Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.PhenazinesActinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.

*  I will be a healer, and love all things that grow: Group B Strep- What's Up with That?
has Group B Strep bacteria colonizing her birth canal, she'll be ... by GBS and other bacteria found that, when the mothers of the ill ... off their entire bacterial ecology as well as putting future moms...
http://eowyns-heir.blogspot.com/2012/05/group-b-strep-whats-up-with-that.html
*  Home
Examples include bacteria, viruses, toxins, cancer cells, and...
http://wewinfoundation.org/
*  Probiotic Supplements | Probiotic Products | at Puritan's Pride
friendly or good bacteria in your digestive system. http://www ... friendly" or "good" bacteria in your digestive system.**. Probiotics ... called "friendly bacteria" because they help support a healthy...
http://puritan.com/probiotic-672?page=2&sortOrder=4&filter=Brand|247
*  What does cold and warm blooded mean?... - Brainly.comSearchPrevious questionNext question
skin macrophages bacteria mucous fever B cells T cells antibodies...
http://brainly.com/question/119109
*  Austin Air HealthMate Plus Series - Austin Air Purifiers - Free Shipping: All Purpose Air Purifiers
Air Purifiers. Germ Bacteria Air Purifiers. Pet Odor Air Purifiers. ... Purifiers 2. Germ/Bacteria Purifiers 2. Pet Odor Air Purifiers 2....
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*  Recent Articles | Developmental Biology, Immunology And Microbiology | The Scientist Magazine®
December 1, 2016. Bacteria in the intestine influence motor ... Disease Bacteria in the intestine influence motor...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.list/categoryNo/2625/category/The-Scientist/tagNo/5,12,10,7,3/tags/developmental-biology,immunology,microbiology,ecology,culture/
*  Don’t dump bleach in San Francisco Bay - Opinion Shop
naturally as bacteria break down sewage. Other solutions to...
http://blog.sfgate.com/opinionshop/2011/02/24/dont-dump-bleach-in-san-francisco-bay/
*  Collards: Collards Blackleg, Aerial Stem Rot - Plant Guide
carotovorum , the bacteria that causes Blackleg Soft Rot is often ... seed potatoes, the bacteria may also enter the plant through wounds ... the disease the bacteria can t survive outside of living plants...
http://smartgardener.com/plants/7448-collards-collards/diseases/778-blackleg-aerial-stem-rot
*  Roots® BioPak® Soil Drench - GreenView
blend of beneficial bacteria. The bacteria in BioPak can improve ... GreenSmart. The bacteria in BioPak can improve soil fertility in ... Provides beneficial bacteria Adds organic material to the soil Can...
http://greenviewfertilizer.com/store/Roots-BioPak-Soil-Drench-P91C44.aspx?UserID=13872461
*  7 Home Remedies for Allergies That Work a Treat! - GTM - Green Tree Medic
system healthy. bacteria probiotics in the gut, which is another ... in fact. 2 Good Bacteria Probiotics. As you now know, probiotics ... kill off the bad bacteria, the overproduction of histamine is...
http://greentreemedic.com/7-home-remedies-allergies-work-treat-gtm/
*  What is a Pesticide? - U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs 14feb97
microorganisms like bacteria and viruses. Though often misunderstood ... such as bacteria and viruses. Herbicides Kill weeds and...
http://mindfully.org/Pesticide/What-Is-A-Pesticide.htm
*  Northwest project to build tire-filled digester | Biomassmagazine.com
media on which bacteria grows. As the manure wastewater passes ... filled reactor, the bacteria on the media convert the organic matter...
http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/2318/northwest-project-to-build-tire-filled-digester
*  I need relief from trapped gas - Alternative Medicine Message Board - HealthBoards
related to good bacteria or enzymes needed. sunshine123 Senior ... related to good bacteria or enzymes needed. Need help getting...
http://healthboards.com/boards/alternative-medicine/525783-i-need-relief-trapped-gas.html
*  HHMI Scientists Search Results | Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)
, NJ. Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence and Disease Prevention Tufts ... Communication in Bacteria. Princeton University Princeton, NJ. ... Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence and Disease Prevention Tufts...
http://hhmi.org/scientists/browse?field_scientist_research_areas%5B0%5D=17589&field_scientist_classification%5B1%5D=17367&items_per_page=24&field_scientist_research_areas[0]=17561
*  Video: Active Member Live Nosponsors Jam ~ Frequency
... Sign In Sign Up. About. Follow @OnFrequency. Guide. Message sent. Check your Phone. active member. 1d ago. Top New. Add. Active Member Live Nosponsors Jam - Μάσκα. active member 3y ago. Jeremiah Rounds on his Vision for the Definitive Documentary on the Liberty Movement. active member 1d ago. Frank Walwyn, 2012 Ryerson Alumni Achievement Award Recipient. active member 2d ago. Chamber Spotlight - Moe Belliveau, Executive Director. active member 2d ago. MarineMax Community. active member 2d ago. Colin Marshlain Knight Steam Funeral Fawley. active member 1w ago. Sanatan Sansthan threat to journalist. active member 2w ago. NIA to probe Govind Pansare murder. active member 2w ago. Dali Tambo is part of the National Heritage Monument project. active member 2w ago. Carolina Millan Testimonial by Jeremy Almodovar. active member 3w ago. Special Forces Soldier Calls Out Fake SF At T.F Green Airport, Stolen Valor. active member 1mo ago. Creating Cultural Artifacts that Build New Legacies. David Bailey. TEDxRVA. act...
http://frequency.com/video/active-member-live-nosponsors-jam/55303453/-/5-156698
*  A nano-machine cell killer: Team deciphers the attack strategy of certain bacteria
... August 4, 2013 in Chemistry / Biochemistry This is a veritable mechanics of aggression on the nanoscale. Certain bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, have the ability to deploy tiny darts. This biological weapon kills the host cell by piercing the membrane. Researchers at EPFL have dismantled, piece by piece, this intriguing little machine and found an assembly of proteins that, in unfolding at the right time, takes the form of a spur. Published in Nature Chemical Biology, this discovery offers new insight into the fight against pathogens that are increasingly resistant to antibiotics. To attack the host cell, the weapon must first attach. On the surface of the aggressor is a mechanism composed of seven proteins that are folded over and assembled into a ring. The researchers were able to show how, in time, these long molecules unfold to form a kind of spur. The balance of the assembly adjusts: the proteins adopt a new form, spreading out in a circular motion to form a spur, which then pierces the m...
http://phys.org/print294758523.html
*  Member List - BioForum - Page 2
... Google Sign in options. Remember me This is not recommended for shared computers Sign in anonymously Don't add me to the active users list Privacy Policy. Sign In. Create Account. Forums. Members. BioBlog. BioWiki. Quotes. BioVideo. Protocol Online. Forums. BioBlog. BioWiki. Quotes. Contact Us. BioForum. Member List. Javascript Disabled Detected You currently have javascript disabled. Member List. More Search Options. Post count is. MM-DD-YYYY. MM-DD-YYYY. MM-DD-YYYY. Show All Active Members Awaiting Authorisation Banned Global Moderators Members Moderators Watched members by Member Name Post Count Join Date Profile Views in Descending Order Ascending Order with 10 20 40 60 results per page. Post Count. pesji 0 Joined 18-October 04 Active Members 39 posts PhD 1 Joined 28-January 09 Active Members 39 posts PhDinAcronyms 3 Joined 01-June 10 Active Members 37 posts PostDocTrauma 1 Joined 28-March 11 Active Members 37 posts ProteinWork 0 Joined 12-April 10 Active Members 37 posts proteinz 0 Joined 03-Februar...
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*  Biology-Online • View topic - Bacterial Taxonomy
Biology-Online View topic - Bacterial Taxonomy. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Please login to access all site features. Create account. Log me on automatically each visit. Join for Free. 121316 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Home. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Articles. Tutorials. Books. Directory. Share your work. Biology-Online. Skip to content. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. Microbiology. Change font size. Advanced search. FAQ. Register. Login. Bacterial Taxonomy. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 4 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Bacterial Taxonomy by wildfunguy. Sat Oct 19, 2013 6:12 pm Introduction and Purpose Statement I am studying bacterial taxonomy. I want you to criticize my associations. Doubted statements are in red text, awaiting confirmation. Questions are in green text. I prefer sources, but I can look f...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-157765.html
*  Micro - Pathogenic Bacteria II - ProProfs Quiz
... Create A Quiz Quizzes. Personality. More quizzes. Username / Email. Quizzes. Bacteria Micro - Pathogenic Bacteria II. Micro - Pathogenic Bacteria II 30 Questions I By Chinedua. Quiz based on PPP for Pathogenic Bacteria II. Upgrade and get a lot more done. 1 During the resolution stage of pneumococcal infection, the C substance of bacteria reacts with serum component C-reactive protein and activates complement through the classical pathway. A True. B False. Fragilis. B 2nd stage- early consolidation. C 3rd stage- late consolidation. D 4th stage- resolution. A True. B False. B 2nd stage- early consolidation. C 3rds stage- late consolidation. D 4th stage- resolution. A True. B False. 7 A complication of pneumococcal lung infection is the pouring of fluid into the pleural space this is called if the fluid is infected however, it is called . A patient presents with pneumonia cause by streptococcus pneumoniae which of the following conclusions are least likely to be true. A patien...
http://proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=micro-pathogenic-bacteria-ii
*  ARS | Publication request: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND COLONIC MICROBIAL RESPONSES IN THE HORSE TO FEEDING SOY
ARS. Publication request: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND COLONIC MICROBIAL RESPONSES IN THE HORSE TO FEEDING SOYHULLS ARS : Research. ARS Home. About ARS. International Programs. Site Map. Related Topics Programs and Projects. ARS National Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs. ARS Office of International Research Programs Regional Contacts. Title: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND COLONIC MICROBIAL RESPONSES IN THE HORSE TO FEEDING SOYHULLS Authors. Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science Supplement Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2004 Publication Date: October 6, 2004 Citation: Willer, K.J., Carroll, J.A., Kerley, M.S. Physiological and colonic microbial responses in the horse to feeding soyhulls. The hypothesis of this research was that the horse would extensively digest soyhulls, that indigenous bacterial populations in the colon would be increased, and plasma insulin concentration would be reduced. In each period diets were fed three weeks for acclimation followed by one we...
http://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=170750
*  Purple bacteria
... 'Purple bacteria' or 'purple photosynthetic bacteria' are proteobacteria that are phototroph ic, that is, capable of producing energy through photosynthesis. 1 They are pigmented with bacteriochlorophyll 'a' or 'b', together with various carotenoid s, which give them colours ranging between purple, red, brown, and orange. purple sulfur bacteria and 'purple non-sulfur bacteria' Rhodospirillaceae. Metabolism History Evolution Taxonomy References. Photosynthesis takes place at reaction centers on the cell membrane, which is folded into the cell to form sacs, tubes, or sheets, increasing the available surface area. Like most other photosynthetic bacteria, purple bacteria do not produce oxygen anoxygenic, because the reducing agent electron donor involved in photosynthesis is not water. In some, called purple sulfur bacteria, it is either sulfide or elemental sulfur. This builds up a proton motive force that is used by ATP synthase to produce ATP from ADP and phosphate .The ATP is finally used in biosynthesis...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_bacteria
*  9 Ways Good Gut Bacteria Support Your Overall Health (That Have Nothing to do With Digestion)
Dr. David Williams View Cart 0. Immune Health. Women's Health. Healthy Directions Products. Gut Bacteria Probiotics. Women's Health. Williams. About Dr. Williams. Dr. Free E-News. false 9 Ways Good Gut Bacteria Support Your Overall Health That Have Nothing to Do With Digestion by Dr. David Williams Filed Under: Digestive Health, Gut Bacteria & Probiotics, Probiotics Last Reviewed 09/03/2015. Improves immune health. How Gut Bacteria Improves Immune Health One of the most well-known non-digestive benefits of good gut bacteria is a stronger immune system. Read more about why balanced microflora is the cornerstone of immune health. Researchers have known for a long time about this gut/brain axis, but for some reason they have always focused on the impact the brain can have on the gut or control from the top down. Read more about why mood disorder treatment should begin with gut bacteria. How Gut Bacteria Improves Cholesterol Levels Much of the cholesterol produced by your liver is converted into bile acids, which...
http://drdavidwilliams.com/9-ways-good-gut-bacteria-support-your-overall-health/
*  Economic importance of bacteria
... Despite the fact that some bacteria play harmful roles, such as causing disease and spoiling food, the economic importance of bacteria includes both their useful and harmful aspects. In the chemical industry, bacteria are most important in the production pharmaceuticals. Genetic engineering and bacteria. In genetic engineering, pieces of DNA genes are introduced into a host by means of a carrier vector system. Bacterial cells are transformed and used in production of commercially important products. Bacterial populations, especially that of are used to separate fibres of jute, hemp, flax, etc., the plants are immersed in water and when they swell, inoculated with bacteria which hydrolyze pectic substance of the cell walls and separate the fibres.These separated fibres are used to make ropes and sacks. Harmful bacteria. Some bacteria are harmful and act either as disease-causing agents pathogen s both in plants and animals, or may play a role in food spoilage. Plant pathogenic bacteria. Plant disease caus...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_importance_of_bacteria
*  Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: Evolution in Action? | Answers in Genesis
Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: Evolution in Action. Answers. Answers. Evolution. Natural Selection. Antibiotic Resistance. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: An Example of Evolution in Action. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: An Example of Evolution in Action. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria is not an example of evolution in action but rather variation within a bacterial kind. Evolution requires a gain of functional systems for bacteria to evolve into man. The normal protein is usually involved in copying the DNA, making proteins, or making the bacterial cell wall—all important functions for the bacteria to grow and reproduce. If the bacteria have a mutation in the DNA which codes for one of those proteins, the antibiotic cannot bind to the altered protein; and the mutant bacteria survive. Cipro belongs to a family of antibiotics known as quinolones, which bind to a bacterial protein called gyrase, decreasing the ability of the bacteria to reproduce. Quinolone-resistant bacteria have mutations in the ...
https://answersingenesis.org/natural-selection/antibiotic-resistance/antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria-evolution-in-action/
*  .. Septic Tank Treatments – What Roll does Bacteria Play in my Septic System? .. The
septic tank treatments what roll does bacteria play in my septic system january the role of bacteria to understand how bacteria treatments work you have to understand how your septic systemâ works beyond flushing the toilet and having the tank pumped out periodically there is a lot going on in the unseen world underground both the tank and drainfield rely on helpful bacteria to process waste in the tank these bacteria help digest and continually reduce the volume of solid waste so that pumping isnâ t required as often and in the drainfield bacteria are actually responsible for decontaminating wastewater making it safe to re enter the fresh water supply when you flush the toilet wash laundry or simply take a shower all of the excess water runs into your tank and whenever you use any sort of chemical that goes down a drain it ends up in your tank these chemicals can wipe out helpful bacteria here are some of the main offenders â bleach and laundry detergent â toilet cleaners de cloggers â anti bacterial soaps f...
http://ruralseptic.com/?p=137
*  Exogenous bacteria
... Pathogenic exogenous bacteria can enter a closed biological system and cause disease such as 'Cholera,' which is induced by a waterborne microbe that infects the human intestine. Pathogenic exogenous bacteria can enter a host via cutaneous transmission, inhalation, and consumption. Endogenous Bacteria Diseases Caused by Exogenous Bacteria Waterborne and Foodborne. Terrestrial Exogenous Bacteria. Infections caused by exogenous bacteria occurs when microbes that are noncommensal enter a host. These microbes can enter a host via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria, ingestion of contaminated or ill-prepared foods, sexual activity, or the direct contact of a wound with the bacteria. Diseases Caused by Exogenous Bacteria. Exogenous bacteria supported in specific aquatic environments can enter an host via consumption. Exogenous bacteria can also enter an enclosed ecosystem via ingestion of contaminated food.Food-borne diseases such as 'Salmonella' poisoning are transmitted by food not properly cooked or by indiv...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exogenous_bacteria
*  Advantages and disadvantages of bacteria.doc - Uploaded Work - StudyZones.com
... Student. Plus Student. My Zone. My Profile. My UCAS. My Work. My Exchange Questions. Upload Zone. Upload Work. My Work. Student Exchange. Ask a student. My Exchange Questions. UCAS Zone. My UCAS. statistics coursework. UCAS. AS Level Biology Biology. Work. Student Exchange. Upload Work. 2nd draft of Advantages and disadvantages of bacteria essay Uploaded by dwywalt. AS Level Biology Coursework. Advantages and disadvantages of bacteria.doc Marker Comments: In general, this essay is much better now. The advantages and disadvantages of bacteria. Bacteria can be useful in genetic engineering, other biotechnological applications, medical technology and the food industry etc and can be harmful food spoilage, tooth decay and disease etc. However bacteria can also be harmfull, as they can cause tooth decay, disease some being fatal and food decay. The advantages of bacteria for genetic Engineering are firstly economic- they contain a valuable source of enyzmes Bacteria produce more enzyme molecules in relation t...
http://studyzones.com/uploadzone/coursework/76188x1884/2nd-draft-of-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-bacteria-essay
*  New tools revolutionise bacteria research | ScienceNordic
ScienceNordic. Studied everything bacteria-related The Bacillus subtilis bacterium is used traditionally as a model organism for Gram-positive bacteria. Facts To study how bacteria reacted to a changed environment the researchers placed the bacteria in malate or glucose. In this way the researchers could study how the metabolic processes adapted to the situation in which the bacteria suddenly had to choose between two different energy sources. Therefore they studied how the bacterium reacted when they moved it from one source of energy and gave it a choice of two energy sources. Bacillus subtilis is used a model organism for Gram-positive bacteria, while Escherichia coli is the model organism for Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria adapt genes to new situation A bacterium that is adapting to a new energy source or environment must also adapt the genes it uses. When the researchers changed the bacterium s energy source from glucose to malate, or from malate to glucose, the expression of up to 2,000 genes was cont...
http://sciencenordic.com/new-tools-revolutionise-bacteria-research
*  Life History and Ecology of Bacteria
... Bacteria : Life History and Ecology. Bacteria grow in a wide variety of habitats and conditions. When most people think of bacteria, they think of disease-causing organisms, like the Streptococcus bacteria growing in culture in this picture, which were isolated from a man with strep throat. Bacteria are so widespread that it is possible only to make the most general statements about their life history and ecology. The third group are the facultative anaerobes, which prefer growing in the presence of oxygen, but can continue to grow without it. Classified by the source of their energy, bacteria fall into two categories: heterotrophs and autotrophs. The other group, the autotrophs, fix carbon dioxide to make their own food source; this may be fueled by light energy photoautotrophic, or by oxidation of nitrogen, sulfur, or other elements chemoautotrophic. They include the cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and purple nonsulfur bacteria. The sulfur bacteria are particularly interes...
http://ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/bacterialh.html
*  Are Bacteria Making you Fat? | SurfKY.combottomfooter
Are Bacteria Making you Fat. SurfKY.com. Are Bacteria Making you Fat. "Bacteria are important in helping assimilate the nutrients in our food," said Krueger. "If we don't have the right bacteria or enzymes, we don't process our food." Krueger said universities and academic centers have been studying treatments using good bacteria. "An example of using good bacteria is stool transfers from a healthy donor that can stabilize the gut microbiota in a sick person," said Krueger. "It could be that in the future, the FDA might approve the FMTs for the treatment of obesity." Transfer of bacteria from obese animals into thin animals has resulted in the thinner animals gaining weight, said Krueger. A person that doesn't have the adequate gut bacteria may absorb carbohydrates more easily that a thin person, said Krueger. "While it might kill certain bacteria, it might kill the good kind, too." Krueger said everyone should refrain from asking for antibiotics unless their physician believes it's absolutely necessary. So, ...
http://surfky.com/index.php/obituaries/local/calloway/38187-is-bacteria-making-you-fat-
*  Featured Articles about Bacteria - Page 5 - tribunedigital-sunsentinel
Bacteria. IN THE NEWS. Bacteria. Water. Drinking Water. NEWS. Discovery section: 1. 3 The scientist is the same one who invented the microscope Anton Van Leeuwenhoek. NEWS. Bacteria should not ruin day at beach. Plastic and wooden cutting boards work fine for chopping meat, vegetables and fruit, and both must be sanitized after contact with raw meat. Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has shown that pathogenic bacteria, such as the salmonella often found in raw chicken, will thrive and multiply if not removed from plastic boards, says Dean O. NEWS. Testing Approved For Bacteria In Meats. In its first food-safety regulation, the Bush administration has approved a proposal, made in the waning days of the Clinton administration, to require testing for the deadly bacteria Listeria in factories that process ready-to-eat meats. Consumer groups have pressed for such testing since 1998, when 21 people died from eating hot dogs and deli meats contaminated with the bacteria. Food-borne bacteria like salm...
http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/keyword/bacteria/featured/5
*  MIT - Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, MIT
MIT - Department of Civil Environmental Engineering, MIT. About CEE. News. Events. Undergraduate. Graduate. Research. People. Search this site:. SEARCH. LOGIN. All Upcoming Events Seminar Series. Microbial Systems Seminar M.Eng. Friday Noon Seminar CTL Seminar Series C.C. Mei Distinguished Speakers Series M.Eng. Friday Noon Seminar Mechanics and Materials Seminar Environmental Sciences Mechanics and Infrastructure Department Calendar. All Upcoming Events. Semester Archive >>. C.C. Mei Distinguished Speakers Series: Universality in Nature Mon, 10/05/2015. 04:30 pm. Room 1-190. Professor Harry Swinney of the University of Texas, Austin will present the third C.C. Mei Distinguished Speaker Series of the fall semester:. Professor Harry Swinney. More information. Oyster as a model to investigate the functional units of Vibrio pathogenesis Wed, 10/14/2015. 04:00 pm. Room 48-316 Parsons. Microbial Systems Seminar. Frederique Le Roux. More information. Assaf Vardi - Microbial Systems Seminar Thu, 10/22/2015. 11:00 am...
http://cee.mit.edu/events
*  Medical Xpress - resistant bacteria(... continued page 5)
Medical Xpress - resistant bacteria ... Home resistant bacteria. News tagged with resistant bacteria. 12 hours. 1 week. 1 month. 1 week. 1 week. Related topics: bacteria · antibiotics. Old drug may be key to new antibiotics. Sep 22, 2014 0 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Researchers discover how bacteria resist antibiotics in hospitals. Scientists have uncovered a key factor to explain why antibiotic-resistant bacteria can thrive in a hospital setting. Sep 17, 2014 0 3. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Facing a post-antibiotic world. Humanity is racing towards a post-antibiotic era, a time when today's life-saving drugs won't successfully treat common infectious diseases or even infections from minor injuries. Sep 16, 2014 0 0. Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. A team of five researchers and clinicians in Singapore led by Dr Desmond Heng, ICES, has developed a new combination of drugs to effectively combat bacteria in the lungs which lead to common respiratory system infections, ... Sep 15, 2014 0 0. Disea...
http://medicalxpress.com/tags/resistant bacteria/page5.html
*  Good And Bad Bacteria In Your Colon
Bacteria in your colon are referred to by many different names - probiotics, good or bad bacteria, beneficial bacteria, acidophilus, disbiosis, micro flora, proflora. Most people have bad bacteria as the dominant condition in their colon. The good bacteria are most active in a pH of 5.9 to 6.9- an acidic environment. Your colon serves as a home for the good bacteria, which ferment specific carbohydrates, which in turn keep your colon environment slightly acidic. The bad bacteria create an alkaline environment and are most active in a pH of 7.1 to 7.9 Again, the good bacteria creates an acidic environment and are most active in a pH of 5.9 to 6.9 Acidophilus and Bifidus are the main good bacteria that exist in your colon. When good beneficial bacteria is dominant, in your colon, it prevents the spread of disease from various organisms - parasites, bacteria, viruses, fungi. The specific organisms Shigella, salmonella, viruses, encephalitis, protozoan, amebas, staph, herpes, flu, cold viruses, comphylobacter, an...
http://bettercoloncleansing.com/good-and-bad-bacteria-in-your-colon/
*  New way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria: Target human cells instead - American Chemical Socie
... ty. Your browser is looking a little out of date... ACS. ACS Home. News. About ACS. American Chemical Society. News. ACS News Service Weekly PressPac: January 8, 2014. New way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria: Target human cells instead. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE ACS News Service Weekly PressPac: Wed Jan 08 15:19:39 EST 2014 New way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria: Target human cells instead. Integrating Chemical and Genetic Silencing Strategies To Identify Host Kinase-Phosphatase Inhibitor Networks That Control Bacterial Infection ACS Chemical Biology. As more reports appear of a grim “post-antibiotic era” ushered in by the rise of drug-resistant bacteria, a new strategy for fighting infection is emerging that targets a patient’s cells rather than those of the invading pathogens. This approach, published in the journal ACS Chemical Biology, could help address the world’s growing problem of antibiotic-resistant “super bugs.”. Huib Ovaa, Jacques Neefjes and colleagues explain that the pr...
http://acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/presspacs/2014/acs-presspac-january-8-2014/new-way-to-fight-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-target-human-cells-instead.html
*  Bacteria
... About Microbiology. Join. MicrobeWorld. About Microbiology What is a Microbe. Types of Microbes. Archaea. Viruses. Bacteria. Fungi. Protista. Microbial Mergers. Interesting Facts. Careers in Microbiology. History of Microbiology. Classroom Experiments. Washup.org. Podcasts & Videos. MicrobeWorld App. Microbes After Hours. Click for more " Microbes After Hours " videos. Join MicrobeWorld. Types of Microbes. Bacteria. Types of Microbes. Bacteria. Bacteria Bacteria. Bacteria have been found that can live in temperatures above the boiling point and in cold that would freeze your blood. Bacteria fall into a category of life called the Prokaryotes pro-carry-oats. Bacteria and archaea are the only prokaryotes. All other life forms are Eukaryotes you-carry-oats, creatures whose cells have nuclei. What Difference Does It Make. Bacteria and their microbial cousins the archaea were the earliest forms of life on Earth. Bacteria are among the earliest forms of life that appeared on Earth billions of years ago. Many b...
http://microbeworld.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=138&Itemid=69
*  ‘Clever’ DNA Help Bacteria Survive
... Advertisement. Bioscience Technology. Products. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. Company Directory. News. Advertisement. News. Advertisement. ‘Clever’ DNA Help Bacteria Survive. Scientists have discovered that bacteria can reshape their DNA to survive dehydration. Without impacting on the ability of the bacteria to function and reproduce, this unique structural alteration sees the B-DNA change to A-DNA, and then revert back to its original B-DNA form to ensure the bacteria survive. Associate Professor Bayden Wood, from Monash University, said the study gives vital new information on how bacteria can survive periods of time in arid environments. “Our research, which utilized infrared light to investigate the structure of DNA inside live bacteria, demonstrates that bacteria can survive by adopting the A-DNA form after the majority of water is removed– and that really is groundbreaking,” Donna Whelan said. Significantly, the team has now discovered this change may have a biological function in bacteria, potentially assis...
http://biosciencetechnology.com/news/2014/06/clever-dna-help-bacteria-survive
*  Microbial pathogenesis - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
... Jump to navigation. Jump to content. Search for. A A A A. Home. Research. Scientific resources. Work study. About us. Areas of research. Projects. Academic faculty. Scientific publications Microbial pathogenesis The Microbial pathogenesis team, under the leadership of Gordon Dougan, is focusing on the genetic analysis of the interactions between bacteria and their hosts to shed light on how humans and other animals respond to infection. This information will be exploited towards developing methods of controlling infection, including vaccines and antibiotics, in the continuing fight against disease that is crucial for populations worldwide. The team is also investigating the relationships between different members of the family of bacteria that cause typhoid, Salmonella Typhi, in order to explain their evolution, antibiotic resistance and transmission within the human population. Finally the team is involved in a number of major high profile collaborations worldwide investigating methods for developing va...
http://sanger.ac.uk/research/projects/microbialpathogenesis/
*  Cancer bacteria
... 'Cancer bacteria' are bacteria infectious organisms that are known or suspected to cause cancer. While cancer-associated bacteria have long been considered to be opportunistic i.e., infecting healthy tissues after cancer has already established itself, there is some evidence that bacteria may be directly carcinogen ic. pylori' and its role in gastric cancer. Oncovirus es are viral agents that are similarly suspected of causing cancer. Known to cause cancer Speculative links History See also References. Known to cause cancer. and MALT lymphoma. is associated with gallbladder cancer. may also have a role in the formation of different types of cancer. ' Helicobacter pylori '. has been linked with certainty to stomach cancer and may be related to MALT lymphoma, but may also protect certain individuals from esophageal cancer. Bacteria found in the gut may be related to colon cancer but may be more complicated due to the role of chemoprotective probiotic cancers. The relationship between cancer and bacteria ma...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_bacteria
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Viruses VS Bacteria
Biology-Online View topic - Viruses VS Bacteria. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Please login to access all site features. Create account. Log me on automatically each visit. Join for Free. 121316 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Home. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Articles. Tutorials. Books. Directory. Share your work. Biology-Online. Skip to content. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. Microbiology. Change font size. Advanced search. FAQ. Register. Login. Viruses VS Bacteria. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 5 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Viruses VS Bacteria by Zin. Mon Sep 10, 2012 7:07 pm Besides being smaller than bacteria, I need to describe two other ways viruses and bacteria are different. Here is what I came up with, let me know if I'm on the right track. 1 Viruses are non- living whereas bacteria are not. 2 Bacteri...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about26067.html?p=144943&hilit=Living
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Viruses VS Bacteria
Biology-Online View topic - Viruses VS Bacteria. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Please login to access all site features. Create account. Log me on automatically each visit. Join for Free. 121316 members Answers to all your Biology Questions. Home. Blog. Forum. Dictionary. Articles. Tutorials. Books. Directory. Share your work. Biology-Online. Skip to content. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. Microbiology. Change font size. Advanced search. FAQ. Register. Login. Viruses VS Bacteria. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here. Moderator: BioTeam Post a reply. 5 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Viruses VS Bacteria by Zin. Mon Sep 10, 2012 7:07 pm Besides being smaller than bacteria, I need to describe two other ways viruses and bacteria are different. Here is what I came up with, let me know if I'm on the right track. 1 Viruses are non-living whereas bacteria are not. 2 Bacteria...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about26067.html?p=145025&hilit=fever
*  Phys.org - fecal bacteria
... Home fecal bacteria. News tagged with fecal bacteria. sort by:. Date. 6 hours. 12 hours. 1 day. 3 days. all. Rank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. LiveRank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Popular. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Septic tanks aren't keeping poo out of rivers and lakes. The notion that septic tanks prevent fecal bacteria from seeping into rivers and lakes simply doesn't hold water, says a new Michigan State University study. Aug 03, 2015 in Environment. 694 3. Attention beachgoers: Fecal contamination affects sand more than water. "No swimming" signs have already popped up this summer along coastlines where fecal bacteria have invaded otherwise inviting waters. Some vacationers ignore the signs while others resign themselves to tanning and playing ... Jul 15, 2015 in Environment. 17 1. A new piece in the 'French paradox' puzzle—cheese metabolism. Figuring out why the French have low cardiovascular disease rates despite a diet high in saturated fats has spurred research and many theories t...
http://phys.org/tags/fecal bacteria/
*  Production of exceptionally large surface protein prevents bacteria from forming clumps
... Medical research. February 6, 2014 Production of exceptionally large surface protein prevents bacteria from forming clumps February 6, 2014. Images taken with a scanning electron microscope show wild-type bacteria left forming tight aggregates or clumps in the presence of blood proteins. This clumping defect makes the mutant strain less deadly in an experimental model of the serious staph infection, endocarditis. Credit: Alexander Horswill, University of Iowa A genetic mechanism that controls the production of a large spike-like protein on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus staph bacteria alters the ability of the bacteria to form clumps and to cause disease, according to a new University of Iowa study. The new study is the first to link this genetic mechanism to the production of the giant surface protein and to clumping behavior in bacteria. Under normal conditions, staph bacteria interact with proteins in human blood to form aggregates, or clumps. The study shows that when the mechanism is disrupted...
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-02-production-exceptionally-large-surface-protein.html
*  TB lung infection causes changes in the diversity of gut bacteria in mice
... May 13, 2014 in Medicine Health / Medical research Johns Hopkins researchers have found evidence in mice that a tuberculosis TB infection in the lungs triggers immune system signaling to the gut that temporarily decreases the diversity of bacteria in that part of the digestive tract. The Johns Hopkins researchers showed that this decrease in diversity of gut bacteria as measured in fecal samples happened quickly—within six days after mice were exposed to an aerosol mixture of M. "The fact that the bacterial populations change in the gut means that we can begin to use this observation for TB diagnosis," Winglee says. "TB diagnosis is currently challenging, but a simple stool sample test that detects changes in the diversity of gut bacteria after TB infection in the lung might improve diagnosis." The finding also adds to growing evidence that the various parts of the immune system found in mucous membranes throughout the body interact as a "global" organ rather than work as separate, individual sites of im...
http://medicalxpress.com/print319208453.html
*  Humans Are Really Just Biomechanical Suit-Cities For Bacteria | Technoccult
Humans Are Really Just Biomechanical Suit-Cities For Bacteria. Technoccult. Technoccult. Mutate Your Mind. About Interviews Dossiers. About Interviews Dossiers. Submit. Follow. Free e-mail newsletter Twitter. Tumblr. RSS. Humans Are Really Just Biomechanical Suit-Cities For Bacteria. May 19, 2013 / Klint Finley / 0 Comments. The City Is A Battlesuit For Surviving The Future Matt Jones wrote in 2009, referencing Archigram s Walking City. As I ve noted before we fill that same role for bacteria. Food guru Michael Pollan has picked up on the we re more bacteria than human meme and written an long, impressive New York Times article about it. He doesn t go so far as to bring up the theory that oil is actually the excrement of bacteria that live beneath the earth s crust, not the decomposed organic matter from the surface, as suggested by Thomas Gold and apparently some unnamed Russians. If Gould is right then humans not just city-suits for bacteria, but also a waste disposal system for bacteria. This idea led Reza...
http://technoccult.net/archives/2013/05/19/humans-are-really-just-biomechanical-suit-cities-for-bacteria/
*  bacteria search results - CNET
... CNET. Reviews. Top Categories. CNET 100. Appliances. Cameras. Car Tech. Laptops. Phones. Tablets. TVs. Wearable Tech. Deals. Forums. Popular Forums Computer Help. Laptops. Phones. Cameras. All Forums. News. Top Categories. Apple. Computers. Crave. Deals. Internet. Mobile. Security. Sci-Tech. Tech Culture. Tech Industry. Video. Forums. Popular Forums Computer Help. Laptops. Phones. Cameras. All Forums. Video. Top Categories. Car Tech. CNET On Cars. CNET Top 5. CNET Update. News. Phones. Tablets. Tomorrow Daily. CNET Podcasts. Top Categories. Appliances. Computers. Internet. Mobile Apps. Phones. Security. Tablets. Forums. Wearable Tech. Log In to CNET. Article You're surrounded by a cloud of bacteria right now A new University of Oregon study says everyone has a cloud made of bacteria particles that's as unique to each person as a fingerprint. Article 'Beer dress' turns bacteria and brew into couture Tomorrow Daily 153 Combining beer with bacteria and the fermentation process creates the fibers that made t...
http://cnet.com/search/?query=bacteria
*  Preserved bacteria reveal how we've been rotting our teeth for 7,500 years
Preserved bacteria reveal how we've been rotting our teeth for 7,500 years. Follow io9. Gawker. Preserved bacteria reveal how we've been rotting our teeth for 7,500 years. 1 Alasdair Wilkins Filed to: Archaeology. Bacteria. Evolution. Teeth. 2/17/13 5:00pm. Bacteria outnumber the cells in our own body by a factor of 10 to 1 — as many as 100 trillion microbes per person — and yet we know almost nothing about how bacteria have changed as humans evolved. Although they're much more numerous than our own cells, bacteria are so tiny that they represent only a small fraction of our overall mass. Admittedly, it isn't that small a fraction: about 5 pounds of each person is actually all the bacteria living inside us. It's like we're always omitting five pounds of every human body — given the estimated 108 billion people who have ever lived, that's a total of 270 million tons over the past 50,000 years that our current evolutionary story just ignores. And for the most part, that isn't likely to change, as human ...
http://io9.com/5984891/preserved-bacteria-reveal-how-weve-been-rotting-our-teeth-for-7500-years?tag=archaeology
*  .. Antibacterial Wipes Spread, Rather Than Kill, Bacteria .. Leave a Reply
« Rockport, Maine Passes Pesticide-Free Policy. EU To Limit Chemicals in Surface Waters ». 17 Jun Antibacterial Wipes Spread, Rather Than Kill, Bacteria Beyond Pesticides, June 17, 2008 A recent study at Cardiff University in Wales shows that antimicrobial wipes, including those containing triclosan, may be spreading antibiotic-resistant bacteria, rather than killing it. Researchers from the Welsh School of Pharmacy studied the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, and the ability of different types of wipes to remove or kill it. They found that in “normal use” conditions, or how hospitals in Wales have been using the wipes, bacteria is only moved from surface to surface, increasing potential exposure. According to the university, “The research involved a surveillance programme observing hospital staff using surface wipes to decontaminate surfaces near patients, such as bed rails, and other surfaces commonly touched by staff and patients, such as monitors, tables and keypads. It was f...
http://beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/2008/06/antibacterial-wipes-spread-rather-than-kill-bacteria/
*  PPM reading using the nutradip ppm meter? | Rollitup
PPM reading using the nutradip ppm meter. Log in or Sign up. Forums. The Grow Room. General Marijuana Growing. PPM reading using the nutradip ppm meter. Discussion in ' General Marijuana Growing ' started by justsmoking, Jan 26, 2010. justsmoking Active Member. justsmoking, Jan 26, 2010. ak.fortyseven Well-Known Member. ak.fortyseven, Jan 26, 2010. justsmoking Active Member. justsmoking, Jan 26, 2010. ak.fortyseven Well-Known Member. Any standard Tds calibration solution will work, once you get it you dip your meter in it and adjust the screw till the meter reads the same as the cal. ak.fortyseven, Jan 26, 2010. justsmoking Active Member. justsmoking, Jan 26, 2010. justsmoking Active Member. justsmoking, Jan 26, 2010. ak.fortyseven Well-Known Member. ak.fortyseven, Jan 26, 2010. justsmoking Active Member. justsmoking, Jan 26, 2010. ak.fortyseven Well-Known Member. ak.fortyseven, Jan 27, 2010. justsmoking Active Member. justsmoking, Jan 28, 2010. ak.fortyseven Well-Known Member. ak.fortyseven, Jan 28, 2010. ju...
http://rollitup.org/t/ppm-reading-using-the-nutradip-ppm-meter.296705/
*  .. ENZYMATIC .. How it works .. Why use ENZYMATIC .. Features and Benefits of ENZYMATIC .. L
ENZYMATIC is a high performance, non-toxic and 100% biodegradable solution used primarily in the treatment of waste and effluent. ENZYMATIC works by stimulating the activity of microorganisms naturally present in the substrate. It does this by providing a readily available food source and micronutrients essential to the growth and production of microorganisms. ENZYMATIC is effective over a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. It can also be sprayed and used for a wide range of general purpose cleaning problems. Deodorises by destroying the molecular structures which cause odour problems Reduces levels of Biochemical Carbon Dioxide Demand BOD by enzymolysis through decomposition or conversion of the contaminants Fully neutralises contaminants as a biodegradable cleaner Digests Hydrocarbons, grease and oils by up to 60% in 5 days Digests sludge by 40% to 60% Safe to use, is non-toxic, non-allergenic and non-inflammable Is totally environmentally compatible and safe Biodegrades the removed organic contamina...
http://enzymatic.biz/
*  Genetically modified bacteria
... 'Genetically modified bacteria' were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics. 2 'Leader 2008 — Fee required for access to full text.'. The first example of this occurred in 1978 when Herbert Boyer working at a University of California laboratory took a version of the human insulin gene and inserted into the bacterium ' Escherichia coli ' to produce synthetic "human" insulin. Four years later, it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The drug industry has made good use of this discovery in its quest to produce medication for diabetes. 3 'Walsh 2005 — Fee required for access to full text.' Similar bacteria have been used to produce clotting factors to treat haemophilia,. 4 and human growth hormone to treat various forms of dwarfism. 5 'Bryant 2007 — Fee required for access to full text.'. These recombinant proteins are safer than the products they replaced, since the older products were purified from cadaver s and could transmit diseases. 7 Indeed...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_bacteria
*  Scientists Create Programmable Bacteria - Slashdot
... Science. Facebook. Twitter. 18023008 story. Scientists Create Programmable Bacteria. 117 Posted by samzenpus on Monday December 13, 2010 @05:54AM from the anti-coding-soap dept. wilmavanwyk writes "In research that further bridges the biological and digital world, scientists at the University of California, San Francisco have created bacteria that can be programmed like a computer. Voigt.". Twitter. Facebook. LinkedIn. No new comments can be posted. Scientists Create Programmable Bacteria. Scientists Create Programmable Bacteria Archived Discussion. Score: 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1. Search 117 Comments Log In/Create an Account Comments Filter:. Interesting. Funny. Programmable bacteria + Virus Battery = .... Score: 2. writes:. I wonder how long before the viruses in the Virus Batteries "accidentally" combines with this programmable bacteria to form something to truly fear... Score: 2. writes:. Score: 2. writes:. Score: 2. writes:. Score: 2. writes:. But how will they be able to find "bugs" in their program when the...
http://science.slashdot.org/story/10/12/13/0410207/scientists-create-programmable-bacteria
*  Self-Portrait in Bacteria
... UCL Home. Prospective students. Current students. Staff. skip to navigation. skip to content. Public Engagement Spotlight Education. UCL Home. UCL Biosciences. Public Engagement Spotlight Education. Projects. Self-Portrait in Bacteria. Self-Portrait in Bacteria. Public Engagement Spotlight Education Home. Projects. Self-Portrait in Bacteria. Synthesis. The Children of Craign y Nos. DNA Masterclass. DNA-RNA-Protein. Digital Stories. Profile /Nick Lane. Profile /Elizabeth Shephard. Profile/Greg Campbell. Profile/Helen Chaterjee. The Darwin Project. A Day in the Life - Geraint Thomas. /Prof Buzz Baum. Contact. Self-Portrait in Bacteria. Anna Fywell was an A level student at Richmond College. She was interested in the way that artists were using science and was inspired by the artist Laura Splan who took images of malaria cells and made them into something beautiful. But Anna was interested in not just a beautiful image but a visual narrative. She had seen bacterial handprints and wanted to take it a step fu...
https://ucl.ac.uk/biosciences/public-engagement/projects/self-portrait-in-bacteria/index
*  Bacteria
... About Microbiology. Join. MicrobeWorld. About Microbiology What is a Microbe. Types of Microbes. Archaea. Viruses. Bacteria. Fungi. Protista. Algae. Microbial Mergers. Interesting Facts. Careers in Microbiology. History of Microbiology. Classroom Experiments. Washup.org. Podcasts & Videos. Microbes After Hours. Click for more " Microbes After Hours " videos. Join MicrobeWorld. Types of Microbes. Protista. Types of Microbes. Bacteria. Protista Bacteria. Bacteria and archaea are the only prokaryotes. All other life forms are Eukaryotes you-carry-oats, creatures whose cells have nuclei. Note: viruses are not considered true cells, so they don't fit into either of these categories. Bacteria and their microbial cousins the archaea were the earliest forms of life on Earth. Bacteria are among the earliest forms of life that appeared on Earth billions of years ago. Scientists think that they helped shape and change the young planet's environment, eventually creating atmospheric oxygen that enabled other, more co...
http://microbeworld.org/types-of-microbes/protista/42-what-is-a-microbe-sp-828/types-of-microbes/138-bacteria
*  DailyTech - Bacteria Breaks Down Oil, Cleans Gulf of Mexico
... Science Bacteria Breaks Down Oil, Cleans Gulf of Mexico Tiffany Kaiser. According to a team of scientists working on the study, there were large numbers of these types of bacteria present in the Gulf just one month after the leak began, and they had quite a feast. Richard Camilli from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recently announced that this plume had "persisted" for months after the oil leak began, insinuating that bacteria wasn't breaking down the oil plume as Hazen suggested. Also, Camilli stated that oxygen levels near the plume were stable, and if bacteria were eating the oil, these levels would fall. Hazen argued that his team was looking directly for the bacteria themselves rather than just traces of their presence, and the results were that oxygen levels inside the plume were lower than the outside, indicating the presence of bacteria. Twice as many bacteria were found inside the plume than outside. All the groups on the inside of the plume had oil-eating capabilities, breaking down h...
http://dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=19456&commentid=611484&threshhold=1&red=049
*  Deadly Drug-Resistant Bacteria On Rise in US Hospitals
... WCTV2. CBS News Live Feed. WCTV Cares. Deadly Drug-Resistant Bacteria On Rise in US Hospitals By: CBS News Email Updated: Wed 1:26 PM, Mar 06, 2013. CBS Web Copy Deadly drug-resistant bacterial infections are on the rise in U.S. These so-called "superbugs" called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae CRE are dangerous, according to the CDC. "Doctors, nurses, hospital leaders, and public health, must work together now to implement CDC's "detect and protect" strategy and stop these infections from spreading." The CDC's new Vital Signs report, published March 5 on CDC.gov, details a decade-long rise in rates in inpatient medical care facilities like hospitals, nursing homes and long-term acute care centers that treat patients recovering from serious injuries and illnesses. CRE infections are caused by a family of germs called Enterobacteriaceae that consist of 70 bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumonia the bacteria that causes pneumonia and other infections and E. Almost all CRE infections happen to pati...
http://wctv.tv/health/headlines/Deadly-Drug-Resistant-Bacteria-on-Rise-in-US-Hospitals-195585861.html?site=mobile
*  bacteria | MIT Technology Review
bacteria. MIT Technology Review. Insider. Magazine. Business Reports. Events. Newsletters. Support. Contact Us. Emtech MIT. MIT Enterprise Forum. Connect. Filter by: News and Analysis. Magazine. Conferences and Events. Interested in bringing MIT Technology Review to your local market. Log In / Join New. Popular. MIT Technology Review Home News Analysis ▾. Topics Popular :. SolarCity Big Plans. Intervening Against Extremism. The New Google. Useful Martian Microbes. Asimov Exclusive. Robot See, Robot Do. The Great Battery Race. News Analysis. Magazine. Events. Topics Popular :. SolarCity Big Plans. Intervening Against Extremism. The New Google. Useful Martian Microbes. Asimov Exclusive. Robot See, Robot Do. The Great Battery Race. MIT News Magazine. News 6 years ago Making Fat Disappear Engineering mice with a fat-burning strategy from bacteria keeps the animals thin. News 6 years ago Greener Glass Bacteria could make acrylic glass from sugar. News 6 years ago Engineering Edible Bacteria Synthetic biology could...
http://technologyreview.com/tagged/bacteria/page/3/?sort=shared
*  Bacterial communities swarm into gorgeous works of art
... About Microbiology. Login. Join. All Content News Video Images Resources My Collections Submissions Tags. MicrobeWorld. News. Video. Resources. MicrobeWorld App. Microbes After Hours. Click for more " Microbes After Hours " videos. Join MicrobeWorld. Featured Video. Bacterial communities swarm into gorgeous works of art. Bacterial communities swarm into gorgeous works of art. submitted by garthh. Tags:. art, bacteria, communities, cool. This is a picture of a bacterial community, taken by Eshel Ben-Jacob, who thinks bacteria are both the key to understanding complex biological systems and a source of incredible art. These bacteria, discovered by Ben-Jacob's research team, self-organize into intricate and beautiful systems. Please login/join to leave a comment. Collections 0. how to get viagra samples free Kamagra Gel allows the dude to handle his hard on for up to 6 hrs, and then very P-Force pfizer viagra free samples This changed mindset of individuals regarding the ailment is however not a surety cial...
http://microbeworld.org/component/jlibrary/?view=article&id=10749
*  Railways bacteria plants to dole out more bio-toilets
... About Microbiology. All Content News Video Images Resources My Collections Submissions Tags. Microbes After Hours. Click for more " Microbes After Hours " videos. Join MicrobeWorld. Featured Video. Railways bacteria plants to dole out more bio-toilets. Railways bacteria plants to dole out more bio-toilets. bacteria, biotoilets, india, transport. The railways will set up three bacteria generation plants as part of its effort to equip more coaches with bio-toilets for eco-friendly waste disposal. The Indian Railways have set a target of installing bio-toilets designed by the DRDO in 2,500 coaches in the current fiscal. Bacteria plants will be set up in Kapurthala, Chennai and Nagpur as there is a huge requirement for anaerobic bacteria for an increasing number of coaches with bio-toilets, said a senior railway ministry official involved with the bio-toilet project. how to get viagra samples free Kamagra Gel allows the dude to handle his hard on for up to 6 hrs, and then very P-Force pfizer viagra free samp...
http://microbeworld.org/index.php?option=com_jlibrary&view=article&id=9586
*  GEN News Highlights Related To | GEN
Wound Care Pipelines Expand with Bioactive Market. Jobs Report: Data, Business, and Regulatory Savvy Driving New Hiring. Transitioning from Traditional Assay Formats to HTRF Technology. Wound Care Pipelines Expand with Bioactive Market. Jobs Report: Data, Business, and Regulatory Savvy Driving New Hiring. Transitioning from Traditional Assay Formats to HTRF Technology. GEN News Highlights Related to University Medical Center in Goettingen to Use Bruker Daltonics' Microbial Identification System Vaginal Bacteria Offer New Drug Discovery Options Biofilms Programmed to Serve as Material Foundries Teaching Bacteria to Tell Cancer Cells to Stop Spreading Novel Bacterial Genome Roadmap Opens Drug Discovery Pathway Humans Battle Bacteria over Iron as an Evolutionary Prize Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs Appear to Use Universal Ribosome-Stalling Mechanism Live Bacteria Pose for Their First X-Ray Portrait How Small Can Life Get. Cigarette Smoke Ups the Virulence of MRSA Superbugs Microbe Plays Dead when Virus Present Gut Mi...
http://genengnews.com/more/related/gen-news-highlights/4/21061/
*  BISC209: Lab7 - OpenWetWare
... contribs → Culturable Bacteria Identification continued Next diff →. - If you have an interesting new isolate it is not too late to check its Gram stain reaction and morphology, motility, and a few simple role tests performed over the last few weeks. By this point, you should be wrapping up collecting test results for your bacteria. + If you have an interesting new isolate it is not too late to check its Gram stain reaction and morphology, motility, and a few simple role tests performed over the last few weeks. Select tests that can be completed within 2 more weeks. By this point, you should be wrapping up collecting test results for your bacteria. 1 LAB 7: ID of culturable soil bacteria: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Clean-UP of PCR Amplified 16S rDNA from pure colonies of soil bacteria 2 PCR CLEAN UP with EXOSAPit 3 Culturable Bacteria Identification continued 4 Assignment 5 Links to Labs. LAB 7: ID of culturable soil bacteria: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Clean-UP of PCR Amplified 16S rDNA from pure colo...
http://openwetware.org/index.php?title=BISC209:_Lab7&diff=382951&oldid=382950
*  How To Replace Intake Manifold Gasket - Corolla Performance - Corolland Forums
... Corolland. Corolland Forums. Corolla Forums. Corolla Performance. Javascript Disabled Detected You currently have javascript disabled. How To Replace Intake Manifold Gasket Started by. 1st Gear Active Members. Posted 22 January 2012 - 02:23 AM. I've been kicking around here for a while trying to find information on how to replace the intake manifold gasket for my corolla. Regardless of whether it is or not, I can be almost certain that the gasket has not been replaced before. 04 Corolla CE 5spd Active Members. Posted 22 January 2012 - 04:56 AM The original intake manifold black gasket was revised with # 17171–22060 orange silicon gasket. Intake manifold gasket was easily replaced on friend's 2005 without draining any coolant or disconnecting throttle body coolant lines, by setting +cleaning throttle body aside. Edited by dom, 22 January 2012 - 05:03 AM. 04 Corolla CE 5spd Active Members. Posted 22 January 2012 - 04:58 AM. Edited by dom, 22 January 2012 - 05:04 AM. 1st Gear Active Members. Also, w...
http://corolland.com/forums/index.php?/topic/24482-how-to-replace-intake-manifold-gasket/
*  Bacteria That Eat Antibiotics
... TOPICS. LISTEN. WATCH. READ. EDUCATE. DONATE. ABOUT. Science Friday. Ira Flatow. SciFri Stations. The Staff. The Board. Jobs and Internships. Freelancing. Advertising. Donating. Our Supporters. Contact Us. How to Listen. Home Planet. Space. Body & Brain. Biology. Nature. Go Figure. Physics & Chemistry. Engineers, Gadgets & Geeks. Art, History & Culture. Food & Garden. Energy. Ethics, Education & Policy. Big Thinkers. Listen. 04/04/2008. Hands-Only CPR. Bacteria That Eat Antibiotics. Phages Fight Bacteria. Cities Cutting Energy Use. Genetic Testing. Oldest Recorded Song is Heard. Archive 2015 January. February. March. April. May. June. July. August. September. October. 2014 January. February. March. April. May. June. July. August. September. October. November. December. 2013 January. February. March. April. May. June. July. August. September. October. November. December. 2012 January. February. March. April. May. June. July. August. September. October. November. December. 2011 January. February. March. Ap...
http://sciencefriday.com/segment/04/04/2008/bacteria-that-eat-antibiotics.html
*  immunology - How do infectious bacteria know when their numbers are high enough to attack a host? -
immunology - How do infectious bacteria know when their numbers are high enough to attack a host. - Biology Stack Exchange. Biology. Biology Meta. more stack exchange communities. Stack Exchange. Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have. Biology Questions. Sign up. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. How do infectious bacteria know when their numbers are high enough to attack a host. Their numbers must gradually increase in the host's body before they know that they can attack. improve this question. edited Dec 19 '12 at 20:52. add a comment. 2 Answers 2 active oldest votes. I think the current answer to this for bacterial infections is quorum sensing. Bacteria are always around - even infectious Staph, as described in the other answer, the bacteria are always being cleared out by the immune system, but when they find the right place where they can get critical mass, they dig in, form a biofilm and secrete toxins, which can...
http://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/5536/how-do-infectious-bacteria-know-when-their-numbers-are-high-enough-to-attack-a-h
*  Tumor cells immortal? - Cell Biology - BioForum
Tumor cells immortal. - Cell Biology - BioForum. Google Sign in options. Remember me This is not recommended for shared computers Sign in anonymously Don't add me to the active users list Privacy Policy. Sign In. This topic. Forums. Members. BioBlog. BioWiki. Interest Groups. Quotes. BioVideo. Forums. BioBlog. BioWiki. Interest Groups. Quotes. Contact Us. BioForum. Cell Biology. Javascript Disabled Detected You currently have javascript disabled. Tumor cells immortal. 4 replies to this topic #1. member Active Members. 22 posts. 0 Neutral. Posted 25 March 2005 - 11:04 AM It says that cancer cells are immortal cells, and i wonder if i extract my cells from a tumor would these cells be immortal or mortal. fred 33. fred 33. Veteran Active Members. 291 posts. 1 Neutral. Posted 29 March 2005 - 12:34 AM hi they may be immortal. For immortalized properties, cell should be independent of growth factors to divide them be independant of matrix attachment have an hyperactive telomerase if not they divide them until crisi...
http://protocol-online.org/forums/topic/5801-tumor-cells-immortal/
*  What cause "downshift" in SDS-PAGE? - SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting - BioForum
What cause "downshift" in SDS-PAGE. - SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting - BioForum. Google Sign in options. Remember me This is not recommended for shared computers Sign in anonymously Don't add me to the active users list Privacy Policy. Sign In. This topic. Forums. Members. BioWiki. Quotes. BioVideo. Forums. BioWiki. Quotes. Contact Us. BioForum. Protocols and Techniques Forums. SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. What cause "downshift" in SDS-PAGE. kingswill, Jan 09 2011 07:44 PM. 5 replies to this topic #1. kingswill. kingswill. member Active Members. 11 posts. 0 Neutral. Posted 09 January 2011 - 07:44 PM There's a protein sample. You splite it into two and subject them to two treatment presumably 1 control treatment and 1 testing treatment. You find that the testing treatment downshift the protein, i.e. protein migrate faster than the control. Back to top. Enthusiast Active Members. 90 posts. 1 Neutral. Posted 10 January 2011 - 01:35 AM Actually it´s phosphorylation, not dephosphorylation that...
http://protocol-online.org/forums/topic/18916-what-cause-downshift-in-sds-page/
*  Pathogen
Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, prion, fungus, viroid, or parasite that causes disease in its host. 1 There are several substrates including 'pathways' where the pathogens can invade a host. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases. Pathogenicity Context-dependent pathogenicity. Pathogenicity. 'Pathogenicity' is the potential disease -causing capacity of pathogens. Context-dependent pathogenicity. A bacterium may participate in opportunistic infection s in immunocompromised hosts, acquire virulence factor s by plasmid infection, become transferred to a different site within the host, or respond to changes in the overall numbers of other bacteria present. Virulence. Horizontal transmission occurs between hosts of the same species, in contrast to vertical transmission, which tends to evolve symbiosis after a period of high morbidity and mortality in the population by linking the pathogen's evolutionary success to the evolution...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogen
*  What are some ways that bacteria and protists are able to extract energy into a form of ATP to use f
... or fuel. - Homework Help - eNotes.com. . Homework Help. Essay Lab. Study Tools ▻. Literature Guides. Quizzes. eTexts. Textbook Solutions. Research Paper Topics. Teachers ▻. For Teachers. Literature Lesson Plans. Literature Quizzes. Downloads. Sign In. Join. rows eNotes search. Sign In. Join. . What are some ways that bacteria and protists are able to extract energy into a form of ATP to use for fuel. Topic: Biology. Asked on January 25, 2013 at 5:30 AM. by user5265955. like 1. dislike 0. 1 Answer. Add Yours. Jessica Pope. College Teacher. Level 1 Educator. Posted on January 25, 2013 at 8:36 AM Answer #1. Bacteria and protists use two processes to extract energy from carbon chains into a usable form of ATP. The first process is glycosis. In glycosis, the organisms break down lactose and other complex sugars into smaller carbon chains. These smaller carbon chains pass through the cellular membranes of bacteria and the mitochondrial membranes of protists. Within the mitochindria or the cellular...
http://enotes.com/homework-help/what-some-ways-that-bacteria-protists-able-extract-381778
*  Molecule Found in Pathway that Allows Bacterium to Stay Attached to a Host Cell | GEN News Highli
Molecule Found in Pathway that Allows Bacterium to Stay Attached to a Host Cell. FDA Nominee Driven by "Data, Data, Data". The Pons Asinorum of Diagnostic Genomics. More GEN Exclusives ». Analysis of the RNA-Seq and SCA ... FDA Nominee Driven by "Data, Data, Data". The Pons Asinorum of Diagnostic Genomics. More GEN Exclusives ». Market & Tech Analysis. Jobs. GEN Exclusives More. The Pons Asinorum of Diagnostic Genomics Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: ROSter for... GEN News Highlights More » Mar 19, 2009 Molecule Found in Pathway that Allows Bacterium to Stay Attached to a Host Cell Page 1 of 1 Researchers at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research HZI have identified the molecule that enables the enterohemorrhagic E. They found that a host cell molecule called IRSp53 enables a connection between the bacterial effectors, Tir and EspFU. The researchers were trying to understand how Tir and EspFU enter into contact with one another in the host cell. They found that IRSp53 gathers on the cell surface, directly...
http://genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/molecule-found-in-pathway-that-allows-bacterium-to-stay-attached-to-a-host-cell/51458485/?kwrd=Cellular Biology
*  poly A mRNA in bacteria?
poly a mrna in bacteria poly a mrna in bacteria david alexander dalex at nexus microimm mcgill ca thu jun est previous message sensitivity of polyclonals on western next message poly a mrna in bacteria messages sorted by hello all i am curious to know if there are examples of bacteria that poly adenylate their mrna i ve heard that mycobacteria do this any others without handy polya tails separation of mrna and generation of cdna is difficult is there a method enzyme that will reliably add polya to bacterial rna thanks for any insight david dalex at microimm mcgill ca previous message sensitivity of polyclonals on western next message poly a mrna in bacteria messages sorted by more information about the methods mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1999-June/076011.html
*  Free Science Fair Projects
... . View Entire Science Fair Project List. How do you grow bacteria. *Recommended for Grades 8 to 12. Introduction: Initial Observation In order to study bacteria, you need to grow bacteria. In this project you will perform experiments on collecting and growing household bacteria. When you grow bacteria, you will then be able to go further and research on bacteria and factors affecting their growth and reproduction. Information Gathering: Gather information about your project. If you are a basic or advanced member of ScienceProject.com, your project advisor may prepare the initial information that you need and enter them in this section. In any case it is necessary for you to read additional books, magazines or ask professionals who might know in order to learn more about the subject of your research. Keep track of where you got your information from. Bacteria are single-celled micro organisms that play an important role in many ecosystems. Bacteria vary in terms of morphology, oxygen and nutritional requi...
http://freesciencefairproject.com/biology/how_to_grow_bacteria.html
*  Flush dilemma | Rollitup
dimebag87 Active Member. I have a 4 pot wilma and I m 7 weeks into flowering but due to a number of complications earlier on with the plants the healthiest of the bunch has mature d faster and looks to be about two weeks earlier in finishing. The problem lies with the fact that the wilma is a re circulatory system and that really you want to be using the one pump to flush them all at the same time. The only thing I can think of doing is flushing the one that s ready by hand but that would mean a ball ache untangling it from the other s twice a day to hand water it and even then, clay pebbles don t really retain much water and would end up underwater d pretty quick so therefore it isn t really a viable option to hand water when it gets a drink every 15 minutes on the dot. dimebag87, Jan 3, 2013. dimebag87 Active Member. dimebag87, Jan 3, 2013. superstoner1 Well-Known Member. superstoner1, Jan 3, 2013. I have a 4 pot wilma and I m 7 weeks into flowering but due to a number of complications earlier on with the p...
http://rollitup.org/t/flush-dilemma.606458/
*  Panasonic G20 Owners Thread - part 2 | Page 6 | AVForums
Panasonic G20 Owners Thread - part 2. Plasma TVs. Panasonic G20 Owners Thread - part 2. Apr 6, 2010 at 12:03 AM. Apr 6, 2010. DyingSun Standard Member. Joined: Mar 5, 2010. Messages:. Trophy Points:. 6 Ratings: +0. Apr 6, 2010. Apr 6, 2010 at 12:04 AM. Apr 6, 2010. headshot Active Member. Joined: May 16, 2006. Messages:. Trophy Points:. Ratings: +19. Apr 6, 2010. Apr 6, 2010 at 12:05 AM. Apr 6, 2010. headshot Active Member. Joined: May 16, 2006. Messages:. Trophy Points:. Ratings: +19. Click to expand... Apr 6, 2010. Apr 6, 2010 at 12:06 AM. Apr 6, 2010. Crunchie Member. Joined: Jul 31, 2005. Messages:. Trophy Points:. Ratings: +115. Apr 6, 2010. Apr 6, 2010 at 12:13 AM. Apr 6, 2010. headshot Active Member. Joined: May 16, 2006. Messages:. Trophy Points:. Ratings: +19. settings, other settings and power on preference Click to expand... Apr 6, 2010. Apr 6, 2010 at 12:46 AM. Apr 6, 2010. As long as the preference is set to AV you use HDMI 1 for Sky HD then that s where it will initially turn on to; All I do is ...
https://avforums.com/threads/panasonic-g20-owners-thread-part-2.1229084/page-6
*  Oswald Avery: DNA as the transforming principle :: DNA from the Beginning
... Home. Concept 17 A gene is made of DNA. CONCEPT. ANIMATION. GALLERY. VIDEO. BIO. PROBLEM. LINKS. Oswald Avery explains Fred Griffith's and his own work with Pneumococcus bacteria. How do you do. I'm Oswald Avery. My colleagues and I did a series of experiments using strains of Pneumococcus bacteria, which cause pneumonia. Pneumococcus grows in the body of the host, but, like other types of bacteria, also can be grown on solid or liquid cultures. In 1928, Fred Griffith published a study on the different strains of Pneumococcus. Two in particular, S and R, look different. The S colonies have a smooth surface, and the R colonies look rough. The S colonies look smooth because each bacterium has a capsule-like coat made of sugars. This coat protects the S bacteria from the host's immune system, and so the S strain is infectious. The coat-less R strain is not. Griffith found that mice injected with the S strain develop pneumonia and die within days. Mice injected with the R strain do not get pneumonia. Griffit...
http://dnaftb.org/17/animation.html
*  This Bikini-Shaped Bacteria Produces Some of the World's Strongest Glue
This Bikini-Shaped Bacteria Produces Some of the World's Strongest Glue....
http://gizmodo.com/5883599/this-bikini-shaped-bacteria-produces-some-of-the-worlds-strongest-glue
*  Aixin Yan Lab Website::Home
aixin yan lab website home the yan lab studies one of the fundamental questions in microbiology how bacteria adapt to the various of environmental stresses we currently focus on the mechanisms for enteric bacteria to adapt to the oxygen deprived environment bacteria must overcome such environmental challenge during the transfer from free living states in food or water to animal gut we aim to uncover the detailed signal transduction systems involved in the process and their physiological significance we tackle these important and fundamental questions at the level of gene expression coupled with approaches from biochemistry chemistry structure and bioinformatics the yan lab we always welcome the bright minds to join us together we pursue excellence in academics and your own dreams visitors since october...
http://biosch.hku.hk/staff/ay/index.html
*  We've Bred a Race of Super UTI Bacteria That Could Leave Us in a World of Hurt
We've Bred a Race of Super UTI Bacteria That Could Leave Us in a World of Hurt....
http://jezebel.com/5906531/weve-bred-a-race-of-super-uti-bacteria-that-could-leave-us-in-a-world-of-hurt
*  Knallgas-bacteria
knallgas bacteria knallgas bacteria redirect hydrogen oxidizing bacteria...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knallgas-bacteria
*  .. Gram negative bacilli .. Enterobacteriaceae .. Escherichia coli .. Salmonella .. Shigella .. Yer
Notes Gram negative bacilli. Gram negative bacilli. The most important of these are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Other genera of medical importance include Vibrio, Campylobacter and Pseudomonas. The family Enterobacteriaceae is the largest and most heterogeneous collection of medically important gram-negative bacilli and are commonly isolated from clinical specimens. Salmonella are a major cause of gastroenteritis. Some members of the family e.g. Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia pestis the plague bacillus are almost always associated with disease when isolated from humans i.e., they are never “normal” flora, whereas others e.g. Shigella spp ., and Salmonella typhi or by endogenous spread of organisms in a susceptible patient e.g. E coli urinary tract infections. It is responsible for many of the toxic manifestations of infections with Gram-negative bacilli. Escherichia coli are present in the gastrointestinal tract of all people in large numbers and are frequently associated with infections of the ...
http://infectionnet.org/notes/gram-negative-bacilli/
*  Gram Negative Bacteria Cause Of Bacterial Infection And Disease Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Fre
... e Image. Image 8876912. ✕. 1 866 655 3733. Live Help. English. 45,747,722 ROYALTY FREE STOCK PHOTOS. Sign Up. Login. Stock Photo - gram negative bacteria cause of bacterial infection and disease. gram negative bacteria cause of bacterial infection and disease. Share. Share. Twitter. Facebook. Google+. Pinterest. Image ID : 8876912. Image Type : Stock Photo. Standard License. Extended License. Additional Multi-seat License. Stock Photo Keywords. abstract, attack, background, bacteria, bacterium, biology, blood, cancer, cell, cells, close, death, design, diseases, electron, epidemic, experiment, genetics, health, hiv, human, ill, illness, illustrations, infections, life, macro, medical, medicine, micro, microbes, microbiology, microscope, microscopic, molecules, nano, organism, render, research, scanning, science, scientific, sem, sick, sickness, small, technology, tiny, virus. Similar Stock Photos. Photos. FOOTAGE. AUDIO. All Images. All Images. Photography. Vector Illustration Footage. Audio. Search by im...
http://123rf.com/photo_8876912_gram-negative-bacteria-cause-of-bacterial-infection-and-disease.html
*  Study finds multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria high in long-term care
... April 10, 2009 Study finds multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria high in long-term care April 10, 2009 The prevalence of a certain form of drug-resistant bacteria, called multidrug-resistant gram-negative MDRGN organisms, far surpassed that of two other common antimicrobial-resistant infections in long-term care facilities, according to a study conducted by researchers at Hebrew SeniorLife's Institute for Aging Research. Residents at long-term care facilities are one of the main reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. "Recently, it has become apparent that multidrug resistance among gram-negative bacteria is becoming an even greater problem in these facilities, with nearly half of long-term care facility residents harboring multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria," write the researchers, led by IFAR's Erin'O'Fallon, M.D., M.P.H., in the January issue of the Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences. Using more than 1,660 clinical cultures urine, blood and wound specimens obtained from resi...
http://phys.org/news/2009-04-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-high-long-term.html
*  .. Front-line Antibiotics To Fight E. Coli .. 3 Comments
Home » Biotech » Front-line Antibiotics To Fight E. Coli. Front-line Antibiotics To Fight E. Coli. Yesterday’s post at In the Pipeline asking what kind of translational research should be done garnered some remarks about the importance of developing antibiotics for Gram-negative bacteria. coli infections has been the carbapenem antibiotics. coli. The broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin better known by its brand name Cipro, are the go-to for most international travelers to treat food poisoning, most commonly caused by unfamiliar E. The popularity had a price: bacterial resistance to Cipro was already noted in 2001. Cephalosporins, such as the fourth-generation drug Cefepime, also show high activity against resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Helene Boucher, director of the Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program at Tufts Medical Center and lead author for the Infectious Diseases Society of America report on Gram-negative bacteria  reported two years ago, “there has been an incre...
http://cenblog.org/the-haystack/2011/06/front-line-antibiotics-to-fight-e-coli/
*  Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria
multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria mdrgn bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria for hospitalized patients and especially patients in intensive care unit s these bacterial infections pose a serious and as of rapidly emerging threat the above quote was taken from an interview by luke f chen at the infectious diseases society of america annual meeting a study of mdrgn in long term care facilities reported in concluded that patients with severe dementia who require assistance with the activities of daily life are at high risk of mdrgn co colonization and may be the superspreaders of mdrgn in these facilities see also antibiotic resistance drug resistance multiple drug resistance references category bacteria...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multidrug-resistant_gram-negative_bacteria
*  Gram-negative bacterial infection
gram negative bacterial infection gram negative bacterial infection gram negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram negative bacteria one example is e coli it is important to recognize that this class is defined morphologically by the presence of a bacterial outer membrane and not histologically by a pink appearance when stained though the two usually coincide one reason for this division is that the outer membrane is of major clinical significance it can play a role in the reduced effectiveness of certain antibiotics and it is the source of endotoxin the gram status of some organisms is complex or disputed mycoplasma are sometimes considered gram negative but because of its lack of a cell wall and unusual membrane composition it is sometimes considered separately from other gram negative bacteria gardnerella is often considered gram negative but it is classified in mesh as both gram positive and gram negative it has some traits of gram positive bacteria but has a gram negative appearance...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram-negative_bacterial_infection
*  OMPdb
... is a database of β barrel outer membrane proteins from gram negative bacteria see also gram negative bacteria beta barrel references external links http www ompdb org category biological databases category protein structure category protein folds category gram negative bacteria...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OMPdb
*  Autochaperone
... multiple issues autotransporter protein s are proteins secreted out the gram negative bacteria these beta helix es require a domain which is called the intramolecular autochaperone domain it shows similarities with other intramolecular chaperone sequences and has a folding associated function this increases the efficiency either by stabilizing the beta barrel or by promoting the folding of the passenger domain the autochaperone domain is usually located between the hsf and the passenger domain when the passenger domain is translocated starting with its c terminus the autochaperone domain is first out this would result in the formation of a hairpin structure see also protein domain external links surface display of proteins by gram negative bacterial autotransporters adhesion mediated by autotransporters of gram negative bacteria structural and functional features identification of secretion determinants of the bordetella pertussis brka autotransporter category protein structural motifs category protein d...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autochaperone
*  Tetraacyldisaccharide 4'-kinase
tetraacyldisaccharide kinase tetraacyldisaccharide kinase tetraacyldisaccharide kinase is an enzyme that phosphorylate s the position of a tetraacyldisaccharide phosphate precursor ds p of lipopolysaccharide lipid a this lipid forms outer membranes of gram negative bacteria this enzyme catalyzes the chemical reaction atp rightleftharpoons adp this enzyme belongs to the family of transferase s specifically those transferring phosphorus containing groups phosphotransferase s with an alcohol group as acceptor references category ec category enzymes of known structure...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetraacyldisaccharide_4'-kinase
*  The Rockefeller University » Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology
Surface Proteins on Gram-positive Bacteria. Surface Proteins on Gram-Positive Bacteria Surface Proteins:. DNA sequence analysis of the 3 end of the M protein gene the region involved in attachment to the cell revealed that it is highly homologous to comparable regions of nearly all known surface proteins from gram-positive bacteria. During our studies to understand this attachment mechanism, we identified a membrane-associated enzyme, termed LPXTGase see below, responsible for cleaving a highly conserved motif LPXTG within the anchor region of these surface proteins. Vaccines and Surface Display of Proteins: Capitalizing on the conservation of the anchoring process for surface proteins, we discovered that active polypeptides or proteins genetically fused to the common anchor region of the M protein could be used to deliver the active molecule to the surface of gram-positive bacteria i.e., for vaccine purposes. The identification of a conserved region within the M protein of all of the 125 different serotypes ...
http://rockefeller.edu/vaf/surfall.php
*  Periplasm
Image: Gram-negative cell wall. thumb|right|Difference in volume of periplasm in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria The 'periplasm' is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasm ic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the 'periplasmic space' in gram-negative bacteria. It has been found using cryo-electron microscopy, that a much smaller periplasmic space is present in gram-positive bacteria. The periplasm may constitute up to 40% of the total cell volume of gram-negative bacteria, and this is a much smaller percentage in gram-positive bacteria. What are archaebacteria: life’s third domain or monoderm prokaryotes related to Gram-positive bacteria. All gram-positive bacteria are bounded by a single unit lipid membrane; they generally contain a thick layer 20-80 nm of peptidoglycan responsible for retaining the Gram-stain. A number of other bacteria which are bounded by a single membrane but stain gram-negative due to either lack of the peptidoglycan layer viz., myc...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periplasm
*  Listeriaceae
... the listeriaceae are a family of gram positive bacteria the cells are short rods and can form filaments they are aerobic or facultative anaerobic spores are not formed it causes by human and animals listeriosis references category gram positive bacteria category listeriaceae...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Listeriaceae
*  gDNA from Gram Positives
... pkeeling at ac dal ca pkeeling at ac dal ca tue sep est previous message seabird genetics next message heat schock proteins info messages sorted by i am looking for protocols to isolate genomic dna from several gram positives the general protocols found in most manuals work on a handful of gram positives but not in many cases those which are troublesome are nocardia corynebacterium mycobacterium staphylococcus as i said i have tried several general protocols and some variations on them so specific protocols would be most helpful and i am happy to be e mailed directly patrick keeling previous message seabird genetics next message heat schock proteins info messages sorted by more information about the bioforum mailing list...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/bioforum/1993-September/005967.html
*  Template:PBB/55894
template pbb template pbb gnf protein box name defensin beta b image protein defb a pdb kj png image source pdb rendering based on kj pdb hgncid mgiid symbol defb b altsymbols bd defb defb defb hbd hbd hbp hbp iuphar chembl omim ecnumber homologene geneatlas image geneatlas image geneatlas image protein domain image function component gnf go id go text extracellular region gnf go id go text golgi lumen process gnf go id go text positive regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against gram positive bacteria gnf go id go text defense response to bacterium gnf go id go text innate immune response hs entrezgene hs ensembl ensg hs refseqmrna nm hs refseqprotein np hs genloc db hg hs genloc chr hs genloc start hs genloc end hs uniprot p mm entrezgene mm ensembl ensmusg mm refseqmrna nm mm refseqprotein np mm genloc db mm mm genloc chr mm genloc start mm genloc end mm uniprot q tnv path pbb...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:PBB/55894
*  Anaerobacter
... are a genus of gram positive bacteria related to clostridium they are anaerobic chemotroph s and are unusual spore formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell up to five spores they fix nitrogen g c content references category clostridiaceae...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobacter
*  404 Page
... Beauty Store. Fitness Store. Food Store. Pet Store. Favorites. Log In or Register. MY CART 0. The cart is empty. 1.800.383.6008 7 Days a Week - Hablamos Español LIVE CHAT. Questions. Feedback. powered by Olark live chat software. Shop by Brand. A A AC Grace. About Time. Activz. Acure Organics. Advanced Naturals. Advanced Nutritional Inno... Advanced Orthomolecular R... Agape Health Products. Aidan Products. AjiPure. Alacer Corp. Alba Botanica. Allera Health Products. Allergy Research Group. Allvia Integrated. Almased. Alta Health Products. Alvera. AmaZing Grass. American Biologics. American Health. American Nutriceuticals. Ameriden. Anabolic Laboratories. Andalou Naturals. Annemarie Borlind. Apex Energetics. = Doctor Trusted Brands See all Brands Featured Brands. B B BPI Sports. BSN. Baby Spa. Balanceuticals. Bamboo Cosmetics. Banyan Botanicals. Barnana. Bauman Nutrition. Beauty Without Cruelty. Bell Plantation. Berries For Life. Best Life Herbals. Betancourt Nutrition. Betty Lou's. Bezwecken. Bio Nativu...
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*  Biology-Online • View topic - Anaerobic bacteria in wounds
Biology-Online View topic - Anaerobic bacteria in wounds. Login Welcome to biology-online.org. Forum. Biology-Online. Advanced search. Board index. General Biology. Microbiology. Advanced search. Anaerobic bacteria in wounds. 4 posts Page 1 of 1. Reply with quote. Anaerobic bacteria in wounds by SysBio. Sun Mar 22, 2009 4:57 am I read somewhere that anaerobic bacteria are commonly found to infect wounds. SysBio. Garter Posts: 11 Joined: Tue Jan 22, 2008 11:57 am. Reply with quote. Not all anaerobic bacteria are obligates will die when exposed to oxygen. They can be faculative can use oxygen if present or aerotolerant name says it, dont use oxygen at all but can survive in it. A wise man once said to me: Build a man a fire, and he'll be warm for a day. Set a man on fire, and he'll be warm for the rest of his life. Coral Posts: 131 Joined: Tue Jun 10, 2008 12:21 pm Location: Western Australia. Reply with quote. Mon Mar 23, 2009 11:47 am Obligate anaerobes are able to infect deep wounds, tissues and organs which...
http://biology-online.org/biology-forum/about15568.html?hilit=Obligate anaerobe
*  Anaerobic Infections | Definition and Patient Education
Anaerobic Infections. Topics & Tools. Heart Disease. Newsletter Sign-Up. Diabetes Mine. Advertisement. Healthline. Anaerobic Infections. Anaerobic Infections. What are Anaerobic Infections. Anaerobic infections are common infections caused by anaerobic bacteria. They don’t cause infection in their natural state, but can cause infection after injury or trauma to the body. Anaerobic infections commonly affect the abdomen, genitals, heart, bone, joints, central nervous system CNS, respiratory tract, skin, and mouth. What Causes Anaerobic Infections. This can be by injury, trauma, or surgery. Symptoms of Anaerobic Infections The most common indicators of anaerobic infection include: noticeable infection near the skin smelly discharge pus-filled abscess tissue damage or gangrene discoloration of infected area Other symptoms can occur at the location of the infection. Testing of infected tissue can identify the bacteria responsible for the infection. Give Us Feedback What do you think of this page. Privacy policy. ...
http://healthline.com/health/anaerobic-infections
*  Treatment of periodontal infections due to anaerobic bacteria with short-term treatment with metroni
... dazole. Login. Home → Research Collections → Interdisciplinary and Peer-Reviewed → View Item. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Treatment of periodontal infections due to anaerobic bacteria with short-term treatment with metronidazole. Loesche, W. J.; Syed, S. A.; Morrison, E. C.; Laughon, B.; Grossman, N. S Loesche, W. J.; Syed, S. A.; Morrison, E. C.; Laughon, B.; Grossman, N. Citation: Loesche, W. J.; Syed, S. A.; Morrison, E. C.; Laughon, B.; Grossman, N. "Treatment of periodontal infections due to anaerobic bacteria with short-term treatment with metronidazole." Journal of Clinical Periodontology 8 1 : 29-44. http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/74101. In the present report, five selected periodontal patients were treated for 1 week with metronidazole. Prior to treatment, B. The presence of these elevated proportions of periodontopathic bacteria combined with the presence of periodontal pockets and attachment loss suggested that the patients were in a state of an active infectious process involving p...
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/74101
*  Browsing by Author "Geenevasen, J.A.J."
... . Radboud Repository. Radboud Repository → Browsing by Author. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Browsing by Author "Geenevasen, J.A.J.". Jump to a point in the index: Choose month January February March April May June July August September October November December. Choose year 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920. Or type in a year:. Sort by: title issue date submit date Order: ascending descending Results: 50 100 150 200. Now showing items 1-2 of 2. Structural identification of ladderane and other membrane lipids of planctomycetes capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation anammox. . Damste, J.S.S. ; Rijpstra, W.I.C. ; Geenevasen, J.A.J. ;. Strous, M. ;. Jetten, M.S.M. 2005, Article / Letter to editor FEBS Journal, vol. 272, iss. 16, 2005, pp. 4270-4283. A mixed ladderane/n-alkyl glycerol diether membrane lipid in an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterium. . Damste, J.S.S....
http://repository.ubn.ru.nl/browse?type=author&value=Geenevasen, J.A.J.&value_lang=en_US
*  Facultative anaerobic organism
... Image:Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth : 1: Obligate aerobe s need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest. 2: Obligate anaerobe s are poisoned by oxygen, so they gather at the bottom of the tube where the oxygen concentration is lowest. 3: 'Facultative anaerobes' can grow with or without oxygen because they can metabolise energy aerobically or anaerobically. They gather mostly at the top because aerobic respiration generates more ATP than either fermentation or anaerobic respiration. 4: Microaerophile s need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. However, they are poisoned by high concentrations of oxygen. They gather in the upper part of the test tube but not the very top. 5: Aerotolerant organisms do not require oxygen as they metabolise energy anaerobically. Unlike obligate anaerobes however, they are not poisoned...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facultative_anaerobic_organism
*  ANIDE - Overview: Organism Referred for Identification, Anaerobic Bacteria
... Test Catalog Go Test Name A. Test Catalog Test Information New Tests Test Updates Reflex Tests Referred Tests NYS Informed Consent Test List Download Catalog References Critical Values and Semi-Urgent Results Performing Locations Policies. Setup Information Test Setup AOE Codes LOINC Codes Units of Measurement. New Tests. Setup Information. Referred Tests. Test Ordering MayoACCESS Overview References MayoLINK Overview References. Specimen Handling Collection and Preparation Instructions by Specimen Type Category A Infectious Substances Light Protection Tests Microbiology Culture Tests Resources Supply Catalog FAQ Dangerous Goods Training. Specimen Transport Customized Shipping Instructions Shipping Guides Courier Instructions Transportation Regulations CDC Permit. Outreach Resources Outreach Areas Outreach Education Support Services Operations Sales and Marketing Billing and Finance Examples. Test Updates. My Account Report Portal Client Price Portal Additional Test Report Quality Report Portal Reportabl...
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Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Pasteur point: The Pasteur point is a level of oxygen (about 0.3% by volume which is less than 1% of Present Atmospheric Level or PAL) above which aerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobes adapt from fermentation to aerobic respiration.Coles PhillipsFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Osiris TherapeuticsGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.BacitracinSulfate-reducing bacteria: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are those bacteria and archaea that can obtain energy by oxidizing organic compounds or molecular hydrogen (H2) while reducing sulfate () to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In a sense, these organisms "breathe" sulfate rather than oxygen in a form of anaerobic respiration.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Global microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.BiodegradationGentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Pseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Alkalimonas: Alkalimonas is a genus in the phylum Proteobacteria (Bacteria).BiofilmExternal bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.Lactic acid fermentationNankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Zetaproteobacteria: The class Zetaproteobacteria is the sixth and most recently described class of the Proteobacteria. Zetaproteobacteria can also refer to the group of organisms assigned to this class.Obligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.GyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.Candidatus Accumulibacter: Candidatus Accumulibacter is an unclassified group of Betaproteobacteria that currently contains only a single member, Candidatus Accumulibacter Phosphatis. C.Vibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a species of Streptococcus.Cytophaga: Cytophaga is a genus of Gram-negative, gliding, rod-shaped bacteria.Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Heptadecanoic acidBacillus alcalophilus: Bacillus alcalophilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped species of bacteria. Likely strains of this species have been isolated from highly alkaline waste water.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Thermal cyclerTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Gram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Clostridium phytofermentans: Clostridium phytofermentans is an obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium. It forms spherical spores.Eubacterium oxidoreducens: Eubacterium oxidoreducens is a Gram positive bacterium species in the genus Eubacterium.Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis: Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is naturally found in soil and vegetation, and is known for its ability to form a small, tough, protective and metabolically dormant endospore. B.Adlercreutzia: Adlercreutzia is a genus in the phylum Actinobacteria (Bacteria).Bacterial outer membraneCorynebacterium amycolatum: Corynebacterium amycolatum is a Gram-positive, nonspore-forming, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacillus capable of fermentation with propionic acid as the major end product of its glucose metabolism. One of its best known relatives is Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria.CS-BLASTPhagocytosis: In cell biology, phagocytosis ( (phagein) |to devour||, (kytos) |cell||-osis|process}}) is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome. Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler, and later studied by Élie Metchnikoff.Desulfococcus oleovorans Strain Hxd3: Desulfococcus oleovorans Strain Hxd3 was isolated from the saline water phase of an oil-water separator from a northern German oil field.Aeckersberg, F.Listeria monocytogenes: Listeria monocytogenes is the bacterium that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen.Cell envelope: The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane, if one is present (i.e.Alkaliflexus: Alkaliflexus is a genus in the phylum Bacteroidetes (Bacteria).Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionHeliobacteria: The heliobacteria are phototrophic: they convert light energy into chemical energy by photosynthesis and they use a Type I reaction centerHeinickel and Golbeck 2007. The primary pigment involved is bacteriochlorophyll g, which is unique to the group and has a unique absorption spectrum; this gives the heliobacteria their own environmental niche.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.Mutaflor: Mutaflor is a probiotic consisting of a viable non-pathogenic bacteria strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.Mutaflor Information page "The Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917-designated DSM 6601 in the German Collection for Microorganisms in Braunschweig is one of the best-examined and therapeutically relevant bacterial strains worldwide" as claimed by the manufacturerManufacturers WebsitePhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Fusobacterium: Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, similar to Bacteroides. Individual cells are rod-shaped bacilli with pointed ends.

(1/19400) Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods.

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

(2/19400) Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter.

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

(3/19400) Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection.

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

(4/19400) Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake.

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

(5/19400) The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora.

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

(6/19400) In vitro activities of aminomethyl-substituted analogs of novel tetrahydrofuranyl carbapenems.

CL 188,624, CL 190,294, and CL 191,121 are novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. The in vitro antibacterial activities of these THF carbapenems were evaluated and compared with those of biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 554 recent clinical isolates obtained from geographically distinct medical centers across North America. The antibacterial activities of the THF carbapenems were equivalent to that of biapenem, and the THF carbapenems were slightly more active than imipenem and less active than meropenem against most of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but lacked significant activity against Pseudomonas isolates. In general, CL 191,121 was two- to fourfold more active than CL 188,624 and CL 190,294 against the staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates tested. CL 191,121 was twofold less active than imipenem against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and was as activity as imipenem against Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Biapenem and meropenem were two- and fourfold less active than CL 191,121, respectively, against the methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and E. faecalis. All the carbapenems displayed equivalent good activities against the streptococci. Biapenem was slightly more active than the other carbapenems against Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated that the THF carbapenems were bactericidal in 6 h against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect exerted by CL 191,121 was comparable to or slightly longer than that of imipenem against isolates of S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  (+info)

(7/19400) Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile.

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

(8/19400) 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 catalyzes a Bamberger rearrangement.

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 is involved in the degradative pathway of 3-nitrophenol, in which it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxylaminophenol to aminohydroquinone. To show that the reaction was really catalyzed by a single enzyme without the release of intermediates, the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from an extract of cells grown on 3-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and succinate as the carbon and energy source. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase appears to be a relatively hydrophobic but soluble and colorless protein consisting of a single 62-kDa polypeptide. The pI was determined to be at pH 4.5. In a database search, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the undigested protein and of two internal sequences of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase were found to be most similar to those of glutamine synthetases from different species. Hydroxylaminobenzene, 4-hydroxylaminotoluene, and 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, but not 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, can also serve as substrates for the enzyme. The enzyme requires no oxygen or added cofactors for its reaction, which suggests an enzymatic mechanism analogous to the acid-catalyzed Bamberger rearrangement.  (+info)


Bacteria?????


Is it true that the bacteria will grow on your skin if you use food product such as egg white and yolk for your skin?
I'm juz wondering if it is true.
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Bacteria grows on your skin every second of the day, most of it is harmless, some even helpful...but ya, doing something like that may increase the risk of harmful bacteria growing on you...but only if you never shower :/...I wouldn't personally do it, but I think you're ok.


What's the difference between good bacteria and bad bacteria?


What's the difference between good bacteria and bad bacteria?  What kind of bacteria is in yougurt?  What kind of bacteria is in beans?  Can you consume too much good and/or bad bacteria?  What are the daily recommended allowances?
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The advertisements on TV are a tremendous oversimplification. All bacteria have the potential to be pathogenic but some are beneficial. The Wikipedia article on yoghurt is quite informative.

Bacteria exist almost everywhere. Most bacteria are harmless to man but not beneficial either. Bacteria that cause disease are called "pathogenic bacteria". Individual bacterial species exist in a number of strains, some of which may be pathogenic and others may be beneficial in some way or other.

What the advertisement is saying is that eating non-pathogenic bacteria of certain species and strains will counter and compete with pathogenic bacteria in your gut. This can assist regular digestive transit. The inside of any alimentary canal is an ecosystem of its own. By eating the right food, you can influence it.

I still haven't explained things really well because I don't have all the knowledge needed. Maybe a doctor or a nutritionist could make the issue clearer.


The bacteria in my throat is resistant to Antibiotics, What can I do?


I have puss on my tongsils and the antibiotics arent doing anything! I think its because i have abused them in the past. Meaning i have taken them so much that Now the bacteria is resistant to them. I have always tooken Cephalexin and Ammoxcolina 500mg. So what do you think i should do to get rid of this infection? What can my Dr Prescribe me?
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Clindamycin will often work when others don't


What bacteria infections can cause high neutrophils and enlarged spleen?


Maybe there's like a thousand different types and that's why I can't find anything on websites.  All they say is acute bacterial infection but don't listen additional symptoms or names of bacteria.
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The h. pylori bacteria can cause enlarged spleen & liver. I know because my wife was just diagnosed with this. She's now on a anti-biotic treatment. I don't know what neutrophils are. 


What bacteria types are involved with out of date cooked sliced ham?


If you kept cooked reformed ham slices in a refridgerator for 30 days, in an open packet, what types of bacteria would you expect to see after 14 and 28 days?
Its the disease causing bacteria that are a concern.
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ive already told you. commonly, staphylococcus spp. are found on many prepared foods. you will always find a variety of fungi on prepared foods as they are ubiquitous little buggers. you may find e coli if the packager didnt wash his hands after going poo. you may find a variety of other nondisease causing organisms as well.

EDIT: the bacteria that ive listed ARE the disease-causing bacteria. staph produces a toxin (staphylotoxin) that cause the vast majority of "food poisoning." e coli, well, everyone knows that one. other than that, no sweat. most fungi dont really bother us when ingested. they may, however, procuce waste products that do. 

what im trying to say is that the majority of people ive treated for "food posioning" either ingest staphylotoxin, e coli, or samonella. all may be found on prepared ham...who knows? usually, prepared ham is loaded with sodium as a preservative and not much of anything can grow in that sh1t. so, i wouldnt worry if i were you.


How is bacteria killed in fruit juice to make it safe for unrefrigerated store shelves?


There are several types of packaging for fruit juice for unrefrigerated store shelves.  The oldest common one is the 46 ounce can.  What happens with the 46 ounce can to kill the bacteria?  Most cans of most types of food get cooked in the sealed can.  But fruit juice isn't the type of food that would normally be cooked.  So what do they do instead?  And what about the other types of packaging, such as sealed plastic bottles?
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They do "cook" or boil the juice and water anyway, and it's sealed in the containers in a sterile environment.


What are 3 viruses and bacteria that attack the immune system?


Im doing a project in my biology class about viruses and bacteria. 

The question is "Describe at least 3 viruses and bacteria that attack the immune system. Also explain how they work, live and survive." 

I already have one virus (HIV) but i need 2 more viruses and 3 bacterias that attack immune system. Also can you elaberate on how HIV attacks the immune system and how it survives?

Thanks for all your help!
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Attack is kind of a bad word here!! Viruses "generate" an immune response. 3 such virus ..some common one:1-Herpes, Chicken Pox( varicella zoster virus), Rabies virus( Rabies disease), Measles Virus, Rubella virus. 
Bacteria: pneumonia( streptococcus pneumoniae),Salmonella(salmonella species), Gonorrhea( Neisseria gonorrhoeae)..other diseases- syphylis,cholera..you can google these and see the name of the bacteria.

Viruses are parasites and their mode of operation varies. They can survive only when they parasitise another organism, you name the organism and there is a virus that lives on it.They live in our cells, the nucleus, cytoplasm and they live in a varied number of cells. Some specialise in cells of the nervous system, immune system(HIV), etc. Even bacteria have viruses that parasitize them- they are called bacteriophage.
HIV virus is a very special virus , in that it has evolve to live within the very cells that are suppose to be protecting us- The many cells of the immune system- macrophages and Tcells. HIV uses a receptor(CD4) that is present on Thelper cells to invade our body. The problem here is that the Thelper cells are called whenever there is an invasion( a foreign matter /antigen) in our system and are absolutely necessary for us to remain healthy. Once they have been invaded by the virus then they are marked for death. The body begins to remove them in an attempt to get rid of teh virus. Thereby rendering us more vulnerable to other infections- because now our defense is being broken down. Viruses on a hold have been able to manipulate our bodies to their advantage being the true parasites they are. for more information you can go to google really/ any university link, once that end in dot edu should be good.  i hope i was helpful i tried my best. Good luck!!


How does the bacteria in syphilis cause the symptoms in your body?


Not what r the symptoms but how does the bacteria cause them? Thx! websotes or books tell me where the info is coming from.
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I think you can learn more about it at
http://www.promdinurses.com/2009/06/communicable-diseases-sars-and-syphilis.html