of white blood cells!!?. Meds, Mind, Body Benefits Questions About Treatment Side Effects Insurance, Benefits Programs HIV Mental Health HIV Lipodystrophy Metabolic Problems Nutrition HIV Research News Studies. Stats Total Posts: 675765 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 191 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: low count of white blood cells!!?. low count of white blood cells!!?. on: January 13, 2013, 12:27:42 PM. Does anyone here think that combivir reyataz and norvir can cause a drop in the white blood cells?before yesterday i was called to the hospital for a routine test i just recover from a possible encephalitis,the docs are not sure this was .everything was fine except my white blood cells:1900 at number.i was told normaly must bee 7000!!!!!!now, since i started the meds before three ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=46874.msg571375
*  Thalomid and White Blood Cell Count Decreased - Suspected Cause - Reports of Side Effects
... Rx drug information, pharmaceutical research, clinical trials, news, and more. Drugs By Name By Condition By Category Most Searched Ratings/Reviews Adverse Events Actives. Thalomid Thalidomide - White Blood Cell Count Decreased - Suspected Cause - Side Effect Reports. Thalomid Rx. Summary Description and Clinical Pharmacology Indications and Dosage Warnings and Precautions Side Effects and Adverse Reactions Drug Interactions, Overdosage, Contraindications, Other Rx Info Active Ingredients Side Effect Reports. Thalomid News. News in Media Published Studies Curr't Clinical Trials. Index of reports > Cases with White Blood Cell Count Decreased. Below is the selection of side effect reports a.k.a. adverse event reports related to Thalomid Thalidomide where reactions include white blood cell count decreased. The selected reports were submitted to the FDA during the sample period of about a year. Possible Thalomid side effects in male.
http://druglib.com/reported-side-effects/thalomid/reaction_white_blood_cell_count_decreased/
*  Monocyte count
 Monocyte count. Skip to main content. About Us. Careers. For Medical Professionals. Give / Volunteer. En Español. Employee Sign In. Navigation Locations. Doctors Providers. Health, Conditions Treatments. Medical Services. Customer Service. Family Health Manager. MyChart. Home > Health, Conditions and Treatments > Health library. Health Guide Health Encyclopedia. Lab Tests. Drug Guide DrugNotes. Spanish DrugNotes. Detailed Drug Information. Alternative Medicine. Monocyte count What is this test. This test measures the amount of monocytes in blood. Monocytes are a type of white blood cell WBC. This test is used to evaluate and manage blood disorders, certain problems with the immune system, and cancers, including monocytic leukemia. This test may also be used to evaluate for the risk of complications after a heart attack. What are other names for this test. Monocyte count - observation What are related tests. Monocyte count Complete blood count with white cell differential, ...
http://allinahealth.org/CCS/doc/Consumer_Lab/49/150173.htm
*  High WBC and confused -Doctors Lounge(TM)
High WBC and confused -Doctors Lounge TM. Search for:. News. Journals. Conferences. Blogs. Articles. Forums. Twitter. Home. Ask a Doctor. Medical Professional. Author. Volunteer. Medical Reference. Diseases. Symptoms. Labs. Procedures. Drugs. Medical Specialty. Cardiology. Dermatology. Endocrinology. Fertility. Gastroenterology. Gynecology. Hematology. Infections. Nephrology. Neurology. Oncology. Orthopedics. Pediatrics. Pharmacy. Primary Care. Psychiatry. Pulmonology. Rheumatology. Surgery. Urology. More ... Headlines:. Doctors Lounge - Hematology Answers The information provided on www.doctorslounge.com is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her physician. Back to Hematology Answers List Forum Name: Hematology Topics Question: High WBC and confused bear hugs - Thu Jan 25, 2007 12:13 am. Share. I am a 26 yr old F who recently received some high WBC results and am not sure how concerned I should be. I have been tested 4 times over the last ...
http://doctorslounge.com/hematology/forums/backup/topic-14415.html
*  Puppy Question - Chazhound Dog Forum
... Dog Forum. Dog Pictures. Chazhound Dog Forum Dog Forum News Member Introductions. Puppy Question. Register. Calendar. Mark Forums Read. Thread Tools. Display Modes. Tednmeek. Join Date: Nov 2012. Posts: 1. Puppy Question. At 10 weeks she started having a bunch of peeing accidents as well as peeing continuously when we went for a walk. Took her to the vet with urine sample. She had crystals struvite but no infection. The vet told me to augment her diet with Hills S/D. Because she is so young she did not want her to lose the nutrients of the puppy food I give her. After 2 weeks we tested her and the crystals were gone but an infection was now showing. Antibiotics were prescribed for 2 weeks. Tested and she had no crystals, no infection but elevated white blood cells so extended antibiotics for two weeks. Now she just went in for testing and her urine is basic and the crystals are back. Any suggestions. She is a great little puppy that wants to pee outside but still has accidents. The vet wants me to do a ...
http://chazhound.com/forums/showthread.php?t=192619&goto=nextnewest
*  Puppy Question - Chazhound Dog Forum
... Dog Forum. Dog Pictures. Chazhound Dog Forum Dog Forum News Member Introductions. Puppy Question. User Name. Remember Me. Password. Register. FAQ. Calendar. Mark Forums Read. Chat Room. Thread Tools. Display Modes. # 1. 11-15-2012, 04:36 PM. Tednmeek. Active Pup. Join Date: Nov 2012. Posts: 1. Puppy Question. I have a 15 week old bernese/mini labradoodle mix. At 10 weeks she started having a bunch of peeing accidents as well as peeing continuously when we went for a walk. Took her to the vet with urine sample. She had crystals struvite but no infection. The vet told me to augment her diet with Hills S/D. Because she is so young she did not want her to lose the nutrients of the puppy food I give her. So she gets kibble soaked in water with the Hills. After 2 weeks we tested her and the crystals were gone but an infection was now showing. Antibiotics were prescribed for 2 weeks. Tested and she had no crystals, no infection but elevated white blood cells so extended antibiotics for two weeks. Now she just ...
http://chazhound.com/forums/showthread.php?t=194945&goto=nextoldest
*  White blood cell
... 'White blood cells' 'WBCs', also called 'leukocytes' or 'leucocytes', are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease, and thus the 'WBC count' is an important subset of the complete blood count. The normal white cell count is usually between 4 and 11 × 10 9 /L. 60px. Image:Neutrophil.png. 60px. 70px. Image:Eosinophil 1.png. 70px. 60px. 60 px. Image:Lymphocyte2.jpg. 60px. Image:Lymphocyte.png. 70px. NK-cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells. Image:Monocyte.jpg. Image:Neutrophil with anthrax copy.jpg|210px|right|thumb|Neutrophil engulfing anthrax bacteria Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell, constituting 60-70% of the circulating leukocytes. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells : T cells displaying co-receptor CD8 are known as CD8+ T cells. In the proliferative disorders there is an increase in ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell
*  ANC Calculator
... anc equals the total wbc count multiplied by the total percentage of neutrophils segs plus bands example wbc segs bands x x anc of enter wbc segs bands example wbc neutrophils x anc of enter wbc neutrophils enter values and press the calculate button e g enter as wbc count x mm segs bands or wbc count x mm neutrophils anc value references for calculating an absolute neutrophil count anc cbc interpretation the doctors medical library available at http www medical library net sites cbc interpretation html accessed june neutropenia cancer consultants com available at http patient cancerconsultants com myelodysplastic cancer treatment aspx id accessed june white blood cell count complete blood count rnceus com available at http www rnceus com cbc cbcwbc html accessed june white blood cell count and differential chc medical library patient education available at http www chclibrary org micromed html accessed june
http://mylan-clozapine.com/ANCCalc.asp
*  White Blood Cell Count: At a Glance | White Blood Cell Count Test: WBC Count; Leukocyte Count; Whit
Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript, your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Tests List of all tests and synonyms Test not listed? 5-HIAA 17-Hydroxyprogesterone A/G Ratio A1c Absolute neutrophils ACE Acetaminophen Acetylcholinesterase AChR Antibody ACR ACT ACTH Adenosine Deaminase ADH AFB Testing AFP Maternal AFP Tumor Markers Albumin Aldolase Aldosterone ALK Mutation (Gene Rearrangement) Allergy Blood Testing ALP Alpha-1 Antitrypsin ALT AMA Amikacin Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANA ANCA Androstenedione Anti-CCP Anti-DNase B Anti-dsDNA Anti-LKM-1 Anti-Mullerian Hormone Antibody ID, RBC Anticentromere Antibody Antiphospholipids Antithrombin ...
https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/wbc/tab/glance
*  White Blood Cells
... : White blood cells, or leukocytes, are the body's defense system. Your white count rises with infection as your body creates more soldiers to kill the disease. After my first chemo my count was again over 20,000, but by the second chemo the chemotherapy drugs were winning their own war. When you have chemotherapy your white cells are killed along with the cancer. Because it is dangerous to kill off too many of your white cells, most doctors have a limit as to how far they will let your white counts fall and still give you treatment. In most cases the white cell count will return to normal after about 3 weeks following treatment I was amazed how quickly mine rebounded when treatment was complete. It is not unusual for your counts to come up slower and slower as treatment goes on. If your counts are consistently too low, your doctor may give you Neupogen shots to raise your counts. Some doctors do this with every patient no matter the count. For ...
http://deltronix.com/public/li/white_cells.html
*  Marrowforums.org: ANC Calculator
marrowforums org anc calculator marrowforums org welcome about marrowforums bone marrow failure diseases medical resources forum info register login forum faq forum rules member profiles aa mds talk about aa mds talk anc absolute neutrophil count computing your anc home forums help anc calculator compute your absolute neutrophil count about the anc calculator your absolute neutrophil count anc is an estimate of the number of your neutrophils infection fighting white cells your anc can indicate your risk of infection anc is computed from a blood test called a differential which shows the percentages or quantities of various types of white cells in your blood for more information about your anc and what it means see anc absolute neutrophil count you can use the anc calculator to compute your anc from the white cell counts shown on your differtial unlike other anc calculators on the internet the marrowforums anc calculator handles variations in how differentials are reported ...
http://marrowforums.org/tools/anc_calculator.html
*  Clozaril and White Blood Cell Count Increased - Suspected Cause - Reports of Side Effects
Reported by a physician from United Kingdom on 2012-08-20 Patient: male Reactions: Blood Pressure Increased, Neutrophil Count Increased, Heart Rate Increased, White Blood Cell Count Increased, Convulsion Adverse event resulted in: hospitalization Drug s suspected as cause: Clozaril Dosage: unk ukn, unk Administration route: Oral Indication: Schizophrenia Start date: 2002-06-21 End date: 2012-08-01 Clozaril Start date: 2012-08-03 End date: 2012-08-04.
http://druglib.com/reported-side-effects/clozaril/reaction_white_blood_cell_count_increased/
*  NATAP - Ask Your Questions
natap ask your questions ask our hepatitis experts questions about hcv back nbsp i am currently on combo therapy for my hep c and i ve been informed that my white blood cell count has dropped dear dr chung i am currently on combo therapy for my hep c and i ve been informed that my white blood cell count has dropped to a level that they want to start monitoring me closer what does this mean and why is my white blood cell count dropping nbsp thank you britney dr chung writes the interferon can depress the wbc in a reversible manner this is absolutely in the realm of the ordinary it may require dose adjustments or use of growth factors but not a cause for alarm rc ask our experts www natap org answers
http://natap.org/askus/answers/101601_5.htm
*  Subtypes
... ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Subtypes. HIV Prevention and Testing Am I Infected. Stats Total Posts: 675712 Total Topics: 52423 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Welcome to the "Am I Infected?" POZ forum. NOTE: HIV testing questions will still need to be posted in the "Am I Infected?" forum; attempts to post HIV symptoms or testing questions in any other forums will be considered violations of our rules of membership and subject to time-outs and permanent bans. To learn how to upgrade your Forums account to participate beyond three posts in the "Am I Infected?" Forum, please click here. The fact is that I am bored worrying about HIV and due to the symptoms at the time and my ongoing declining white blood count believe that I was infected. UK, If you were infected, your six month test would have picked that up no matter what subtype. I do not need to face to face help as there is no one I can find to discuss subtypes. You are the one ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=5449.msg61256
*  What's Blood?
Heart Health. How Does the Body Make Blood. Red Blood Cells. White Blood Cells. How Does the Body Make Blood. red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body white blood cells, which fight infections platelets, which are cells that help you stop bleeding if you get a cut plasma, a yellowish liquid that carries nutrients, hormones, and proteins throughout the body Your body doesn't go to the store to buy those ingredients. Thanks to your heart which pumps blood and your blood vessels which carry it, blood travels throughout your body from your head to your toes. White Blood Cells White blood cells also called leukocytes, say: loo -kuh-sytes are bigger than red blood cells. There are usually not a whole lot of white blood cells floating around in your blood when you're healthy. There are a couple types of white blood cells that do different things to keep you well: Granulocytes You know how your skin gets a little red and swollen around a cut or scrape. But it also carries important nutrients, ...
http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?lic=50&dn=SacredHeartChildrens_Hospital&article_set=49141&cat_id=124
*  Suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation by L-ornithine - University of Regensburg Publica
Suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation by L-ornithine - University of Regensburg Publication Server. University. Suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation by L-ornithine. 1985 Suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation by L-ornithine. L-ornithine was found to suppress the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes CTL in vivo and in vitro. The concentration of 9 X 10 -3 M L-ornithine was found to ... L-ornithine was found to suppress the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes CTL in vivo and in vitro. The concentration of 9 X 10 -3 M L-ornithine was found to mediate a practically complete suppression of the cytotoxic response in vitro if applied on day 0 or day 1 of the culture, but a comparably weak suppression if applied on day 3. The same concentration of L-ornithine had no effect on the production of the lymphokines interleukin 2 IL 2 and gamma-interferon IFN-gamma. This concentration of ornithine had also no substantial effect on several types of ...
http://epub.uni-regensburg.de/15975/
*  Interpretation for 62205 Lymphocyte Proliferation to Anti-CD3/Anti-CD28 and Anti-CD3/Interleukin-2
... IL-2 by Flow Cytometry. Test 62205 : Lymphocyte Proliferation to Anti-CD3/Anti-CD28 and Anti-CD3/Interleukin-2 IL-2 by Flow Cytometry Clinical Information. While mitogens such as phytohemagglutinin PHA activate T cells by binding to cell membrane glycoproteins, including the T-cell receptor TCR -CD3 complex, there are a number of mitogenic or comitogenic antibodies, including those directed against the CD3 coreceptor that can stimulate T-cell proliferation. 3 An exogenous T-cell growth factor, such as interleukin-2 IL-2, may also be used as an alternate to anti-CD28 costimulation, and in patients with suspected IL-2 receptor-associated signaling defects, it may be more helpful than the use of anti-CD28. The anti-CD3 proliferation panel is not a first-level test for assessing lymphocyte T-cell function. Therefore, the proliferative response to any mitogenic stimulus, including anti-CD3/anti-CD28, can be regarded as a more ...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/index.html?alpha=L&unit_code=62205
*  Measurement of T Cell Activation After 16‐hr In Vitro Stimulation with Concanavalin A - Current P
Measurement of T Cell Activation After 16 hr In Vitro Stimulation with Concanavalin A - Current Protocols. PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Keywords: activated T cells; lymphocytes; lymphocyte proliferation assay; activation marker; CD4 T helper cells; CD8 cytotoxic T cells; CD69 activation marker; T lymphocytes; CD69; CD4 T cells. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Introduction Strategic Planning Basic Protocol 1: Immunophenotypic Analysis of the Relative Distribution of Activated and Non Activated CD4 and CD8 T Lymphocyte Subsets in Unwashed Erythrocyte Lysed Whole Peripheral Blood Samples Commentary Literature Cited Figures Tables. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Basic Protocol 1: Immunophenotypic Analysis of the Relative Distribution of Activated and Non Activated CD4 and CD8 T Lymphocyte Subsets in Unwashed Erythrocyte Lysed Whole Peripheral Blood ...
http://cda.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-cy0628.html?quicktabs_cp=figures
*  OriGene - Cd3e (NM 001108140) cDNA Clone
OriGene - Cd3e NM 001108140 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Cd3e NM 001108140 Rat cDNA Clone. RN208846 Cd3e untagged ORF - Rat CD3 molecule, epsilon polypeptide Cd3e, 10 ug, NM 001108140.1, 10ug $380 3 weeks. Cd3e Human Clones SKU Description Amount Price Shipping. SC128125 CD3E untagged -Human CD3e molecule, epsilon CD3-TCR complex CD3E 10 ug $185 Next day. SC128126 CD3E untagged -ORIGENE UNIQUE VARIANT 1 of Human CD3e molecule, epsilon CD3-TCR complex CD3E 10 ug $380 4 weeks. RC208276 CD3E Myc-DDK-tagged -Human CD3e molecule, epsilon CD3-TCR complex CD3E 10 ug $380 Next day. RG208276 CD3E GFP-tagged - Human CD3e ...
http://origene.com/Rat_cDNA/RN208846.aspx
*  Visilizumab
... drugbox verifiedrevid image type mab mab type mab source zu o target cd receptor tradename pregnancy au pregnancy us pregnancy category legal au legal ca legal uk legal us legal status routes of administration bioavailability protein bound metabolism elimination half life excretion cas number ref cas number atc prefix none atc suffix pubchem drugbank ref visilizumab tentative trade name nuvion pdl biopharma inc is a humanized monoclonal antibody it is being investigated for use as an immunosuppressive drug in patients with ulcerative colitis and crohn s disease visilizumab binds to the cd receptor on certain activated t cell s without affecting resting t cells it is currently under clinical studies for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and crohn s disease pdl biopharma inc canceled production of visilizumab following its phase ii iii clinical trials citing its inefficacy and poor safety profile compared to other drugs on the market as the major reasons nevertheless clinical trials ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visilizumab
*  OriGene - CD3D (NM 001040651) cDNA Clone
OriGene - CD3D NM_001040651 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. CD3D NM_001040651 Human cDNA Clone. SC311200 CD3D untagged -Human CD3d molecule, delta CD3-TCR complex CD3D , transcript variant 2, NM_001040651.1, 10ug $380 2 weeks. Summary: The protein encoded by this gene is part of the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex TCR/CD3 complex and is involved in T-cell development and signal transduction. CD3D Mouse Clones SKU Description Amount Price Shipping. MC207244 Cd3d untagged - Mouse CD3 antigen, delta polypeptide Cd3d , 10ug 10 ug $380 2 weeks. MR201480 Cd3d Myc-DDK-tagged - Mouse CD3 antigen, delta polypeptide Cd3d 10 ug $380 Next day. MG201480 Cd3d ...
http://origene.com/cdna/trueclone/accession/NM_001040651/SC311200.aspx
*  PLOS Pathogens: Galectin-9/TIM-3 Interaction Regulates Virus-Specific Primary and Memory CD8+ T Cell
Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Article. A FACS plots showing the frequencies of TIM-3 + upper panel, Kb-gB-Tet + middle panel and SSIEFRAL-peptide stimulated IFN-γ producing lower panel CD8 + T cells are shown. E FACS plots showing IFN-γ production by TIM-3 + upper panel and Kb-gB-Tet + expression by TIM-3 + CD8 + T cells are shown. F Representative FACS plots show TIM-3 expression on Kb-gB-Tet + upper panel and IFN-γ + CD8 + T lower panel cells G. As shown at day 5.5 days pi, the frequencies Fig 4A, B and E for Tet + cells and Fig 4D and E for cytokine producing cells and absolute numbers Fig 4F of virus-specific CD8 + T cells in the PLN as measured by tetramers and the ICCS assay, were increased up to 3 fold in the Gal-9 KO compared to WT mice. The frequencies J and K and numbers L of Kb-gB-tet + CD8 + T cells in the spleens of WT and Gal-9 KO animals at day 11 pi are shown. Once again, the frequencies Fig 5E and G and numbers Fig 5H of Kb-gB-Tet ...
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1000882
*  News for cd4 above 350
Re: News for cd4 above 350 Reply #6 on: February 20, 2008, 08:51:57 PM. Re: News for cd4 above 350 Reply #9 on: February 21, 2008, 03:46:04 PM. Re: News for cd4 above 350 Reply #10 on: February 21, 2008, 03:58:48 PM. Logged Aug 07 Diagnosed Oct 07 CD4=446 19% Feb 08 CD4=421 19% Jun 08 CD4=325 22% Jul 08 CD4=301 18% Sep 08 CD4=257/VL=75,000 Oct 08 CD4=347 16% Dec 08 CD4=270 16% Jan 09 CD4=246 13% /VL=10,000 Feb 09 CD4=233 15% /VL=13,000 Started meds Sustiva/Epzicom May 09 CD4=333 24% /VL=650 Aug 09 CD4=346 24% /VL=UD Nov 09 CD4=437 26% /VL=UD Feb 10 CD4=471 31% /VL=UD June 10 CD4=517 28% /VL=UD Sept 10 CD4=687 31% /VL=UD Jan 11 CD4=557 30% /VL=UD April 11 CD4=569 32% /VL=UD Switched to Epizcom, Reyataz and Norvir Interrupted for 2 months with only Epizcom Reyataz July 11 CD=520 28% /VL=UD Oct 11 CD=771 31% /VL=UD 30 April 12 CD=609 28% /VL=UD 20 Aug ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=19297.0;prev_next=prev
*  SEPULTURA - KAIROS (CD) | Online Shop | Wizard LTD.
SEPULTURA - KAIROS CD. NEWS. RELEASES. SHOP. ДРУГИ АРТИКУЛИ НА SEPULTURA: ROORBACK CD CD 2003 CHAOS A.D. CD CD 1993 LIVE IN SAO PAULO 2CD CD 2005 SCHIZOPHRENIA REMASTERED CD CD 1887/ 1997 ROOTS RR 25TH ANNIV. EDIT. 2CD DIGI CD 1996/ 2005 DANTE XXI DIGI CD 2006 MORBID VISIONS/ BESTIAL DEVASTATION CD CD 1986/ 1997 CHAOS DVD DVD DVD 2002 ARISE REMASTERED CD CD 1991/ 1997 BENEATH THE REMAINS REMASTERED CD CD 1989/ 1997 CHAOS A.D. TS TS/LS 2005 ROOTS CD CD 1996 A-LEX LTD. EDIT. DIGI CD 2009 A-LEX CD CD 2009 AGAINST CD CD 1998 NATION CD CD 2001 THE BEST OF SEPULTURA CD CD 2006 LOGO GREY TS TS/LS 2010 ROOTS VINYL 2LP LP 1996/ 2011 KAIROS TS TS/LS 2011 KAIROS LTD. EDIT. CD+DVD DIGI CD 2011 BENEATH THE REMAINS VINYL LP LP 2007 ARISE VINYL 2LP LP 2007 MAX CAVALERA COLLECTION 1987-1996 5CD BOX ...
http://wizard.bg/main.php?page=shop§ion=article&mid=13037
*  OriGene - CD83 (NM 004233) cDNA Clone
OriGene - CD83 NM 004233 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Home TrueClone CD83 Clone. CD83 NM 004233 Human cDNA Clone. SC117490 CD83 untagged -Human CD83 molecule CD83, transcript variant 1, NM 004233.2, 10ug $185 In Stock. OriGene Data Vector: pCMV6-XL4 With the native stop codon at the end of the ORF, the C-terminal Myc-DDK tag in the vector won’t be expressed. Reference Data RefSeq: NM 004233.2, NP 004224. More TrueClone Citations >>. CD83 Mouse Clones SKU Description Amount Price Shipping. MC208263 Cd83 untagged - Mouse CD83 antigen Cd83, 10ug 10 ug $380 Next day. MC225898 Cd83 untagged - Mouse CD83 antigen Cd83, transcript variant 2 10 ug $185 2 weeks. MR219448 ...
http://origene.com/human_cdna/NM_004233/SC117490.aspx
*  OriGene - CD81 (NM 004356) cDNA Clone
OriGene - CD81 NM 004356 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Home TrueClone CD81 Clone. CD81 NM 004356 Human cDNA Clone. SC117455 CD81 untagged -Human CD81 molecule CD81, NM 004356.3, 10ug $380 In Stock. TA306789 Rabbit Polyclonal CD81 Antibody, 100ug $325 In Stock. Also for CD81 NM 004356 cDNA Clone shRNA/siRNA CRISPR KO Kit Protein Antibody. OriGene Data Vector: pCMV6-XL5 With the native stop codon at the end of the ORF, the C-terminal Myc-DDK tag in the vector won’t be expressed. Sequence Data: Fully Sequenced ORF. Reference Data RefSeq: NM 004356.3, NP 004347. RefSeq Size: 1497 RefSeq ORF: 711. Click to view all citations of TrueClone. More TrueClone Citations >>. CD81 Mouse Clones SKU ...
http://origene.com/human_cdna/NM_004356/SC117455.aspx
*  OriGene - CD38 (NM 001775) cDNA Clone
OriGene - CD38 NM 001775 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Home TrueClone CD38 Clone. CD38 NM 001775 Human cDNA Clone. SC321273 CD38 untagged -Human CD38 molecule CD38, NM 001775.2, 10ug $185 In Stock. Also for CD38 NM 001775 cDNA Clone shRNA/siRNA CRISPR KO Kit Protein Request Antibody. OriGene Data Vector: pCMV6-AC With the native stop codon at the end of the ORF, the C-terminal Myc-DDK tag in the vector won’t be expressed. Sequence Data: Fully Sequenced ORF. Reference Data RefSeq: NM 001775.2, NP 001766. RefSeq Size: 1494 RefSeq ORF: 903. CD38 Mouse Clones SKU Description Amount Price Shipping. MC208001 Cd38 untagged - Mouse CD38 antigen Cd38, 10ug 10 ug $380 Next day. ...
http://origene.com/human_cdna/NM_001775/SC321273.aspx
*  CByJ.129S2(B6)-Cd8a/J - 007071
Mice homozygous for the Cd8a tm1Mak targeted mutation may be useful in studies of susceptibility to viral infections and the role of cytotoxic T-cells in immune response. Research Applications Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research. Research Areas By Genotype This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including: Genotype: Cd8a tm1Mak related Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research CD Antigens, Antigen Receptors, and Histocompatibility Markers. Mammalian Phenotype Terms by Genotype Genotype: Cd8a tm1Mak /Cd8a tm1Mak involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6 * DBA/2 hematopoietic system phenotype abnormal cytotoxic T cell physiology lacks cytotoxic T cell response MGI Ref ID J:68956 no response to class I MHC alloantigen but normal response to class II MGI Ref ID J:68956. Genotype: Cd8a tm1Mak /Cd8a tm1Mak involves: 129S2/SvPas immune system phenotype immune system phenotype mice clear polyomavirus within one month of infection similar ...
https://jax.org/strain/007071
*  Poppers & CD4s
Poppers CD4s. Poppers CD4s. October 04, 2015, 01:48:04 PM. Stats Total Posts: 675741 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 185 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: Poppers CD4s Read 19524 times. Posts: 51. Poppers CD4s on: June 05, 2006, 05:30:23 AM. Logged 14 Dec 2005 Tested Neg 21 Jan 2006 Infected 09 May 2006 Tested Poz 29 May 2006 CD4 551 33% VL 21,000 10 July 2006 CD4 632 34% VL 24,500 ......when i m good, i m very good - when i m bad i m even better...... Logged 14 Dec 2005 Tested Neg 21 Jan 2006 Infected 09 May 2006 Tested Poz 29 May 2006 CD4 551 33% VL 21,000 10 July 2006 CD4 632 34% VL 24,500 ......when i m good, i m very good - when i m bad i m even better...... Logged 12/06 Atripla : cd4 - 260; cd% - 33%; vl - 169 1/07 Atripla : cd4 - 267; cd% - 38.1%; vl - 132 4/07 Atripla : cd4 - 373; cd% - 33.9%; vl - 50 7/07 Atripla ; cd4 - 287; cd% - 35.8%; vl - 50 9/07 Atripla ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=447.msg4434
*  Recently tested poz & trying to sort out my life
max123 Member. Logged 1/86 - 6/08 annually : neg elisa 7/09: pos elisa/pos wb 8/09: cd4 560, cd4% 35, vl 13,050 12/09: cd4 568, cd4% 33, vl 2,690 4/10: cd4 557, cd4% 29.3, vl 6,440 7/10: cd4 562, cd4% 29.6, vl 3,780. Logged 1/86 - 6/08 annually : neg elisa 7/09: pos elisa/pos wb 8/09: cd4 560, cd4% 35, vl 13,050 12/09: cd4 568, cd4% 33, vl 2,690 4/10: cd4 557, cd4% 29.3, vl 6,440 7/10: cd4 562, cd4% 29.6, vl 3,780. Logged 1/86 - 6/08 annually : neg elisa 7/09: pos elisa/pos wb 8/09: cd4 560, cd4% 35, vl 13,050 12/09: cd4 568, cd4% 33, vl 2,690 4/10: cd4 557, cd4% 29.3, vl 6,440 7/10: cd4 562, cd4% 29.6, vl 3,780. Logged 1/86 - 6/08 annually : neg elisa 7/09: pos elisa/pos wb 8/09: cd4 560, cd4% 35, vl 13,050 12/09: cd4 568, cd4% 33, vl 2,690 4/10: cd4 557, cd4% 29.3, vl 6,440 7/10: cd4 562, ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=28971.msg356431
*  Dr. Kang's therapeutic vaccine nearing FDA approval
Logged mid-dec: stupid ass mid-jan: seroconversion mid-feb: poz mar 07: cd4 432 35% vl 54000 may 07: cd4 399 28% vl 27760 jul 07: cd4 403 26% vl 99241 oct 07: cd4 353 24% vl 29993 jan 08: cd4 332 26% vl 33308 mar 08: cd4 392 23% vl 75548 jun 08: cd4 325 27% vl 45880 oct 08: cd4 197 20% vl 154000 == aids diagnosis nov 2 08 start Atripla nov 30 08: cd4 478 23% vl 1880 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. Logged mid-dec: stupid ass mid-jan: seroconversion mid-feb: poz mar 07: cd4 432 35% vl 54000 may 07: cd4 399 28% vl 27760 jul 07: cd4 403 26% vl 99241 oct 07: cd4 353 24% vl 29993 jan 08: cd4 332 26% vl 33308 mar 08: cd4 392 23% vl 75548 jun 08: cd4 325 27% vl 45880 oct 08: cd4 197 20% vl 154000 == aids diagnosis nov 2 08 start Atripla nov 30 08: cd4 478 23% vl 1880 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. Logged Apr 28/06 cd4 600 vl 10,600 cd% 25 Nov 8/09 cd4 510 vl 49,5000 cd% 16 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=12205.msg152363
*  Life expentancy after hiv diagnosis
Logged midapr07 - seroconversion sept07 - tested poz oct07 cd4 1013; vl 13,900; cd4% 41 feb08 cd4 694; vl 16,160; cd4% 50.1 may08 cd4 546; vl 91,480; cd4% 32 aug08 cd4 576; vl 48,190; cd4% 40.7 dec08 cd4 559; vl 63,020; cd4% 29.4 feb09 cd4 464; vl 11,000; cd4% 26 may09 cd4 544; vl 29,710; cd4% 27.2 oct09 cd4 ...; vl 23,350; cd4% 31.6 mar10 cd4 408; vl 59,050; cd4% 31.4 aug10 cd4 328; vl 80,000; cd4% 19.3 STARTED ATRIPLA oct10 cd4 423; vl 410 ; cd4% 30.2 jun11 cd4 439; vl 20 ; cd4% 33.8 -Undetectable. mar12 cd4 695; vl ud; cd4% 38.6 jan13 cd4 738; vl ud; cd4% 36.8 aug13 cd4 930; vl ud; cd4% 44.3 jan14 cd4 813; vl ud; cd4% 42.8 may14 cd4 783; vl *; cd4%43.5 sept14 cd4 990; vl ud; cd4% * jun15 cd4 1152; vl ud; cd4% * july15 - SWITCHED TO STRIBILD. ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=30890.msg377458
*  Life expentancy after hiv diagnosis
Logged midapr07 - seroconversion sept07 - tested poz oct07 cd4 1013; vl 13,900; cd4% 41 feb08 cd4 694; vl 16,160; cd4% 50.1 may08 cd4 546; vl 91,480; cd4% 32 aug08 cd4 576; vl 48,190; cd4% 40.7 dec08 cd4 559; vl 63,020; cd4% 29.4 feb09 cd4 464; vl 11,000; cd4% 26 may09 cd4 544; vl 29,710; cd4% 27.2 oct09 cd4 ...; vl 23,350; cd4% 31.6 mar10 cd4 408; vl 59,050; cd4% 31.4 aug10 cd4 328; vl 80,000; cd4% 19.3 STARTED ATRIPLA oct10 cd4 423; vl 410 ; cd4% 30.2 jun11 cd4 439; vl 20 ; cd4% 33.8 -Undetectable. mar12 cd4 695; vl ud; cd4% 38.6 jan13 cd4 738; vl ud; cd4% 36.8 aug13 cd4 930; vl ud; cd4% 44.3 jan14 cd4 813; vl ud; cd4% 42.8 may14 cd4 783; vl *; cd4%43.5 sept14 cd4 990; vl ud; cd4% * jun15 cd4 1152; vl ud; cd4% * july15 - SWITCHED TO STRIBILD. ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=30890.msg377587
*  Yet another lurker, coming out of the shadows...
... Stats Total Posts: 675764 Total Topics: 52429 Online Today: 191 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: Yet another lurker, coming out of the shadows... Posts: 35. Yet another lurker, coming out of the shadows... on: January 14, 2008, 02:46:57 PM. Logged confirmed diagnosis 10.1.07 10/07 cd4 504 vl 40,000 1/08 cd4 524 vl 73,000 4/08 cd4 484 vl 48,060 6/02/08 started Truvada, Reyetaz, Norvir 7/08 cd4 605. Logged confirmed diagnosis 10.1.07 10/07 cd4 504 vl 40,000 1/08 cd4 524 vl 73,000 4/08 cd4 484 vl 48,060 6/02/08 started Truvada, Reyetaz, Norvir 7/08 cd4 605. Logged Sept 2007 -- CD4 = 68; VL = 469,000 Started Atripla Sept 21, 2007 Nov 2007-CD4=217;VL=332 Feb 2008-CD4=237;VL= 50 Apr 2008-CD4=271;VL=66 Aug 2008-CD4=440;VL=52 Jan 2009-CD4=403;VL=61 May 2009-CD4=480;VL=129 Sep 2009-CD4=376;VL 40 Jan 2010-CD4=476;VL 40 Jul 2010-CD4=539;VL 40 Jan ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=18356.msg233151

Intraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.VisilizumabCD79: CD79 (Cluster of Differentiation 79) is a transmembrane protein that forms a complex with the B-cell receptor (BCR) and generates a signal following recognition of antigen by the BCR. CD79 is composed of two distinct chains called CD79A and CD79B (formerly known as Ig-alpha and Ig-beta); these form a heterodimer on the surface of a B cell stabilized by disulfide bonding.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.CD80: Cluster of Differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. It is the ligand for two different proteins on the T cell surface: CD28 (for autoregulation and intercellular association) and CTLA-4 (for attenuation of regulation and cellular disassociation).Standard Form of National Characters: The Standard Form of National Characters or the Standard Typefaces for Chinese Characters () is the standardized form of Chinese characters set by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China (Taiwan).Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.CD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome occurs in HIV positive patients with low CD4 counts.Blood cell: A blood cell, also called a hemocyte, hematocyte, or hematopoietic cell, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood. In mammals, these fall into three general categories:Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Immunophenotyping: Immunophenotyping is a technique used to study the protein expressed by cells. This technique is commonly used in basic science research and laboratory diagnostic purpose.Statnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.Fas receptor: The FAS receptor (FasR), also known as apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF6 gene.Neuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingB-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemiaCell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.CTL-mediated cytotoxicityBrentuximab vedotinKLRD1: CD94 (Cluster of Differentiation 94), also known as killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily D, member 1 (KLRD1) is a human gene.Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.Escheriosome: Escheriosomes are liposomes prepared from polar lipids extracted from Escherichia coli. Such kinds of delivery vehicles have been shown to elicit high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.CD43: Leukosialin also known as sialophorin or CD43 (cluster of differentiation 43) is a transmembrane cell surface protein that in humans is encoded by the SPN (sialophorin) gene.Monoclonal antibody therapyInferior mesenteric lymph nodes: The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes consist of:Proinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.Neutrophil granulocyteHIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Suppressor-inducer T cell: Suppressor-inducer T cells are a specific subset of CD4+ T helper cells that "induce" CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to become "suppressor" cells. Suppressor T cells are also known as CD25+–Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (nTregs), and reduce inflammation.Kinetic-segregation model of T cell activation

(1/4884) Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1988-1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine.

OBJECTIVE: To assess secular trends of the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) between 1988 and 1996 in the Aquitaine Cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1)-infected subjects (southwestern France). METHODS: Adults of both sexes of all HIV-transmission categories were included. We distinguished between incident and prevalent KS and in case of multiple acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses between initial or subsequent KS. Only incident KS were considered for annual incidence rate calculation. RESULTS: Overall, 21.2% (356/1678) of homosexuals and 1.9% (58/3030) of the other patients were diagnosed with KS over time. Although there was a sharp decrease in 1996 for initial KS, the annual incidence rate of KS was stable over time in the overall cohort as well as in homosexuals (4.3% per year on the average for KS as an initial AIDS-defining illness and 2.1% per year for subsequent KS in homosexuals). The median CD4+ cell count at the time of diagnosis of KS was 56 per mm3 (78 for initial KS, 14 for subsequent KS), with no significant variation over time. CONCLUSION: In the Aquitaine Cohort, the annual incidence of KS has remained stable between 1988 and 1995 with a recent decline in 1996, only for initial KS, while case management of HIV-infected subjects changed drastically.  (+info)

(2/4884) HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection.

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

(3/4884) Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women.

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well.  (+info)

(4/4884) Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia disclosed by the onset of empyema thoracis.

A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in December 1996 due to empyema thoracis. A laboratory examination revealed lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (<300 cells/ microl). No evidence for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found. No malignant, hematological or autoimmune disease was detected. We thus diagnosed this case as being idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL). During his hospital treatment, he was affected with cytomegaloviral retinitis and cured by therapy. His subsequent treatment went well without a recurrence of severe infection although a low CD4+ T lymphocyte count continued after the recovery from empyema thoracis.  (+info)

(5/4884) Carriage of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA is associated with a slower immunologic, virologic, and clinical progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in coinfected persons.

The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, the long-term consequences of coinfection are unknown. HIV-positive persons with a well-defined duration of infection were screened on the basis of their GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA status and studied. GBV-C/HGV viremia was observed in 23, who carried the virus over a mean of 7.7 years. All parameters (survival, CDC stage B/C, HIV RNA load, CD4 T cell count) showed significant differences in terms of the cumulative progression rate between persons positive and negative for GBV-C/HGV RNA. When GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive and -unexposed subjects were matched by age, sex, baseline HIV RNA load, and baseline CD4 T cell count, HIV disease progression appeared worse in GBV-C/HGV RNA-negative subjects. The carriage of GBV-C/HGV RNA is associated with a slower progression of HIV disease in coinfected persons.  (+info)

(6/4884) Outcome and predictors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy: one-year follow-up of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons.

The outcome and predictors of virologic treatment failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were determined for 271 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected protease inhibitor-naive persons. During a follow-up of 48 weeks after the initiation of HAART, 6.3% of patients experienced at least one new AIDS-defining event, and 3.0% died. Virologic treatment failure occurred in 40% (indinavir, 27%; ritonavir, 30%; saquinavir, 59%; ritonavir plus saquinavir, 32%; chi2, P=.001). Risk factors for treatment failure were baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 per log10 copies increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA), baseline CD4 cell count (OR, 1. 35 per 100 CD4 cells/mm3 decrease), and use of saquinavir versus other protease inhibitors (OR, 3.21). During the first year of treatment, 53% of all patients changed (part of) their original HAART regimen at least once. This was significantly more frequent for regimens containing saquinavir (62%; 27% for virologic failure) or ritonavir (64%; 55% for intolerance) as single protease inhibitor.  (+info)

(7/4884) Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points.

Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery.  (+info)

(8/4884) Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team.

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)


latest CD4 result


  • I haven't consulted my ID yet on my latest CD4 result. (blogspot.com)
  • In my last blog, I emailed my latest CD4 result, which to me was still very low. (blogspot.com)


proliferation


  • Their studies provided evidence that a single administration of MDMA induces a rapid and sustained suppression of induced lymphocyte proliferation and a decrease in circulating lymphocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Lymphocytes from tolerant mice inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes from B6 mice immunized with porcine cells and they displayed limited proliferation when adoptively transferred. (diabetesjournals.org)


Subsets


  • Detraining on functional fitness and lymphocyte subsets in postmenopausal females" by Ting-Ting Lee, Che-Min Chen et al. (wku.edu)
  • Thus, the aims of this study was to inspect: How training and detraining influence functional fitness, mobilization of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets? (wku.edu)
  • Blood cell counts (WBC, RBC, HCT, LYM) were measured using an automated cell counter and lymphocyte subsets (CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56) were analyzed by flow cytometry. (wku.edu)
  • Findings of this study suggest that both a 16-week moderate exercise program and a 6-week detraining did not significantly change the functional fitness and lymphocyte subsets in postmenopausal females. (wku.edu)


flow cytometry


  • His flow cytometry from 3 years ago showed absolute CD4 count of 432, CD8 count of 379, CD19 count of 261, and CD56 count of 278. (blogspot.com)


Eosinophils


  • There is fibrosis in the sub-epithelial compartment, and the submucosal tissues also demonstrate a significant inflammatory cellular infiltrate characterized by lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, increased numbers of mast cells and new blood vessel formation (angiogenesis). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Among the processes involved are epithelial cell disruption and activation with cytokine production, dendritic cell activation and antigen presentation, activation and expansion of T H 2 cells with cytokine secretion, activation of resident inflammatory cells, including mast cells, and recruitment from the blood stream of other inflammatory cells including lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils which also release mediators and cytokines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The activated epithelium and other tissue cells release factors including cytokines and chemokines that can prime or otherwise influence the response of the dendritic cell 4 and other cells of the innate (basophils, eosinophils and mast cells) and of the adaptive immune systems (B and T lymphocytes). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)


peripheral


  • In healthy subjects, B cells constitute 18-47% of the peripheral lymphocytes. (blogspot.com)
  • The peripheral immune system was studied by assessment of circulating white blood cell counts, cellular changes of the spleen and influx of peripheral immune cells (MPO-positive neutrophils) into the brain. (biomedsearch.com)


percentage


  • No alterations in quantity and percentage of CD4, CD8, and CD56 were observed in this study. (wku.edu)
  • The CD4 percentage rise is often the most reliable marker of change and the increase from 1.8% to 8.3% is entirely consistent with a strong virologic response. (blogspot.com)
  • A higher percentage of CD4 + T-cell population from these mice expressed regulatory markers, suggesting that tolerance to NPI xenografts may be mediated by T regulatory cells. (diabetesjournals.org)


colds


  • Hope it's just because my WBC was just low during my blood extraction (probably due to common colds), since my latest lymphocyte count was lower than in Dec. (blogspot.com)
  • Could it be because I had colds 2 weeks before the test, and if I had no colds, my CD4 could have been higher? (blogspot.com)


CD19


  • A significant difference in CD19 counts were observed between TG and CG (71.23±32.05 vs. 116.45±67.95 10 3 /mL) in Post-training. (wku.edu)
  • CD19 counts in TG were increased at Detraining compared with Mid-training and Post-training (138.08±50.22 vs. 74.92±31.20, 71.23±32.05 10 3 /mL). (wku.edu)


cells


  • CD4 counts typically increase about 150-250 cells in the first year of treatment- sometimes less for people who start treatment with low counts like you. (blogspot.com)
  • A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed normal opening pressure, a glucose of 46 mg/dL, protein of 76 mg/dL, and 52 cells/μL white blood cells with 87% lymphocytes. (lww.com)
  • His HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis were both positive, and the CD4 count was 50 cells/μL. (lww.com)
  • Cell Count: 8.2 10*6 total cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Interpretation: Lymphocytes comprise 17% of the total events analyzed, with 3% B-cells, 85% T-cells, and 11% NK cells. (blogspot.com)
  • 9% of the lymphocytes are CD25 (dim) positive T-cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Upon CD4 + T cell polarization, it is expressed at a higher level on Th2 cells than on Th1 cells ( 14 , 15 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, implanting DA-3/sec cells in BALB/c nude mice lacking T lymphocytes leads to tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DA-3/sec cells were able to form progressively growing tumors in experiments in which both CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes were depleted from BALB/c animals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NK cells (not T-lymphocytes) are different from NKT cells. (blogspot.com)
  • NKT cells are T-lymphocytes. (blogspot.com)


Infections


  • Despite the low CD4 count, however, he has no history of any infections or abnormalities related to it. (blogspot.com)
  • In patients with asymptomatic CD4 lymphocytopenia in the absence of HIV infection and opportunistic infections, a genetic defect could be the cause. (blogspot.com)


baseline


  • My baseline CD4 in June 2013 before I started ARV was 14. (blogspot.com)


viral


  • If you're on treatment, have an increasing CD4 count (and presumably undetectable viral load), your risk is not significantly elevated. (blogspot.com)
  • A variety of past or latent viral diseases can induce CD4 lymphocytopenia. (blogspot.com)


workup


  • Initial laboratory studies revealed a white blood cell count of4500/μL, a negative rheumatologic workup, and a nonreactive rapid plasma regain (RPR). (lww.com)


slower


  • Now, I'm worried that with an undetectable VL, my CD4 would then rise even slower? (blogspot.com)
  • Unfortunately, this also means that my CD4 will rise in a slower pace. (blogspot.com)


Absolute


  • It seems like the CD4% did a good increase, but the absolute CD4 count didn't increase as much. (blogspot.com)
  • Having a respiratory tract infection can indeed influence CD4 counts, especially the absolute count. (blogspot.com)
  • His absolute CD4 was 456 at the time. (blogspot.com)


cell count


  • B cell count can be either low or normal in patients with CVID. (blogspot.com)
  • They demonstrated that 1 hour after administration, there was a significant reduction in CD4 T cell count and an increase in natural killer cell count. (bmj.com)
  • clear at what T-cell count -- less than 200? (tripod.com)


immune system


  • Your CD4 count results are excellent ones an indicate your initial immune system recovery from very advanced illness. (blogspot.com)


increase


  • I felt sad about the slow increase in my CD4, to be honest, and starting to be disheartened. (blogspot.com)


higher


  • My latest CD4 is only slightly higher, though my CD4% almost doubled, but lympocyte and WBC are lower. (blogspot.com)


normal


  • Blood cell counts were not changed and all in normal range. (wku.edu)
  • Yes, he has completely overcome his OI's, and has regained his CD4 count back to normal level. (blogspot.com)
  • Congenital or acquired factor XIII deficiency must be considered when a patient has a major bleeding disorder and all of the initial screening laboratory tests are normal, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, and bleeding time. (eg.net)


reason


  • The reason for checking his CD4 was that he volunteered to be involved in a research project 5 years ago. (blogspot.com)


Blood


  • Find out more about complete blood count (CBC) . (cancer.ca)


negative


  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of T cell responses. (rupress.org)


people


  • Is it really that high risk for people with CD4 of 93 to occasionally go out in public places like restaurants, fitness gym, or uncrowded cinemas, or even fly in a plane? (blogspot.com)


What can a high lymphocyte count in 7 month old be?


  • My 7 month old had a lymphocyte count of 85% and I am wondering what could this diagnosis be? In the past the lab results have showed that his spline on one test and then his liver on another was enlarged. They are both coming back okay now, but his lymphocyte count is high. Any suggestions will help. Thanks
  • If it is the White blood cell or leukocyte count. then there is probably some sort of disease process going on. People with cancer have a high white blood cell count because their body is increasing the production of WBC's to try and fight off the bad (cancer) cells. This is also true in other problems not at serious as cancer. Your body increases production to fight off bad things (bacteria... etc.)


What is a natural remedy to raising your Lymphocyte count & reasons it would be low ?


  • My blood work all came back normal except for Lymphocytes were low, 13 & my Lymphocyte count was 1.2. Looking for what health reasons would cause this ? How to increase this to normal range ?
  • do not worry about it. This is the reason that doctors to not like to let patients see there chart. Patients often misunderstand that data.


What causes low lymphocyte counts over several months?


  • My Lymphocyte count has been between 2200 and 3700 for months. I am also extremely tired all the time and have had several dizzy spells. Any suggestions on what it could be?
  • Double click on the following website: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/l/lymphopenia/causes.htm


What does High Platelet & High Lymphocyte Count indicate?


  • I have several chronic conditions including Fibromyalgia, Arthritis, IBS & Interstititialcystitis. My recent bloodwork came back with High Platelet Count 581 & High Lymphocyte Count 43.3. What might this combination indicate? I have been refered to an Oncologist and am pretty nervous. Thanks!
  • it might indicate tahtyou were falsely diagnosed with fibro--but really ahve anotehr condition with similar symptoms while fibro is a very real neuro disaorder it is highly overdiagnosed by incomeptant docs that use ita s a genral label for pain


What happens if you lymphocyte count is low?


  • my lymphocyte count wa 4.0 where the normal ones ranges from 4.5 - 11.. What's wrong???Am i sick?
  • Do you feel sick? The normal range can vary. If you feel fine then you are. There is a critical range for abnormal. If you are abnormal then your doctor would alert you. Rest assured, you are OK


How can I decrease my lymphocyte count?


  • I've recently done a full blood count and saw that my lymphocyte count went up to 51%. This really concerns me. Is there anything I can eat or do to decrease this count? What about medication/supplements? Thanks
  • High lymphocyte counts are generally a symptom of another condition. Instead of focusing on lower the lymphocyte count let doctors run more tests to determine if any other medical conditions exist. I recommend you don't take any drugs or supplements to reduce your lymphocytes unless you doctor prescribes them. Tampering with you bodies immune system can be very dangerous. Also the 51% percent is a percent of your total white blood cell count so its possible that you don't have a high number of lymphocytes just a high percentage of your white blood cells are lymphocytes. People with an overall number of white blood cells count near the lower range often have a high percentage of lymphocytes. This is good because Lymphocytes are the strongest of the white blood cells so your body my be offsetting an overall low white count with a high percentage of lymphocytes.


What lab test(s) should you assess while caring for a patient with HIV-AIDS to guide pharmacotherapy?


  • Working on some pharmacology homework, I have some ideas but I wanted to get some other opinions as well. Thanks! What lab test(s) should you assess while caring for a patient with HIV-AIDS to guide pharmacotherapy? What is your rationale? a.CBC. b.Clotting factors. c.HIV RNA. d.CD4 lymphocyte count. e.BUN I think the answer is A,C,D,E


 I have AIDS and my CD4 count dropped when it has been steadily climbing. I am gaining weight and not sick?


  • My viral load is untetecable already. The CD4 count has only dropped one number, but I am very upset about this.
  • There are a variety of factors that can explain a single 'blip' in a CD4 count. If your viral load is still undetectable it means that your meds are working which is good. Viral Load and CD4 counts can have blips and that is why looking at a single lab is not always a good idea. At your next visit and lab work you should find out if this is an innocuous blip or if it is an indication of something more. Chances are it is innocuous. It may be due to a minor infection that is asymptomatic, it may be due to differences in the time of day you had the blood drawn, it could be seasonal variations, Ask your physician the next time you see him/her about your CD4 percentage. This is a number that is much more stable (it has only one variable) than an absolute CD4 count and so will not usually show blips. It is a good number to keep an eye on in addition to your CD4 count.