Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)HydrocarbonsSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.AcetyleneOzone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Serratia liquefaciens: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urticaceae: The nettles plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Many have stinging hairs on stems and leaves. Flowers are small and greenish in leaf axils. The fruit is dry and one-seeded.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Minor Planets: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Neptune: The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)FiresClimatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Carnobacterium: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.PhotochemistryPolycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Electronic Waste: Discarded electronic devices containing valuable and sometimes hazardous materials such as LEAD, NICKEL, CADMIUM, and MERCURY. (from http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/ecycling/faq.htm#impact accessed 4/25/2010)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Gram-Positive Rods: A large group of rod-shaped bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Chemical Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.

*  KINYAMASEKE MEDICAL CENTRE | serving with humility
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*  Homepage | Tea Bar and Organics
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*  Troposphere | CK-12 Foundation
Troposphere. CK-12 Foundation meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/". iframe src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-WVB47G" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden" /iframe. Help. Help. Troposphere. READ. Troposphere. Characteristics of the troposphere. Practice. Practice questions. CK-12 Content. At Grade. All Levels. At Grade. Levels are CK-12's student achievement levels. At Grade Proficient Students matched to this level have demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter, including subject matter knowledge, application of such knowledge to real-world situations, and analytical skills appropriate to subject matter. Read. Real World. Create your own content. Read. Troposphere. by CK-12. // at grade. Characteristics of the troposphere. Twitter. Facebook. Email. Trouble in the Troposphere - A Lesson on Tropospheric Ozone Lesson Plan. by CK-12. // at grade. Students use data to create graphs comparing the ozone levels in various US cities, analyze and eva...
http://ck12.org/earth-science/Troposphere/
*  electronic library - Experimental studies on long-range transport of aerosols in the troposphere
... Experimental studies on long-range transport of aerosols in the troposphere. Weinzierl, Bernadett and Petzold, Andreas and Fiebig, Markus and Minikin, Andreas 2005 Experimental studies on long-range transport of aerosols in the troposphere. In: 2005 Cargese Summerschool on Understanding the role of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in Climate. 2005 Cargese Summerschool on Understanding the role of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in Climate, 2005-10-03 - 2005-10-15, Cargese, Corse F. For that purpose, observations from airborne measurements onboard the Falcon research-aircraft during the ITOP Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors field experiment in July 2004 are being analysed. The second key topic is the investigation of microphysical, optical and radiative properties of desert dust aerosols over source regions, as well as the modification of these dust properties during atmospheric transport from the source region to the far field and mixing with biomass burnin...
http://elib.dlr.de/43613/
*  Characteristics of Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in Relation to Asian Summer Monsoon
... The present work is an attempt to understand the characteristics of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Asian summer monsoon region, more specifically over the Indian subcontinent. Mainly three important parameters are taken such as zonal wind, temperature and ozone over the UT/LS of the Asian summer monsoon region. It made a detailed study of its interannual variability and characteristics of theses parameters during the Indian summer monsoon period. Also the daily overpass total ozone data for the 12 Indian stations from low latitude to high latitudes from the TOMS Nimbus 7 satellite for the period 1979 to 1992 were also used to understand the total ozone variation over the Indian region. The study reveals that if QBO phases in the stratosphere is easterly or weak westerly then the respective monsoon is found to be DRY or below Normal. On the other hand, if the phase is westerly or weak easterly the respective Indian summer monsoon is noted as a WET year. Wavelet analysis and EOF...
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/handle/purl/1000
*  electronic library - Chemical and aerosol characterisation of the troposphere over West Africa duri
... ng the monsoon period as part of AMMA. DLR Portal Home. Contact. Advanced Search. Chemical and aerosol characterisation of the troposphere over West Africa during the monsoon period as part of AMMA. and Matsuki, A. 2010 Chemical and aerosol characterisation of the troposphere over West Africa during the monsoon period as part of AMMA. Official URL: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/7575/2010/acp-10-7575-2010.html Abstract During June, July and August 2006 five aircraft took part in a campaign over West Africa to observe the aerosol content and chemical composition of the troposphere and lower stratosphere as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis AMMA project. The ozone data exhibits an "S" shaped vertical profile which appears to result from significant losses in the lower troposphere due to rapid deposition to forested areas and photochemical destruction in the moist monsoon air, and convective uplift of ozone-poor air to the upper troposphere. There is evidence for net photochemic...
http://elib.dlr.de/65028/
*  Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS): applications to climatology
Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere UTLS : applications to climatology and transport studies. Goddard Library Repository. Main Menu. Repository Home About the Repository Library Home Search Help National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Goddard Space Flight Center. Advanced. Authors Home Advanced Search Collections. Get Document. Download Journal Articles Export Citation: RIS EndNote / JSON. Goddard Co-Authors. Pawson, Steven. Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere UTLS : applications to climatology and transport studies. Record Type Journal Articles Full Title Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere UTLS : applications to climatology and transport studies Author s. Manney G, Hegglin M, Daffer W, Santee M, Ray E, Pawson S, Schwartz M, Boone C, Froidevaux L, Livesey N, Read W, Walker K. Publication Title. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS Publication Title abbreviated ATMOS CHEM PHYS Publication Date 2011 DOI 10.5194/acp-11-61...
http://gsfcir.gsfc.nasa.gov/authors/publication/19195
*  Observations of Reactive Gaseous Mercury in the Free Troposphere at the Mount Bachelor Observatory
... DASH Home. FAS Scholarly Articles View Item. Observations of Reactive Gaseous Mercury in the Free Troposphere at the Mount Bachelor Observatory. Show simple item record. dc.contributor.author. dc.contributor.author. dc.contributor.author. M dc.contributor.author. dc.contributor.author. dc.contributor.author. dc.contributor.author. Jacob, Daniel J. dc.contributor.author. dc.contributor.author. Jacob, Sarah Strode, and Lyatt Jaegle. Observations of reactive gaseous mercury in the free troposphere at the Mount Bachelor Observatory. We measured gaseous elemental mercury GEM, particulate mercury PHg, and reactive gaseous mercury RGM, along with CO, ozone, and aerosol scatter at the Mount Bachelor Observatory 2.7 km above sea level, Oregon, from May to August 2005. The mean mercury concentrations at standard conditions were 1.54 ng/m3 GEM, 5.2 pg/m3 PHg, and 43 pg/m3 RGM. RGM enhancements, up to 600 pg/m3, occurred at night and were linked to a diurnal pattern of upslope and downslope flows that mixed in bound...
http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/3743673?show=full
*  ACP - Abstract - High-ozone layers in the middle and upper troposphere above Central Europe: potenti
... al import from the stratosphere along the subtropical jet stream. Title and author search. Phys., 11, 9343-9366, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/9343/2011/ doi:10.5194/acp-11-9343-2011 © Author s 2011. High-ozone layers in the middle and upper troposphere above Central Europe: potential import from the stratosphere along the subtropical jet stream T. 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany 2 Paul Scherrer Institut, Labor für Atmosphärenchemie, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland 3 Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, Institut für Atmosphäre und Klima, Universitätsstr. 16, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland 4 Lehrstuhl für Ökoklimatologie, Technische Universität München, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany * now at: Norwegian Institute for Air Research, P.O. Specific very dry high-ozone layers, starting roughly two days after the onset of high-pressure periods during the warm season, have been reproducibly observed in the middle and upper troposphere with the ozone lidar in Garmisch-Parte...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/11/9343/2011/acp-11-9343-2011.html
*  ACP - Abstract - A global climatology of stratosphere–troposphere exchange using the ERA-Interim d
... ata set from 1979 to 2011. Full text search. Title and author search. Journal metrics IF 5.053. Phys., 14, 913-937, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/913/2014/ doi:10.5194/acp-14-913-2014 © Author s 2014. A global climatology of stratosphere–troposphere exchange using the ERA-Interim data set from 1979 to 2011 B. Published in Atmos. In this study we use the ERA-Interim reanalysis data set from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ECMWF and a refined version of a previously developed Lagrangian methodology to compile a global 33 yr climatology of stratosphere–troposphere exchange STE from 1979 to 2011. Fluxes of mass and ozone are calculated across the tropopause, pressure surfaces in the troposphere, and the top of the planetary boundary layer PBL. The global hotspots for deep STE are found along the west coast of North America and over the Tibetan Plateau, especially in boreal winter and spring. An analysis of the time series reveals significant positive trends of the net downward mass fl...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/14/913/2014/acp-14-913-2014.html
*  Impact of acetone on ozone production and OH in the upper troposphere at high NOx
... Become an AGU Member. Subscribe to AGU Journals. View full article:. PDF 3700133 bytes JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. D9, PAGES 11,585 11,600, 2000 Impact of acetone on ozone production and OH in the upper troposphere at high NO x. Ian Folkins Atmospheric Science Program, Departments of Physics and Oceanography, Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Robert Chatfield Earth Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Abstract The impact of acetone or any HO x source on tropospheric photochemistry is largest in the high NO x regime. The fractional increases in OH and ozone production associated with acetone increase rapidly with NO x when NO x mixing ratios become larger than 300 parts per trillion by volume pptv. This occurs in part because the HO x yield of acetone is larger at higher NO x mixing ratios, going from about 1 HO x at NO x 10 pptv to 3 HO x at NO x 1000 pptv. Acetone increases the conversion of NO to NO 2, HNO 4, HNO 3, and peroxyacetylnitrate P...
http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sgg/chatfield/Folk_AcetonePer.html
*  Stratosphere ( Read ) | Earth Science | CK-12 Foundation
Earth Science. Stratosphere. The stratosphere contains the ozone layer, which protects live on Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Earth Science. Stratosphere. That altitude gets them out of the troposphere and into the stratosphere. Stratosphere. There is little mixing between the stratosphere, the layer above the troposphere, and the troposphere below it. Temperature Gradient. In the stratosphere, temperature increases with altitude. The ozone layer in the stratosphere absorbs high energy ultraviolet radiation, which breaks the ozone molecule 3-oxygens apart into an oxygen molecule 2-oxygens and an oxygen atom 1-oxygen. In the mid-stratosphere there is less UV light and so the oxygen atom and molecule recombine to from ozone. As a result, there is little mixing of air within the layer. The Ozone Layer. The ozone layer is found within the stratosphere between 15 to 30 km 9 to 19 miles altitude. Ultraviolet radiation splits an oxygen molecule into two oxygen atoms. One oxygen atom combines with another ...
http://ck12.org/earth-science/Stratosphere/lesson/Stratosphere/
*  Implications of the Vertical Distribution of Ozone in the Troposphere
... . Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Symposia Papers & STPs. You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass subscription. This document is part of your ASTM Compass subscription. Stay on Page Continue to Compass. STP653 Implications of the Vertical Distribution of Ozone in the Troposphere Published: Jan 1978.   Format Pages Price  . PDF 24 $ 25   ADD TO CART. Complete Source PDF 9.8M 24 $60   ADD TO CART. Source: STP653-EB ASTM License Agreement. Abstract Ozone observed within the troposphere, but above the planetary boundary layer, may arrive there by various routes descent from the stratosphere, ascent from the surface, or descent from the stratosphere followed by ascent. Once ozone has left the lower stratosphere through a tropopause break it can be transported horizontally for several days before descending to the boundary layer. During this period it may remain as a discrete maximum within a dry, stable layer or undergo mixing with the sur...
http://astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP36599S.htm
*  OSA | Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. II. First results
Copy Citation Text Didier Bruneau, Philippe Quaglia, Cyrille Flamant, and Jacques Pelon, "Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. Pelon, “The airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during a European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus 52B, 662–677 2000. Pelon, “The airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during a European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus 52B, 662–677 2000. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during a European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus 52B, 662–677 2000. Pelon, “The airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. Livingston, “Airborne lidar ...
https://osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-40-21-3462
*  ACP - Special issue - Data exploitation and modeling for the upper troposphere and lower stratospher
... e COST 723. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. EGU Journals. Articles ACP. Recent final revised papers. Special issues. Full text search. Title and author search. Articles ACPD. User ID. New user. Abstracted/indexed. Chemical Abstracts. Special issues ACP - Special issue. Special issues. Data exploitation and modeling for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere COST 723 Editor s : W. A Buehler, and D. Download citations of all papers: Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager A practical demonstration on AMSU retrieval precision for upper tropospheric humidity by a non-linear multi-channel regression method C. O John, and S. A Buehler Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 451-459, 2005 Abstract. Final revised paper PDF, 443 KB. Discussion paper ACPD. Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere G. W Phillips Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 963-971, 2005 Abstract. Final revised paper PDF, 2604 KB. Discussion paper ACPD. 21 Mar 2005. Sp...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue17.html
*  ACP - Abstract - Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and c
... omparison with Central Europe. Full text search. Title and author search. Phys., 7, 3783-3790, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/3783/2007/ doi:10.5194/acp-7-3783-2007 © Author s 2007. Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe P. Vertical ozone profiles measured in the period 1996 2002 in the framework of the MOZAIC project Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in Service Aircraft for flights connecting Central Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean basin Heraklion, Rhodes, Antalya were analysed in order to evaluate the high rural ozone levels recorded in the Mediterranean area during summertime. The 77 flights during summer JJAS showed substantially 10 12 ppb, 20 40% enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the lower troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean frequently exceeding the 60 ppb, 8-h EU air quality standard, whereas ozone between 700 hPa and 400 hPa was only slightly 3 5 ppb, 5 10% higher than over Central Europe. Analysis of co...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/7/3783/2007/acp-7-3783-2007.html
*  Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, and Exosphere
... - Windows to the Universe. Become a Member Member Benefits, No Ads. Brought to you by the National Earth Science Teachers Association. Space Weather Multimedia Recent Images Missions Facts News Links. Earth Interior/Surface Atmosphere Magnetosphere Moon Poles Climate Water Life Myth Exploration more... Our Changing Planet Earth System Facts Multimedia Links News Tours. Space Weather News Research Multimedia Postcards Citizen Science Quotations. Share this page ATMOSPHERE Layers Weather Climate Polar Atmosphere Atmospheric Optics Air Pollution Ozone Holes Modeling Arts and Culture Atmosphere News Games/Activities Images Teaching Resources Science Literacy Framework. Image showing the temperature of the atmosphere throughout different layers Image showing what man-made and natural phenomena occur in each layer of the atmosphere Image showing the layers of the atmosphere with emphasis on the ionized layers. Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere. 1 The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains...
http://windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/layers.html&edu=mid
*  Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, and Exosphere
... - Windows to the Universe. Become a Member Member Benefits, No Ads. Brought to you by the National Earth Science Teachers Association. Space Weather Multimedia Recent Images Missions Facts News Links. Our Changing Planet Earth System Facts Multimedia Links News Tours. Share this page ATMOSPHERE Layers Weather Climate Polar Atmosphere Atmospheric Optics Air Pollution Ozone Holes Modeling Arts and Culture Atmosphere News Games/Activities Images Teaching Resources Science Literacy Framework. Image showing the temperature of the atmosphere throughout different layers Image showing what man-made and natural phenomena occur in each layer of the atmosphere Image showing the layers of the atmosphere with emphasis on the ionized layers. Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere. 1 The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains half of the Earth's atmosphere. Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store. ...more The Thermosphere The thermosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere. The surface of Triton is co...
http://windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/layers.html
*  Stratosphere | CK-12 Foundation
Stratosphere. CK-12 Foundation meta http-equiv="refresh" content="1; url=/nojavascript/". Help. Help. Add to Library. 7.6 : Stratosphere. Difficulty Level: Basic. Created by: CK-12 CK-12 Earth Science Concepts For Middle School. Practice Stratosphere Practice. 0% Practice Now. Practice. Stratosphere. The stratosphere is the layer above the troposphere. Temperature in the Stratosphere. The Ozone Layer. The previous section said that the troposphere is the most important layer of the atmosphere. But it's not the only important layer. The stratosphere contains a layer of ozone gas. Ozone consists of three oxygen atoms O 3. The ozone layer is in the stratosphere. Ozone in the layer absorbs high- energy ultraviolet UV radiation. UV radiation splits the ozone molecule Figure below. The split creates an oxygen molecule O 2 and an oxygen atom O. By absorbing UV radiation, ozone also protects Earth’s surface. UV radiation would harm living things without the ozone layer. How does the ozone layer protect Earth’s surfac...
http://ck12.org/book/CK-12-Earth-Science-Concepts-For-Middle-School/section/7.6/
*  Browsing Research publications by Subject "remote troposphere"
browsing research publications by subject remote troposphere mirage browsing research publications by subject remote troposphere dspace manakin repository login yorkspace home centre for atmospheric chemistry research publications browsing research publications by subject javascript is disabled for your browser some features of this site may not work without it browsing research publications by subject remote troposphere a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z or enter first few letters sort by title submit date issue date order ascending descending results now showing items of title measurements of selected c c hydrocarbons in the background troposphere vertical and latitudinal variations author ehhalt d h rudolph j meixner f x schmidt u date now showing items of search yorkspace search yorkspace this collection advanced search browse all of yorkspace communities collections by issue date authors titles subjects series fonds format city county region supervisor this collection by issue date autho...
http://yorkspace.library.yorku.ca/xmlui/handle/10315/2893/browse?value=remote troposphere&type=subject
*  Layers of Earth's Atmosphere - Windows to the Universe
... Brought to you by the National Earth Science Teachers Association. Layers of Earth's Atmosphere. Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere The atmosphere is divided into five layers. The Stratosphere In the Earth's stratosphere, the temperature increases with altitude. How important is the ozone in our atmosphere. In the stratosphere, we find the "good" ozone that protects life on Earth from the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays. Ozone in the Stratosphere About 90% of the ozone in the Earth's atmosphere is found in the region called the stratosphere. Ozone and oxygen molecules in the stratosphere absorb ultraviolet light from the Sun, providing a shield that prevents this radiation from passing to the Earth's surface. While both oxygen and ozone together absorb 95 to 99.9% of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, only ozone effectively absorbs the most energetic ultraviolet light, known as UV-C and UV-B. The Mesosphere In the Earth's mesosphere, the air is relatively mixed together and the temperature decr...
https://windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/layers_activity_print.html&edu=mid
*  NASA-European Measurements See Significant Arctic Ozone Loss -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Mobile. Follow. Subscribe. Breaking News :. Ancient Ocean Alga Was Pre-Set for Life On Land. Volcanic Eruptions Affect Flow of Major Rivers. Ocean Bacteria: Millions of Tons of Hydrocarbons. How the Brain Recognizes Objects. Chernobyl: The Animals Have Returned. Illegal Trade Puts Cacti On Most Threatened List. World's Largest Atom Smashers: Smallest Droplets. Crucial Hurdle Overcome in Quantum Computing. Your Visual Cortex Is Making Decisions. Anorexia Nervosa and Gut Bacteria Linked: Study. Science News from research organizations. NASA-European Measurements See Significant Arctic Ozone Loss. Date: April 6, 2000 Source: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Summary: Ozone losses of more than 60 percent have occurred in the Arctic stratosphere near 60,000 feet 18 kilometer in one of the coldest winters on record. This is one of the worst ozone losses at this altitude in the Arctic. Share:. Total shares:. FULL STORY. Ozone losses of more than 60 percent have occurred in...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/04/000406085917.htm
*  electronic library - Chemical ozone loss in a chemistry-climate model from 1960-1999
... DLR Portal Home. Imprint. Contact. Deutsch. Fontsize:. Text. . Advanced Search. . Tell a friend. Print. Chemical ozone loss in a chemistry-climate model from 1960-1999. Lemmen, Carsten and Dameris, Martin and Müller, Rolf and Riese, Martin 2006 Chemical ozone loss in a chemistry-climate model from 1960-1999. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L15820-1-L15820-5. DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026939. Full text not available from this repository. Abstract In the recent WMO assessment of ozone depletion, the minimum ozone column is used to assess the evolution of the polar ozone layer simulated in several chemistry-climate models CCMs. The ozone column may be strongly influenced by changes in transport and is therefore not well-suited to identify changes in chemistry. The quantification of chemical ozone depletion can be achieved with tracer-tracer correlations TRAC. For forty Antarctic winters 1960–1999, we present the seasonal chemical depletion simulated with the ECHAM4.L39 DLR /CHEM model. Analyzing methane–ozone co...
http://elib.dlr.de/45624/
*  ACP - Abstract - Radon activity in the lower troposphere and its impact on ionization rate: a global
... estimate using different radon emissions. Articles ACP. Recent final revised papers. Full text search. Title and author search. Journal metrics IF 5.053. Science Citation Index. Phys., 11, 7817-7838, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/7817/2011/ doi:10.5194/acp-11-7817-2011 © Author s 2011. Radon activity in the lower troposphere and its impact on ionization rate: a global estimate using different radon emissions K. Brunke 8 1 Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany 2 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA 3 Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China 4 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights NSW 2234, Australia 5 Federal Office for Radiation Protection BfS, Salzgitter, Germany 6 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, IPSL, CEA, UVSQ, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France 7 Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands 8 ...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/11/7817/2011/acp-11-7817-2011.html
*  Atmospheric Composition Change - The European Network
... Accent Plus Project - Atmospheric Composition Change, the European Network. Home. Project Information. Accent-Plus Factsheet. Project Description. Project Office. Participant List. Associate List. Project Archive. Accent-Plus Reports and Publications. Research Findings in support of the EU Air Quality Review. PRESCRIBE Report. Accent-Plus Publications. Accent Plus Workshop presentations. Stakeholder Meeting Bruxelles 2014. PRESCRIBE Bremen 2013. Ship emissions Hamburg 2012. Air Quality policy Bruxelles 2011. Accent Symposia. Accent Plus Symposium 2013. Informations. The Venue. Some information about Urbino. How to reach Urbino. General Information. Important dates. Programme and presentations. Photo Gallery. Extended Abstracts. Accent-Plus Symposium 2011. Programme and presentations. Photo Gallery. Extended Abstracts. Accent Symposium 2009. Accent Symposium 2007. Accent Symposium 2005. EU RTD Framework Programme Projects. Air Pollution and Climate Change. Air Pollution and Health. Accent NoE-FP6. Accent ...
http://accent-network.org/index.php/outreach-a-education/accent-plus-for-students/e-learning-module-on-atmospheric-chemistry-climate-links
*  World's largest switchboard for climate monitoring / Observing the Earth / Our Activities / ESA
Observing the Earth. ESA's Earth Observing missions. Envisat. It will deliver data about global warming, ozone depletion and climate change for at least five years. For his money, for at least five years, the citizen receives precise information about changes in the environment including global warming, ozone depletion and climate change. Among other such gases, are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrogen and CFC's but also water vapour. Therefore the example makes clear how very important it is to have an overview of the Earth's atmosphere system in order to understand climate processes. Burrows has this to say about Crutzen: He was an important supporter of the ESA-environmental satellite project Envisat. Ozone in the upper troposphere also contributes somewhat as a filter against UV radiation. How much of the UV radiation is due to 'natural' causes and how much is due to ozone depletion is still unclear. A new ozone phenomenon at the North Pole in the lowest layer of the atmosphere, the t...
http://esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/World_s_largest_switchboard_for_climate_monitoring
*  Atmospheric chemistry
... 'Atmospheric chemistry' is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. In the 20th century atmospheric science moved on from studying the composition of air to a consideration of how the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere have changed over time and the chemical processes which create and destroy compounds in the air. Atmospheric chemistry is increasingly studied as one part of the Earth system. Observations, lab measurements and modeling are the three central elements in atmospheric chemistry. Observations of atmospheric chemistry are essential to our understanding. Routine observations of chemical composition tell us about changes in atmospheric composition over time. Observations of atmospheric composition are increasingly made by satellites with important instruments such as GOME and MOPITT giving a global picture of air pollution and chemistry. In order to synthesise and test theoretical understanding of atmospher...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_chemistry
*  Identifying indicators of atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts in acid grasslands - Open Resear
... ch Online. Identifying indicators of atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts in acid grasslands. Identifying indicators of atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts in acid grasslands. It has the potential to reduce species richness, increase the graminoid component of the sward, encourage species typical of more fertile conditions and alter the soil biogeochemistry of grasslands. Calcifugous grasslands grasslands found on acid soils are among the most sensitive to N deposition due to their poorly buffered soils and species typical of nutrient poor environments. Indicators have an important role to play in detecting the impact of nitrogen deposition on sites of conservation importance and assessing conservation status. This study investigates potential indicators of nitrogen deposition impacts that could be incorporated into site condition monitoring programmes such as the UK Common Standards Monitoring. Using two national surveys of calcifugous grasslands we examined the potential for...
http://oro.open.ac.uk/19064/
*  NASA Drones to Study Atmospheric Ozone | Ozone Loss & Layer
NASA Drones to Study Atmospheric Ozone. Ozone Loss Layer. Follow. . TECH. HEALTH. PLANET EARTH. SPACE. STRANGE NEWS. ANIMALS. HISTORY. HUMAN NATURE. SHOP. TECH. HEALTH. PLANET EARTH. SPACE. STRANGE NEWS. ANIMALS. HISTORY. HUMAN NATURE. SHOP. TRENDING: Wearable Tech // Archaeology // Military & Spy Tech // 3D Printing // OurAmazingPlanet // Best Fitness Trackers // Human Origins. NASA Drone to Probe Ozone Loss. by Becky Oskin, Senior Writer. January 10, 2013 12:11pm ET. NASA Global Hawk being loaded with monitoring equipment for the ATTREX mission. Credit: J. Zavaleta/NASA. View full size image. Water may play a critical role in controlling the ozone gas high up in Earth's atmosphere that can act as a greenhouse gas or protect living things on the surface below from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays, depending on where in the atmosphere it is found. To better understand how water vapor and ozone interact, NASA plans to send a remote-controlled plane laden with monitoring equipment into the stratospher...
http://livescience.com/26161-nasa-drones-ozone-study.html?icid=weather|rsslink|amazinglink
*  A study of the epiphytic communities of Atlantic oak woods along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition
... gradient - NERC Open Research Archive. nerc.ac.uk. Help. Contact us. Home. About. Browse. Search. Statistics. NERC Staff Login. A study of the epiphytic communities of Atlantic oak woods along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS Simple Metadata iShare HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote Dublin Core iShare OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. Mitchell, R. J ; Truscott, A. M ; Leith, I. D ; Cape, J. N ; van Dijk, N. ; Tang, Y. S ; Fowler, D. ; Sutton, M. A 2005 A study of the epiphytic communities of Atlantic oak woods along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient. Journal of Ecology, 93. 482-492. 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.00967.x. Full text not available from this repository. Official URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/1186455... Abstract/Summary 1. Atlantic oak woods are of high conservation value an...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3584/
*  Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition: responses of multiple plant and soil parameters across
... contrasting ecosystems in long-term field experiments - NERC Open Research Archive. nerc.ac.uk. NERC Staff Login. Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition: responses of multiple plant and soil parameters across contrasting ecosystems in long-term field experiments. Tools Tools Tools. RDF+XML BibTeX RDF+N-Triples JSON RefWorks Dublin Core Simple Metadata Refer METS Simple Metadata iShare HTML Citation ASCII Citation OpenURL ContextObject EndNote Dublin Core iShare OpenURL ContextObject in Span MODS MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Reference Manager RDF+N3 Multiline CSV. 2012 Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition: responses of multiple plant and soil parameters across contrasting ecosystems in long-term field experiments. Abstract/Summary Atmospheric nitrogen N deposition is a global and increasing threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function. Much of our current understanding of N deposition impacts comes from field manipulation studies, although interpretation may need caution where simulations of N depositi...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/17384/
*  Great Oxidation Event: More oxygen through multicellularity
... Subscribe free to our newsletters via your EMAIL ADDRESS SPACE DAILY SPACE WAR. TERRA DAILY ENERGY-DAILY MARS DAILY GPS DAILY EXPRESS SEED DAILY EXPRESS DISASTER NEWS. SOLAR ENERGY MEDICAL NEWS NUCLEAR POWER DAILY OIL GAS DAILY WIND DAILY BIO FUEL DAILY. Great Oxidation Event: More oxygen through multicellularity by Staff Writers Zurich, Switzerland SPX Jan 22, 2013. Multicellularity as early as 2.3 billion years ago The scientists analyzed the phylogenies of living cyanobacteria and combined their findings with data from fossil records for cyanobacteria. "Multicellularity developed relatively early in the history of cyanobacteria, more than 2.3 billion years ago", Schirrmeister explains in her doctoral thesis, written at the University of Zurich. Link between multicellularity and the Great Oxidation Event According to the scientists, multicellularity developed shortly before the rise in levels of free oxygen in the oceans and in the atmosphere. This accumulation of free oxygen is referred to as the Grea...
http://spacedaily.com/reports/Great_Oxidation_Event_More_oxygen_through_multicellularity_999.html
*  Earth's atmosphere
From the lowest to the highest layer, they are the Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and the Exosphere. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and extends from the Earth's surface to about 7 kilometres 4 miles high at the north and south poles and 17 kilometres 11 miles high at the equator. Atmospheric boundary layer The lowest part of the troposphere is called the atmospheric boundary layer ABL or the planetary boundary layer and extends from the Earth's surface to about 1.5 to 2.0 km in height. The air temperature of the atmospheric boundary layer decreases with increasing altitude unless an inversion layer, where the temperature increases with increasing altitude, is present. The stratosphere extends from the tropopause's height of 7 to 17 kilometres 4 to 11 miles to a height of about 50 kilometres 31 miles and contains about 19% of the atmospheric gases. The mesosphere extends from stratopause's height of about 50 kilometres 31 miles to a height of about 80 to 85 kilometre...
http://eoearth.org/view/article/171011/
*  Responses of microbial communities to atmospheric nitrogen deposition within different soil horizon
... s in High Arctic tundra - White Rose Etheses Online. Responses of microbial communities to atmospheric nitrogen deposition within different soil horizons in High Arctic tundra. Blaud, Aimeric 2012 Responses of microbial communities to atmospheric nitrogen deposition within different soil horizons in High Arctic tundra. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield. The overall aim of this research was to investigate the impact of acute N deposition events upon soil microbial communities in High Arctic tundra. T-RFLP analysis revealed significant P 0.001 differences in the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities between the organic and mineral horizons within field plots, whilst the fungal community structure showed high variability between soil horizons. Both bacterial and fungal abundance were higher within the mineral horizon in 2009 at the end of the summer, but similar between soil horizons in 2010 earlier in the summer. In contrast, archaeal abundance was always higher in the mineral than in the ...
http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/2759/
*  Documents: Effects of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Algal Assemblages in Chesapeake Bay - Chesa
... peake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program. Discover the Chesapeake. Bay 101. Bay History. The Bay Ecosystem. Field Guide. The Bay Watershed. Bay FAQ. Bay Glossary. Bay Fun. Learn the Issues. Agriculture. Air Pollution. Bay Grasses. Groundwater. Menhaden. Nutrients. Oysters. Population Growth. Rivers and Streams. Wastewater. What Guides Us. Health. Watershed Agreement. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement. Management Strategies Dashboard. Attend An Event. Join a Group. Visit the Chesapeake. In The News. Chesapeake Bay News. Press Center. Newsletters. Bay Journal. Recent News. Connecting diverse communities and groups helps strengthen our collective watershed work - October 01, 2015. Chesapeake Forest Champions honored for conservation efforts - September 30, 2015. Photo Essay: Protecting land in Otsego County – Greenwoods Conservancy - September 24, 2015. Photo Essay: Protecting Land in Otsego County – Cornish Hill - September 17, 2015. Bay Resource Library. Photos. Maps. Videos. Publications. Bay Data. Fiel...
http://chesapeakebay.net/publications/title/effects_of_atmospheric_nitrogen_deposition_on_algal_assemblages_in_chesapea
*  EPA Exposure Research - Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition to Coastal Estuaries and Their Watersheds
epa exposure research atmospheric nitrogen deposition to coastal estuaries and their watersheds exposure research recent additions contact us print version search epa home research development exposure research publications presentations nerl news about nerl where you live publications presentations databases models tools methods jobs assistance opportunities atmospheric nitrogen deposition to coastal estuaries and their watersheds abstract there is no abstract available for this product if further information is requested please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under contact field citation meyers t p j e sickles ii r l dennis k russe ii j n galloway and t church atmospheric nitrogen deposition to coastal estuaries and their watersheds first assessment of nitrogen loads to u s coastal waters with an atmospheric perspective american geophysical union washington dc contact chris siebert or siebert christopher epa gov division environmental sciences division branch landscape char...
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ordpubs/nerlpubs/recordisplay.cfm?deid=87368
*  Science and Technology: Watching Water Vapor with MOHAVE
Watching Water Vapor with MOHAVE The MOHAVE 2009 campaign focused much of its efforts on using lidar to obtain high-precision measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere. The campaign uses JPL's water vapor Raman lidar, along with three visiting lidars from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, to validate atmospheric water vapor measurements with the ultimate goal of determining long-term water vapor trends in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. MOHAVE provides continuous water vapor profiles from the ground to the mesosphere by combining measurements from more than a dozen participating instruments and techniques besides lidar. These other techniques are used to characterize the accuracy of the lidar measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The JPL water vapor Raman lidar is one of just a handful of lidars in the world that can make good water measurements at these altitudes. A laser beam is sent into the atmosphere, and some of its light gets reflected o...
http://scienceandtechnology.jpl.nasa.gov/newsandevents/newsdetails/?NewsID=645
*  Stratosphere
Distance from the surface to the top of the stratosphere is just under 1% of Earth's radius. 2 The '''stratosphere''' is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere , just above the troposphere , and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down. This is in contrast to the troposphere near the Earth's surface, which is cooler higher up and warmer farther down. Ozone and temperature Aircraft flight Circulation and mixing Life Bacteria. Ozone and temperature. Within this layer, temperature increases as altitude increases '' see temperature inversion ''; the top of the stratosphere has a temperature of about 270 K −3 °C or 26.6 °F , just slightly below the freezing point of water. This vertical stratification , with warmer layers above and cooler layers below, makes the stratosphere dynamically stable : there is no regular convection and associated turbulence in this part of the atmosphere. Monatomic oxygen O in the upper stratosphere reacts w...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratosphere
*  USGS: Science Topics: atmospheric composition
... USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Science Topics. Atmospheric composition Components of the mass of gases that surrounds a planet. Greenhouse gases 4 items. Ozone layer 1 items. Air pollution 7 items. Assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios. Congress asked us in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to figure out how to assess the effects of carbon storage, sequestration, and greenhouse gas fluxes in our ecosystems. Information concerning status and trends of biological resources, focusing on contaminants in air Coal-bed methane: potential and concerns. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment. Reviews how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health, especially mercury, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. Global Change Hy...
http://usgs.gov/science/science.php?term=65&order=alpha&b=0&n=20
*  USGS: Science Topics: atmospheric composition
... USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS. Science Topics. Atmospheric composition Components of the mass of gases that surrounds a planet. Greenhouse gases 4 items. Ozone layer 1 items. Air pollution 7 items. Biological resource status and trends: Contaminants in air. Information concerning status and trends of biological resources, focusing on contaminants in air Ozone in our air - friend or foe. Article on ozone layer and ozone as a pollutant from the weekly newsletter Volcano Watch Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for August 20, 2001. Coal-bed methane: potential and concerns. Reviews how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health, especially mercury, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. Global Change Hydrology Program hydroclimatology. Review of the Global Change Hydrology Program components relating to hydroclimatology and studies of the biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases...
http://usgs.gov/science/science.php?term=65
*  Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel feedstocks on atmospheric composition and local air qu
... ality - Research Portal. Lancaster University. Home. Study. Research. Business. Global. Alumni. . 12,000 We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK. 97% 97% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating. Our Colleges. Visiting Campus. News & Media. Contact & Getting Here. About Us. Faculties & Departments. Current Students. Current Staff. Site Search. Search. Quick Links A-Z index About Us Contact Getting Here Current Staff Current Students Faculties Departments Feedback Job Opportunities My eLearning News Media Sitemap Term Dates The Colleges. Go. Find a course. Home. Research. Publications Outputs. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel f... Research. Research at Lancaster. Researchers. Departments Centres. Publications Outputs. Projects. Activities. View graph of relations. Download. Impacts of near-future cultivation of biofuel f... 818 KB, PDF-document. Links. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/919/201...
http://research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/impacts-of-nearfuture-cultivation-of-biofuel-feedstocks-on-atmospheric-composition-and-local-air-quality(8ed65916-cd8a-4ca7-9ab6-7ab8aeeaa1af).html
*  MACC Project - Aerosol Record
... Monitoring atmospheric composition climate. About the Project. Contact Us. Services. Global Atmospheric Composition. Aerosol Record. Global Atmospheric Composition Monitoring and Forecas...l Atmospheric Composition. Reanalysis of Global Atmospheric Composition. Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases and Fluxes. Global Fire Emissions. Aerosol Record. Today's Forecasts Reactive Gases. Aerosols. European Air Quality. Ozone Layer. Latest Analyses European Air Quality. Fire Monitoring. Reactive Gases. Aerosols. Aerosol Record. Aerosol parameters are retrieved with the SYNAER method from a combination of simultaneous AATSR and SCIAMACHY measurements. The high spectral resolution of SCIAMACHY supplements ideally the high spatial resolution of AATSR. The SYNAER method offers the possibility of generating a 25-year-long aerosol record by consistently applying the same method across data from successive missions. Equivalent instruments to SCIAMACHY/AATSR on ENVISAT have been in orbit since 1995 GOME/ATSR on ERS-2 and have...
http://gmes-atmosphere.eu/services/gac/aerosol_record/
*  Cirrus clouds, contrails, and ice supersaturated regions: observations by lidar and radiosonde in
... Lindenberg/Germany - ePIC. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Simple. About. About. Citation Guide. Login. Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung. EPIC.awi.de. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Simple. About. About. Citation Guide. Login Login. Cirrus clouds, contrails, and ice supersaturated regions: observations by lidar and radiosonde in Lindenberg/Germany. 2005 : Cirrus clouds, contrails, and ice supersaturated regions: observations by lidar and radiosonde in Lindenberg/Germany, European Geosciences Union, General Assembly, Vienna/Austria.-29.April 2005. The aim of this extensive campaign was the investigation of tropospheric water vapour, cirrus clouds and contrails over a longer period of time. The lidar system detects aerosols and clouds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Cirrus clouds are detected by the large depolarisation of the backscattered laser beam. The lidar operates day and night, during daytime contrails may be identified with the help of a vi...
http://epic.awi.de/12620/
*  Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change - Guy P. Brasseur; John J. Orlando; Geoffrey S. Tyndall - O
Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change - Guy P. Online Resources. Journals. Online Resources. Oxford Medicine Online AMA Manual of Style Online Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford Bibliographies Online University Press Scholarship Online Oxford Dictionaries. Tyndall Topics in Environmental Chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change presents an integrated examination of chemical processes in the atmosphere, focusing on global-scale problems and their role in Earth's evolution. Taking a largely interdisciplinary approach, it discusses topics such as atmospheric composition; the chemical mechanisms that affect important chemical compounds; and the techniques used to investigate atmospheric chemical processes. Description Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change presents an integrated examination of chemical processes in the atmosphere, focusing on global-scale problems and their role in the evolution of the Earth system. Topics discussed include the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes that af...
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/atmospheric-chemistry-and-global-change-9780195105216?prevSortField=9&facet_narrowbyprice_facet=100to200&lang=en&cc=us&prevNumResPerPage=20
*  3.4.2.2 Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapour - AR4 WGI Chapter 3: Observations: Surface and Atmospheric C
3.4.2.2 Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapour. 2001 found an increasing trend of 1 to 5% per decade in relative humidity during 1976 to 1995, with the largest increases in the upper troposphere, using 17 radiosonde stations in the tropical west Pacific. The HIRS channel 12 T12 data have been most extensively analysed for variability and show linear trends in relative humidity of order ±1% per decade at various latitudes Bates and Jackson, 2001, but these trends are difficult to separate from larger interannual fluctuations due to ENSO McCarthy and Toumi, 2004 and are negligible when averaging over the tropical oceans Allan et al., 2003. In the absence of large changes in relative humidity, the observed warming of the troposphere see Section 3.4.1 implies that the specific humidity in the upper troposphere should have increased. As the upper troposphere moistens, the emission level for T12 increases due to the increasing opacity of water vapour along the satellite line of sight. If the specific humidity in the upper...
http://ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/ch3s3-4-2-2.html
*  Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor | Harvard John A. Paulson School
Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. About SEAS. Undergraduate Programs. News & Events. Calendars & Colloquia. News & Events. Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor. Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor. Atmospheric chemists report a serious and wholly unexpected risk of ozone loss over the United States in summer Harvard Magazine. July 26, 2012. The following is an excerpt from an article published in. Harvard Magazine. on July 26, 2012: A team of Harvard scientists led by Weld professor of atmospheric chemistry James G. Anderson announced today the discovery of serious and wholly unexpected risk of ozone loss over the United States in summer. The finding, published in advance online on July 26 at Science ’s Science Express website, is startling because the complex atmospheric chemistry that destroys ozone has previously been thought to occur only at very cold temper...
http://seas.harvard.edu/news/2012/07/increased-risk-ozone-loss-convectively-injected-water-vapor
*  Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996 | 978-0-08-042030-1 | Elsevier
Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996. Elsevier. Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996 Edited by M. Kulmala, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 9, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland P.E. Wagner, Institut f r Experimentalphysik, Universit t Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna, Austria This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 - 30 August 1996. The Atmospheric Aerosol conference has been held jointly with the Nucleation Symposium since 1988 in Vienna in order to stimulate contacts between researchers in these closely related fields. Covering both experimental and theoretical studies these papers are divided amongst the chapters on Nucleation, Stratospheric Aerosols and Ice Nucleation, Tropospheric Aerosols and Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction. In addition to these contributed papers invitations to present a plenary lecture on topics of particular current interest were accepted by P.J. Vali. These...
http://elsevier.com/books/nucleation-and-atmospheric-aerosols-1996/kulmala/978-0-08-042030-1
*  Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change - John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N
... Pandis - Google Books. Advanced Book Search. Books. books.google.com - Thoroughly updated and restructured, the Second Edition of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics is an ideal textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a reference for researchers in environmental engineering, meteorology, chemistry, and the atmospheric sciences.... https://books.google.com/books/about/Atmospheric chemistry and physics.html?id=8aHuAAAAMAAJ utm source=gb-gplus-share Atmospheric chemistry and physics My library. Advanced Book Search View eBook Get this book in print. Books-A-Million. Atmospheric chemistry and physics : from air pollution to climate change. John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N. Pandis Wiley, 1998 - Science - 1326 pages 0 Reviews https://books.google.com/books/about/Atmospheric chemistry and physics.html?id=8aHuAAAAMAAJ. Thoroughly updated and restructured, the Second Edition of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics is an ideal textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as w...
https://books.google.com/books?id=8aHuAAAAMAAJ&q=nitrate&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en
*  Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change - John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N
... Pandis - Google Books. Advanced Book Search. Books. books.google.com - Thoroughly updated and restructured, the Second Edition of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics is an ideal textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a reference for researchers in environmental engineering, meteorology, chemistry, and the atmospheric sciences.... https://books.google.com/books/about/Atmospheric chemistry and physics.html?id=8aHuAAAAMAAJ utm source=gb-gplus-share Atmospheric chemistry and physics My library. Advanced Book Search View eBook Get this book in print. Books-A-Million. Atmospheric chemistry and physics : from air pollution to climate change. John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N. Pandis Wiley, 1998 - Science - 1326 pages 0 Reviews https://books.google.com/books/about/Atmospheric chemistry and physics.html?id=8aHuAAAAMAAJ. Thoroughly updated and restructured, the Second Edition of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics is an ideal textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as w...
https://books.google.com/books?id=8aHuAAAAMAAJ&q=oxidation&dq=related:UOM39076001623417&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en
*  Climate change linked to ozone loss: May result in more skin cancer -- ScienceDaily
... Climate change linked to ozone loss: May result in more skin cancer. Date: July 26, 2012 Source: Harvard University Summary: Scientists are warning that a newly-discovered connection between climate change and depletion of the ozone layer over the US could allow more damaging ultraviolet UV radiation to reach Earth's surface, leading to increased incidence of skin cancer. For decades, scientists have known that the effects of global climate change could have a potentially devastating impact across the globe, but Harvard researchers say there is now evidence that it may also have a dramatic impact on public health. For decades, scientists have known that the effects of global climate change could have a potentially devastating impact across the globe, but Harvard researchers say there is now evidence that it may also have a dramatic impact on public health. For decades, scientists have known that the effects of global climate change could have a potentially devastating impact across the globe, but Harvard...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120726142204.htm
*  NCAR News Release 2000-12
... NCAR News Release. Scientists Find Clues to Different Warming Rates in Lower Atmosphere and Surface. E-mail: hosansky@ucar.edu. Pinatubo volcano, and the influx of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere--may help explain why the lowest five miles of the earth's atmosphere has not warmed as quickly as the earth's surface, say a group of scientists in a paper appearing in the February 18 issue of the journal Science. The difference in temperature trends at the surface and in the lower troposphere has intensified the climate change debate. The Santer-Wigley paper, though not published at the time, was fully taken into account in the report, says Kevin Trenberth, head of NCAR's Climate Analysis Section and a coauthor of the NRC report. The data sources are --a century of thermometer readings of sea surface temperatures and air temperatures a few meters above land --a half century of radiosonde measurements of troposphere and lower stratosphere temperatures --two decades of global observati...
http://ucar.edu/communications/newsreleases/2000/wigley.html
*  ACP - Abstract - Nitrogen oxides in the boundary layer and free troposphere at the Mt. Bachelor Obse
... rvatory. Journal cover. Journal topic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. EGU Journals. Contact. Imprint. About. Editorial & advisory board. Articles ACP. Recent final revised papers. Volumes and issues. Special issues. Full text search. Title and author search. Articles ACPD. Highlight articles. Subscribe to alerts. Peer review. For authors. For reviewers. User ID. Password. New user. Lost login. Journal metrics IF 5.053. IF 5-year 5.656. SNIP 1.574. IPP 5.054. SJR 3.022. h5-index 92. Definitions. Abstracted/indexed. Science Citation Index. Science Citation Index Expanded. Current Contents/PCE. Scopus. ADS. Cabell's. Chemical Abstracts. CLOCKSS. CNKI. DOAJ. EBSCO. Gale/Cengage. GeoBase. GeoRef. GoOA CAS. Google Scholar. J-Gate. Portico. ProQuest. World Public Library. Volume 10, issue 13. Article. Metrics. Related articles. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6043-6062, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6043/2010/ doi:10.5194/acp-10-6043-2010 ...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6043/2010/acp-10-6043-2010.html
*  Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size | Proceedings of the Royal Society of
Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size Jon F. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.0001. Abstract. However, a variety of recent empirical findings support a link between oxygen and insect size, including: i most insects develop smaller body sizes in hypoxia, and some develop and evolve larger sizes in hyperoxia; ii insects developmentally and evolutionarily reduce their proportional investment in the tracheal system when living in higher aPO 2, suggesting that there are significant costs associated with tracheal system structure and function; and iii larger insects invest more of their body in the tracheal system, potentially leading to greater effects of aPO 2 on larger insects. While a number of evolutionary events have been tied to changes in atmospheric oxygen level Berner et al. The developmental responses of growth and size to atmospheric oxygen levels affect both ...
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1690/1937.full
*  On the unexplained stratospheric ozone losses during cold Arctic Januaries | Remote Sensing Division
On the unexplained stratospheric ozone losses during cold Arctic Januaries. Remote Sensing Division. Jump to navigation. Remote Sensing Division. Search form. Search. On the unexplained stratospheric ozone losses during cold Arctic Januaries. You are here. / NRL /. RSD / On the unexplained stratospheric ozone losses during cold Arctic Januaries. Title. On the unexplained stratospheric ozone losses during cold Arctic Januaries. Publication Type. Journal Article. Year of Publication. 2003. Authors. Rex, M, Salawitch, RJ, Santee, ML, Waters, JW, Hoppel, KW, Bevilacqua, RM. Journal. Geophysical Research Letters. Volume. 30. Pagination. 8–1–8-4. NRL Publication Release Number. 7220--02-0334. BibTex. Main menu. Division Overview. Superintendent. Research Areas Branches. Radio, Infrared, and Optical Sensors 7210. Remote Sensing Physics 7220. Publications. RSD Home. Division Overview Research Areas Branches Publications. Home. Field Sites. Visitor Info. Contact NRL. Accomplishments. Awards Recognitions. Timeline. Sys...
http://nrl.navy.mil/rsd/rex-unexplained-stratospheric-ozone-losses-during-cold-arctic-januaries
*  .. Why is the troposphere 8km higher at the equator than the poles? .. Share this: .. Like this: .
While tides are most commonly associated with oceans and large bodies of water, gravity creates tides in the atmosphere and even the lithosphere the surface of the earth. What effect does this have on the difference in height of the troposphere between equator and poles. September 16, 2012 at 11:45 am How about the temperature. tallbloke says:. tallbloke says:. tallbloke says:. tallbloke says:. tallbloke says:. September 16, 2012 at 1:24 pm The density of a substance mainly gases depends on temperature and pressure. The density of dry air at sea level is 1.2929 kg/m3 or about 1/800th the density of water. D is the density of dry air at sea level, T is the absolute temperature in kelvin, B is the barometric pressure in torr, and e is the vapor pressure of the moisture in the air in torr. tallbloke says:. September 16, 2012 at 1:31 pm Wikipedia on tides: “The theoretical amplitude of oceanic tides caused by the moon is about 54 centimetres 21 in at the highest point, which corresponds to the amplitude that woul...
https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2012/09/16/why-is-the-troposphere-8km-higher-at-the-equator-than-the-poles/
*  ACP - Metrics
... EGU Journals. Articles ACP. Recent final revised papers. Special issues. Full text search. Title and author search. Articles ACPD. Journal metrics IF 5.053. Science Citation Index. Metrics. Related Articles. Metrics. Related Articles. 16 Jan 2009. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ACE E. M Zawodny Viewed Total article views: 1,453 including HTML, PDF, and XML HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote 681 713 59 1,453 66 16. Views and downloads calculated since 01 Jan 2013, article published on 16 Jan 2009 Month HTML PDF XML Total Jan 2013 26 27 4 57. Cumulative views and downloads calculated since 01 Jan 2013, article published on 16 Jan 2009 Month HTML views PDF downloads XML downloads Jan 2013 26 27 4. Validation of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment by noncoincident MkIV balloon profiles V. Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements M. The ozone climate change initiative: Comparison...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/9/287/2009/acp-9-287-2009-metrics.html
*  Phys.org - atmospheric changes(... continued page 7)
Phys.org - atmospheric changes ... continued page 7. Home atmospheric changes. News tagged with atmospheric changes. sort by:. Date. 6 hours. 12 hours. 1 day. 3 days. all. Rank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. LiveRank. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Popular. Last day. 1 week. 1 month. all. Scientists predict major shifts in Pacific ecosystems by 2100. What if you woke up every day to find that the closest grocery store had moved several miles farther away from your home. Over time, you would have to travel hundreds of extra miles to find essential food for yourself and ... Sep 24, 2012 in Environment. 0 16. Study estimates rate of intensification of extreme tropical rainfall with global warming. Extreme precipitation in the tropics comes in many forms: thunderstorm complexes, flood-inducing monsoons and wide-sweeping cyclones like the recent Hurricane Isaac. Sep 17, 2012 in Earth Sciences. 0 0. Study shows how sea otters can reduce CO2 in the atmosphere. Phys.org —Can an abundance of sea otters help reverse...
http://phys.org/tags/atmospheric changes/sort/rank/all/page7.html
*  The Match approach to measure ozone loss rates in the Arctic stratosphere - ePIC
the match approach to measure ozone loss rates in the arctic stratosphere epic browse author year platform organizations programs research networks type search simple advanced about about policies citation guide login alfred wegener institut helmholtz zentrum für polar und meeresforschung imprint contact oai rss epic awi de home browse author year platform organizations programs research networks type search simple advanced about about policies citation guide login login the match approach to measure ozone loss rates in the arctic stratosphere edit item html citation ascii citation endnote bibtex mods openurl contextobject in span mpeg didl ep xml dublin core endnote simple metadata general information citation rex m the match approach to measure ozone loss rates in the arctic stratosphere seminar talk at the jet propulsion laboratory california institute of technology usa cite this page as hdl epic contact email mrex awi potsdam de related data further details item type conference authors rex markus division...
http://epic.awi.de/7490/
*  Global Distribution of Solid and Aqueous Sulfate Aerosols: Effect of the Hysteresis of Particle Phas
... e Transitions. Global Distribution of Solid and Aqueous Sulfate Aerosols: Effect of the Hysteresis of Particle Phase Transitions. Global Distribution of Solid and Aqueous Sulfate Aerosols: Effect of the Hysteresis of Particle Phase Transitions. Global Distribution of Solid and Aqueous Sulfate Aerosols: Effect of the Hysteresis of Particle Phase Transitions. ; Jacob, Daniel Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors. Global distribution of solid and aqueous sulfate aerosols: Effect of the hysteresis of particle phase transitions. The simulation explicitly accounts for the hysteresis of particle phase transitions by transporting aqueous sulfate and three solid sulfate forms namely, ammonium sulfate, letovicite, and ammonium bisulfate. We find that the solids mass fraction on a sulfate basis is 0.34, partitioned as 93% ammonium sulfate, 6% letovicite, and 1% ammonium bisulfate. The fraction increases with altitude from 0.10 to 0.30 in the boundary layer to 0.60–0.80 in the upper tropo...
http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/2961855
*  electronic library - SCIAMACHY - Exploring the Changing Earth's Atmosphere
... DLR Portal Home. Imprint. Contact. Deutsch. Fontsize:. Text. . Advanced Search. . Tell a friend. Print. SCIAMACHY - Exploring the Changing Earth's Atmosphere. Gottwald, Manfred and Bovensmann, Heinrich, eds. 2011 SCIAMACHY - Exploring the Changing Earth's Atmosphere. Earth and Environmental Science. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York. ISBN 978-90-481-9895-5. Full text not available from this repository. Official URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-90-481-9895-5/#section=828948 page=1 Abstract SCIAMACHY, the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectro-Meter for Atmospheric CHar¬tographY, is a passive sensor for exploring the Earth’s atmosphere. It is part of the payload of the European Earth Observation mission ENVISAT, launched on 1 March 2002. SCIAMACHY observes absorption spectra of molecules from the UV to the short-wave infrared wavelength range and derives the atmospheric composition – trace gases, aerosols, clouds – from these measurements. Having meanwhile successfully monitored and ex...
http://elib.dlr.de/68668/
*  ACP - Abstract - Chemistry of hydrogen oxide radicals (HOx) in the Arctic troposphere in spring
ACP - Abstract - Chemistry of hydrogen oxide radicals HOx in the Arctic troposphere in spring. Journal cover. Journal topic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. EGU Journals. Contact. Imprint. About. Editorial & advisory board. Articles ACP. Recent final revised papers. Volumes and issues. Special issues. Full text search. Title and author search. Articles ACPD. Highlight articles. Subscribe to alerts. Peer review. For authors. For reviewers. User ID. Password. New user. Lost login. Journal metrics IF 5.053. IF 5-year 5.656. SNIP 1.574. IPP 5.054. SJR 3.022. h5-index 92. Definitions. Abstracted/indexed. Science Citation Index. Science Citation Index Expanded. Current Contents/PCE. Scopus. ADS. Cabell's. Chemical Abstracts. CLOCKSS. CNKI. DOAJ. EBSCO. Gale/Cengage. GeoBase. GeoRef. GoOA CAS. Google Scholar. J-Gate. Portico. ProQuest. World Public Library. Volume 10, issue 13. Article. Metrics. Related articles. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/10/5823/2010/acp-10-5823-2010.html
*  Atmosphere - Coronation Street The Tour | 38 Pictures | Contactmusic.com
Music Reviews. Music Reviews Best Rated Music Reviews Music Video. Music Video Music News. Movie Trailers. Movie Trailers Movie Reviews. Movie Reviews Best Rated Movies Movie News. Music Video Top Music Videos Movie Trailers. Movie Trailers Top Movie Trailers Video Chart. Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Advertisement. Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Advertisement. Atmosphere Gallery. More Atmosphere Photos. Movie Trailers Movie Reviews Movie News Actors Filmmakers Movies Movie Reviews The Martian - Movie Review Macbeth - Movie Review The Intern - Movie Review 99 Homes - Movie Review Life - Movie Review Miss You Already - Movie Review Arcade Fire: The Reflektor T...
http://contactmusic.com/atmosphere/pictures/605aa831/atmosphere-coronation-street-the-tour_4137522
*  Tropospheric water vapour soundings by lidar at high Arctic latitudes - ePIC
... Tropospheric water vapour soundings by lidar at high Arctic latitudes. 2004 : Tropospheric water vapour soundings by lidar at high Arctic latitudes, Atmospheric research,. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.07.002 Cite this page as: hdl: 10013/epic.21889 DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.07.002 Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.07.002 Contact Email: neuber@awi-potsdam.de Related Data:. Abstract: Ground-based lidars can provide continuous observations of tropospheric humidity profiles using the Raman scattering of light by water vapour and nitrogen molecules. Under nighttime conditions the observations cover a range from about 500 m altitude up to the upper troposphere. Daylight limits the observations to the lower troposphere, depending on atmospheric transmission and the water vapour content. In the boundary layer, the aerosol is less affected by the humidity. In the free troposphere, the lidar ratio was observed to be up to 60 sr with some evidence for the uptake of water vapour by the aeros...
http://epic.awi.de/11435/
*  ACP - Abstract - Two decades of OH variability as inferred by an inversion of atmospheric transport
... and chemistry of methyl chloroform. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. Articles ACP. Full text search. Title and author search. Journal metrics IF 5.053. IF 5-year 5.656. Metrics. Phys., 5, 2635-2656, 2005 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/5/2635/2005/ doi:10.5194/acp-5-2635-2005 © Author s 2005. Metrics. Two decades of OH variability as inferred by an inversion of atmospheric transport and chemistry of methyl chloroform P. Ciais 1 1 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France 2 Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines UVSQ, Versailles, France 3 Laboratoire de Biogéochimie des milieux continentaux, UMR INRA-CNRS-PARIS 6, INRA-INAPG, Thiverval-Grignon, France Abstract. We developed an iterative inverse method to infer inter-annual sources and sinks of methyl chloroform MCF from atmospheric measurements, on a monthly basis. When OH concentrations are adjusted with loose prior errors and MCF...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/5/2635/2005/acp-5-2635-2005.html
*  ACP - Related Articles
... Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. Articles ACP. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3379-3392, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/3379/2013/ doi:10.5194/acp-13-3379-2013 © Author s 2013. B Millet, S. C Wells, T. Helmig, J. J Jacob, J. M Yantosca, M. B Millet, J. : Acetone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Impact on trace gases and aerosols, Geophys. P : Pressure and temperature-dependent quantum yields for the photodissociation of acetone between 279 and 327.5 nm, Geophys. : Emissions of volatile organic compounds from cut grass and clover are enhanced during the drying process, Geophys. : Acetone variability in the upper troposphere: analysis of CARIBIC observations and LMDz-INCA chemistry-climate model simulations, Atmos. A : Leaf methanol - the simplest natural product from plants, Trends Plant Sci., 1, 296–301, doi:10.1016/S1360-1385 96 88175-0, 1996. C : Observed OH and HO sub 2 /sub in the upper troposphere suggest a major...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/13/3379/2013/acp-13-3379-2013-relations.html
*  Documents: Airsheds and Watersheds - The Role of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition - Chesapeake Bay Pr
... ogram. Chesapeake Bay Program. Discover the Chesapeake. Bay 101. Bay History. The Bay Ecosystem. Field Guide. The Bay Watershed. Bay FAQ. Bay Glossary. Bay Fun. Learn the Issues. Agriculture. Air Pollution. Bay Grasses. Blue Crabs. Chemical Contaminants. Groundwater. Invasive Species. Population Growth. Rivers and Streams. Sediment. Shad. Wastewater. What Guides Us. Health. Watershed Agreement. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement. Management Strategies Dashboard. Join a Group. Visit the Chesapeake. In The News. Chesapeake Bay News. Press Center. Newsletters. Bay Journal. Recent News. Connecting diverse communities and groups helps strengthen our collective watershed work - October 01, 2015. Chesapeake Forest Champions honored for conservation efforts - September 30, 2015. Photo Essay: Protecting Land in Otsego County – Cornish Hill - September 17, 2015. Bay Resource Library. Photos. Maps. Videos. Publications. Bay Data. Field Guide. Latest video: Bringing Back the Little J September 23, 2015. Programs & Pr...
http://chesapeakebay.net/publications/title/airsheds_and_watersheds_-_the_role_of_atmospheric_nitrogen_deposition
*  NOAA ESRL CSD: Atmospheric Composition & Chemical Processes: Publications
Thornberry, D. Liu, E. Perring, J.P. Schwarz, P. Thornberry, A. Liu, J., E. Perring, M.Z. Schwarz, P. Thornberry, A.W. Perring, A.E., J.P. Schwarz, D. Baumgardner, M. Gao, G. Peischl, Black carbon emissions from the Bakken oil and gas development region, Environmental Science & Technology Letters, doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00225, 2015. Spackman, Inferring ice formation processes from global-scale black carbon profiles observed in the remote atmosphere and model simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117 D23205, doi:10.1029/2012JD018126, 2012. Schwarz, Brown carbon and internal mixing in biomass burning particles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 37, 14717-14718, doi:10.1073/pnas.1206575109, 2012. Spackman, Scales of variability of black carbon plumes over the Pacific Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 39 L15804, doi:10.1029/2012GL052127, 2012. A Watts, Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spil, Science, 331, 1295-1299, doi:10.1126/science.1200320, 2011...
http://esrl.noaa.gov/csd/groups/csd6/pubs.html
*  NASA Goddard Code 614 Tropospheric Studies Homepage
... + NASA Homepage + Goddard Homepage + Code 614 Homepage. NASA Goddard Code 614 Tropospheric Studies Homepage. SEACIONS - Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study SEAC4RS will take place in August and September of 2012. Arctic Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study - A North American ozonesonde network operating in the high-latitudes to look at springtime polar outflow and summertime boreal forest fire impacts on tropospheric ozone budgets. Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites ARCTAS addresses the need to better understand the Arctic atmospheric composition and climate. TC4 Tropical Composition, Cloud & Climate Coupling July 2007. Investigate the structure, properties and processes in the tropical Eastern Pacific. High altitude aircraft will collect tropopause data while the medium altitude aircraft will provide profiles and structure measurements of the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Document the solar changes in the p...
http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/
*  Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854
... –2010 - Springer. Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010. Share Share this content on Facebook Share this content on Twitter Share this content on LinkedIn. CrossRef. Nature 458:1163–1166. CrossRef. CrossRef. CrossRef. CrossRef. CrossRef. CrossRef. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996 Climate change 1995, second assessment Rpt, The science of climate change, IPCC Working Group I, Cambridge Univ. Press, 572 pp Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2006 2006 IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: vol. WG1 contribution to IPCC AR5, 27 September 2013, 36 pp International Energy Agency 2012a “Global carbon-dioxide emissions increase by 1.0 Gt in 2011 to record high.” IEA newsroom, Paris, 24 May. International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, International Association of Oil and Gas Producers 2011 Energy efficiency: improving energy use from production to consumer. Environmental Protectio...
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-013-0986-y
*  Upper atmosphere facilitates changes that let mercury enter food chain -- ScienceDaily
... Your source for the latest research news. Mobile. Follow. Subscribe. Breaking News :. Ancient Ocean Alga Was Pre-Set for Life On Land. Volcanic Eruptions Affect Flow of Major Rivers. Ocean Bacteria: Millions of Tons of Hydrocarbons. How the Brain Recognizes Objects. Chernobyl: The Animals Have Returned. Illegal Trade Puts Cacti On Most Threatened List. World's Largest Atom Smashers: Smallest Droplets. Crucial Hurdle Overcome in Quantum Computing. Your Visual Cortex Is Making Decisions. Anorexia Nervosa and Gut Bacteria Linked: Study. Science News from research organizations. Upper atmosphere facilitates changes that let mercury enter food chain. Date: December 18, 2011 Source: University of Washington Summary: New research shows that the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere work to transform elemental mercury into oxidized mercury, which can easily be deposited into aquatic ecosystems and ultimately enter the food chain. Share:. Total shares:. FULL STORY. Humans pump thousands of tons of vapor from t...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111218150303.htm
*  Cyanobacteria And The Great Oxidation Event
... Full Site Physical Sciences Earth Sciences Life Sciences Medicine Social Sciences Culture Newsletter. EARTH SCIENCES. LIFE SCIENCES. SCIENCE HISTORY. Life Sciences. Cyanobacteria And The Great Oxidation Event By News Staff. By producing oxygen and evolving into multicellular forms, they played a key role in the emergence of organisms that breathe oxygen. A team of scientists under the supervision and instruction of evolutionary biologists from the University of Zurich wrote a paper showing that cyanobacteria developed multicellularity around one billion years earlier than eukaryotes cells with one true nucleus and at almost the same time as multicellular cyanobacteria appeared, a process of oxygenation began in the oceans and in the Earth's atmosphere. «Multicellularity developed relatively early in the history of cyanobacteria, more than 2.3 billion years ago», Schirrmeister explains in her doctoral thesis, written at the University of Zurich. Link between multicellularity and the Great Oxidation Event....
http://science20.com/news_articles/cyanobacteria_and_great_oxidation_event-101247
*  Atmospheric Chemistry of Earth's Troposphere - Windows to the Universe
... Beginner. Intermediate. Advanced. Become a Member Member Benefits, No Ads. Brought to you by the National Earth Science Teachers Association. Sun Interior Atmosphere Activity Sunspots Poles Eclipses Magnetic Field Radiation Fate Culture more... Space Weather Multimedia Recent Images Missions Facts News Links. Earth Interior/Surface Atmosphere Magnetosphere Moon Poles Climate Water Life Myth Exploration more... Our Changing Planet Earth System Facts Multimedia Links News Tours. Solar System Formation Sun Planets Dwarf Planets Asteroids Meteors Comets Poles Culture Discovery more... Kuiper Belt Facts News Multimedia Tours. Space History Our Sky Constellations Sky Maps Stars Exoplanets Strange Stuff Galaxies Cosmos more... Star Dust News Multimedia Links Missions Tours. Sciences Geology Physics Chemistry Biology Research Scientists Expeditions Scientific Process Evolution more... Frameworks Scientists in Schools. Culture Myth Stories Poetry Poetry & Pictures Books Movies Clouds in Art Mythology Art Links Pe...
https://windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/chemistry_troposphere.html&edu=elem
*  Interesting Read Global Warming - Off Topic - DIY Chatroom Home Improvement Forum
... DIY Chatroom Home Improvement Forum. interesting read global warming. Articles Rewards Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read. Join Date: Jan 2009 Posts: 9 Rewards Points: 10. View oldguy2's Album. interesting read global warming. Global Warming Potential vs Ozone Depletion Potential « on: June 26, 2007, 03:28:39 PM » ODP Defined. The ODP, or Ozone Depletion Potential, is the potential for a single molecule of the refrigerant to destroy the Ozone Layer. The less the value of the ODP the better the refrigerant is for the Ozone Layer and the Environment. The GWP, or Global Warming Potential, is a measurement of how much effect the given refrigerant will have on Global Warming in relation to Carbon Dioxide. It has a low chlorine content and ozone depletion potential and only a modest direct global warming potential. ODP = 0.05, GWP = 1700. ODP = 0.0, GWP 1890. Global Warming Can Increase Ozone Depletion. Ozone depletion gets worse when the stratosphere where the ozone layer is, becomes colder. Because global...
http://diychatroom.com/f39/interesting-read-global-warming-55440/
*  Atmosphere
... New York Science Grade 6 Chapter 6: Atmosphere Atmosphere. Your Results:. The correct answer for each question is indicated by a. 1 Why are the thermosphere and exosphere the warmest of the atmospheric layers. Need a Hint. A because of the gases trapped in these layers. B because they are closest to the Sun. C because the underlying mesosphere keeps the warm air there. D because the air pressure is too great. 2 What is it called when water changes from gas to liquid. Need a Hint. A freezing. B melting. C evaporation. D condensation. 3 Where can CFCs be found. Need a Hint. A aerosol sprays. B all answers are correct. C refrigerators. D air conditioners. 4 What causes a shooting star. Need a Hint. A a meteor in the troposphere. B a comet in the stratosphere. C a meteor in the mesosphere. D a comet in the thermosphere. 5 Which layer of the atmosphere is named after its high temperature. Need a Hint. A stratosphere. B mesosphere. C thermosphere. D troposphere. 6 Why are there fewer molecules of air up in the...
http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0078771285/student_view0/unit2/chapter6/chapter_review_quiz_-_english.html
*  During the winter of 1999-2000, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) was condu
During the winter of 1999-2000, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment SOLVE was conducted in Kiruna, Sweden. SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment SOLVE. Project Manager: Michael Craig. 1 NASA DC-8, ER-2 and bundled deployment team posed before the hangar in Kiruna, Sweden. During the winter of 1999-2000, the NASA Ames Earth Science Project Office ESPO managed the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment SOLVE conducted in Kiruna, Sweden Fig. Coordinated with the European Science Commission s Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone THESEO, SOLVE employed multiple aircraft, balloons, ground-based instruments, satellites, and an extensive theory team to collect the largest database to date of measurements of the Arctic winter stratosphere and the causes of stratospheric ozone loss. In September, 2000 a SOLVE/THESEO science team meeting was held in Palermo, Italy for scientists to share preliminary results. More than 350 people attended, with 55 oral presentations and 143 poster...
http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sgg/projectmg/projmg1.html
*  Atmosphere of Earth
... Image: Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving Earth a blue halo when seen from space onboard ISS at a height of. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Density and mass. Water vapor C. volume thermodynamics B ppmv: parts per million by volume C Water vapor is about 0.25% 'by mass' over full atmosphere D Water vapor strongly varies locally. In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere. Excluding the exosphere, Earth has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The lower part of the thermosphere, from 80to above Earth's surface, contains the ionosphere. Unlike the stratosphere, wherein a temperature inversion is due to the absorption of radiation by ozone, the inversion in the thermosphere occurs due to the extremely low density of its molecules. The mesosphere is the third highest layer o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Earth
*  Can Hacking The Stratosphere Solve Climate Change? | Delmarva Public Radio
Can Hacking The Stratosphere Solve Climate Change. Delmarva Public Radio. NPR News. WSCL Program Schedule. NPR News. WSCL Program Schedule. Can Hacking The Stratosphere Solve Climate Change. About David Keith's TEDTalk Environmental scientist David Keith proposes a cheap and shocking way to address climate change: What if we inject a huge cloud of sulfur into the atmosphere to deflect sunlight and heat. About David Keith Environmental scientist David Keith works at the intersection of climate science, energy, and public policy. SOUNDBITE OF TED TALK DAVID KEITH: You could put - find particles, say sulfuric acid particles, sulfates, into the upper atmosphere, the stratosphere, where they'd reflect away sunlight and cool the planet. SOUNDBITE OF TED TALK KEITH: Here's Mount Pinatubo in the early '90s that put a whole bunch of sulfur in the stratosphere, with a sort of an atomic bomb-like cloud. KEITH: You could put sulfuric acid droplets in the stratosphere, in the upper atmosphere. And then you cool the planet...
http://delmarvapublicradio.net/post/can-hacking-stratosphere-solve-climate-change
*  Testing an atmospheric model's radiative flux sensitivities at the top of the atmosphere
... Earth Sciences. For the first time, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a comprehensive sensitivity study of 16 selected parameters in a popular atmospheric model to analyze their effect on the flux of energy at the top of the atmosphere. They found that cloud parameters—especially the one changing cloud ice to snow—are the primary culprits affecting energy flux among these parameters. In this paper published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, they focused on model representation at the top of atmosphere, where solar energy enters the Earth's system and reflected and thermal energy depart. The PNNL-led team performed the first comprehensive sensitivity analysis on the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 CAM5 cloud microphysics and aerosol parameters. The research team analyzed the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere to 16 selected uncertain parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosols in CAM5. They also conducted a variance-based sensiti...
http://phys.org/news/2014-02-atmospheric-radiative-flux-sensitivities-atmosphere.html
*  Trace gas
A 'trace gas' is a gas which makes up less than 1% by volume of the Earth's atmosphere, and it includes all gases except nitrogen 78.1% and oxygen 20.9%. The most abundant trace gas at 0.934% is argon. Water vapor also occurs in the atmosphere with highly variable abundance. Natural sources Climate change Mixing Ozone hole See also References External links. Natural sources. Several atmospheric trace gases such as ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide s are anthropogenic, chemically reactive factors of air quality at a regional level. 1 and are produced anthropogenically but mainly by plant s, microorganism s and from natural geothermal sources. Climate change. The Earth's climate is sensitive to changes in trace gas concentrations and temperature of the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere region of the atmosphere UTLS. Trace gases can be short lived or long lived. The first category includes several greenhouse gases e.g. Mixing. Trace gas exchanges between the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphe...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trace_gas
*  Items where Author is "Chipperfield, M. P." - ePIC
... EPIC.awi.de. Items where Author is " Chipperfield, M. R, Chipperfield, M., Rex, M. doi: 10.1029/2011GL050478, hdl: 10013/epic.40739. Article Kremser, S. J, Rex, M., Chipperfield, M. and Feng, W. doi: 10.5194/acp-11-5183-2011, hdl: 10013/epic.40740 Preview. Article Feng, W., Chipperfield, M. P, Davies, S., von der Gathen, P. doi: 10.1029/2006GL029098, hdl: 10013/epic.26613. Article Rex, M., von der Gathen, P., Harris, N. R P, Chipperfield, M. 2006 Arctic winter 2005: Implications for stratospheric ozone loss and climate change, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L23808. D 2006 Tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Arrival Heights, Antarctica, 2002, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D22310, doi:10.1029/2005JD007022. 2005 Arctic Ozone Loss and Climate Change - Large Ozone Loss in Arctic Winter 2004/2005, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco. 2005 Three-dimensional model study of the Arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004, Atmospheric chemist...
http://epic.awi.de/view/creators/Chipperfield=3AM=2E_P=2E=3A=3A.default.html
*  Ozone loss from quasi-conservative coordinate mapping during the 1999-2000 SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campa
... igns - ePIC. Browse. Author. Year. Platform. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Simple. Advanced. About. About. Policies. Citation Guide. Login. Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung. Imprint. Contact. OAI. EPIC.awi.de. Browse. Author. Year. Platform. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Simple. Advanced. About. About. Policies. Citation Guide. Login Login. Ozone loss from quasi-conservative coordinate mapping during the 1999-2000 SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaigns. HTML Citation ASCII Citation EndNote BibTeX MODS OpenURL ContextObject in Span MPEG-21 DIDL EP3 XML Dublin Core EndNote Simple Metadata. S and von der Gathen, P. 2002 : Ozone loss from quasi-conservative coordinate mapping during the 1999-2000 SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaigns, Journal of Geophysical ResearchD20,. doi: 10.1029/2001JD000998 Cite this page as: hdl: 10013/epic.14992 DOI: 10.1029/2001JD000998 Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000998 Contact Email: gathen@awi-potsdam.de Related Data:. Abstract: Ozone...
http://epic.awi.de/4417/
*  Atmosphere - The Queen's Diamond Jubilee River Pageant Flotilla | 32 Pictures | Contactmusic.com
Music Reviews. Music Reviews Best Rated Music Reviews Music Video. Music Video Music News. Movie Trailers. Movie Trailers Movie Reviews. Movie Reviews Best Rated Movies Movie News. Music Video Top Music Videos Movie Trailers. Movie Trailers Top Movie Trailers Video Chart. Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Advertisement. Next: Atmosphere Gallery Atmosphere - - Sunday 3rd June 2012. Atmosphere Gallery. More Atmosphere Photos. ✕ Music Video Movie Trailers Video Chart Musicians Bands Actors Filmmakers Videos Music Video Sam Smith - Writing's On The Wall Video X Ambassadors - Unsteady Video Lawson - We Are Kings Video The Vamps - Wake Up Video Jessie Ware - Say You Love Me Alex Adair Remix Video Nothing But Thieves - Wake Up Call Live...
http://contactmusic.com/atmosphere/pictures/114b9a97/atmosphere-the-queens-diamond-jubilee-river-pageant-flotilla-london_3924262
*  CGD People | Andrew Gettelman
Andrew Gettelman. AMP People Andrew Gettelman CAS People. Gettelman, A. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00102.1, 2015. Gettelman, A., H. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00103.1, 2015. Gettelman, A. Lamarque, Impact of Aerosol Radiative Effects on Recent Temperatures, Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2464-2, 2015 Gettelman, A. Geophysical Res., 117, D20201, doi:10.1029/2012JD017950 [Reprint: PDF-4 MB] Gettelman, A., V. Birner Insights on Tropical Tropopause Layer Processes using Global Models J., 6, 1629-1643, SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acp/2007-7-1629, 2007[Click for reprint:. Bala, Climatology of Upper Tropospheric Relative Humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Implications for Climate, J.Climate, 19 23, 6104-6121, 2006.[Click for reprint:. W Irion, The Global Distribution of Supersaturation in the Upper Troposphere from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, J.Climate, 19 23, 6089-6103, 2006.[Click for reprint:. R Webster, Simulations of Water Isotope Abundances in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere and Imp...
http://cgd.ucar.edu/staff/andrew/papers/
*  OSA | Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar
OSA. Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. Login or Create Account. Journal of the Optical Society of America A. Journal of the Optical Society of America B. Optics Letters. Journal of the Optical Society of America 1917-1983. Journal of the Optical Society of America A. Journal of the Optical Society of America B. Optics Letters. Journal of the Optical Society of America 1917-1983. Optics and Photonics News. OSA Publishing > Optics Letters > Volume 15 > Issue 13 > Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar Optics Letters Xi-Cheng Zhang, Editor-in-Chief. Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar Albert Ansmann, Maren Riebesell, and Claus Weitkamp Author Affiliations. Copy Citation Text Albert Ansmann, Maren Riebesell, and Claus Weitkamp, "Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar," Opt. Citation Albert Ansmann, Maren Riebesell, and Claus Weitkamp, "Measurement of atmospheric aero...
https://osapublishing.org/ol/viewmedia.cfm?uri=ol-15-13-746&seq=0
*  ACP - Metrics
... Articles ACP. Recent final revised papers. Special issues. Full text search. Title and author search. Articles ACPD. Highlight articles. Journal metrics IF 5.053. Science Citation Index. Science Citation Index Expanded. Article. Metrics. Related Articles. Volume 3, issue 3 Article. Metrics. Related Articles. 23 Jun 2003. Formaldehyde over the eastern Mediterranean during MINOS: Comparison of airborne in-situ measurements with 3D-model results R. Williams, J. Warneke, J. de Gouw, J. Schlager Viewed Total article views: 545 including HTML, PDF, and XML HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote 225 290 30 545 39 10. Views and downloads calculated since 01 Jan 2013, article published on 23 Jun 2003 Month HTML PDF XML Total Jan 2013 13 20 6 39. Feb 2013 17 17 5 39. Mar 2013 3 7 1 11. Apr 2013 3 12 0 15. Jun 2013 3 10 0 13. Jul 2013 6 10 0 16. Aug 2013 12 5 0 17. Sep 2013 1 9 0 10. Oct 2013 12 15 2 29. Nov 2013 4 7 0 11. Dec 2013 11 9 0 20. Jan 2014 6 6 0 12. Feb 2014 8 9 4 21. Mar 2014 17 8 1 26. Apr 2014 11 15 1 27....
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/3/851/2003/acp-3-851-2003-metrics.html
*  Atmospheric carbon cycle
... 1 Atmospheric carbon plays an important role in the greenhouse effect. thumb|alt=Concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from 0 to 2005|Atmospheric concentrations of important long-lived greenhouse gases over the last 2,000 years. The two main carbon greenhouse gases are methane and carbon dioxide. Atmospheric methane. Methane CH 4 is one of the more potent greenhouse gases and is mainly produced by the digestion or decay of biological organisms. It is also produced by several industrial sources, including the mining and distribution of fossil fuels. Atmospheric carbon dioxide. and among the many long-lasting greenhouse gases, it is the most important because it makes up the largest fraction of the atmosphere. Of the increased amounts of carbon dioxide that are introduced to the atmosphere each year, approximately 80% are from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production. Atmospheric carbon is exchanged quickly between the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere. Terrestrial biosphere. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_carbon_cycle
*  Can Hacking The Stratosphere Solve Climate Change? | KUOW News and Information
Can Hacking The Stratosphere Solve Climate Change. NPR News. KUOW Print Schedule. KUOW2 Print Schedule. KUOW3 Print Schedule. KUOW4 Print Schedule. NPR News. KUOW Print Schedule. KUOW2 Print Schedule. KUOW3 Print Schedule. KUOW4 Print Schedule. About David Keith's TEDTalk Environmental scientist David Keith proposes a cheap and shocking way to address climate change: What if we inject a huge cloud of sulfur into the atmosphere to deflect sunlight and heat. About David Keith Environmental scientist David Keith works at the intersection of climate science, energy, and public policy. SOUNDBITE OF TED TALK DAVID KEITH: You could put - find particles, say sulfuric acid particles, sulfates, into the upper atmosphere, the stratosphere, where they'd reflect away sunlight and cool the planet. SOUNDBITE OF TED TALK KEITH: Here's Mount Pinatubo in the early '90s that put a whole bunch of sulfur in the stratosphere, with a sort of an atomic bomb-like cloud. KEITH: You could put sulfuric acid droplets in the stratosphere,...
http://kuow.org/post/can-hacking-stratosphere-solve-climate-change
*  Solar Storms, Arctic Winds Swirl In A Double Dip Cone Of Ozone Loss -- ScienceDaily
... Date: May 2, 2005 Source: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Summary: A new study has shown that those late 2003 solar storms, which deposited huge quantities of energetic solar particles into Earth's atmosphere, combined forces with another natural atmospheric process last spring to produce the largest decline ever recorded in upper stratospheric ozone over the Arctic and the northern areas of North America, Europe and Asia. In 2004, the upper part of the vortex top of image, about 32 miles above Earth was unusually large and strong. In 2004, the upper part of the vortex top of image, about 32 miles above Earth was unusually large and strong. NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Solar Storms, Arctic Winds Swirl In A Double Dip Cone Of Ozone Loss." ScienceDaily. NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved October 5, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502093904.htm NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Solar Storms, Arctic Winds Swirl In A Double Dip Cone Of Ozone Loss." ScienceDaily. RELATED TOPICS. Ear...
http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502093904.htm
*  A detailed study of factors controlling atmospheric concentrations of PCNs. - Research Portal | Lanc
A detailed study of factors controlling atmospheric concentrations of PCNs. - Research Portal. Lancaster University. Home. Study. Research. Business. Global. Alumni. . 12,000 We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK. 97% 97% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating. Our Colleges. Visiting Campus. News & Media. Contact & Getting Here. About Us. Faculties & Departments. Current Students. Current Staff. Site Search. Search. Quick Links A-Z index About Us Contact Getting Here Current Staff Current Students Faculties Departments Feedback Job Opportunities My eLearning News Media Sitemap Term Dates The Colleges. Go. Find a course. Home. Research. Publications Outputs. A detailed study of factors controlling atmosph... Research. Research at Lancaster. Researchers. Departments Centres. Publications Outputs. Projects. Activities. View graph of relations. Links. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es048156c. Text availa...
http://research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/a-detailed-study-of-factors-controlling-atmospheric-concentrations-of-pcns(76b1a50c-7318-4706-8d4f-7e70a4b2d3a9).html
*  Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis
4.1.4 Atmospheric Lifetimes and Time-Scales The global atmospheric lifetime yr characterises the time required to turn over the global atmospheric burden. It is defined as the burden Tg divided by the mean global sink Tg/yr for a gas in steady state i.e., with unchanging burden. A corollary of this definition is that, when in steady state i.e., source strength = sink strength, the atmospheric burden of a gas equals the product of its lifetime and its emissions. The atmospheric lifetime is basically a scale factor relating i constant emissions Tg/yr to a steady-state burden Tg, or ii an emission pulse Tg to the time-integrated burden of that pulse Tg/yr. In such a case the mean atmospheric lifetime equals the local lifetime: the lifetime that relates source strength to global burden is exactly the decay time of a perturbation. In this case emission of NO x into the upper troposphere will produce a larger atmospheric burden than the same emission into the lower troposphere. The majority of greenhouse gases cons...
http://grida.no/climate/IPCC_tar/wg1/133.htm
*  ACP - Related articles
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6569-6581, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6569/2010/ doi:10.5194/acp-10-6569-2010 © Author s 2010. Estimation of Antarctic ozone loss from ground-based total column measurements J. P Chipperfield, and S. Froidevaux, J. F Bernath, J. Chem. Phys., 15, 10471-10507, 2015. Froidevaux, and A. Chem. Chemical ozone loss and ozone mini-hole event during the Arctic winter 2010/2011 as observed by SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 02 Apr 2014 R. Global stratospheric fluorine inventory for 2004 2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS measurements and SLIMCAT model simulations 09 Jan 2014 A. Stratospheric loss and atmospheric lifetimes of CFC-11 and CFC-12 derived from satellite observations 24 Apr 2013 K. Belyaev : Large chemical ozone loss in 2004/05 Arctic winter/spring, Geophys. M : Long-term variations in total ozone derived from Dobson and satellite data...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6569/2010/acp-10-6569-2010-relations.html
*  Model and measurements show Antarctic ozone loss follows edge of polar night - NERC Open Research
model and measurements show antarctic ozone loss follows edge of polar night nerc open research archive nerc ac uk help contact us home about browse search statistics nerc staff login model and measurements show antarctic ozone loss follows edge of polar night tools tools tools rdf xml bibtex rdf n triples json refworks dublin core simple metadata refer mets simple metadata ishare html citation ascii citation openurl contextobject endnote dublin core ishare openurl contextobject in span mods mpeg didl ep xml reference manager rdf n multiline csv lee a m roscoe h k oltmans s model and measurements show antarctic ozone loss follows edge of polar night geophysical research letters gl full text not available from this repository request a copy official url http dx doi org gl abstract summary a three dimensional chemical transport model of the stratosphere has been used to study the austral winter and spring both the model and ozonesonde measurements show that ozone depletion associated with the antarctic ozone ho...
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/20635/
*  MACC Project - Health Community
... Monitoring atmospheric composition climate. Login. Site map. Print. Home. News. Catalogue. Press Room. About the Project. Contact Us. Home. Services. Health Community. Services Air Quality & Atmospheric Composition. Climate Forcing. Ozone Layer & Ultra-Violet Radiation. Solar Radiation. Emissions & Surface Fluxes. Today's Forecasts Reactive Gases. Aerosols. European Air Quality. UV Index. Ozone Layer. CO2. Latest Analyses European Air Quality. Fire Monitoring. Reactive Gases. Aerosols. Health Community. European Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting. Daily 3-day air quality forecasts for Europe from an ensemble of models. Reanalysis of European Air Quality. Validated assessments of air quality in Europe. Near-real-time Forecasts of Atmospheric Composition. Daily analysis and 4-day forecast of global 3-dimensional ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosol. User Support Documentation. Validation. E-learning. Mailing Lists. Operational Info. Services Air Quality & Atmospheric Composition. Climate Forcing. Ozone ...
http://gmes-atmosphere.eu/services/health/
*  Science Goals - Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment
science goals atmospheric chemistry experiment ace atmospheric chemistry experiment home mission introduction launch orbit timeline instruments introduction fts maestro testing stage science goals ozone decline climate change ozone monitoring data analysis results molecules molecule list v mw list v mw list v mw list ace atlas solar atlas climatology participants publications list overviews grl special issue v validation ace book other papers conference solar atlas press release nov nov aug mar mar oct may aug jul sep oct ace meeting reconcile validation data gallery goals the scientific goals for the ace mission include understanding the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere particularly in the arctic exploring the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change studying the effects of biomass burning on the free troposphere measuring aerosols and clouds to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy ...
http://ace.uwaterloo.ca/science.html
*  Items where Author is "Voemel, H." - ePIC
... Browse. Author. Year. Platform. Organizations. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Search. Simple. Advanced. About. About. Policies. Citation Guide. Login. Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung. Imprint. Contact. OAI. RSS 2.0. EPIC.awi.de. Home. Browse. Author. Year. Platform. Organizations. Programs. Research Networks. Type. Search. Simple. Advanced. About. About. Policies. Citation Guide. Login Login. Items where Author is " Voemel, H. ". Up a level. Export as ASCII Citation BibTeX DocExport Dublin Core EP3 XML EndNote EndNote HTML Citation. RSS 2.0. Group by: Item Type. No Grouping Jump to: Article. Number of items: 4. Article Article Lukyanov, A. N, Karpechko, A. Y, Yushkov, V. A, Korshunov, L. I, Khaikin, S. M, Ganshin, A. V, Kyro, E., Kivi, R., Maturilli, M. and Voemel, H. 2009 Estimation of water vapor and ozone transport in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere and fluxes through the tropopause during the field campaign at the Sodankylä Station Finland., Izv...
http://epic.awi.de/view/creators/Voemel=3AH=2E=3A=3A.html
*  Items where Author is "Kremser, S." - ePIC
... Research Networks. About. About. Citation Guide. EPIC.awi.de. Research Networks. About. About. Citation Guide. Items where Author is " Kremser, S. Conference. Article Article Rex, M., Kremser, S., Wohltmann, I. doi: 10.5194/acp-14-6545-2014, hdl: 10013/epic.43774 Preview. E, Kremser, S. J, Rex, M. and Struthers, H. 2013 Semi-empirical models for chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the Antarctic stratosphere: proof of concept, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,. doi: 10.5194/acp-13-3237-2013, hdl: 10013/epic.42311. Article Kremser, S., Schofield, R. J, Rex, M., Chipperfield, M. P, Langematz, U. 2011 Retrievals of chlorine chemistry kinetic parameters from Antarctic ClO microwave radiometer measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,. doi: 10.5194/acp-11-5183-2011, hdl: 10013/epic.40740 Preview., Kremser, S., Rex, M. 2010 Multimodel assessment of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Tropics and global trends, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D00M08. 2009 Water vapour transport in ...
http://epic.awi.de/view/creators/Kremser=3AS=2E=3A=3A.html
*  .. Sudip Chakraborty .. Supervisor .. Current Research Projects
I use A-Train as well as ISCCP geostationary satellite data to unfold the mystery behind the convective transport of aerosols and the influence of those transported aerosols on those clouds. - Physical and Dynamic Structure of Deep Convection - Analysis of Satellite data NASA A-Train, ISCCP - WRF-Chem Current Research Projects Life Cycle analysis of deep convections to understand the role of cloud dynamics and the physical structure on aerosol transport to the upper troposphere. - University of Texas at Austin. 2013 Aerosol transport and Influence on cloud microstructure by Coupling of aerosols and cloud field for deep convective clouds over the Indian monsoon region: A study using the joint use of Aura, A-Train and ISCCP satellites datasets., ACAM, Kathmandu, Nepal 2013 Convective invigoration and lifecycle enhancement by aerosols over the tropical region using the A-Train and ISCCP satellites datasets, AGU, San Francisco 2013 Aerosol transport and Influence on cloud microstructure by Coupling of aerosols an...
http://jsg.utexas.edu/student/sudip_chakraborty/
*  Atmospheric Temperature Trends, 1979-2005 : Image of the Day
... NASA Earth Observatory. Climate models predict that the build up of greenhouse gases should warm the lower layer of the atmosphere, called the troposphere, and cool the layer above it, the stratosphere. Greenhouse gases accumulate in the troposphere where they absorb energy radiated from the Earth and re-emit energy back to the surface. This pattern of warming in the lower atmosphere and cooling in the stratosphere is a hallmark of greenhouse gas warming in global climate models. These images show temperature trends in two thick layers of the atmosphere as measured by a series of satellite-based instruments between January 1979 and December 2005. The lower image shows temperatures in the lower stratosphere, centered around 18 kilometers above the surface. The cooling trend in the stratosphere was probably not solely due to greenhouse gas warming at lower altitudes; loss of ozone also cools the stratosphere. The measurements were taken by Microwave Sounding Units and Advanced Microwave Sounding Units flyi...
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7839&eocn=image&eoci=moreiotd
*  atmospheric science - Global warming and planetary thermodynamics - Physics Stack Exchange
... Physics Meta. Stack Exchange. Physics Questions. Physics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for active researchers, academics and students of physics. To a first approximation, the earth currently radiates out as low frequency thermal radiation the same amount of energy as it absorbs as high frequency solar radiation. Let's assume that global warming will not change the amount of energy received from the sun and absorbed by the earth. Global warming melts the ice caps, which reflect solar radiation. But if we ignore the melting of the ice caps, the earth must receive and radiate away a fixed amount of solar radiation, which is independent of its temperature. atmospheric-science thermal-radiation share. Colin's comment is spot on, but to expand a bit on the "lots of details" he mentioned, heat radiated from the Earth's surface is partially absorbed by greenhouse gases in the troposphere, and because the troposphere is turbulent this heat gets redistributed throughout the troposphere instead of e...
http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/19915/global-warming-and-planetary-thermodynamics?answertab=oldest
*  ACP - Metrics
... Journal cover. Journal topic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union EGU.eu. EGU Journals. Articles ACP. Recent final revised papers. Full text search. Title and author search. Articles ACPD. Highlight articles. For authors. User ID. New user. Journal metrics IF 5.053. Science Citation Index. Science Citation Index Expanded. Article. Metrics. Related Articles. Phys., 3, 1191-1198, 2003 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/3/1191/2003/ doi:10.5194/acp-3-1191-2003 © Author s 2003. Metrics. Related Articles. 13 Aug 2003. Out of Africa: High aerosol concentrations in the upper troposphere over Africa J. Hermann, and D. Theiss Viewed Total article views: 491 including HTML, PDF, and XML HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote 177 293 21 491 31 5. Views and downloads calculated since 01 Jan 2013, article published on 13 Aug 2003 Month HTML PDF XML Total Jan 2013 6 16 3 25. Feb 2013 9 23 9 41. Mar 2013 1 7 1 9. Apr 2013 3 11 0 14. Jun 2013 1 9 0 10. Jul 2013 7 0 7. A...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/3/1191/2003/acp-3-1191-2003-metrics.html
*  ACP - Abstract - Physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols by in-situ and radiometric
... measurements. Articles ACP. Full text search. Title and author search. Journal metrics IF 5.053. Phys., 10, 2195-2208, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/2195/2010/ doi:10.5194/acp-10-2195-2010 © Author s 2010. Physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols by in-situ and radiometric measurements M. Published in Atmos. Discuss.: 27 Nov 2009 Revised: 10 Feb 2010. Physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols collected by using a high resolution 1.5 nm spectroradiometer spectral range 400–800 nm, a 13-stage Dekati Low Pressure Impactor size range 30 nm–10 m, and an AE31 Aethalometer 7 wavelenghts from 370 nm to 950 nm, have been examined in a semi-rural site in Southwest Italy Tito Scalo, 40 35' N, 15 41' E, 750 m a.s.l. Furthermore, by inverting direct solar radiances, aerosol columnar number and volume size distributions have been obtained for the same period. Agreement between columnar and in-situ measurements has been obtained in case of anthropogenic aerosol loading, while in case of S...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/10/2195/2010/acp-10-2195-2010.html
*  ACP - Abstract - Implications of all season Arctic sea-ice anomalies on the stratosphere
... Journal cover. Articles ACP. Full text search. Title and author search. Journal metrics IF 5.053. Phys., 12, 11819-11831, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/11819/2012/ doi:10.5194/acp-12-11819-2012 © Author s 2012. Implications of all season Arctic sea-ice anomalies on the stratosphere D. Published in Atmos. Published: 17 Dec 2012 Abstract. In this study the impact of a substantially reduced Arctic sea-ice cover on the lower and middle stratosphere is investigated. For this purpose two simulations with fixed boundary conditions the so-called time-slice mode were performed with a Chemistry-Climate Model. A reference time-slice with boundary conditions representing the year 2000 is compared to a second sensitivity simulation in which the boundary conditions are identical apart from the polar sea-ice cover, which is set to represent the years 2089–2099. Firstly, tropospheric mean polar temperatures increase up to 7 K during winter. This warming is primarily driven by changes in outgoing long-wave radiation. T...
http://atmos-chem-phys.net/12/11819/2012/acp-12-11819-2012.html

Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Saturn A-1: Saturn A-1, studied in 1959, was projected to be the first version of Saturn I and was to be used if necessary before the S-IV liquid hydrogen second stage became available. The first stage, proposed for the Juno V rocket, but finally used for the first Saturn rocket, would propel the Saturn A-1 into space, with the first stage of a Titan I missile continuing the flight and finally, a Centaur C high-energy double-engine third stage could perform a small burn to send a payload into its final orbit, or it can perform a big burn to take a payload out of Earth orbit to other planets.Shiva crater: The Shiva Crater is a geologic structure, which is hypothesized by Sankar ChatterjeeChatterjee, S. (1997) Multiple impacts at the KT boundary and the death of the dinosaurs.Paleoproterozoic: The Paleoproterozoic (; also Palaeoproterozoic) is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic occurring (2.5–1.Richard A Neubauer: Richard Allen Neubauer (16 January 1924–11 June 2007), was a physician known for his work in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.Robotic spacecraft: 250px|right|thumb|An artist's interpretation of the [[MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury]]Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: [Martian hemispheres by MOLA.jpg|right|thumb|260px|MOLA topographic images of the two hemispheres of Mars.Air sensitivity: Air sensitivity is a term used, particularly in chemistry, to denote the reactivity of chemical compounds with some constituent of air. Most often, reactions occur with atmospheric oxygen (O2) or water vapor (H2O),Handling and Storage of Air-Sensitive Reagents, Technical Bulletin AL-134, Sigma-Aldrich although reactions with the other constituents of air such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) are also possible.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsAtmospheric-pressure laser ionization: Atmospheric pressure laser ionization is an atmospheric pressure ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS). Laser light in the UV range is used to ionize molecules in a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) process.Lunar magma ocean: According to the giant impact hypothesis a large amount of energy was liberated in the formation of the Moon and it is predicted that as a result a large portion of the Moon was once completely molten, forming a lunar magma ocean. Evidence for the magma ocean hypothesis comes from the highly anorthositic compositions of the crust in the lunar highlands, as well as the existence of rocks with a high concentration of the geochemical component referred to as KREEP.Carbon chauvinism: Carbon chauvinism is a neologism meant to disparage the assumption that the chemical processes of hypothetical extraterrestrial life must be constructed primarily from carbon (organic compounds) because carbon's chemical and thermodynamic properties render it far superior to all other elements.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Primordial soup: "Primordial soup" is a term introduced by the Soviet biologist Alexander Oparin. In 1924, he proposed a theory of the origin of life on Earth through the transformation, during the gradual chemical evolution of molecules that contain carbon in the primordial soup.Self-heating food packaging: Self-heating food packaging (SHFP) is active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or power. Packets typically use an exothermic chemical reaction.Argon–argon dating: Argon–argon (or 40Ar/39Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy. The older method required splitting samples into two for separate potassium and argon measurements, while the newer method requires only one rock fragment or mineral grain and uses a single measurement of argon isotopes.Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Circumbinary planet: A circumbinary planet is a planet that orbits two stars instead of one.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.Primordial sandwich: The concept of the primordial sandwich was proposed by the chemist Günter Wächtershäuser to describe the possible origins of the first cell membranes, and, therefore, the first cell.Ganymede (moon)P-AnisidineMcIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.List of Antarctic ice streams: This is a list of Antarctic ice streams.Hydrogen gas porosity: Hydrogen gas porosity is an aluminium casting defect under the form of a porosity or void in an aluminium casting caused by a high level of hydrogen gas (H2) dissolved in the aluminium at liquid phase. Because the solubility of hydrogen in solid aluminium is much smaller than in liquid aluminium, when the aluminium freezes, the dissolved hydrogen gas creates porosity in solid aluminium.Nitrogen deficiencyAerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Submillimetre astronomy: Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e.Acid Rain Retirement Fund: The Acid Rain Retirement Fund (A.R.Human impact on the nitrogen cycleObligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightSan Bernardino Valley: The San Bernardino Valley is a valley in Southern California. It lies at the south base of the Transverse Ranges.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.THC-O-phosphateCarbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.List of largest volcanic eruptions: In a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (volcanic bombs, lapilli, and ash), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. While many eruptions only pose dangers to the immediately surrounding area, Earth's largest eruptions can have a major regional or even global impact, with some affecting the climate and contributing to mass extinctions.Supramolecular assembly: thumbnail|200px|An example of a supramolecular assembly reported by Atwood and coworkers in Science 2005, 309, 2037.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.HumidifierChondrule: Chondrules in the chondrite Grassland|200px|thumb|Chondrules in the chondrite Grassland. A millimeter scale is shown.Snow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Phlogiston theory: The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion. The name comes from the Ancient Greek [phlogistón (burning up), from φλόξ] phlóx (flame).Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:NAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Moonlight: [22-12-47-moonlight.jpg|thumb|A photograph taken by moonlight with an exposure time of fifty minutes.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Nitrogen trichlorideSupernova Early Warning System: The SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) is a network of neutrino detectors designed to give early warning to astronomers in the event of a supernova in the Milky Way Galaxy, our home galaxy, or a nearby galaxy such as the Large Magellanic Cloud or the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy. Enormous numbers of neutrinos are produced in the core of a red giant star as it collapses on itself.Index of geology articles: This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Pentane interference: Pentane interference or syn-pentane interaction is the steric hindrance that the two terminal methyl groups experience in one of the chemical conformations of n-pentane. The possible conformations are combinations of anti conformations and gauche conformations and are anti-anti, anti-gauche+, gauche+ - gauche+ and gauche+ - gauche− of which the last one is especially energetically unfavorable.Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) is a minimally invasive procedure (Biopsy) to help in the diagnosis of breast cancer. VAB is characterized by single insertion, acquisition of contiguous and larger tissue samples, and directional sample capability.Carbonyl sulfideIndex of steam energy articles: * portable engineUnsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.Donora Smog Museum: Donora Smog Museum features a collection of archival materials documenting the Donora Smog of 1948, an air inversion of smog containing fluorine that killed 20 people in Donora, Pennsylvania, United States, a mill town 20 miles south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela River.Ammonium cyanidePrinomastatCarbon fixation: Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. The most prominent example is photosynthesis, although chemosynthesis is another form of carbon fixation that can take place in the absence of sunlight.Breath carbon monoxide: Breath carbon monoxide is the level of carbon monoxide in a person's exhalation. It can be measured in a breath carbon monoxide test, generally by using a carbon monoxide breath monitor (breath CO monitor), such as for motivation and education for smoking cessation and also as a clinical aid in assessing carbon monoxide poisoning.EcosystemNatron: Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and about 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Natron is white to colourless when pure, varying to gray or yellow with impurities.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray: In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than eV, far beyond both its rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.Outline of organic chemistry: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic chemistry:Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.PhenylacetyleneOzone Action Day: An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, county or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Helium-3Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".List of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.Nitrous oxide and oxygen: A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.To Kau Wan: To Kau Wan () is a bay on the north shore of northeast Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Contaminated soil from Penny's Bay was transferred here for thermal desorption to separate the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) along with cement immobilization of metal contamination from Penny's Bay.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Autosensitization dermatitisIndustrial waste: Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. It has existed since the start of the Industrial Revolution.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]List of glaciers in the Antarctic: A-H: This is a list of glaciers in the Antarctic with a name starting with the letters A–H. This list does not include ice sheets, ice caps or ice fields, such as the Antarctic ice sheet, but includes glacial features that are defined by their flow, rather than general bodies of ice.Meanings of minor planet names: 154001–155000: ==List of minor planets==Performic acidList of cooling baths: This page contains a list of cooling bath mixtures.Nearly Neptune: Nearly Neptune is a juvenile science fiction novel, the twelfth in Hugh Walters' Chris Godfrey of U.N.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.National Fire Academy: The National Fire Academy (NFA)National Fire Academy Mission Accessed: 6/12/2012 is one of two schools in the United States operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Operated and governed by the United States Fire Administration (USFA) as part of the U.

(1/768) Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon.

The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption.  (+info)

(2/768) Volatile anaesthetics and the atmosphere: atmospheric lifetimes and atmospheric effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane.

The atmospheric lifetimes of the halogenated anaesthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane with respect to reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH.) and UV photolysis have been determined from observations of OH. reaction kinetics and UV absorption spectra. Rate coefficients for the reaction with OH radicals for all halogenated anaesthetics investigated ranged from 0.44 to 2.7 x 10(-14) cm3 molec-1 s-1. Halothane, enflurane and isoflurane showed distinct UV absorption in the range 200-350 nm. In contrast, no absorption in this wavelength range was detected for desflurane or sevoflurane. The total atmospheric lifetimes, as derived from both OH. reactivity and photolysis, were 4.0-21.4 yr. It has been calculated that up to 20% of anaesthetics enter the stratosphere. As a result of chlorine and bromine content, the ozone depletion potential (ODP) relative to chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 varies between 0 and 1.56, leading to a contribution to the total ozone depletion in the stratosphere of approximately 1% for halothane and 0.02% for enflurane and isoflurane. Estimates of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) relative to CFC-12 yield values of 0.02-0.14, resulting in a relative contribution to global warming of all volatile anaesthetics of approximately 0.03%. The stratospheric impact of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane and their influence on ozone depletion is of increasing importance because of decreasing chlorofluorocarbons globally. However, the influence of volatile anaesthetics on greenhouse warming is small.  (+info)

(3/768) Effects of in vitro atmospheric ammonia exposure on recovery rate and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages.

The effects of atmospheric ammonia, a major pollutant in animal confinement facilities, on bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages were evaluated in vitro. Ammonia exposure at concentrations 50, 100 and 200 ppm for one hour impaired recovery rates of neutrophils dose-dependently but enhanced their chemiluminescence activity per cell at lower concentrations (50 and 100 ppm). Macrophages were resistant to the exposure. Their recovery rates and chemiluminescence remained unaffected even at 200 ppm exposure. The present results suggest that ammonia exposure is unfavorable for bovine neutrophils in vitro, and probably in vivo also, in light of causing cell damage and triggering wider inflammatory responses.  (+info)

(4/768) Galileo imaging of atmospheric emissions from Io.

The Galileo spacecraft has detected diffuse optical emissions from Io in high-resolution images acquired while the satellite was eclipsed by Jupiter. Three distinct components make up Io's visible emissions. Bright blue glows of more than 300 kilorayleighs emanate from volcanic plumes, probably due to electron impact on molecular sulfur dioxide. Weaker red emissions, possibly due to atomic oxygen, are seen along the limbs, brighter on the pole closest to the plasma torus. A faint green glow appears concentrated on the night side of Io, possibly produced by atomic sodium. Io's disk-averaged emission diminishes with time after entering eclipse, whereas the localized blue glows brighten instead.  (+info)

(5/768) Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes.

Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Sequential extraction of adjacent samples shows that these hydrocarbon biomarkers are indigenous and syngenetic to the Archean shales, greatly extending the known geological range of such molecules. The presence of abundant 2alpha-methylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose.  (+info)

(6/768) Increased summertime UV radiation in New Zealand in response to ozone loss.

Long-term decreases in summertime ozone over Lauder, New Zealand (45 degrees S), are shown to have led to substantial increases in peak ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensities. In the summer of 1998-99, the peak sunburning UV radiation was about 12 percent more than in the first years of the decade. Larger increases were seen for DNA-damaging UV radiation and plant-damaging UV radiation, whereas UV-A (315 to 400 nanometers) radiation, which is insensitive to ozone, showed no increase, in agreement with model calculations. These results provide strong evidence of human-induced increases in UV radiation, in a region where baseline levels of UV radiation were already relatively high.  (+info)

(7/768) Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus.

Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled. Large excursions in surface temperature predicted to follow a global or near-global volcanic event diffuse into the interior and introduce thermal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to influence widespread tectonic deformation. This sequence of events accounts for the timing and many of the characteristics of deformation in the ridged plains of Venus, the most widely preserved volcanic terrain on the planet.  (+info)

(8/768) The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor.

Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity.  (+info)


How do you improve the atmosphere in an eating establishment?


What are things you can do in a restaurant to improve the atmosphere? What are colors, music, lighting, and other SPECIFIC things I can do to make people feel comfortable and hungry?
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Customer service: being greeted with someone that looks smart in the restaurant uniform, is confident and friendly. Asks questions like where would you like to be seated, have you eaten here before etc? 

Lighting: Need the lighting to be vibrant but not too much, not too dim that you can't see your food but not too bright that it doesn't feel relaxed and sociable.

Music: Popular music maybe a couple of months old, just playing in the background (even if it is just to fill the silence between a couple on a first date!).

Colours: Nothing dull but not over imaginitive, go with a theme and stick to it but be careful not to go OTT. Some theme's are: Australian outback, rustic look and well known dishes (steaks, chargrilled, bbq, salad food). Italian tradition, nice art work, historic (pasta, pizza, red wine, mozerella & parmasan!). Mexican: big hats, bright red paint (fajitas, guacamole, chilli, burgers)


How would you turn the board games atmosphere into a strip version?


How would you turn the board games atmosphere into a strip version?
You know the 90's board game atmosphere on VHS and nightmare or even the new DVD one, how would you turn into a strip version like strip poker
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hmmmmmmmmm anyone who forgets to answer yes my gate keeper would have to remove a item of clothing, or anyone banished to the black hole remove 2 items of clothing, or even if anyone misses a time card calling they remove an item a time! 
hope them ideas help you!
stef


What Atmosphere lyric would you get a tattoo of?


I'm considering getting a tattoo of an Atmosphere lyric, my few ideas are:
-Why would you chase away the sun if you don't want the rain?
-there's good and evil in each individual fire
-inspiration steams from love and stress compounding
-the sky presents and eternally unfolding spectacle
-nobody sees tears when you're standing in the rain
I'd love your input!
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"God Loves Ugly"

cuz most tattoos are ugly


Why doctors put oxygen mask on patient's nose when he already breaths from atmosphere?


Is the oxygen given by doctors the same as from atmosphere or its different composition of different gases and if yes, why??  Many thanks for you answers.
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the air around us that we breathe is:

78% nitrogen
21% oxygen
and the other 1% consists or other gases like Carbon dioxide

the oxygen in hospitals is pure oxygen so if the patient has problems breathing they get more oxygen because the pure oxygen is 100% oxygen


How long in a humidity atmosphere does my hair transfer from straight to frizzy?


How long in a humidity atmosphere does my hair transfer from straight to frizzy?
if i have to be outside for like 10 munites will my straight hair get frizzy
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Yeah your hair will get frizzy. It also depends on the percentage of the humidity though.


how much entonox escapes to atmosphere and is breathed out when used in pre hospital care?


We know that the majority of oxygen is exhaled back into the atmosphere when we breath along with CO2. When entonox is used in a prehospital care situation how much is absorbed and how much either escapes to atmosphere or is not absorbed and exhaled.
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a bag full


What scents are good to create a soothing atmosphere?


and a productive atmosphere?
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Lavender or chamomile.  =]


How can i give my room a Juicy Couture atmosphere?


my bedroom is small and white.. there is nothing special about it,,,, But im in LOve with Juicy Couture,,,, what can i do to give my room a Juicy Couture atmosphere??? i have nothing from Juicy,,,, wht can i do


please help!
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What you need is to wallpaper one wall in damask.  Here are a few examples of what I mean:

http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_163/1184093260Y9Mlk8.jpg
http://www.fabricsandpapers.com/ebuttonz/ebz_product_images/thumbnail/20010pun%5B1%5D.jpg
http://www.blooddrop.com/Fabricphotos/damask1.jpg

It can be picked up cheap at your local hardware store or order it online.  Only do one wall!  Too much damask is TOO MUCH!!  Paint your other walls a color that compliments the wallpaper. Then pick up some bold accent pieces.  If you go to your local thrift store, you can find old brass candlesticks or an old chandelier and either spray paint it black or white for a bold, Juicy Couture look.  (You'll need some help to hang it though.)  

Urban Outfitters has some great headboards that would fit into the look your after:

http://www.urbanoutfitters.com/urban/catalog/productdetail.jsp?itemdescription=true&itemCount=60&startValue=1&selectedProductColor=&sortby=&id=14182406&parentid=A_FURN_FURNITURE&sortProperties=&navCount=54&navAction=poppushpush&color=

They also have some great bold accent pieces:

http://www.urbanoutfitters.com/urban/catalog/productdetail.jsp?itemdescription=true&itemCount=60&startValue=1&selectedProductColor=&sortby=&id=13911789&parentid=A_FURN_WALL&sortProperties=+product.marketingPriority,-product.startDate&navCount=42&navAction=poppushpush&color=
http://www.urbanoutfitters.com/urban/catalog/productdetail.jsp?itemdescription=true&itemCount=60&startValue=1&selectedProductColor=&sortby=&id=15164866&parentid=A_FURN_WALL&sortProperties=+product.marketingPriority,-product.startDate&navCount=42&navAction=poppushpush&color=
http://www.urbanoutfitters.com/urban/catalog/productdetail.jsp?itemdescription=true&itemCount=60&startValue=1&selectedProductColor=&sortby=&id=14251797&parentid=A_FURN_WINDOW&sortProperties=&navCount=117&navAction=poppushpush&color=
http://www.urbanoutfitters.com/urban/catalog/productdetail.jsp?itemdescription=true&itemCount=60&startValue=1&selectedProductColor=&sortby=&id=14891006&parentid=A_FURN_RUGS&sortProperties=+product.marketingPriority,-product.startDate&navCount=18&navAction=poppushpush&color=
http://www.urbanoutfitters.com/urban/catalog/productdetail.jsp?itemdescription=true&itemCount=60&startValue=1&selectedProductColor=&sortby=&id=15326481&parentid=A_FURN_PRETTY&sortProperties=&navCount=18&navAction=poppushpush&color=
http://www.urbanoutfitters.com/urban/catalog/productdetail.jsp?itemdescription=true&itemCount=60&startValue=1&selectedProductColor=&sortby=&id=15247232&parentid=A_FURN_PRETTY&sortProperties=&navCount=18&navAction=poppushpush&color=

Hope this helps!!  Good luck!!