No data available that match "Bacterial Typing Techniques"

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In total, 10 wild-type and 11 BALB/c-JHD mice were analyzed. There was no statistical ... were cultured for the presence of any bacteria using the broth recovery technique (see ... All bacterial strains are derived from YPIII(P+), a Y. pseudotuberculosis serogroup III ... Bacterial load and clonal dissemination of Y. pseudotuberculosis. C57BL/6J mice were ......
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No data available that match "Bacterial Typing Techniques"

(1/7662) The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration.

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

(2/7662) Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review.

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

(3/7662) Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications.

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

(4/7662) Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii: a case-control study of adult burn patients.

Risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) were studied in patients with severe thermal injury in a burn intensive care unit where A. baumannii was endemic. Of 367 patients hospitalized for severe thermal injury during the study period, 29 patients with nosocomial A. baumannii BSI were identified (attack rate, 7.9%). Cases were compared with 58 matched controls without A. baumannii BSI. The overall mortality rate was 31% among cases and 14% among controls; only two deaths (7%) were considered directly related to A. baumannii BSI. Molecular typing of A. baumannii blood isolates by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three different strain types. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (P = .027), total body surface area burn of > 50% (P = .016), prior nosocomial colonization with A. baumannii at a distant site (P = .0002), and use of hydrotherapy (P = .037) were independently associated with the acquisition of A. baumannii BSI in burn patients. These data underscore the need for effective infection control measures for this emerging nosocomial problem.  (+info)

(5/7662) Molecular differentiation of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from worldwide locations.

Renibacterium salmoninarum is a genospecies that is an obligate pathogen of salmonid fish and is capable of intracellular survival. Conventional typing systems have failed to differentiate isolates of R. salmoninarum. We used two methods to assess the extent of molecular variation which was present in isolates from different geographic locations. In one analysis we investigated possible polymorphisms in a specific region of the genome, the intergenic spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. In the other analysis we analyzed differences throughout the genome by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We amplified the spacer region of 74 isolates by using PCR and performed a DNA sequence analysis with 14 geographically distinct samples. The results showed that the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer region of R. salmoninarum is highly conserved and suggested that only a single copy of the rRNA operon is present in this slowly growing pathogen. DNA sequencing of the spacer region showed that it was the same length in all 14 isolates examined, and the same nucleotide sequence, sequevar 1, was obtained for 11 of these isolates. Two other sequevars were found. No tRNA genes were found. We found that RAPD analysis allows reproducible differentiation between isolates of R. salmoninarum obtained from different hosts and different geographic regions. By using RAPD analysis it was possible to differentiate between isolates with identical ITS sequences.  (+info)

(6/7662) Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)

(7/7662) Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus and other vibrio species.

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that is capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed for use in detecting V. vulnificus, as well as other members of the genus Vibrio. The resulting RAPD profiles were analyzed by using RFLPScan software. This RAPD method clearly differentiated between members of the genus Vibrio and between isolates of V. vulnificus. Each V. vulnificus strain produced a unique band pattern, indicating that the members of this species are genetically quite heterogeneous. All of the vibrios were found to have amplification products whose sizes were within four common molecular weight ranges, while the V. vulnificus strains had an additional two molecular weight range bands in common. All of the V. vulnificus strains isolated from clinical specimens produced an additional band that was only occasionally found in environmental strains; this suggests that, as is the case with the Kanagawa hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the presence of this band may be correlated with the ability of a strain to produce an infection in humans. In addition, band pattern differences were observed between encapsulated and nonencapsulated isogenic morphotypes of the same strain of V. vulnificus.  (+info)

(8/7662) Arbitrarily primed PCR to type Vibrio spp. pathogenic for shrimp.

A molecular typing study on Vibrio strains implicated in shrimp disease outbreaks in New Caledonia and Japan was conducted by using AP-PCR (arbitrarily primed PCR). It allowed rapid identification of isolates at the genospecies level and studies of infraspecific population structures of epidemiological interest. Clusters identified within the species Vibrio penaeicida were related to their area of origin, allowing discrimination between Japanese and New Caledonian isolates, as well as between those from two different bays in New Caledonia separated by only 50 km. Other subclusters of New Caledonian V. penaeicida isolates could be identified, but it was not possible to link those differences to accurate epidemiological features. This contribution of AP-PCR to the study of vibriosis in penaeid shrimps demonstrates its high discriminating power and the relevance of the epidemiological information provided. This approach would contribute to better knowledge of the ecology of Vibrio spp. and their implication in shrimp disease in aquaculture.  (+info)

What type of relaxation technique would you suggest for stress?

What type of relaxation technique  would you suggest for stress? I have been dealing with a little stress and i am not sure which type of relaxation technique to use to reduce my stress. If you have any suggestions please answer and explain why it would be the best type.

Hi Absence-Of,
Here is a really SUPER one
Go to:

What other techniques are there like Naet? Or how could you have similar results, without using Naet?

I understand that naet helps to reeducate the nervous system about what is a toxin and what is okay.. Is there another type of technique that is simpler or something else that can be done to remove allergies like naet does? 

And honestly if you are just going to babble on how it doesn't work save it, I'm just going to block you.

It is not the same, but you might want to consider acupuncture.

What type of screen print is on that shirt?

I've seen various prints on tshirts. Some are thick and glossy, some are not too thick, and some are so thin they feel like they were dyed.

What are the different types of printing techniques / inks used for garments? Anyone recommend a good book on this subject?


There are two main types of ink that are used for textile printing. Water-based ink utilizes either dyes or pigments in a suspension with water as the solvent. The evaporation of the water is necessary to set or cure the ink. This curing can take place either at room temperature or using a forced-air dryer depending upon the specific water-based ink used and the speed or volume of production.  Both types of ink are very popular. However, for the most part, they are used in very different applications. Plastisol is the ink of choice for printing of finished goods such as T-shirts, sweatshirts, jackets, and tote bags. Water-based ink is the ink of choice for the printing of yard goods; either in piece form or on the roll. Both inks have technical advantages and disadvantages for use in specific applications. They also each have their own environmental impacts and these should be considered for the particular application and shop setup.

Home Screen Printing Workshop: Do It Yourself Techniques for Graphic Tees, Art Prints, and Funky Accessories
by Paul Thimou

T-Shirt Printer's Survival Manual
by Michael P. Shanley, Nita G. Coldiron

What kind of energy techniques can you use on a broken leg?

Gotta write a paper for my massage therapy class. I know the basics of Reiki and Polarity Therapy; and I suggested using those for the trauma and regaining he peace within the bones and tissues.
Is there any other types of energy techniques I could use? Physical Massage on a broken bone is a huge contraindication. So, energy work is the only alternative.

How does a therapist deal with a Bipolar patient who is having a Manic/hypomanic episode?

During the session, what types of techniques/skills would the therapist use for a patient who is very manic (racing thoughts, flight of ideas, grandiosity, etc. etc.) ? Also, what about the stupid actions they are taking (getting in trouble with the law, school, running away if you're a minor) ?

They would start by sending you to a psychiatrist for medications.
They may have to tell the parents if danger to self or others. ASK.
support groups with people to talk to at

What type of massage is it when someone stands on your back to get massaged?

I just wanted to find the term so that i can purchase a book that deals with that type of massage technique.  Or if anyone can recommend a book on that.  It is basically when someone uses their feet and massages your back while standing on it. I've seen it on TV but dont know what it is called. can anyone help.

It can also be called pole walking, Ashiatsu Oriental Bar Therapy, or Fijian Massage.  It depends on who you ask or where you are.
Take a look at the websites below and see if either one is what  you are looking for.

How to get my hair to look shiny and straight without pressing?

I need some type of technique to make my hair look good. Or some type of style for almost shoulder length hair that doesnt look to short

hair polisher would add shine and vitamins.

how do you get rid of a bacterial infection of the skin from tanning booths?

bacterial infection
the bacteria isnt like MRSA its more like white blochs on my skin that dnt get any color like dry patches?

Tinea Versicolor is what you probably have. They can be white, brown, or a red color. It is not due to the tanning bed. It is from bacteria that is naturally on everyone's skin. Most people can not see it until they develop a tan simply because these spots do not tan. Heat can help them develop but will not cause the bacteria. Dandruff shampoo can help if the bacteria hasn't developed much.

Tinea versicolor is cause by a yeast type of skin fungus, which is present on normal skin. If the skin is oily enough, warm enough and moist enough, it starts to grow into small "colonies" on the surface of the skin. In these colonies the yeast grows like crazy and leaks out an acidic bleach. This changes the skin color. The patches are lightly reddish brown on very pale skin but they don't tan. Because of lack of any tanning, they look like white spots on darker or tanned skin. This is most often seen on the neck, upper chest, upper arms and back. There may be a fine, dry scale on it.

Usually the infection produces few symptoms, but some people get itching, especially when sweating. The warmer the weather, the worse this condition gets. Tanning booths are warm places, so avoid them. The reasons why some get this problem and others do not are not known.

A dermatologist can easily recognize this infection, but occasionally it can be mistaken for other skin conditions. If there is any doubt a 'KOH prep', a test done quickly in the office, will confirm the diagnosis.

The infection is treated with either topical or oral medications. In very mild cases, non-prescription antifungal creams (Lotrimin-AF, Micatin) will work. Prescription antifungal lotions and sprays (Oxistat lotion, Lamisil spray) may work better. The most economical effective treatment is to apply an antifungal shampoo (Nizoral, Excel) to the body as if it were soap, but leave it on for some minutes before rinsing.

For severe, extensive or recurrent cases, a few tablets of Nizoral pills will clear things up. A newer pill, Sporonox, may replace Nizoral for this problem. These will eliminate the fungus and relive any itch and scale. The uneven color of the skin will remain several months, perhaps until one gets a tan again in the next summer.

Remember, since we all have some of this fungus, no treatment can prevent one from picking it up again forever. In many people, the rash reappears for the next few years. To prevent recurrence, preventative re-treatment with the same medication may be advised. This condition is not seen beyond mid-life, so rest assured it won't keep coming back forever

I. Definition:

Tinea versicolor is a chronic skin condition caused by a yeast living on normal skin of all people. In most people, the presence of this yeast on the skin is not visible. In some people, for unknown reasons, the yeast grows more actively and causes an itchy scaling rash. 

II. Causes: 

Tinea versicolor is caused by a yeast called Pityrosporon orbiculare. 
People who have tinea versicolor are genetically predisposed to developing a rash when this germ is present on the skin. 
When the yeast grows on untanned skin, the rash is pink to brown. When the yeast grows on tanned skin, the rash looks white because the yeast blocks out the sunlight and the skin where the yeast is growing does not tan. When growing on Asian or African-American skin, the rash can look darker or lighter than the surrounding skin depending on the patient 

III. Treatment: 

There is no permanent cure for tinea versicolor. 
Selenium sulfide 2.5 percent should be applied to the skin, between the neck and the knees, before bed every night for 2 nights and washed off the following morning. After this, use the selenium sulfide once a week to once a month in the above manner to keep the condition under control. MY NOTE: Selenium sulfide is the active ingredient in Selsun Blue

Resistant cases can be treated with an antifungal cream applied directly to the skin. 
Some doctors use pills to treat this condition. We do not do this because the pills have side effects and offer no permanent solution. 
The uneven pigmentation that can develop from this condition can be improved with daily alpha hydroxyacid lotion application to the involved areas for several months.

Tinea Versicolor
What is tinea versicolor? How is it treated? 

Tinea versicolor is a mild, superficial fungal infection, somewhat similar to ringworm (true ringworm can also result in white patches). Since the affected skin doesn't change color well with sun exposure, it usually becomes apparent as white patches during the summer months. In the winter it may seem to disappear, or even seem to become slightly darkened patches as the surrounding skin gets paler (this is where the name versicolor comes from). 

Tinea versicolor is most common in adolescents and young adults 15 to 30 years old (although it can certainly happen at any age)