Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.GuanineSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.TritiumColiphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.ThymineHydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Uracil

*  Method of DNA base sequence determination - Hitachi, Ltd.
... Login. Sign up. Search. Expert Search. Quick Search. Patents/Apps. Non-Patent Literature. Blogs/Groups. MPEP. Case Law. . SEARCH. BLOGS. MPEP 2.0. TOOLS RESOURCES. PRODUCT SERVICES. HELP. Title: Method of DNA base sequence determination. United States Patent 5935794. Abstract: The method of base sequence determination according to the present invention ensures an effective determination of a long DNA base sequence, by providing simultaneous determination of base sequences of two or more positions of the long DNA or base sequences of two or more DNAs, using the DNA probe chip which classifies and retains the DNA oligomers having various sequences, and using fluorophorelabeled primers which have the same sequencies as the oligomers in the chip and are labeled by various fluorophores, then followed by the extension of the determined base length by re-selection of the primers complementary to the sequence thus ...
*  Patent US7635771 - siRNA targeting amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) - Google Patents
U 2 =1 if U is the base at position 2 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 3 =1 if U is the base at position 3 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 4 =1 if U is the base at position 4 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 7 =1 if U is the base at position 7 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 9 =1 if U is the base at position 9 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 10 =1 if U is the base at position 10 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 15 =1 if U is the base at position 15 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 16 =1 if U is the base at position 16 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 17 =1 if U is the base at position 17 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U 18 =1 if U is the base at position 18 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0. U 2 =1 if U is the base at position 2 on the sense strand, otherwise its value is 0; U ...
*  Direct DNA Sequencing of PCR Products - Current Protocols
... Direct DNA Sequencing of PCR Products. PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Basic Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Products for Dideoxy Sequencing by Asymmetric PCR Alternate Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Template for Dideoxy Sequencing by Single Primer Reamplification Alternate Protocol 2: Preparing Double Stranded PCR Products for Dideoxy Sequencing Alternate Protocol 3: Generating Single Stranded Template for Dideoxy Sequencing by Exonuclease Digestion of Double Stranded PCR Products Alternate Protocol 4: One Step Enzymatic Purification of PCR Products for Direct Sequencing Basic Protocol 2: Labeling PCR Products for Chemical Sequencing Alternate Protocol 5: Genomic Sequencing of PCR Products Reagents and Solutions Commentary. GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library. Basic Protocol 1: Generating Single Stranded Products for Dideoxy Sequencing by Asymmetric PCR. 6.4, ethanol precipitation unit 2.1, and ...
*  Symmetry element
... a symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operation s can take place in particular symmetry elements can be centers of inversion axes of rotation and mirror planes see also symmetry group theory crystallography hermann mauguin notation schoenflies notation references category symmetry
*  Protein–DNA interaction
... thumb|The lambda repressor protein interacting with the lambda operator DNA.|250px. 'Protein–DNA interactions' are when a protein binds a molecule of DNA, often to regulate the biological function of DNA, usually the expression of a gene. Among the proteins that bind to DNA are transcription factors that activate or repress gene expression by binding to DNA motifs and histones that form part of the structure of DNA and bind to it less specifically. Also proteins that repair DNA such as uracil-DNA glycosylase interact closely with it. In general, proteins bind to DNA in the major groove ; however, there are exceptions. 1 Protein–DNA interaction are of mainly two types, either specific interaction, or non-specific interaction. Design Detection methods See also References. Designing DNA-binding proteins that have a specified DNA-binding site has been an important goal for biotechnology. Zinc finger proteins have been designed to bind to specific DNA sequences and this is the basis of zinc finger ...–DNA_interaction
*  Patent US20030203382 - Methods for analysis of molecular events - Google Patents
In one embodiment, wild-type and variant nucleotides are the only nucleotides added to the primer extension reaction. Further methods of the invention include providing a target nucleic acid; contacting the target nucleic acid sequence with a nucleic acid primer substantially complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence to form a nucleic acid complex; extending the nucleic acid primer in the presence of an unlabeled extension nucleotide complementary to a variant nucleotide base at a position downstream from the nucleic acid primer in the target nucleic acid sequence to form an unlabeled primer extension product, wherein the extending step is performed in the essential absence of an unlabeled extension nucleotide complementary to a wild-type nucleotide base at a position downstream from the nucleic acid primer; and extending the unlabeled primer extension product in the presence of a labeled extension nucleotide complementary to a corresponding wild-type nucleotide ...
*  Cis-Regulatory element
... 'cis-regulatory elements CREs ' are regions of non-coding DNA which regulate the transcription of nearby gene s. CREs typically regulate gene transcription by functioning as binding sites for transcription factor s. Overview Promoters Evolutionary role Examples Examples in RNA. Both of these sequence elements are structural regions of DNA that serve as transcriptional regulators. 2 In order to initiate transcription of the downstream gene, a host of DNA-binding proteins called transcription factors TFs must bind sequentially to this region. Contrastingly, enhancers influence transcription of genes on the same molecule of DNA and can be found upstream, downstream, within the intron s, or even relatively far away from the gene they regulate. An example of a cis-acting regulatory sequence is the operator in the lac operon. This DNA sequence is bound by the lac repressor, which, in turn, prevents transcription of the adjacent genes on the same DNA molecule. The lac operator is, thus, ...
*  Nucleotide sequence analysis of the unusually long terminal inverted repeats of a giant linear plasm
... id, SCP1. BioMedSearch. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Document Detail. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the unusually long terminal inverted repeats of a giant linear plasmid, SCP1. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 1749818 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. SCP1 is a giant linear plasmid of 350 kb coding for the methylenomycin biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. The unusually long terminal inverted repeats present on both ends of SCP1 were analyzed on the nucleotide sequence level. Analysis of six clones containing the terminal 0.35-kb XbaI fragment revealed a slight heterogeneity in the nucleotide sequences of the SCP1 ends. Moreover, it was indicated that this fragment contained seven palindromic inverted repeats and a GT-rich region in the 5'-end strand. The size of the terminal inverted repeats was determined to be 81 kb by the cloning and sequencing of their end-points. An insertion sequence, IS466 was shown to be present just at the ...
*  A DNA template having the base sequence -U-C-U-A-C-U- what is the mRNA base sequence?I need answer b
... y tonight. - Homework Help - Literature Guides. Literature Lesson Plans. A DNA template having the base sequence -U-C-U-A-C-U- what is the mRNA base sequence?I need answer by tonight. Please answer asap Topic: Science. Level 3 Senior Educator Posted on April 29, 2012 at 11:37 PM Answer #1. If there is the base A adenine in the DNA, it pairs with U uracil in the messenger RNA. Level 1 eNoter Posted on April 30, 2012 at 4:09 PM Answer #2. codons are tree base codes that determine the amino acid that is to be added to the protein that the DNA is making. DNA codes for RNA which codes for proteins. These bases are in three letter sequences called codons, for example a codon might be TAG it's anti codon is then ATC, because A bind with T and C binds with G. Let's say there is a big strand of DNA That is TAGTAGTAGTAGTAG, This is the codon TAG five times and the anti codon ATC five times. We're done with anti-codons for a little while. Lets say ...
*  Cis-acting Elements and Trans-acting Factors
... Regulatory Sequences Control Gene Expression Enhancer and Silencer Elements Role of 3' Sequences Role of Introns Conserved Sequences in Eukaryotic Promoters Trans-Acting Factors Control Gene Expression Cloning A Plant Trans-Acting Factor Regulatory Genes As Trans-Acting Factors Tissue-Specific Binding Of Trans-Acting Factors Course Topics Main Page Tissue-Specific Binding Of Trans-Acting Factors. One manner to study this question is to map the functional sequence domains of a gene and determine what sequences are bound by proteins presumably trans-acting factors during expression in different tissues. The five members of the rbc S gene family are rbc S1, rbc S2, rbc S3A, rbc S3B, and rbc S3C. Analysis of the expression of each individual family member determined that only rbc S1 and rbc S2 were expressed in that tissue Table 2. Gene expression is of the rbc S gene family is turned off in non-photosynthetic tissues. Next, nuclear protein extracts were isolated from ...
*  Meaning of Endonuclease
endonuclease One of a large group of enzymes that cleave nucleic acids at positions within the chain. Bacterial restriction endonucleases are crucial in recombinant DNA technology for their ability to cleave double-stranded DNA at highly specific sites. Endonuclease Nucleases are enzymes that break down nucleic acids into strands of DNA. An enzyme phosphodiesterase that cleaves the internal phosphodiester bonds in a DNA molecule, thus producing DNA fragments of varying size. endonuclease A nuclease which cleaves phosphodiester bonds within a nucleic acid strand. endonuclease - a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so produces fragments of various sizes. Endonuclease Endonuclease: An enzyme that cleaves a nucleic acid DNA or RNA at specific internal sites in the nucleotide base sequence. endonuclease enzyme One of a large group of enzymes that cleave nucleic acids at positions within the chain. endonuclease noun a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so ...
*  WHO | Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A. Search Search the WHO .int site. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. Global Alert and Response GAR. Alert & Response Operations. Diseases. Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network. Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus HAV - Morphology and physicochemical properties - Genome and proteins - Antigenicity - Stability HAV, first identified in 1973, is a nonenveloped, spherical, positive stranded RNA virus , classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family. 18 Click here for: Electron Microscopy EM picture of HAV. Genome and proteins The hepatitis A genome consists of a linear, single stranded, positive-sense RNA of approximately 7.5 kb containing a 5'-nontranslated region with complex secondary and tertiary structure. 18 , 21 , 22 , 40 The 5'-end represents a noncoding region NCR extending over 10% of the genome, it is uncapped and covalently linked to the viral protein VPg 2.5 kD. 18 , 21 , 22 , 40 A single large poly protein is expressed from a large open reading frame extending through ...
*  MUC5B - Mucin-5B precursor - Homo sapiens (Human)
p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry and the different sequence submissions merged in the entry. p>Reports difference s between the canonical ...
*  Regulatory sequence
... A 'regulatory sequence' is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism. Regulation of gene expression is an essential feature of all living organisms and viruses. Description Examples Insulin gene See also References External links. In DNA, regulation of gene expression normally happens at the level of RNA biosynthesis transcription, and is accomplished through the sequence-specific binding of proteins transcription factors that activate or inhibit transcription. Transcription factors may act as activators, repressors, or both. Repressors often act by preventing RNA polymerase from forming a productive complex with the transcriptional initiation region promoter, while activators facilitate formation of a productive complex. Furthermore, DNA motifs have been shown to be predictive of epigenomic modifications, suggesting that transcription factors play a role in regulating the epigenome. In RNA, ...
*  Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™ - United States Biological
... Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™ Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Human Adult Normal, Liver, BioGenomics™. PCR-ready First Strand cDNA is tissue specific and are ready-to-use for gene discovery or expression analysis. Over 350 cDNAs from human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, rat, mouse, monkey and plant tissues are included in this extensive collection. PCR Ready First Strand cDNAs is an excellent source of tissue specific, PCR-ready cDNA, and it can be immediately used for gene discovery or expression analysis. First-Strand cDNA is synthesized from RNA isolated from a wide variety of documented human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, mouse, rat, monkey and plant tissues. The 5' end of human clathrin cDNA a 6kb gene has been amplified by PCR from all of the cDNAs. 2 RNAs with high quality are used for cDNA synthesis The cDNA synthesis will not be successful using degraded or contaminated RNA, because degraded ...
*  1. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a
1 How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a. Tuesday October 6, 2015 School Subjects Art. Business. Computers. English. Foreign Languages. Health. Home Economics. Math. Music. Physical Education. Science. Social Studies. Grade Levels Preschool. Kindergarten. Elementary School. 1st Grade. 2nd Grade. 3rd Grade. 4th Grade. 5th Grade. 6th Grade. 7th Grade. 8th Grade. High School. 9th Grade. 10th Grade. 11th Grade. 12th Grade. College. Adult Education. Post a New Question. Current Questions. Homework Help : Biology Posted by Becky on Tuesday, January 9, 2007 at 3:41pm. 1 How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule. 2 Name the complementary base pairs on DNA. A-T; G-C are the pairs, you name them. there are 10 1/2 base pairs for a full twist in DNA. How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule. Hello. 10 1/2. 12. The model of DNA ...
*  RAIN-X on sequencing gels
rain x on sequencing gels rain x on sequencing gels the end jgraham at bronze ucs indiana edu thu apr est previous message rain x on sequencing gels next message sequencing gel combs leakage messages sorted by yes a definite must however only coat the short plate too much on both plates and your gel will not lie flat on the long plate nor will the acrylamide flow under the glass we ve used rain x for three years now without a hitch i don t find any problem with shelf life jim j graham previous message rain x on sequencing gels next message sequencing gel combs leakage messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list
*  Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Rat Adult Normal, Pancreas, BioGenomics™ - United States Biological
... Molecular Biology. Serum, Tissues. Molecular Biology. Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Rat Adult Normal, Pancreas, BioGenomics™ Tissue cDNA, First Strand, Rat Adult Normal, Pancreas, BioGenomics™. Pricing For pricing information, USA customers sign in. Please contact your distributor for pricing. BioGenomics™ Tissue cDNA cDNA is supplied as First Strand, Multiple Tissue Panels, and Matched Pairs. PCR-ready First Strand cDNA is tissue specific and are ready-to-use for gene discovery or expression analysis. Over 350 cDNAs from human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, rat, mouse, monkey and plant tissues are included in this extensive collection. PCR Ready First Strand cDNAs is an excellent source of tissue specific, PCR-ready cDNA, and it can be immediately used for gene discovery or expression analysis. First-Strand cDNA is synthesized from RNA isolated from a wide variety of documented human adult and fetal normal tissues, human diseased and tumor tissues, mouse, rat, monkey and ...
*  Nucleic acid sequence
... For DNA, the sense strand is used. Sequences can be read from the biological raw material through DNA sequencing methods. Sequence analysis Genetic testing. Nucleic acids consist of a chain of linked units called nucleotides. The possible letters are 'A', 'C', 'G', and 'T', representing the four nucleotide bases of a DNA strand — adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine — covalent ly linked to a phosphodiester backbone. If one strand of the double-stranded DNA is considered the sense strand, then the other strand, considered the antisense strand, will have the complementary sequence to the sense strand. Apart from adenine A, cytosine C, guanine G, thymine T and uracil U, DNA and RNA also contain bases that have been modified after the nucleic acid chain has been formed. In biological systems, nucleic acids contain information which is used by a living cell to construct specific protein s. The sequence of nucleobase s on a nucleic acid strand is translated by ...
*  FastPCR
latest release version = 6.5.04 latest release date = 2014 latest preview version = latest preview date = operating system = Windows, Linux Wine. 'FastPCR' is an integrated tool for PCR primers or probes design, 'in silico' PCR, oligonucleotide assembly and analyses, alignment and repeat searching. The FastPCR software is an integrated tools environment that provides comprehensive facilities for designing any kind of PCR primers for standard, long-distance, inverse, quantitative PCR LUX and self-reporting, multiplex PCR, group-specific PCR common primers for phylogenetically related DNA sequences and unique PCR unique primers for each from phylogenetically related DNA sequences ; overlap extension PCR OE-PCR multi-fragments assembling cloning; single primer PCR design of PCR primers from close located inverted repeat, automatically detecting SSR loci and direct PCR primer design, amino acid sequence degenerate PCR, polymerase chain assembly PCA or oligos assembly and much more. The 'in ...
*  Patente US6225529 - Seed-preferred promoters - Google Patentes
A plant stably transformed with an expression cassette comprising a promoter and a first nucleotide sequence operably linked to the promoter, wherein the promoter is capable of initiating seed-preferred transcription of the first nucleotide sequence in a plant cell, wherein the promoter comprises a second nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: a the nucleotide sequences set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOS 1,4, or 7; b nucleotide sequences having at least 60% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO 1, at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO 4, or at least 60% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO 7, wherein the % sequence identity is based on the entire sequence and is determined by GAP version 10 analysis using default parameters; and c a nucleotide sequence that hybridizes to any one of SEQ ID NOS: 1 or 7, under highly stringent conditions. A plant cell stably transformed with an expression cassette comprising a ...
*  Recognition sequence
... the recognition sequence sometimes also referred to as recognition site of any dna binding protein motif that exhibits binding specificity refers to the dna sequence or subset thereof to which the domain is specific recognition sequences are palindromes the transcription factor sp for example binds the sequences g t gggcgg g a g a c t where g t indicates that the domain will bind a guanine or thymine at this position the restriction endonuclease psti recognizes binds and cleaves the sequence ctgcag however a recognition sequence refers to a different aspect from that of recognition site a given recognition sequence can occur one or more times or not at all on a specific dna fragment a recognition site is specified by the position of the site for example there are two psti recognition site in the following dna sequence fragment start at base and respectively a recognition sequence is a specific sequence usually very short less ...
*  Alternative splicing
The production of alternatively spliced mRNAs is regulated by a system of trans-acting proteins that bind to cis-acting sites on the primary transcript itself. The primary transcript from this gene contains 6 exons; the calcitonin mRNA contains exons 1–4, and terminates after a polyadenylation site in exon 4. Another mRNA is produced from this pre-mRNA by skipping exon 4, and includes exons 1–3, 5, and 6. In addition to these primary modes of alternative splicing, there are two other main mechanisms by which different mRNAs may be generated from the same gene; multiple promoter s and multiple polyadenylation sites. The regulation and selection of splice sites are done by trans-acting splicing activator and splicing repressor proteins as well as cis-acting elements within the pre-mRNA itself such as exonic splicing enhancers and exonic splicing silencers. thumb|left|Splicing repression Splicing is regulated by trans-acting proteins repressors and activators and corresponding cis-acting regulatory sites ...
*  Coding strand
When referring to DNA transcription, the 'coding strand' is the DNA strand which has the 'same' base sequence as the RNA transcript produced although with thymine replaced by uracil. It is this strand which contains codons, while the non-coding strand contains anti-codons. During transcription, RNA Pol II binds the non-coding strand, reads the anti-codons, and transcribes their sequence to synthesize an RNA transcript with complementary bases. By convention, the coding strand is the strand used when displaying a DNA sequence. It is presented in the 5' to 3' direction. Alternative terms for strands Strands in transcription bubble RNA-DNA hybrid References Bibliography. Alternative terms for strands. Wherever a gene exists on a DNA molecule, one strand is the coding strand or 'sense strand' or 'non-template strand', and the other is the 'noncoding strand' also called the antisense strand,. 1 anticoding strand, template strand, or transcribed strand. Strands in transcription ...
*  Primer extension
Image:Primer Extension Assay.jpg. 'Primer extension' is a technique whereby the 5' end s of RNA can be mapped. Primer extension can be used to determine the start site of transcription the end site cannot be determined by this method by which its sequence is known. This technique requires a radiolabelled primer usually 20 - 50 nucleotides in length which is complementary to a region near the 3' end of the mRNA. The primer is allowed to anneal to the RNA and reverse transcriptase is used to synthesize cDNA from the RNA until it reaches the 5' end of the RNA. By denaturing the hybrid and using the extended primer cDNA as a marker on an electrophoretic gel, it is possible to determine the transcriptional start site. It is usually done so by comparing its location on the gel with the DNA sequence e.g. Sanger sequencing, preferably by using the same primer on the DNA template strand. The exact nucleotide by which the transcription starts at can be pinpointed by matching the labelled extended primer ...
*  Palindromic sequence
thumb|400px|right|Palindrome of DNA structure A: Palindrome, B: Loop, C: Stem A 'palindromic sequence' is a nucleic acid sequence on double-stranded DNA or RNA wherein reading 5' five-prime to 3' three prime forward on one strand matches the sequence reading backward 5' to 3' on the complementary strand with which it forms a double helix. This definition of palindrome thus depends on complementary strands being palindromic of each other. Since a double helix is formed by two paired strands of nucleotides that run in opposite directions in the 5'-to-3' sense, and the nucleotides always pair in the same way Adenine A with Thymine T for DNA, with Uracil U for RNA; Cytosine C with Guanine G, a single-stranded nucleotide sequence is said to be a 'palindrome' if it is equal to its reverse complement. suggested that the prevalence existence of palindromes in peptides might be related to the prevalence of low-complexity regions in proteins, as palindromes are frequently associated with ...
*  Help with sequencing of a 120bp PCR product. - Molecular Biology - BioForum
... Remember me This is not recommended for shared computers Sign in anonymously Don't add me to the active users list Privacy Policy. This topic. Members. Help with sequencing of a 120bp PCR product. Wek, Sep 21 2012 05:10 PM. Wek. Wek. Enthusiast Active Members. 59 posts. However, the PCR fragments are very small, 120bp and 121bp respectively. I have tried looking for gels but haven't been able to find a company that sells gels able to show a 1bp difference. Back to top. 2,698 posts. Posted 21 September 2012 - 05:46 PM Easiest would be to clone them into a vector and then sequence the vector. Back to top. 6,113 posts. Back to top. Wek. Wek. Enthusiast Active Members. 59 posts. Posted 22 September 2012 - 11:53 AM Easiest would be to clone them into a vector and then sequence the vector. Back to top. 1,300 posts. Posted 25 September 2012 - 08:22 AM you should be able to separate 1bp difference for 120 and 121bp with a sequencing gel 6 or 8% acrylamide with urea and long. if you don't ...
*  Where did DNA sequencing begin? | Facts |
Where did DNA sequencing begin. In: Facts Methods and Technology Where did DNA sequencing begin. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the order of bases in a length of DNA. 1970s: Sanger sequencing method The Sanger sequencing method enabled scientists to read the genetic code for the first time. It is based on the natural process of DNA replication. DNA replication The DNA double helix is ‘unzipped’ by enzymes. Once unzipped, the two separated strands act as templates for creating two more strands of DNA. An enzyme called DNA polymerase binds to the primer. Sanger sequencing The DNA double helix is ‘denatured’ broken down with heat or chemicals to separate the two strands. These will then act as templates for DNA synthesis. A primer, DNA polymerase and nucleotide bases A, C, G and T are added. Terminators stop DNA synthesis. So, the 'A' terminator will stop DNA synthesis when an 'A' base is added the 'C' terminator will stop DNA synthesis when a 'C' base is added ...
*  OriGene - ADAMTS12 (BC058841) cDNA Clone
OriGene - ADAMTS12 BC058841 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone ADAMTS12 Clone. ADAMTS12 BC058841 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC126126 ADAMTS12 untagged -Human cDNA clone MGC:61868 IMAGE:6701691, complete cds, BC058841.1, 10ug $185 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns for 24-well plates, 0.5ml $90 In Stock. ...
*  Sequencing by ligation
'Sequencing by ligation' is a DNA sequencing method that uses the enzyme DNA ligase to identify the nucleotide present at a given position in a DNA sequence. Unlike most currently popular DNA sequencing methods, this method does not use a DNA polymerase to create a second strand. Instead, the mismatch sensitivity of a DNA ligase enzyme is used to determine the underlying sequence of the target DNA molecule. Process Issue See also References. DNA ligase is an enzyme that joins together ends of DNA molecules. Although commonly represented as joining two pairs of ends at once, as in the ligation of restriction enzyme fragments, ligase can also join the ends on only one of the two strands for example, when the other strand is already continuous or lacks a terminal phosphate necessary for ligation. DNA ligase is sensitive to the structure of DNA and has very low efficiency when there are mismatches between the bases of the two strands. The target molecule to be sequenced is a single ...
*  pouring sequencing gels
... jim hartley jhartley at Fri Nov 17 06:23:53 EST 1995. Previous message: pouring sequencing gels Next message: pouring sequencing gels Messages sorted by:. I too vote for pouring gels flat, no tape, both ends open. It's really easy, nothing to leak, you can tap on the glass if the liquid encounters a dirty spot. On Wed, 15 Nov 1995 futers at wrote: In article 1995Nov15.110758 at, nsaunders at writes: Yes, what is the usual way to pour a sequencing gel. We have the simplest. method of all, judging by what I've read so far; tape the sides and bottom,. clamp the sides with bulldog clips, mix the gel in a conical flask and just. tip it in. Well, not quite 'just tip'; you hold the plates by the bottom. corner with one hand and tuck the opposite corner into your armpit, hold it at. about 45 degrees and sloping away from you and pour slowly into one corner. The mix flows down one edge, across the bottom and rises up to fill the gel,. any ...
*  Submit a Revision
Genes are sequences of DNA nucleotides that carry and transmit the information specifying amino acid sequences for protein synthesis. Each DNA molecule contains many genes. DNA - mRNA - Protein. A triplet code is a sequence of three bases along a single strand of DNA. Each triplet code is ‘read’ and calls for a specific amino acid. The 4 bases can be arranged into 64 different triplet codes sequence of three bases. Sixty-one 61 of the codes are matched up to one of the 20 amino acids, a given amino acid can be specified by more than one triplet code, while the remaining three triplet codes act as stop signals and end the protein chain rather than adding an amino acid. The genetic code is universal in all cells. One of the strands will act as a template and will determine the sequence of RNA nucleotides. In DNA the three base sequences are called triplet codes, while in RNA the three bases sequences that specify one amino acid ...
*  OriGene - (BC018558) cDNA Clone
OriGene - BC018558 cDNA Clone. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Home TrueClone. BC018558 Mouse cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. MC200963 untagged - Mouse mRNA similar to fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte cDNA clone MGC:18548 IMAGE:3670866, 10ug, BC018558, 10ug $165 In Stock. Click here for the corresponding wild type clone. Click here for the corresponding kinase deficient mutant clone. Also for BC018558 cDNA Clone shRNA/siRNA CRISPR KO Kit Protein Request Antibody Service. Sequence Data: Fully Sequenced ORF. OTI Disclaimer: Our molecular clone sequence data has been matched to the reference identifier above as a point of reference. Note that ...
*  Pribnow box
... the pribnow box also known as the pribnow schaller box is the sequence tataat of six nucleotide s thymine adenine thymine etc that is an essential part of a promoter site on dna for transcription to occur in bacteria it is an idealized or consensus sequence that is it shows the most frequently occurring base at each position in a large number of promoters analyzed individual promoters often vary from the consensus at one or more positions it is also commonly called the sequence because it is centered roughly base pairs upstream from the site of initiation of transcription the pribnow box has a function similar to the tata box that occurs in promoters in eukaryote s and archaea it is recognized and bound by a subunit of rna polymerase during initiation of transcription this region of the dna is also the first place where base pairs separate during prokaryotic transcription to allow access to the template strand the at richness is important to allow this ...
*  Nuclease
Working with Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, this group isolated an enzyme, called 'Hind'II, that always cut DNA molecules at a particular point within a specific sequence of six base pairs. Wherever this particular sequence of six base pairs occurs unmodified in a DNA molecule, 'Hind'II will cleave both DNA strands between the 3rd and 4th base pairs of the sequence. For this reason, this specific base sequence is known as the " recognition sequence " for 'Hind'II. 'Hind'II is only one example of the class of enzymes known as restriction nucleases. Endonucleases and DNA fragments. Once it encounters its particular specific recognition sequence, it will bind to the DNA molecule and makes one cut in each of the two sugar-phosphate backbones. Different endonucleases yield different sets of cuts, but one endonuclease will always cut a particular base sequence the same way, no matter what DNA molecule it is acting on. Once the ...
*  Patent US6551784 - Method of comparing nucleic acid sequences - Google Patents
Method of comparing nucleic acid sequences US 6551784 B2 Abstract The present invention provides methods for comparing and identifying differences in nucleic acid sequences using a plurality of sequence specific recognition reagents i.e., probes comprising a nucleic acid complementary to a nucleic acid sequence in collections to be compared bound to a solid surface. 5 The method as recited in claim 3 wherein said probes are provided by synthesis of RNA or DNA on the solid surface. Finally, in a preferred embodiment, the n probes where n is the number of probes desired for each target gene that pass both selection criteria and have the highest hybridization intensity for each target gene are selected for incorporation into the array, or where already present in the array, for subsequent data analysis. If necessary, all or part of the surface of the substrate in all or a part of the selected regions is activated for binding by, for example, flowing appropriate reagents through all ...,921,985
*  help: primer restriction sites
help primer restriction sites help primer restriction sites rebecca schall rebeccas at panvera com wed aug est previous message non radioactive sequencing next message help primer restriction sites messages sorted by frank chen yatsen at wam umd edu wrote dear colleagues i designed a pair of primers which have restriction sites at their ends i did not add additional bp since i intended to clone that into a pcr vector first i am wondering if i can directly digest them with the enzymes for cloning into an expression vector i would appreciate your help if you have done that for these two enzymes the enzymes are bam hi and hind iii frank chen frank the neb catalog is an excellent resource for enzyme activities no affiliation with neb on page of the catalog there is table of cutting efficiencies of a variety of enzymes close to the ends of dna fragments this is useful information when designing pcr primers as one can decide how many additional nucleotides to tack on to the ends outside of the restriction site in ...
*  Bio.SeqLoc.Transcript
Index seqloc-0.5: Handle sequence locations for bioinformatics. Type for splice junctions Representation of transcript. newtype Junction = Junction { intron :: ContigLoc } fromDonorAcceptor :: Pos - Pos - Junction. donor :: Junction - Pos. acceptor :: Junction - Pos. junctions :: SpliceLoc -. data Transcript = Transcript { geneId ::. Maybe ContigLoc } utr5 :: Transcript - Maybe ContigLoc. utr3 :: Transcript - Maybe ContigLoc. cdsLocation :: Transcript - Maybe SpliceSeqLoc. Type for splice junctions. newtype Junction Source. intron :: ContigLoc. fromDonorAcceptor :: Pos - Pos - Junction Source. Create a splice junction from a donor position the last position in the 5' exon and the acceptor position the first position in the 3' exon. donor :: Junction - Pos Source. Donor position, i.e., the last position in the 5' exon around a junction. acceptor :: Junction - Pos Source. Acceptor position, i.e., the first position in the 3' exon around a junction. junctions :: SpliceLoc - Source. Representation of ...
*  Molecular Genetics [Archive] - Pashtun Community | Pashtuns | Pashto |
Molecular Genetics. Admin Khan 08-14-2010, 03:58 PM. The methods used by molecular geneticists to obtain and study DNA have been developed through keen observation and adaptation of the chemical reactions and biological processes that occur naturally in all cells. As science advances, so do the number of tools available that are applicable to the study of molecular genetics. Another method, called cloning, uses DNA manipulation procedures to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA. The polymerase chain reaction PCR is a third method whereby a specific sequence within a double-stranded DNA is copied, or amplified. Isolating DNA and mRNA from Cells. To make a clone, a target DNA sequence is inserted into what is called a cloning vector. A restriction enzyme is a protein that binds to a DNA molecule at a specific sequence and makes a double-stranded cut at, or near, that sequence. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR The polymerase chain reaction PCR is an amazingly ...
*  KIAA1797
... 'KIAA1797' is a protein that in humans is encoded by the 'KIAA1797' gene. 1 A specific single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7875153 in KIAA1797 is associated with heart rate. 2 Gene Expression. mRNA Protein sequence Homology Gene Neighborhood Function References Further reading. Gene. KIAA1797 is a protein-coding gene in Homo sapiens. Alternate names for the gene are FLJ20375, OTTHUMP00000069845, and hypothetical protein LOC54914. Located on chromosome 9 at area q21.3, AceView NCBI Gene Information the entire gene including introns and exon s is 375,010 base pairs on the plus strand. There are 19 alternative splice variants. Longest variant yields a mRNA of 6117 base pairs. Expression. KIAA1797 was determined to express ubiquitously at varying levels throughout the human body. Based on the EST profile of Unigene, KIAA1797 expression have been observed in tissues ranging from reproductive to secretory. 3 Kiaa1797 expression pic. mRNA. Predicted secondary mRNA structures in the ...
*  OriGene - TP53 (NM 001126112) cDNA Clone
OriGene - TP53 NM 001126112 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone TP53 Clone. TP53 NM 001126112 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC323020 TP53 untagged -Human tumor protein p53 TP53, transcript variant 2, NM 001126112.1, 10ug $680 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns for 24-well plates, 0.5ml $90 In Stock. Click ...
*  Genomic organization
... The genome of all organisms except some viruses and prions is composed of one to multiple number of these DNA molecules. To draw an analogy it can be said that genome when seen from viewpoint of sequences of these nucleotides alone, is like a book which doesn't have any chapters or paragraphs or even sentences. Genomic organisation of an organism is this background layer of information which unassumingly provides multiple layer of information to structure genome from the array of nucleotide sequences. Organism s have a vast array of ways in which their respective genome s are organized. A comparison of the genomic organization of six major model organisms shows size expansion with the increase of complexity of the organism. There is a more than 300-fold difference between the genome sizes of yeast and mammal s, but only a modest 4- to 5-fold increase in overall gene number see the figure on the right. However, the ratio of coding to noncoding and repetitive sequences is indicative ...
*  OriGene - ADNP (NM 015339) cDNA Clone
OriGene - ADNP NM 015339 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone ADNP Clone. ADNP NM 015339 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC112644 ADNP untagged -Human activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox ADNP, transcript variant 1, NM 015339.2, 10ug $185 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TA315245 Rabbit polyclonal anti-ADNP antibody, 100ul $325 In Stock. ...
*  Transcription
Messenger RNA mRNA. Transfer RNA tRNA. Why split genes. messenger RNA mRNA. transfer RNA tRNA. These are tiny ~22 nucleotides RNA molecules that regulate the expression of messenger RNA mRNA molecules. Messenger RNA mRNA. Most cells produce small amounts of thousands of different mRNA molecules, each to be translated into a peptide needed by the cell. Transfer RNA tRNA. Small Nuclear RNA snRNA DNA transcription of the genes for mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA produces large precursor molecules "primary transcripts" that must be processed within the nucleus to produce the functional molecules for export to the cytosol. For example, several snRNAs are part of the spliceosomes that participate in converting pre-mRNA into mRNA by excising the introns and splicing the exons. It transcribes the rRNA genes for the precursor of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S molecules and is the busiest of the RNA polymerases. It transcribes protein-encoding genes into mRNA and also the snRNA genes. Those stretches of DNA that do code for amino acids ...
*  Patent US7635690 - HIV-1 mutations selected for by β-2′,3′-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxy-5 ... -
iv A method for treating a patient infected with a strain of HIV virus that is resistant to AZT, comprising administering an effective amount of -D-D4FC or its pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug or salt to the patient optionally in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Advantageously, primers are chosen such that they will simplify the nucleic acid sequence for RT or a selected sequence which incorporates nucleotides corresponding to the region of RNA corresponding to the wild-type DNA sequence or to the region of the mutant DNA sequence corresponding to the 70th K to N, 90th or 172th codon of the reverse transcriptase region. The next stage of the methodology is to hybridize to the nucleic acid an oligonucleotide which is complementary to a region of the wild-type DNA sequence or its corresponding RNA or to a region of the mutant DNA sequence or its corresponding RNA. i isolating the nucleic acid from the sample; ii hybridizing the nucleic acid with an ...,373,753
*  OriGene - ADRBK2 (NM 005160) cDNA Clone
OriGene - ADRBK2 NM 005160 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone ADRBK2 Clone. ADRBK2 NM 005160 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC116916 ADRBK2 untagged -Human adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2 ADRBK2, NM 005160.2, 10ug $1240 In Stock. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns for 24-well plates, 0.5ml $90 In Stock. Click here ...
*  Base/Ring for Savage - Long Range Hunting Online Magazine
... Long Range Hunting Online Magazine. Long Range Hunting Shooting. Base/Ring for Savage. Long Range Hunting Shooting. Base/Ring for Savage. LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes. I want one with 20-30 MOA. # 2 05-30-2009, 06:46 PM. Platinum Member. Re: Base/Ring for Savage If you can't find exactly what your looking for, you might want to check into a set of Burris Signature Rings with the plastic inserts. You can set them up with whatever MOA you actually need. # 3 05-30-2009, 07:21 PM. Platinum Member. Get the Burris Extreme bases and the Burris Signature Zee's. You'll only be out less than $60 and you'll be able to put anywhere from 0 MOA and 40 MOA. If you're dead set on a pictinny type rail, the EGW rail and Burris XTR rings are a tough combo to beat for the money. Re: Base/Ring for Savage I've got a left-handed Model 12 Savage I put the 2-piece, Burris, picatinny base on with their XTR rings. I also recently replaced a standard base on my Rem 700 in ...
*  OriGene - LIPT2 (NM 001144869) cDNA Clone
OriGene - LIPT2 NM 001144869 cDNA Clone. My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. cDNA Clones TrueORF cDNA Clones H/M/R Viral ORF Clones Destination Vector TrueClone Human TrueClone Mouse Organelle Marker Plasmids MicroRNA Tools Mutant and Variant Clones Plasmid Purification Kits Transfection Reagents Gene Synthesis Service. Related Products Purified Human Protein shRNA TrueMAB Antibody Over-Expression Lysate. Antitag Antibodies. TrueORF GOLD. Clone Overview. Useful Links Browse by Family/Pathways Webinars Audio Slideshow Recent Publications Application Brochure. Home TrueClone LIPT2 Clone. LIPT2 NM 001144869 Human cDNA Clone. Specifications Citations Clones of Other Species Product Documents. SKU Description Price Availibility*. SC325636 LIPT2 untagged -Human lipoyl octanoyl transferase 2 putative LIPT2, nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, NM 001144869.1, 10ug $380 3 weeks. TF81001 TurboFectin, High performance Transfection reagent 1ml/vial $420 In Stock. TT200002 MegaTran 1.0 0.5ml, 165 rxns ...
*  unique human dna sequence
... john ladasky jladasky at pmgm stanford edu thu aug est previous message unique human dna sequence next message ligation blunt vs single base overhang messages sorted by in article ca c a db d b c f dba f at server adrian ishkanian aishkani at bccancer bc ca wrote i m looking for a unique stretch of human dna that i can use as an internal control for my pcr reactions does anyone have any ideas what do you mean by unique understanding the exact nature of your assays will help to suggest an appropriate dna sequence are you working with say chimps alongside some human samples and you want to make sure that you haven t contaminated your chimp dna with human dna rainforest laid low wake up and smell the ozone says man with chainsaw john ladasky previous message unique human dna sequence next message ligation blunt vs single base overhang messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list
*  Complementary DNA
In genetics , '''complementary DNA''' '''cDNA''' is double-stranded DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA mRNA template in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. When scientists want to express a specific protein in a cell that does not normally express that protein i.e., heterologous expression , they will transfer the cDNA that codes for the protein to the recipient cell. A eukaryotic cell transcribes the DNA from genes into RNA pre-mRNA. The same cell processes the pre-mRNA strands by removing introns, and adding a poly-A tail and 5’ Methyl-Guanine cap this is known as post-transcriptional modification This mixture of mature mRNA strands is extracted from the cell. A poly- T oligonucleotide primer is hybridized onto the poly-A tail of the mature mRNA template, or random hexamer primers can be added which contain every possible 6 base single strand of DNA and can therefore hybridize anywhere on the RNA Reverse transcriptase requires this double-stranded segment as a primer to start ...
*  DNA, the Genetic Material ( Read ) | Life Science | CK-12 Foundation
There are only four possible bases that make up each DNA nucleotide: adenine A, guanine G, thymine T, and cytosine C. Together with the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, they determined that DNA is made of two strands of nucleotides formed into a double helix, or a two-stranded spiral, with the sugar and phosphate groups on the outside, and the paired bases connecting the two strands on the inside of the helix Figure below. DNA’s three-dimensional structure is a double helix. The hydrogen bonds between the bases at the center of the helix hold the helix together. Base-Pairing. When Erwin Chargaff looked closely at the bases in DNA, he noticed that the percentage of adenine A in the DNA always equaled the percentage of thymine T, and the percentage of guanine G always equaled the percentage of cytosine C. Hydrogen bonds hold the complementary bases together, with two bonds forming between an A and a T, and three bonds between a G and a C. The chemical ...
*  Serial analysis of gene expression
... 'Serial analysis of gene expression SAGE ' is a technique used by molecular biologist s to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population in a sample of interest in the form of small tags that correspond to fragments of those transcripts. The location of the cleavage site and thus the length of the remaining cDNA bound to the bead will vary for each individual cDNA mRNA. The cleaved cDNA downstream from the cleavage site is then discarded, and the remaining immobile cDNA fragments upstream from cleavage sites are divided in half and exposed to one of two adapter oligonucleotides A or B containing several components in the following order upstream from the attachment site: 1 Sticky ends with the AE cut site to allow for attachment to cleaved cDNA; 2 A recognition site for a restriction endonuclease known as the tagging enzyme TE, which cuts about 15 nucleotides downstream of its recognition site within the original cDNA/mRNA sequence ; 3 A short primer sequence unique to either adapter ...
*  BME103:W930 Group6 - OpenWetWare
' Bayes' Rule'. ' Bayes' Rule'. Lab Write-Up 1. Lab Write-Up 2. Lab Write-Up 3. William Research and Development. LAB 1 WRITE-UP. Polymerase Chain Reaction. 1 A Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR is used to amplify a single piece of DNA. 2 The amplification of a patient’s DNA can be separated into three different steps. a The first cycle is described as denaturation of the DNA, which is a double strand, into two single strands. This step is done at a colder temperature than the denaturation in order to allow the DNA and primers to bond by hydrogen bonds to form a double stranded nucleotide. Fluorometer Setup 1. 3 Position camera setup parallel to the LED box so that the camera is shooting along the channel of the LED box. Fluorometer Setup Part I. While leaving the camera setup side of the container unsnapped, place container around Fluorometer Setup Part I. 9 Place new slide into LED box, and do steps 4 through 6 again. This experiment heavily employs the use of PCR, or polymerase chain reaction. The process ...
*  Inserting cDNA into promoter constructs???
Inserting cDNA into promoter constructs??. Inserting cDNA into promoter constructs??. Obaid Y. Khan 9321531k at Mon Aug 19 13:03:21 EST 1996. Previous message: Problems with ligation after GeneCleaning Next message: Custom BAC libraries. Messages sorted by:. I am trying to clone a cDNA into a CMV promoter construct. I have a cDNA which has got the polyA tail reverse transcribed from the mRNA. I was wondering if I insert the whole cDNA with the polyA tail, would it not interfere with the expression of the cDNA. Also the my cDNA would have its own polyadenylation signal sequence and I have one SV40 polyA signal already in the vector I am using. Could someone help me out with these questions, please, Thanks. Previous message: Problems with ligation after GeneCleaning Next message: Custom BAC libraries. Messages sorted by:. More information about the Methods mailing list.
*  Bio::Tools::SeqStats - Object holding statistics for one particular sequence -
amino or nucleic acid print \nMonomer counts using statistics object\n ; $seq stats = Bio::Tools::SeqStats- new -seq= $seqobj ; $hash ref = $seq stats- count monomers ; # e.g. for DNA sequence foreach $base sort keys %$hash ref { print Number of bases of type, $base, =, %$hash ref- {$base}, \n ; } # obtain the count directly without creating a new statistics object print \nMonomer counts without statistics object\n ; $hash ref = Bio::Tools::SeqStats- count monomers $seqobj ; foreach $base sort keys %$hash ref { print Number of bases of type, $base, =, %$hash ref- {$base}, \n ; } # obtain hash of counts of each type of codon in a nucleic acid sequence print \nCodon counts using statistics object\n ; $hash ref = $seq stats- count codons ; # for nucleic acid sequence foreach $base sort keys %$hash ref { print Number of codons of type, $base, =, %$hash ref- {$base}, \n ; } # or print \nCodon counts without ...
*  Do you have to sequence both strands?
do you have to sequence both strands do you have to sequence both strands zhongguo xiong zxiong at arizvm ccit arizona edu sat apr est previous message do you have to sequence both strands next message do you have to sequence both strands messages sorted by in article gosink at microb biostat washington edu gosink at u washington edu john gosink writes hi i was having a discussion with a person down the hall they claim that there is no regulation that says you have to sequence both strands of a length of dna they are working with cloned pcr products for submission to genbank and or a referreed paper do you have any references on this subject john p s they read a single strand but make it a point to read each gel on two different occasions and or by two different people any sequence that was determined only from one strand is grabage purely grabage anyone who has worked on sequencing projects would agree we are doing a lot of sequencing in the lab and find regions of ...
* - Figure
www biomedcentral com figure resolution standard high figure search for promoter fragment of the hspa b gene responsible for la inducibility left panel schematic representation of the plasmids used for transfections different fragments of the promoter and further upstream region of the rat hspa b gene were cloned in pbl cat vector upper part structure of analyzed dna region restriction sites used for subcloning are shown e ecor i p pst i d dra ii m maeiii n nco i k kpn i a ava i hse heat shock element region between and containing important regulatory elements is shown in details right panel data from transfection experiments plasmids were transiently transfected to the mouse b f cells using lipofectin cat activity was determined hours after lipofection in cell extracts cat activity is shown as percentage of acetylated chloramphenicol each value is expressed as a mean with the standard deviation of four transfections brackets a b and c were used to visualise the comparisons that are discussed in the text ...
*  Class: Bio::Sequence::NA Documentation for bioruby/bioruby (master)
Class: Bio::Sequence::NA Documentation for bioruby/bioruby master. Libraries. bioruby/bioruby master. Index N. Bio. Sequence. NA. Class: Bio::Sequence::NA. Inherits:. String. Object. String. Bio::Sequence::NA. show all. Includes:. Common. Defined in: lib/bio/sequence/na.rb, lib/bio/sequence/compat.rb, lib/bio/shell/plugin/midi.rb. Overview – TODO - add Ohno style - add a accessor to drum pattern - add a new feature to select music style pop, trans, ryukyu, ... - what is the base. ++. Direct Known Subclasses RestrictionEnzyme::SingleStrand. Defined Under Namespace. Classes:. MidiTrack Class Method Summary collapse. randomize *arg, block ⇒ Object. Generate a new random sequence with the given frequency of bases. Instance Method Summary collapse # at content ⇒ Object. Calculate the ratio of AT / ATGC bases. # at skew ⇒ Object. Calculate the ratio of A - T / A + T bases. # codon usage ⇒ Object. Returns counts ...
*  [TowerTalk] re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g?
re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. Towertalk. prev. next. prev. next. re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. from [ Bill Hider ]. [ Permanent Link ] [ Original ]. To :. Subject : re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. From :. Bill Hider. Date :. Fri, 30 Mar 2001 18:03:50 +0100. Be sure to check out my Website so you don't forget any design details. Bill, N3RR ----- Original Message ----- From: Michael Pfeuffer To: Cc: Sent: Friday, March 30, 2001 6:53 PM Subject: re: * Single Base for 45g and 25g. Hi Richard,. Not sure if I'm going to go with 45g or 25g. I have two options for a base:. I was considering the same predicament, and came to the conclusion that the pier-pin was better. Then it occurred to me that upgrading a system from 25G to 45G would be: a expensive b a *lot* of work c take me off the air during the upgrade. I'm now looking at designing a two ...
*  Patente US7732143 - Method for the diagnosis of genetic diseases by molecular combing and ... - Goog
The length of the probes used is between for example 5 kb and 40-50 kb, but it may also consist of the entire combed genome. a a certain quantity of said genome is attached to and combed on a combing surface, b the combing product is hybridized with one or more labeled specific probes corresponding to the genomic sequence for which the abnormality is sought, c the size of the fragments corresponding to the hybridization signals and optionally their repetition are measured, and d the presence of a break is deduced therefrom either by direct measurement or by comparison with a standard corresponding to a control length. In case ii, on the other hand, the probe being systematically hybridized to two separate pieces or more in the combed genomic DNA by definition of the existence of a break point, the measurement of the lengths of the hybridized fluorescent probes is different from the result obtained by hybridization to a non pathological genomic DNA. a a certain quantity of said genome is attached to ...
*  Random shRNA Selection | NIH Common Fund
. Random shRNA Selection. NIH Common Fund. Submitted by Chrissy on Mon, 11/18/2013 - 18:15. Transformative R01 Program. RANDOM SHRNA SELECTION. ​To encode a random shRNA requires a random DNA sequence – of 29 nucleotides in our case – and its reverse complement in the same DNA strand, separated by a non-complementary loop sequence; a library of such sequences can be used in pooled, cell-based screens for small RNA therapeutics, biological tools, and/or biological probes.
*  Alpha-1 (gene)
alpha gene alpha gene redirect list of a genes proteins or receptors
*  Alpha-1 gene
alpha gene alpha gene redirect list of a genes proteins or receptors
*  Alpha-1 genes
alpha genes alpha genes redirect list of a genes proteins or receptors
... is a modified form of dna with nucleobase s the four natural bases a c g and t and four artificial modifications of these made longer by the addition of an extra benzene ring xa xc xg and xt a pairs with xt c pairs with xg g pairs with xc and t pairs with xa so the distance between the two halves of the double helix is consistently greater the double helix is thus wider and has a longer pitch experiments with xdna are expected to provide new insight into the behavior of natural dna also the extended bases xa xc xg and xt are fluorescent and single strands composed of only extended bases can recognize and bind to single strands of natural dna which could make them useful tools for studying biological systems the same research group also constructed widened dna called ydna file adenin svg px chemical structure of dxa file thymine skeletal svg px chemical structure of dxt file cytosin svg px chemical structure of dxc file guanine svg px chemical structure of dxg adenine thymine ...
*  Base pair
Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs guanine - cytosine and adenine - thymine allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence. Intramolecular base pairs can occur within single-stranded nucleic acids. Hence, the number of total base pairs is equal to the number of nucleotides in one of the strands with the exception of non-coding single-stranded regions of telomere s. Purines are complementary only with pyrimidines: pyrimidine-pyrimidine pairings are energetically unfavorable because the molecules are too far apart for hydrogen bonding to be established; purine-purine pairings are energetically unfavorable because the molecules are too close, leading to overlap repulsion. Purine-pyrimidine base pairing of AT or GC or UA in RNA results in proper duplex structure. The only other purine-pyrimidine pairings would be AC and GT and UG in RNA ; these pairings are mismatches because ...
*  Complementarity (molecular biology)
Complementarity molecular biology. Complementarity molecular biology. thumb|right|250px|Match up between two DNA bases guanine and cytosine showing hydrogen bonds dashed lines holding them together thumb|right|250px|Match up between two DNA bases adenine and thymine showing hydrogen bonds dashed lines holding them together. DNA and RNA base pair complementarity Self-Complementarity and Hairpin Loops Regulatory functions Antisense transcripts. Kissing hairpins. DNA and RNA base pair complementarity. The top strand goes from the left to the right and the lower strand goes from the right to the left lining them up. Complementarity is achieved by distinct interactions between nucleobases : adenine, thymine uracil in RNA, guanine and cytosine. Both types of molecules complement each other and can only base pair with the opposing type of nucleobase.In nucleic acid, nucleobases are held together by hydrogen bonding, which only works efficiently between ...
*  2001 Mercedes-Benz :: CLK320 Base Coupe 208.365 3.2L V6 - Suspension - Shock Ab
... sorber Mount. 2001 Mercedes-Benz CLK320 Base Coupe 208.365 3.2L V6. C240 Base Sedan 203.061 2.6L V6 C320 Base Sedan 203.064 3.2L V6 CL500 Base Coupe 215.375 5.0L V8 CL55 AMG Base Coupe 215.373 5.5L V8 CL600 Base Coupe 215.378 5.8L V12 CLK320 Base Convertible 208.465 3.2L V6 CLK320 Base Coupe 208.365 3.2L V6 CLK430 Base Convertible 208.470 4.3L V8 CLK430 Base Coupe 208.370 4.3L V8 CLK55 AMG Base Coupe 208.374 5.5L V8 E320 4Matic Sedan 210.082 3.2L V6 E320 4Matic Wagon 210.282 3.2L V6 E320 Base Sedan 210.065 3.2L V6 E320 Base Wagon 210.265 3.2L V6 E430 4Matic Sedan 210.083 4.3L V8 E430 Base Sedan 210.070 4.3L V8 E55 AMG Base Sedan 210.074 5.5L V8 ML320 Base Sport Utility 163.154 3.2L V6 ML430 Base Sport Utility 163.172 4.3L V8 ML55 AMG Base Sport Utility 163.174 5.5L V8 S430 Base Sedan 220.170 4.3L V8 S500 Base Sedan 220.175 5.0L V8 S500 Guard Sedan 220.175 5.0L V8 S55 ...
*  Nucleic acid structure
... 'Nucleic acid structure' refers to the structure of nucleic acid s such as DNA and RNA. Nucleic acid structure is often divided into four different levels: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Primary structure Secondary structure Tertiary structure Quaternary structure See also References. Nucleic acid sequence. It is this linear sequence of nucleotides that make up the primary structure of DNA or RNA. Nucleic acid secondary structure. There is also a major groove and a minor groove on the double helix. Stem-loop or hairpin loop is the most common element of RNA secondary structure. 6 Stem-loop is formed when the RNA chains fold back on themselves to form a double helical tract called the stem, the unpaired nucleotides forms single stranded region called the loop. A Tetraloop is a four-base pairs hairpin RNA structure. 9 Pseudoknots are formed when nucleotides from the hairpin loop pairs with a single stranded region outside of the hairpin to form a helical segment. In ...
*  Medium-range topological constraints in binary phosphate glasses
... all Scitation. The Journal of Chemical Physics. AIP Publishing AVS: Science Technology of Materials, Interfaces, and Processing Acoustical Society of America American Association of Physicists in Medicine American Association of Physics Teachers American Crystallographic Association, Inc. I'm an author/editor/contributor to this publication. EVENT EVENTLOG PORTALID aip /PORTALID SESSIONID 266tv5t4bfpq3.x-aip-live-02 /SESSIONID USERAGENT CCBot/2.0 /USERAGENT IDENTITYID guest /IDENTITYID IDENTITY LIST guest /IDENTITY LIST IPADDRESS /IPADDRESS EVENTTYPE PERSONALISATION /EVENTTYPE CREATEDON 1444002980276 /CREATEDON /EVENTLOG EVENTLOGPROPERTY ITEM ID /ITEM ID TYPE recommendtolibrary /TYPE /EVENTLOGPROPERTY /EVENT. The Journal of Chemical Physics Recommend this title to your library. Access Key. Open Access Content Subscribed Content. AIP Publishing. The Journal of Chemical Physics. ...
*  Kissing stem-loop
... frame|An example of an RNA stem-loop A 'kissing stem-loop', or kissing interaction, is formed in RNA when two bases between two hairpin loops pair. These intra- and intermolecular kissing interactions are important in forming the tertiary or quaternary structure of many RNAs. RNA kissing interactions, also called loop-loop pseudoknots, occur when the unpaired nucleotide s in one hairpin loop, base pair with the unpaired nucleotides in another hairpin loop. Nowakowski, J. & Tinoco, I., Jr. 1997 Semin. Virology.8,153–165. When the hairpin loops are located on separate RNA molecules, their intermolecular interaction is called a kissing complex. These interactions generally form between stem-loops. However, stable complexes have been observed containing only two intermolecular Watson–Crick base pairs. H & Tinoco, I., Jr. Sci. Angela A. Collins. Intramolecular secondary structure rearrangement by the kissing interaction of the ...
*  Pseudoknot
Image:This example of a naturally occurring pseudoknot is found in the RNA component of human telomerase. Sequence from. "Functional analysis of the pseudoknot structure in human telomerase RNA". thumb|300px|Threedimensional structure of a pseudoknot from a human telomerase RNA. NOTOC A 'pseudoknot' is a nucleic acid secondary structure containing at least two stem-loop structures in which half of one stem is intercalated between the two halves of another stem. Prediction and identification Biological significance See also References External links. Prediction and identification. The base pair ing in pseudoknots is not well nested; that is, base pairs occur that "overlap" one another in sequence position. This makes the presence of pseudoknots in RNA sequences more difficult to predict by the standard method of dynamic programming, which use a recursive scoring system to identify paired stems and consequently, most cannot detect non-nested base pairs. The newer ...
*  Protein secondary structure
... Secondary structure can be formally defined by the pattern of hydrogen bond s of the protein such as alpha helice s and beta sheet s that are observed in an atomic-resolution structure. Secondary structure does not describe the specific identity of amino acids in the protein which are defined as the primary structure, nor the 'global' atom ic positions in three-dimensional space, which are considered to be tertiary structure. The most common secondary structures are alpha helices and beta sheet s. Other helices, such as the 3 10 helix and π helix, are calculated to have energetically favorable hydrogen-bonding patterns but are rarely observed in natural proteins except at the ends of α helices due to unfavorable backbone packing in the center of the helix. 6 Hydrogen bonding patterns in secondary structures may be significantly distorted, which makes an automatic determination of secondary structure difficult. DSSP protein. G = 3-turn helix 3 10 helix. H = 4-turn helix α helix. This means that 2 ...
*  mRNA secondary structure and protein expression level
... Artem Evdokimov AEVDOKIMOZ at Mon Sep 16 22:47:30 EST 2002. Previous message: mRNA secondary structure and protein expression level Next message: mRNA secondary structure and protein expression level Messages sorted by:. I have sequenced gene - RBS included- to be sure, that there is not frame shift or any other mutations. I have not sequenced promoter region - I can do that. Lately I have heard about adding protease inhibitor PMSF directly into medium. Does it make any sense. Well... PMSF isn't very soluble. It will go into solution by sticking to greasy bits of whatever's floating around read, bacterial membranes and might or might not result in improvement. I think that His-tagging your protein, or better yet, sticking an MBP before it e.g. pMAL system, but make sure that your cleavable linker is a short b something specific like TEV will give you at worst some idea of what's going on, or at best actual protein to purify. Because face it - you probably just want the ...
*  Nucleic acid tertiary structure
Helical structures Double helix. Coaxial stacking Other motifs Tetraloop-receptor interactions. The most common example of a minor loop triple is the A-minor motif, or the insertion of adenosine bases into the minor groove see above. image1 = RNA Quadruplex.png. G29 involved in major groove, minor groove, and Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonding with three other bases. Triple-stranded DNA is also possible from Hoogsteen or reversed Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds in the major groove of B-form DNA. ]] Tetraloop-receptor interactions combine base-pairing and stacking interactions between the loop nucleotides of a tetraloop motif and a receptor motif located within an RNA duplex, creating a tertiary contact that stabilizes the global tertiary fold of an RNA molecule. For example, the self-splicing group I intron relies on tetraloop receptor motifs for its structure and function. Specifically, the three adenine residues of the canonical GAAA motif stack on top of the receptor helix and form multiple ...
*  Tetraloop
... image gnra tetraloop jpg tetraloops are a type of four base hairpin loop motif s in rna secondary structure that cap many double helices there are many variants of the tetraloop the published ones include anya cuyg gnra umac and uncg three types of tetraloops are common in ribosomal rna gnra uncg and cuug the gnra tetraloop has a guanine adenine base pair where the guanine is to the helix and the adenine is to the helix tetraloops with the sequence umac have essentially the same backbone fold as the gnra tetraloop but may be less likely to form tetraloop receptor interactions they may therefore be a better choice for closing stems when designing artificial rnas see also rna tertiary structure section tetraloop receptor interactions references category rna
*  Online Analysis Tools - Nucleic Acid\ Repeats, Secondary Structure, & Melting Temperature
... REPEATS, SECONDARY STRUCTURE MELTING TEMPERATURE REPEATS, SECONDARY STRUCTURE DNA often contains reiterated sequences of differing length. GAAT-N6-GAAT and inverted GAAT-N6-ATTC repeats. For secondary structures of RNA or DNA I recommend most highly Michael Zuker s sites:. For DNA sequences use this site. Vienna RNA secondary structure prediction. pknotsRG Universit t Bielefeld, Germany - is a series of 3 tools for folding RNA secondary structures, including the class of simple recursive pseudoknots. - on sequences of less than 20kb it provides graphical and statistical analysis on direct repeats. They show characteristics of both tandem and interspaced repeats. Reference: I. DNA curvature analysis - Gohlke, C. GBshape A G enome B rowser database for DNA shape annotations - DNA shape analysis has been established in recent years as an approach that reveals protein- DNA binding specificity determinants beyond nucleotide sequence. GBshape provides DNA shape annotations ...
*  Nucleic acid double helix
... "Double helix". Double helix??. 1 refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acid s such as DNA. 2 In B-DNA, the most common double helical structure, the double helix is right-handed with about 10 10.5 base pairs per turn. The double helix structure of DNA contains a 'major groove' and 'minor groove'. In B-DNA the major groove is wider than the minor groove. 4 History Nucleic acid hybridization Base pair geometry Helix geometries Grooves. Non-double helical forms. Bending Persistence length/axial stiffness. The double helix makes one complete turn about its axis every 10.4-10.5 base pairs in solution. The narrowness of the minor groove means that the edges of the bases are more accessible in the major groove. Single-stranded nucleic acids do not adopt a helical formation, and are described by models such as the random coil or worm-like chain. In an aqueous solution, the average persistence length is 46-50 nm or 140-150 base pairs the ...
*  Stem-loop
The structure is also known as a 'hairpin' or 'hairpin loop.' It occurs when two regions of the same strand, usually complementary in nucleotide sequence when read in opposite directions, base-pair to form a double helix that ends in an unpaired loop. Formation and stability Structural contexts See also References. The formation of a stem-loop structure is dependent on the stability of the resulting helix and loop regions. The stability of this helix is determined by its length, the number of mismatches or bulges it contains a small number are tolerable, especially in a long helix and the base composition of the paired region. Pairings between guanine and cytosine have three hydrogen bond s and are more stable compared to adenine - uracil pairings, which have only two. In RNA, adenine-uracil pairings featuring one hydrogen bonds are equal to the adenine-thymine bond of the DNA. "Loops" that are less than three bases long are sterically impossible and do not form. Optimal loop ...
*  biochemistry - What implications has the missing 2'-OH on the capability of DNA to form 3D structure
- Biology Stack Exchange. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. add a comment. Single stranded DNA and RNA Both DNA and RNA can form single-stranded complex tertiary structures in which the secondary structure elements are associated through van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonds. Double stranded DNA and RNA Both DNA and RNA can form double-stranded structures. Again, sugar conformation determines the shape of the helix: for DNA helix it's usually B-form, whereas helical RNA forms A-geometry under nearly all conditions. In RNA helix we find the ribose predominantly in the C3’- endo conformation, as 2'-OH stericly disfavors the C2'-endo conformaion, necessary for B-form geometry. double stranded RNA viruses. Therefore, due to their functions, under normal conditions DNA 3D structure is mostly a double-stranded helix, whereas RNA has a single ...
*  Single nucleotide resolution of RNA structure
DNA RNA Synthesis Order Custom Oligos. Custom DNA Oligos. Custom RNA Oligos. Target Capture Probe Design Ordering Tool. DECODED Online Newsletter. Tools. qPCR Assay Design PrimerQuest Tool. Selective 2’-Hydroxyl Acylation Analyzed by Primer Extension SHAPE Dr Weeks’ team has created high-content “chemical microscopes” that use Selective 2’-Hydroxyl Acylation Analyzed by Primer Extension SHAPE to enable generic and highly accurate analysis of RNA secondary structure. The typical workflow for RNA structure analysis using SHAPE reagents involves three steps: treatment of RNA with SHAPE reagent Figure 1, reverse transcriptase–mediated primer extension, and data analysis. Briefly, the researchers begin with native folded RNA and modify it with one of several SHAPE reagents Figure 2. While all SHAPE reagents probe RNA structure, each SHAPE reagent has a unique half-life; e.g., 1-methly-7-nitro-isatoic anhydride 1M7 has a fast reaction time while N-methyl isatoic anhydride NMIA reacts more slowly. After ...
*  Fine Structure of Gene- |authorSTREAM
*  Chargaff's Legacy
The GC rule 6. Now, the cluster rule, the second parity rule, and the GC rule, reveal the multiple levels of information in our genomes and potential conflicts between them. C hargaff s first parity rule for duplex DNA was consistent with a base on one strand of the Watson-Crick duplex requiring a complementary base on the other strand of the duplex. By extrapolation, the existence of a parity rule for single strands of nucleic acid Chargaff s second parity rule, suggested intrastrand base pairing. Do genomes have the potential to form such secondary structures. If many mRNAs have highly significant secondary structure, then the corresponding genomic regions should also have this potential. Indeed, the primary evolutionary pressure for the elaboration of mRNA secondary structure might have been at the genomic level rather that at the mRNA level. If so, regions of a genome which are not transcribed into mRNAs might also demonstrate potential for secondary structure. At least by virtue of ...
*  First Direct Image of DNA Double Helix - Slashdot
... Slashdot. Close. binspam dupe notthebest offtopic slownewsday stale stupid fresh funny insightful interesting maybe offtopic flamebait troll redundant overrated insightful interesting informative funny underrated descriptive typo dupe error. 40565897 story. First Direct Image of DNA Double Helix. New submitter bingbat writes "Scientists at the University at Genoa, Italy have successfully photographed the double-helix structure of a single strand of DNA, using a tunneling electron microscope. This discussion has been archived. No new comments can be posted. First Direct Image of DNA Double Helix. First Direct Image of DNA Double Helix Archived Discussion. Close. Close. Search 44 Comments Log In/Create an Account Comments Filter:. Interesting. The Fine Print: The following comments are owned by whoever posted them. Score: 5, Interesting. writes: on Saturday December 01, 2012 @06:03AM. Here we report on the direct imaging of double stranded ds -DNA in the A conformation, obtained by combining a novel ...
*  Mini-ykkC RNA motif
mini ykkc rna motif mini ykkc rna motif left frame consensus secondary structure of mini ykkc rnas layout is similar to that used in a previously published drawing infobox rfam name mini ykkc rna motif image mini ykkc secondary structure jpg width caption predicted secondary structure and sequence conservation of mini ykkc symbol mini ykkc altsymbols rfam rf mirbase mirbase family rna type cis reg tax domain bacteria go so cas number entrezgene hgncid omim pdb refseq chromosome arm band locussupplementarydata the mini ykkc rna motif is a putative rna structure that is conserved in bacteria the motif consists of two conserved stem loop s whose terminal loops contain the rna sequence acgr where r represents either a or g mini ykkc rnas are widespread in proteobacteria but some are predicted in other phyla of bacteria it is expected that the rnas are cis regulatory elements because they are typically located upstream of protein coding gene s the genes that are apparently controlled ...
*  Single-molecule magnetic sequencing
... A DNA hairpin, containing the sequence of interest, is bound between a magnetic bead and a glass surface. The DNA sequences are determined by measuring the changes in the hairpin length following successful hybridization of complementary nucleotides. 1 Single-molecule sequencing vs. Next-generation sequencing Magnetic detection of oligonucleotides hybridized to the DNA hairpin Generation of DNA hairpin. Advantages of the magnetic method in single-molecule sequencing Nature of the detected signal. Single-molecule sequencing vs. During each cycle, not all of the molecules within the bulk have successful incorporation of an additional nucleotide. 5 Magnetic detection of oligonucleotides hybridized to the DNA hairpin. thumb|200px|DNA hairpin attached to magnetic bead and glass slide thumb|250px|Transient blockage in DNA hairpin refolding due to hybridization events. Generation of DNA hairpin. The DNA molecule of interest must be incorporated into a hairpin, and attached to a magnetic bead on ...
*  Helix
It has the property that the tangent line at any point makes a constant angle with a fixed line called the 'axis'. Helices are important in biology, as the DNA molecule is formed as two intertwined helices, and many protein s have helical substructures, known as alpha helices. Helices can be either right-handed or left-handed. With the line of sight along the helix's axis, if a clockwise screwing motion moves the helix away from the observer, then it is called a right-handed helix; if towards the observer, then it is a left-handed helix. The alpha helix in biology as well as the A and B forms of DNA are also right-handed helices. The Z form of DNA is left-handed. A 'conic helix' may be defined as a spiral on a conic surface, with the distance to the apex an exponential function of the angle indicating direction from the axis. one with constant radius has constant band curvature and constant torsion. A curve is a general helix if and only if the ratio of curvature to torsion is constant. A curve is called a ...
*  PsaA RNA motif
... the psaa rna motif describes a class of rna s with a common secondary structure psaa rnas are exclusively found in locations that presumably correspond to the untranslated region s of operon s formed of psaa and psab gene s for this reason it was hypothesized that psaa rnas function as cis regulatory element s of these genes the psaab genes encode protein s that form subunits in the photosystem i structure used for photosynthesis psaa rnas have been detected only in cyanobacteria which is consistent with their association with photosynthesis psaab genes are known to be regulated in species of cyanobacteria that do not use psaa rnas and this system of regulation involves transcription factor proteins in this system the expression of psaab genes is increased when cells are growing with limited amount of light presumably to maximize their energy from the limited resource on the other hand the genes expression is reduced when light levels are high presumable to reduce damage that can be caused by free ...
*  Dna Structure And Function Ppt PDF - Ebook Market
AP Biology – PowerPoint Notes – Chapter 13 ‐ DNA Structure and Functions The Genetic Material DNA is the genetic material Date added: November 29, 2011 - Views: 57. double helix structure right ... The DNA double helix ... CHAPTER 6 The Structures of DNA. and RNA - Kenyon CHAPTER6 The Structures of DNA and RNA T he discovery that DNA is the prime genetic molecule, ... 06.pdf Date added: October 4, 2011 - Views: 230. DNA Structure and Function ... DNA : Structure and Replication 2. DNA Structure and Function 1. Explain why proteins were thought to be the cell's genetic material. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Protein Structure and Function. DNA mRNA Translation: Chapter03.pdf Date added: May 24, 2013 - Views: 8. RNA Structure, Function, and Synthesis RNA -... RNA Structure, Function, and ...
*  Long range pseudoknots
... a long range pseudoknot is a pseudoknot containing a long loop region and may be a mechanism of translational control a long range pseudoknot is thought to negatively regulate the translation of the if l l operon in e coli this operon encodes the translation initiation factor if and ribosomal proteins l and l in this example the rna rna interaction occurs between nucleotides separated by a nucleotide loop region a long range pseudoknot is also believed to be required for the activity of the neurospora vs ribozyme references external links category non coding rna
*  How to Make a Double Helix Dna Model - General Community Chat Forum - eHealthForum
... Home. Health Centers. Health Forums. Ask a Doctor. Blogs. Videos. Sign Up. Login. Email or Display Name. Password. Remember Me. Register Forgot your password. Follow. Medical Questions. General Forum Topics. General Community Chat Forum How to Make a Double Helix Dna Model. Tweet. General Forum Topics How do we make forum suggestions. Make a Change. Ways to Make It Easier I Think. General Community Chat Brand Names Medicine~ Can They Make a Di... Why does caffeine make me have to go poo... The reincarnation of Wild Ginseng. Related Topics Pace Maker Quiston He Makes Me Mad......... Make a Decision... Cowboy Jim. August 7th, 2007. Anyone here with a tutorial about making a double helix dna model. Did you find this post helpful. You marked this post as helpful. I changed my mind. Tweet. TMJWorld replied August 7th, 2007 Extremely eHealthy. Oh Boy. i dont know um perhaps tinker toys. thats the only thing i can think of to use. as for a tutorial i dont know. Did you find this post helpful. You marked this ...
*  Paper DNA (Double Helix) - 7
Paper DNA Double Helix - 7. Login. Login. Sign Up. share what you make. Featured:. Intel IoT. Arduino. New Instructable. Paper DNA Double Helix by General Eggs. Download. 11 Steps. Share. Intro: Paper DNA Double Helix This Instructable is entered in the The Teacher contest. -General Eggs I made one of these for my Biology class. 1 Step 1: Mark it down the middle Mark the paper down the middle. This creates the Sugar Phosphate Backbone of the DNA. 5 Step 5: Fold the Backbone Using the lines on each side, fold one up and the other down. 8 Step 8: Fold the diagonals Fold back on each diagonal line. Step 10: Let go. Let go of the compressed DNA strand. Step 11: A little about DNA For people who don't know all that much about DNA: DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. View All Steps. Download. Just draw it out, scan it directly as a PDF, and include it in one of the steps. br br I include PDF patterns with some of my instructables, and people really respond well to it. The PDFs are easy to find on the internet. I ...
*  DNA
By governing the synthesis of proteins, DNA is inherently the key substance for the maintenance and replication of every cell in nature, as well as DNA-containing viruses that subsist in another organism's host cells. Structure DNA, of course, is not a single well defined molecule, but can occur in an enormous number of different codings, since, by its nature, any given DNA molecule contains the complete instruction set for an entire species. The double helix In living cells DNA typically occurs as a double helix where two compatible helical coils are intertwined and the bases are held together with hydrogen bonds. Sense and anti-sense strands The DNA double helix contains two long helical molecules, that are chemically mirror images, since the opposing bases are A or T, or G or C, respectively. In fact, the anti-sense strand is the strand of DNA transcribed into messenger RNA mRNA. DNA carries the fundamental coding instructions for not only genetic replication of an organism, but also the ...
*  Videos for nucleotide - Homework Help Videos - Brightstorm
... Toggle navigation. Browse Subjects. Math. Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Geometry. Algebra 2. Trigonometry. Precalculus. Calculus. Science. Biology. Chemistry. Physics. English. Grammar. Writing. Literature. Test Prep. SAT. ACT. ACT Red Book. PSAT. AP US Gov. AP US History. AP Biology. AP Calculus AB. College. Get Better Grades. College Application. College Essay. Financial Aid. Search. or Find by textbook. Study. Math. Science. English. Test Prep. Sign in. Teacher membership. School membership. Start Your Free Trial. 6 Videos for "nucleotide" Nucleic Acids Science › Chemistry › Biochemistry The description and mechanistic functions of nucleic acids. Tags: DNA RNA nucleotide ATP double helix. DNA Replication Science › Biology › Molecular Biology The process of DNA replication. Tags: DNA replication helicase. nucleotides. Nucleic Acids Science › Biology › Chemical Basis of Life The description and mechanistic functions of nucleic acids. Tags: DNA RNA nucleotide ATP double helix. DNA Structure Science › Biology › ...
*  LivK RNA motif
... infobox rfam name livk rna image livk rna svg width caption consensus secondary structure of livk rnas this figure is adapted from a previous publication symbol livk altsymbols rfam rf mirbase mirbase family rna type cis reg tax domain bacteria go so cas number entrezgene hgncid omim pdb refseq chromosome arm band locussupplementarydata the livk rna motif describes a conserved rna structured that was discovered using bioinformatics the livk motif is detected only in the species pseudomonas syringae it is found in the potential untranslated region s utrs of livk gene s and downstream livm and livh genes as well as the utrs of amidase genes the liv genes are predicted to be transporters of branched chain amino acids i e leucine isoleucine or valine the specific reaction catalyzed the amidase genes is not predicted references external links category cis regulatory rna elements
*  Nucleic Acids - Biology Video by Brightstorm
Pre-Algebra. Algebra. Algebra 2. Chemistry. Test Prep. AP Biology. Test Prep. Start Your Free Trial. / Nucleic Acids. Learn math, science, English SAT ACT from high-quaility study videos by expert teachers Preview playing in 3. To unlock all 5,300 videos, start your free trial. Start Your Free Trial Learn more. Nucleic Acids. 33,843 views. Patrick Roisen Patrick Roisen M.Ed., Stanford University Winner of multiple teaching awards. Patrick has been teaching AP Biology for 14 years and is the winner of multiple teaching awards. Nucleic acids are long chains of monomers nucleotides that function as storage molecules in a cell. Nucleotides are composed of sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. ATP, DNA and RNA are all examples of nucleic acids. Now they're used as many of you know to store genetic information and that's the famous DNA and RNA whether DNA is storing genetic information long term inside of the nucleus of one of your cells or for transferring that genetic information from ...
*  Incorrect foldings
... redirect protein folding incorrect protein folding and neurodegenerative disease
*  BioInf.RNAwolf.Hairpin
... Source. Contents. Index RNAwolf- RNA folding with non-canonical basepairs and base-triplets. BioInf.RNAwolf.Hairpin. Synopsis. fHairpin :: - BaseF ExtFeatures Vector ExtPairIdx, Double. btHairpin :: Params - Primary - EStem - ExtBT. Documentation. fHairpin :: - BaseF ExtFeatures Vector ExtPairIdx, Double Source. A hairpin is a number of 0 or more unpaired nucleotides, enclosed by the nucleotides i,j which pair. TODO should we allow hairpins with no unpaired nucleotides in the pin. They do occur, but only under special circumstances which we should model differently... TODO re-allow IMI. btHairpin :: Params - Primary - EStem - ExtBT Source. Backtracking hairpins. Produced by Haddock version 2.9.2.
*  DNA Structure: Puzzle Number 1
dna structure puzzle number dna structure puzzle number clive delmonte clived at ndirect co uk tue dec est next message dna structure puzzle number messages sorted by in their stm study of nucleic acids lee et al recorded in figure b lengthy stretches of at least four well resolved linear dna duplexes the vital feature of this image of dna molecules is that no plectonaemic winding can be discerned that is they show no sign of being double helical the duplexes consist of long paired helices with a consistent uninterrupted parallel or antiparallel contour running between the two strands of each of the four duplexes whose highlighted features remain exactly in phase with each other over their whole lengths extending to some full helical turns scanning tunnelling microscopy of nucleic acids g lee p g arscott v a bloomfield d fennell evans science vol clive delmonte next message dna structure puzzle number messages sorted by more information about the xtal log mailing list
* - Figure 9
www genomebiology com figure resolution standard high figure structure and conservation of the histone utr stem loop a schema of the utr stem loop structure present in metazoan mrnas b sequence logo representation of the histone utr stem loop the sequences accession number rf were obtained from the rfam database utr untranslated region mariño ramírez et al genome biology r doi gb r download authors original image

Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Base pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Hyperchromicity: Hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured.Coles PhillipsAbscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.CpG OligodeoxynucleotideList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.MT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.CccDNA: cccDNA (covalently closed circular DNA) is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there. It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form that is ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Saccharomyces boulardii: Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical strain of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard. It is related to, but distinct from, Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several taxonomic, metabolic, and genetic properties.Schiff baseTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Reaction coordinateYjdF RNA motifTRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionRestriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Sticky and blunt ends: DNA end or sticky end refers to the properties of the end of a molecule of DNA or a recombinant DNA molecule. The concept is important in molecular biology, especially in cloning or when subcloning inserts DNA into vector DNA.Standard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).Extension Poly(A) Test: The extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT) describes a method to determine the poly(A) tail lengths of mRNA molecules. It was developed and described by A.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Enterobacteria phage G4: Enterobacteria phage G4 is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells. The phage was originally isolated from samples of raw sewage and infects E.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.C4H7N3O3Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Fishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Ribonuclease T2: Ribonuclease T2 (, ribonuclease II, base-non-specific ribonuclease, nonbase-specific RNase, RNase (non-base specific), non-base specific ribonuclease, nonspecific RNase, RNase Ms, RNase M, RNase II, Escherichia coli ribonuclease II, ribonucleate nucleotido-2'-transferase (cyclizing), acid ribonuclease, RNAase CL, Escherichia coli ribonuclease I' ribonuclease PP2, ribonuclease N2, ribonuclease M, acid RNase, ribonnuclease (non-base specific), ribonuclease (non-base specific), RNase T2, ribonuclease PP3, ribonucleate 3'-oligonucleotide hydrolase, ribonuclease U4) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionExcision repair cross-complementing: Excision repair cross-complementing (ERCC) is a set of proteins which are involved in DNA repair.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Ethyl groupDNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.Thermal cyclerUniversity of Miami Division of Surgical Neurooncology: The Division of Surgical Neurooncology in the Department of Neurological Surgery and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami is one of the largest and most complete programs for brain tumor treatment in the United States. As the only academic medical center in the region, the University of Miami offers a unique and comprehensive approach to these conditions, with interdisciplinary discussion between neurosurgery, neurology, radiation oncology, and medical oncology.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.X-ray magnetic circular dichroismDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Core enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.CS-BLASTLow-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.DNA-binding proteinProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.G2-M DNA damage checkpoint: The G2-M DNA damage checkpoint is an important cell cycle checkpoint in eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. This checkpoint ensures that cells don't initiate mitosis before they have a chance to repair damaged DNA after replication.Log management knowledge base: The Log Management Knowledge Base is a free database of detailed descriptions on over 20,000 event logs generated by Windows systems, syslog devices and applications.http://www.Mannich base: A Mannich base is a beta-amino-ketone, which is formed in the reaction of an amine, formaldehyde (or an aldehyde) and a carbon acid. The Mannich base is an endproduct in the Mannich reaction, which is nucleophilic addition reaction of a non-enolizable aldehyde and any primary or secondary amine to produce resonance stabilized imine (iminium ion or imine salt).Oxoguanine glycosylase: 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase also known as OGG1 is a DNA glycosylase enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the OGG1 gene. It is involved in base excision repair.

(1/178859) Evidence on the conformation of HeLa-cell 5.8S ribosomal ribonucleic acid from the reaction of specific cytidine residues with sodium bisulphite.

The reaction of HeLa-cell 5.8S rRNA with NaHSO3 under conditions in which exposed cytidine residues are deaminated to uridine was studied. It was possible to estimate the reactivities of most of the 46 cytidine residues in the nucleotide sequence by comparing 'fingerprints' of the bisulphite-treated RNA with those of untreated RNA. The findings were consistent with the main features of the secondary-structure model for mammalian 5.85S rRNA proposed by Nazar, Sitz, & Busch [J. Biol. Chem (1975) 250, 8591--8597]. Five out of six regions that are depicted in the model as single-stranded loops contain cytidine residues that are reactive towards bisulphite at 25 degrees C (the other loop contains no cytidine). The cytidine residue nearest to the 3'-terminus is also reactive. Several cytidines residues that are internally located within proposed double-helical regions show little or no reactivity towards bisulphite, but the cytidine residues of several C.G pairs at the ends of helical regions show some reactivity, and one of the proposed loops appears to contain six nucleotides, rather than the minimum of four suggested by the primary structure. Two cytidine residues that are thought to be 'looped out' by small helix imperfections also show some reactivity.  (+info)

(2/178859) Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants.

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

(3/178859) Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region.

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

(4/178859) Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family.

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

(5/178859) Activation of systemic acquired silencing by localised introduction of DNA.

BACKGROUND: In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing results in RNA degradation after transcription. Among tobacco transformants carrying a nitrate reductase (Nia) construct under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-Nia2), one class of transformants spontaneously triggers Nia post-transcriptional gene silencing (class II) whereas another class does not (class I). Non-silenced plants of both classes become silenced when grafted onto silenced stocks, indicating the existence of a systemic silencing signal. Graft-transmitted silencing is maintained in class II but not in class I plants when removed from silenced stocks, indicating similar requirements for spontaneous triggering and maintenance. RESULTS: Introduction of 35S-Nia2 DNA by the gene transfer method called biolistics led to localised acquired silencing (LAS) in bombarded leaves of wild-type, class I and class II plants, and to systemic acquired silencing (SAS) in class II plants. SAS occurred even if the targeted leaf was removed 2 days after bombardment, indicating that the systemic signal is produced, transmitted and amplified rapidly. SAS was activated by sense, antisense and promoterless Nia2 DNA constructs, indicating that transcription is not required although it does stimulate SAS. CONCLUSIONS: SAS was activated by biolistic introduction of promoterless constructs, indicating that the DNA itself is a potent activator of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The systemic silencing signal invaded the whole plant by cell-to-cell and long-distance propagation, and reamplification of the signal.  (+info)

(6/178859) Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3.

Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

(7/178859) TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family.

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

(8/178859) Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation.

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)


  • In molecular biology, a hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length, which is used to detect in DNA or RNA samples the presence of nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the sequence in the probe. (
  • Nucleotide sequences of a 0.7kb portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were analyzed using Japanese species of water striders belonging to the subgenus Macrogerris. (
  • Comparisons of nucleotide sequences indicated that genetic distances among these lineages were much larger than those between G. gracilicornis and G. yezoensis. (
  • A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate. (


  • We have developed Bambus 3, a scaffolding pipeline that accurately detects repeats and variations in the metagenomic sequences. (


  • Our phylogenetic reconstruction is based on newly sequenced mitochondrial DNA data representing all known species of Saltator . (

nucleic acids

  • These developments have been accelerated by advanced technologies for modifying the nucleic acid-based probes with different signaling mechanisms and bases of nucleic acids with organic functional groups. (
  • DNA probe An agent that binds directly to a predefined sequence of nucleic acids. (


  • EclipseLink supports table and native sequencing on most databases. (
  • If you need a finer level of control, you can use a SessionCustomizer and in code register a Sequence object with the EclipseLink Session's DatabaseLogin based on the DatabasePlatform. (


  • Resolution of complex repeat structures and rearrangements in the assembly and analysis of large eukaryotic genomes is often aided by a combination of high-throughput sequencing and mapping technologies (e.g. optical restriction mapping). (


  • Despite their utility, combining high-throughput sequencing and mapping technologies has been challenging due to the lack of efficient and freely available software for robustly aligning maps to sequences. (


  • The field of droplet-based single-cell sequencing field has made increasing advances in recent years. (
  • The goal of this collection is to highlight the new advances in this growing field, with an emphasis on the interface between the technological advancements and high impact applications of droplet-based single-cell sequencing. (
  • Recent advances in single molecule sequencing technologies have provided reads almost 100 times longer than next generation methods. (


  • Here we introduce two new map-to-sequence alignment algorithms that efficiently and accurately align high-throughput mapping datasets to large, eukaryotic genomes while accounting for high error rates. (


  • Next generation sequencing has dramatically reduced the cost of sequencing compared to the traditional whole genome sequencing approach, thereby enabling the generation of billions of reads at a very low cost per sequenced base. (
  • The probe thereby hybridizes to single-stranded nucleic acid ( DNA or RNA) whose base sequence allows probe-target base pairing due. (


  • Based partly on his studies of Hawaiian snails, Gulick's book, Evolution, racial and habitudinal ( Gulick 1905 ), and some of his other publications include arguably the first exposition of the founder effect, genetic drift and the shifting balance concept ( Carson 1987 a ). (
  • base pair Neanderthal Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell. (


  • The absence of Neandertal mtDNA sequences in modern Europeans argues against large-scale admixture between Cro-Magnoids and Neandertals. (
  • FISH is a cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. (


  • Epigenetics denotes molecular mechanisms independent of the DNA sequence that refer to the heritable, but also reversible, regulation of gene transcription ( 2 ). (
  • The second phase of this research has involved the molecular assembly of artificially selected functional ssDNA sequences called aptamers. (
  • This mini-review will focus on recent progress in the elucidation of the molecular bases for the recognition of a subset of sorting signals, referred to as tyrosine-based signals, by a family of adaptor protein (AP) 1 complexes. (


  • Improvements to microfluidics are advancing rapidly and extensions to other sequencing methods are also being developed, enabling investigations to probe information beyond mRNA alone. (
  • Most of the existing mate pair based scaffolding methods are designed to work with single genome assemblies, hence do not address the issues discussed above. (


  • In summary, this research has focused on the design, synthesis and investigation of multifunctional and advanced nucleic acid probes, with the ultimate goal of increasing the understanding of biological processes and the development of advanced molecules for nucleic acid-based detection and therapy. (
  • DNA Probes -Based Diagnostics (MCP-3405) - Global Industry Analysts, Inc. ... DNA PROBES -BASED DIAGNOSTICS. (


  • For more context, please read the editorials " Perspective on droplet-based-single cell sequencing " by David Weitz and " InDrops and Drop-seq technologies for single-cell sequencing " by Allon Klein and Evan Macosko . (
  • All the current sequencing technologies share the fundamental limitation that sequences read from the genome using a sequencer are much smaller than an entire genome. (


  • Further progress required the development of more sensitive protein interaction assays based on techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid system and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. (
  • base pair The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule. (


  • The Hawaiian archipelago ( figure 1 ) consists of a sequence of oceanic islands formed as the Pacific plate moves north-westwards over a stationary plume or 'hot spot' in the Earth's mantle, which periodically sends magma up through the plate, creating a chain of volcanoes, each sequentially younger than the one that preceded it, and that will have moved north-westwards away from the hot spot. (


  • The determination of the sequence of nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. (


  • Genome assembly is a critical step in most biological sequence analysis as it gives a nearly complete picture of the genome sequence. (


  • If you are interested in contributing to the droplet-based single-cell sequencing collection, please get in touch with the Lab on a Chip Editorial Office at and provide a title and abstract of your proposed submission. (


  • Based on these results, evolutionary relationships among the three lineages are discussed. (


  • We also introduce an approach for evaluating the significance of alignments that avoids expensive permutation-based tests while being agnostic to technology-dependent error rates. (
  • I would use the identity column or the sequence and not the table approach. (
  • When you use such approach hibernte is able to use identity columns or the sequence you've provided a a paremeter to the generator type. (


  • You could also use TABLE sequencing, which is database independent and support sequence preallocation, so will have better performance than IDENTITY. (
  • base pairs , and those differences were completely independent of the 26 observed for the Neanderthal fossil. (


  • Father Kal, as we knew him, is a man deserving of more words than I can give him here, but let's just say he promoted a faith based not on blind acceptance but constant inquiry. (


  • These long sequences have tremendous potential to dramatically improve genome and transcriptome assembly. (


  • and having it work with autoincrement or sequence of given name. (
  • What we're figuring here is if eclipse link could provide a simple way *like the one provided by hibernate* where you simply specify a generator-class = native, and you give a sequence name. (


  • The presence of a sequence conforming to the YXXØ motif within a large cytosolic domain, however, is not necessarily predictive of sorting information since signals must be presented in an appropriate context to be active. (


  • BTW i've not clear wich criteria are used to choose if using, TABLE, SEQUENCE, OR IDENTITY. (
  • I believe AUTO will use IDENTITY on database platforms that support IDENTITY, and SEQUENCE or TABLE on those that do not. (


  • Tyrosine-based signals constitute a family of degenerate motifs minimally defined by the presence of a critical tyrosine residue (see reference 22 and references therein). (


  • If you give it the IDENTITY or SEQUENCE generator type, then I believe it will use this type, unless it is not supported, then default to another type. (


  • Sign in to see reasons why you may or may not like this based on your games, friends, and curators you follow. (
  • There may be many reasons to doubt any ancient DNA sequences, but dating disagreements should not be one of them. (


  • This has rapidly become a burgeoning field, where microfluidic techniques are essential and where droplet-based microfluidics has enabled a major advance. (

To determine the identity of their biological parents, adopted children sometimes request DNA tests?

  • These tests involve comparing DNA samples from the child to DNA samples taken from the likely parents. Possible relationships may be determined from these tests because 1. base sequence of the father determines the base sequence of the offspring 2. DNA of parents and their offspring is more similar than the DNA of nonfamily members 3. position of the genes on each chromosome is unique to each family 4. mutation rate is the same in closely related individuals
  • That's really interesting, and it's amazing how far science technology has gone . . . But you don't have a question, so I'm not sure what sort of answers or comments you are looking for.

What is the meaning of the base notes, middle notes and top notes in perfume making?

  • Perfume designers describe their creations in terms of notes: base, middle and top. There is a lot of confllicting info about how to create and balance these notes, and how they appeal to our noses, and what they really mean. It would be great to hear a good professional answer. I wanna add that I am not interested in jokes on this subject.
  • Top notes would be the scent that would evaporate first and the fastest. The top notes are usually the scent you smell when you first spray the perfume. After it evaporates is when you smell the middle notes. The middle notes is the main body of the perfume and what you smell the most of the perfume. The base notes is what helps hold the top and middle notes. The main smell of a perfume would be the middle and base notes.

What's the difference between higher vegetable oil base than a lower vegetable oil base in margarine?

  • What's the difference between higher vegetable oil base than a lower vegetable oil base in margarine. (other then more vegetable oil) Bought stick margarine today and one is 80 percent vegetable oil and the other one is 65 percent vegetable oil which would be better for baking and why?
  • Manufacturers produced margarine by taking clarified vegetable fat, extracting the liquid portion under pressure, and then allowing it to solidify. When combined with butyrin and water or skimmed milk, it made a palatable butter-substitute. The base percentage indicates the percentage of fat versus water or milk. This means that if margarine is 80% vegetable oil, the other 20% is water/milk, salt, emulsifier and flavor(s). Three main types of margarine are common: 1. Hard, generally uncolored margarine for cooking or baking. (Also known as ‘Shortening’) 2. "Traditional" margarines for such uses as spreading on toast, which contain saturated fats, are mostly made from vegetable oils. (Mostly salted) 3. Margarines high in mono- or polyunsaturated fats, which are made from safflower, sunflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed, or olive oil. Therefore, for baking, margarine with higher vegetable oil base should be used (if shortening is not available) for better consistency, texture, and flavor. Happy baking!

What are the risks to wearing contacts with a base curve slightly larger than original?

  • Lets say you have the base curve of 8.4 for your eyes, but you have contacts with a base curve of 8.6 What are some risk or factors to that?
  • it's not dangerous that way, as they'd be too loose instead of too tight. they may slide around and not be as comfortable.

Can I build up a base tan using sunless tanning products, then start tanning outside for better results?

  • I am very pale and I plan on building a base tan using a sunless tanning lotion, then start gradually tanning outside everyday? Is that a good idea?
  • A sunless tanner will not act as a base tan. A base tan is your own bodys built in SPF. The build up of melanin created by tanning, (which turns brown) is what protects your cells from bursting. What we call a sun burn. If you are going to even build a base tan, I would recomend doing it indoors. Tanning salons are controlled environments. The sun, is not. Also, using a self tanner, will inhibit you from being able to visually control your tan as well. Any sort of "pinkish" colour is dangerous to your health. So, start low. Very low. And gradually move up minute by minute. Also, pick out a lotion that includes something like "melaboost" which will help your body produce more melanin. Remember, tanning in moderation is smart tanning. If you're just looking for fast results, use a self tanner only. And skip the real thing. Remember to wear an SPF out doors, and moisturize daily. The less skin you shed, the longer your fake tan will last. (Also the use of a body wash that is sulfate free will help)

What is a good substitute for shrimp base in a clam chowder recipe?

  • I can find lobster, clam, and chicken base but no shrimp. Is one of these options better than the others, or is there something else I can use?
  • You can use clam or lobster base. Shrimp base is sometimes found in local Chinese or Japanese grocery stores. I have enclosed a chowder recipe you might enjoy! Clam Chowder III "Very basic and easy, and by no means low in fat, but very well worth it." Original recipe yield: 6 servings. Prep Time: 15 Minutes Cook Time: 30 Minutes Ready In: 45 Minutes Servings: 6 (change) INGREDIENTS: * 1 cup chopped onion * 3 cloves garlic * 4 cups peeled and diced potatoes * 1 cup diced celery * 1 teaspoon salt * 1/2 teaspoon ground black pepper * 2 (10 ounce) cans minced clams, drained with juice reserved * 1 quart half-and-half cream * 1/2 teaspoon white sugar * 3/4 cup butter, melted * 3/4 cup all-purpose flour DIRECTIONS: 1. In a blender, combine onion, garlic and enough water to make a smooth paste. Set aside. 2. In a large pot, combine potatoes, celery, salt, pepper, onion mixture and juice from clams. Augment with enough water to cover. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer until potatoes are soft, 20 minutes. 3. Stir in half-and-half and sugar. Combine melted butter and flour, then whisk into soup. Cook and stir until thickened. Stir in clams and adjust seasonings.

What is the difference between eye primer and eye base with concealer?

  • I just bought the eye base with the concealer and now Im wondering what the difference is. Im so mad that I put down the wrong one. I just dont want to drive around anymore. UGH help?
  • Eye Primer is basically a creme that smooths onto your eyes and leaves them soft, and slightly sticky, so that eye shadows, liners, etc. can be applied easier and last longer. Eye Shadow Base is very similar to Eye Primer, except for the fact that it's tinted to even out the skin tone of your eye. I don't use Eye Primer; instead, I used Eye Shadow Base. It's perfectly fine, and works just as well (at least for me!). I hope I helped. Love, Alyssa

What kind of license do you need to work at a military base salon overseas?

  • Since military bases are technically US property, how would one go about transferring their license to an overseas base salon/barber shop? Thank you for any information you have.
  • I think they hire locally. Gino Morena Enterprises LLC has the contract for hundreds of military bases. They used to have a map showing all their locations worldwide, but I can no longer find it on their website. Good Luck!