Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.PyrimidinonesLost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Saquinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, and also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.CambodiaGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.BrazilDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.United StatesRwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.IndiaTrimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.San FranciscoProviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.AfricaHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mouth DiseasesNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Neopterin: A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.

*  September 10, 1999 - Volume 13 - Issue 13 - Contributor Index : AIDS
Exacerbation of skin mycobacterial lesions under highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-infected patient. Sotto, Albert ... Exacerbation of skin mycobacterial lesions under highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-infected patient. Sotto, Albert ... Exacerbation of skin mycobacterial lesions under highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-infected patient. Sotto, Albert ... Recurrence of cytomegalovirus retinitis in an HIV-infected patient responsive to highly active antiretroviral ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=1999&issue=09100
*  Assessment of Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Ther... : JAIDS Journal...
African HIV-infected children benefit from access to antiretroviral treatments but little is known a ... Highly active antiretroviral therapies among HIV-1-infected children in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. AIDS. 2004;18:1905-1913. *Cited ... Assessment of Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort of African HIV-Infected Children in Abidjan, Côte d ... Assessment of Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort of African HIV-Infected Children in Abidjan, Côte ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2005/12010/Assessment_of_Adherence_to_Highly_Active.18.aspx
*  September 2008 - Volume 16 - Issue 5 : Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice
Laboratory Characteristics of Myocardial Infarction in HIV-1-Infected Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. ...
http://journals.lww.com/infectdis/toc/2008/09000
*  December 1, 2010 - Volume 55 - Issue : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune...
Expanded Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Coverage Among HIV-Positive Drug Users to Improve Individual and Public Health ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/toc/2010/12011
*  Variability of Growth in Children Starting Antiretroviral Treatment in Southern...
Highly active antiretroviral therapies among HIV-1-infected children in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. AIDS. 2004;18(14):1905-1913pmid ... Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;45( ... Efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4). Available at: ... Nutritional aspects of HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2003;17(suppl
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/130/4/e966.1
*  Jonathan Elford<...
Elford, J. (2006). Changing patterns of sexual behaviour in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr Opin Infect ... Religious belief and uptake of or adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV in London. HIV MEDICINE, 11 ... Potential impact on HIV incidence of higher HIV testing rates and earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation in MSM. AIDS, 29(14 ... and uptake of antiretroviral therapy among heterosexual adults in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Sexually ...
http://city.ac.uk/people/academics/jonathan-elford
*  January 2010 - Volume 53 - Issue 1 : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune...
... and Mortality Among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Uganda. Homsy, Jaco; ... Highly Sensitive C-Reactive Protein, Body Mass Index, and Serum Lipids in HIV-Infected Persons Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy ... Avoid a Different Standard of Care When Applying Results of Development of Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) Study. ... Is There Any Potential for First-Line Etravirine Use? Analysis From a Large Data Set of Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/toc/2010/01010
*  Why You Need an HIV Test - ABC News
If treated with and maintained on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), many people can keep HIV "in check." There is ... Many people are sexually active but do not see themselves at risk for HIV. They mistakenly believe that they can recognize HIV ... Fortunately, over the past decade, we have seen the emergence of new and improved therapies which have dramatically extended ...
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/AIDS/story?id=3647075&page=1
*  Articles by Vladimir Novitsky, MD, PhD : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune...
Higher-Than-Expected Rates of Lactic Acidosis Among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Women in Botswana: Preliminary ... Response to Zidovudine/Didanosine-Containing Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Adults in ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/author.aspx?firstName=Vladimir&lastName=Novitsky
*  The Development of PROQOL-HIV: An International Instrument... : JAIDS Journal...
Quality of life assessment comes of age in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2000;14:1449-1451. *Cited ... Despite the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has transformed HIV into a chronic condition ... They were developed before highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), and in a single language. We sought to develop a ... Srikantiah P, Ghidinelli M, Bachani D, et al.. Scale-up of national antiretroviral therapy programs: progress and ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2012/04150/The_Development_of_PROQOL_HIV___An_International.12.aspx
*  Long-term effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on... : AIDS
... Enter your Email address:. Top Cited Articles. Long-term effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on... Text sizing: A. Long-term effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on cervical lesions in HIV-positive women Uberti-Foppa, Caterina a ; Ferrari, Davide b ; Lodini, Sara d ; Reina, Salvatore e ; Ameglio, Franco f ; Grasso, Maria Angela d ; Gallotta, Giulia a ; Ferrari, Augusto b ; Taccagni, Gianluca c ; Lazzarin, Adriano a ; Lillo, Flavia B d. This prospective study evaluated the effect of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART on human papillomavirus-related cervical disease in clinically stable HIV-positive women on unchanged therapy and those switching to HAART because of virological worsening. Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 HIV -positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. Cited Here... Human Papilloma-virus infection in women infected ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2003/09260/Long_term_effect_of_highly_active_antiretroviral.21.aspx
*  Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Spa... : AIDS
Top Cited Articles. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Spa... Text sizing: A. Objective: To evaluate the population effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART in HIV progression and determine the heterogeneity of the effect of HAART in GEMES Spanish multicenter study of seroconverters. Article Outline Introduction Important reductions in HIV progression to both AIDS and death have been observed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatments HAART in settings where these can be delivered. Since the introduction and the uptake of HAART in different groups within the same population has not been homogeneous over time, analyses that compare progression in persons infected for the same length of time or with similar progression markers at the time treatment is introduced in different calendar periods are necessary. The reductions in progression to death found in this study were ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2003/02140/Effectiveness_of_highly_active_antiretroviral.9.aspx
*  LINFOTARGAM: Treatment With Chemotherapy Plus Rituximab and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in
... Patients With Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Infection With the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. LINFOTARGAM: Treatment With Chemotherapy Plus Rituximab and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients With Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Infection With the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV This study has been completed. To evaluate opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections after 6 cycles of treatment with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone R-CHOP administered every 14 days and highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma DLBCL and HIV infection. HIV Infections Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Official Title: LINFOTARGAM: First-line Treatment With Dose-dense Chemotherapy Plus Rituximab R-CHOP/14 and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART in Patients With Diffuse Large B ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00466258?order=181
*  LINFOTARGAM: Treatment With Chemotherapy Plus Rituximab and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in
... Patients With Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Infection With the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. LINFOTARGAM: Treatment With Chemotherapy Plus Rituximab and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients With Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Infection With the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV This study has been completed. To evaluate opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections after 6 cycles of treatment with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone R-CHOP administered every 14 days and highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma DLBCL and HIV infection. HIV Infections Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Official Title: LINFOTARGAM: First-line Treatment With Dose-dense Chemotherapy Plus Rituximab R-CHOP/14 and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART in Patients With Diffuse Large B ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00466258?order=182
*  Greater Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Survival in People Aged 50 Years Compared
... with Younger People in an Urban Observational Cohort. Greater Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Survival in People Aged 50 Years Compared with Younger People in an Urban Observational Cohort. there was a 72% decrease in the hazard for older treated people compared with older untreated people.. In the present study, we have shown that HIV-infected individuals aged 50 years and unexposed to HAART had double the hazard rate for death than did younger, untreated, HIV-infected people... we have shown that HIV-infected individuals aged 50 years and unexposed to HAART had double the hazard rate for death than did younger, untreated, HIV-infected people. Older patients receiving HAART had >2-fold reduction in the hazard for death after controlling for enrollment CD4 cell count and demographic variables...among patients who had been treated with HAART for >90 days, there were no statistically or clinically significant differences in the survival rate between the ...
http://natap.org/2003/feb/020403_2.htm
*  Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Attenuates Re-Endotheli... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
Text sizing: A. When rosuvastatin was given in addition to HAART, these effects were not observed. 10-13 Recently, rosuvastatin was shown to accelerate re-endothelialization and decrease neointima formation in a carotid artery injury model. 19,20 The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of HAART on neointima formation and re-endothelialization after vascular injury in a rat carotid model in vivo and to investigate possible protective effects of concomitant statin therapy. Back to Top. Article Outline HAART Increases the Intima/Media Ratio After Balloon Injury Effects of HAART and rosuvastatin on neointima formation were analyzed in the rat carotid balloon injury model. Figure 3B shows microscopic images of vessels of control- and HAART-treated animals at 8 and 14 days after de-endothelialization. In this study, we have analyzed in an animal model for the first time the effects of HAART treatment on vessel wall biology using a rat model of vascular injury. Furthermore, these effects were not ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2006/12010/Highly_Active_Antiretroviral_Therapy_Attenuates.1.aspx
*  Tuberculosis Recurrence Upon Treatment With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - Full Text View -
... ClinicalTrials.gov. This is a cohort observational study investigating the rate of tuberculosis TB recurrence in adult patients who have completed TB therapy for Pulmonary TB PTB and are on highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART .The primary objective of this study is to determine the incidence of TB recurrence in patients on HAART.The study is being conducted at the CAPRISA eThekwini Clinical Research Site CRS, which is adjacent to the Prince Cyril Zulu Communicable Disease Clinic PCZCDC, a major urban TB clinic, in Durban, South Africa.No hypotheses will be tested in this study; however, the primary study question will determine the proportion of TB recurrence due to relapse vs. Further study details as provided by Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa:. TB recurrence as a result of re-infection will be defined as isolates from the first and second episode of TB which differ on RFLP analysis. Objective: To determine the extent of and reasons ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01539005?order=714
*  Adherence‐enhancing interventions for highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV‐infected patie
... nts a systematic review. Article Adherence‐enhancing interventions for highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV‐infected patients – a systematic review. Impact Factor: 3.99. ABSTRACT Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions for highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART in HIV-infected patients in developed countries. Trials meeting the following predefined inclusion criteria were included: adult patients with an HIV infection treated with HAART, an intervention to enhance patient adherence, adherence as the outcome, clinical outcomes, randomized controlled trial RCT, article written in English or German, patient enrolment after 2001, and trial conducted in World Health Organization WHO stratum A. Of 21 trials, only one that examined motivational interviewing for alcohol-dependent patients showed statistically significant results for adherence rates and viral load ...
http://researchgate.net/publication/239944531_Adherenceenhancing_interventions_for_highly_active_antiretroviral_therapy_in_HIVinfected_patients__a_systematic_review
*  M CHRISTINE contact ZINK
Publications Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy have reduced central nervous system viral replication and inflammation but persistence of viral DNA M Christine Zink Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA J Infect Dis 202:161-70. 2003 Resting CD4+ T lymphocytes but not thymocytes provide a latent viral reservoir in a simian immunodeficiency virus-Macaca nemestrina model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy Anding Shen Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA J Virol 77:4938-49. Detail Information Publications 31 Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy have reduced central nervous system viral replication and ...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/johns/zink/m-christine-contact-zink-234263.html
*  Exploring the Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Hepatitis B Virus Diagnosis, Prevention and
... Control in Co-infected Adult South African Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Exploring the Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Hepatitis B Virus Diagnosis, Prevention and Control in Co-infected Adult South African Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Exploring the Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Hepatitis B Virus Diagnosis, Prevention and Control in Co-infected Adult South African Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. This study undertook to investigate: 1 the burden of HBV co-infection in HIV-positive patients enrolling for highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART at Dr George Mukhari hospital, 2 the impact of anti-HBV containing HAART regimens on HBV during the management of HBV/HIV co-infected patients, 3 the co-evolution of HBV and HIV drug-resistant strains, and 4 the correlation of HBV genotypes with ...
http://ul.netd.ac.za/handle/10386/242
*  Hodgkin's Disease in Patients with HIV Infection
... Reviewers Acknowledgment ·. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus D. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus E. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus R. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus E. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus U. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus R. Carpenter, “Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus L. Kaphan et al., “Incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers before and during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. Stebbing et al., “Highly active antiretroviral therapy and the incidence ...
http://hindawi.com/journals/ah/2011/402682/
*  A Study of Biological Markers in HIV Disease Progression and Management in yhe Highly Active Antiret
A Study of Biological Markers in HIV Disease Progression and Management in yhe Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART Era :: Science Publishing Group. Special Issues Coming Special Issues Published Special Issues Propose a Special Issue Special Issue Guidelines. Home / Journals / Biology and Life Sciences / American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering / Article A Study of Biological Markers in HIV Disease Progression and Management in yhe Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART Era Previous Article. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 24-37 Received: Mar. Keywords Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART, Alternate biomark-ers To cite this article Kandi Venkataramana, A Study of Biological Markers in HIV Disease Progression and Management in yhe Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART Era, ...
http://sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo.aspx?journalid=217&doi=10.11648/j.bio.20130102.11
*  HIV-related lung cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
... The data that we present here confirm the increased incidence of lung cancer in a sizeable cohort, and suggest that this risk has increased since the introduction of HAARTÉÉ there was a longer time interval between testing HIV positive and developing lung cancer. Smoking cigarettes is associated with increased risk for heart disease and lung cancer. The patient characteristics and outcomes were similar in the pre- and post-HAART eras, although the time interval between testing HIV positive and developing HIV-related lung cancer was longer in post-HAART patients. The median progression-free survivals for chemotherapy and radiotherapy were 2.5 months range 1-13 and 3 months range 0-3, respectively. Similarly, the overall median survivals were 4 months range 2-15+ for chemotherapy and 5 months range 3-5 for radiotherapy. In this study HIV-related lung cancer occurred more frequently in the post HAART era, when compared with the HIV-negative population. The data that we present ...
http://natap.org/2003/feb/020703_5.htm
*  Improved survival with highly active antiretroviral therapy... : AIDS
Top Cited Articles. Article Outline Introduction The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART has dramatically decreased morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Despite these improvements, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PCP remains an important opportunistic infection and is still a common indication for intensive care unit ICU admission among those with HIV infection. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia requiring intensive care management: survival and prognostic study in 110 patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Cost and outcome of intensive care for patients with AIDS, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and severe respiratory failure. Improvements in outcomes of acute respiratory failure for patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia increases the infectious titre of HIV-1 in blood and can promote the expansion of viral chemokine co-receptor tropism. AIDS Research and ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2003/01030/Improved_survival_with_highly_active.10.aspx
*  Long-term trends in adherence to antiretroviral therapy from... : AIDS
: AIDS. Top Cited Articles. Previous Article. Text sizing: A. Results: Patients were assessed for drug coverage adherence for a median of 4.5 years covering a period up to 13 years from start of HAART. Patients who had been or still were on HAART regimen composed by at least three antiretroviral drugs, with data available on treatment and prescriptions, and who experienced at least two valid 6-month periods were included in the analysis. Article Outline Results Among HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Royal Free HIV Cohort by May 2008, 2060 patients who had been or still were on HAART with more than one period of prescription data available were included in the analysis. Among eligible patients, 25% 506/2060 had started ART treatment with less than three antiretroviral drugs, with median IQR start date of May 1996 September 1993 to May 1997 1.6 median years before starting HAART IQR = 0.6–4.3. The median time since start of HAART and the median age at the beginning of the ‘period’ were, ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2010/05150/Long_term_trends_in_adherence_to_antiretroviral.9.aspx
*  Interaction of Alcohol and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS Wit
Interaction of Alcohol and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART in HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS With Hepatitis C Virus HCV Co-Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00879047?view=results
*  Symptomatic hyperlactataemia and lactic acidosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
... Toggle navigation. . Login. Toggle navigation. View Item. SUNScholar. University Centres and Units. Work in Progress. BB - Editors. View Item. SUNScholar. University Centres and Units. Work in Progress. BB - Editors View Item. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Symptomatic hyperlactataemia and lactic acidosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Eshun-Wilson, I. ; Soentjens, P. ; Zeier, M. ; Taljaard, J. 2005. Article. Article. Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/7821. Publishers' Version 174.6Kb. VIEW METADATA. This item appears in the following collections:. BB - Editors 796. Related items. Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject. Correspondence . Donald P.R. ; Schoeman J.F. ; Zyl L.V. 1989. Increased glycolysis during ischaemia mediates the protective effect of glucose and insulin in the isolated rat heart ...
http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/7821
*  Highly active antiretroviral treatment containing efavirenz or nevirapine and related toxicity in th
Article Highly active antiretroviral treatment containing efavirenz or nevirapine and related toxicity in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database. Impact Factor: 4.56. Surveillance of Transmitted Antiretroviral Drug Resistance among HIV-1 Infected Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. ABSTRACT: The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART and use of single dose Nevirapine SD NVP for prevention of mother-to-child transmission pMTCT have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021241 3.23 Impact Factor Source Available from: Angkana Charoenyingwattana. A Model and Risk Score for Predicting Nevirapine-Associated Rash among HIV-infected Patients: In Settings of Low CD4 Cell Counts and Resource Limitation§. ABSTRACT: Rash is the most common adverse effect associated with nevirapine NVP. We aimed to develop a model and risk score ...
http://researchgate.net/publication/6698826_Highly_active_antiretroviral_treatment_containing_efavirenz_or_nevirapine_and_related_toxicity_in_the_TREAT_Asia_HIV_Observational_Database
*  Recognizing and Managing Antiretroviral Treatment Failure | Pediatric ARV Guidelines | AIDSinfo
Pediatric ARV Guidelines. Pediatric ARV Guidelines. Fact Sheet: HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials. Search HIV/AIDS Drugs. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents. Modifying Antiretroviral Regimens in Children with Sustained Virologic Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy. The Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection have been updated. Please send your comments with the subject line Comments on Pediatric ARV Guidelines to ContactUs@aidsinfo.nih.gov by March 15, 2016. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection Management of Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy Recognizing and Managing Antiretroviral Treatment Failure Last updated: March 5, 2015; last reviewed: March 5, 2015. Information concerning potential clinical trials can be found at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/clinical trials and through collaboration with a pediatric HIV specialist. Options ...
https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/2/pediatric-arv-guidelines/438/clinicaltrials.gov
*  Increased regimen durability in the era of once-daily fixed-... : AIDS
Top Cited Articles. Text sizing: A. Two periods of antiretroviral initiation were identified, prior and after August 2004 arrival of once-daily fixed-dose regimens. Median durability was 263 days longer in after August 2004 regimens. Because previous studies of antiretroviral regimen longevity were conducted during study periods before the widespread availability of once-daily fixed-dose nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NRTI combinations, little is known about the durability of regimens built with these drugs. In a previous study on regimen durability, our group reported a duration of 1.6 years for initial antiretroviral regimens started in treatment-naive patients between 1996 and 2001. Article Outline Results Overall, 542 patients who started initial ART during the study period met eligibility criteria and are included in this study. A marked and statistically significant increase in the use of fixed-dose combination antiretrovirals 77–95% and once-daily regimens ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/10010/Increased_regimen_durability_in_the_era_of.7.aspx
*  Simultaneous Versus Sequential Antiretroviral Therapy (ARV) Therapy and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (
Simultaneous Versus Sequential Antiretroviral Therapy ARV Therapy and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis MTB Treatment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Learn About Clinical Studies. Simultaneous Versus Sequential Antiretroviral Therapy ARV Therapy and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis MTB Treatment This study has been terminated. Information provided by Responsible Party : Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of immediate antiretroviral therapy versus 2 month deferred anti-Tb therapy upon the clinical course of tuberculosis and HIV infection in patients with AIDS and active tuberculosis. HIV AIDS Tuberculosis. Drug: Simultaneous ARV and antiMTB Drug: Deferred RV and antiMTB treatment. Official Title: Efficacy of Simultaneous Versus Sequential Antiretroviral Therapy and Antituberculosis Treatment in Patients With AIDS and Active ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00737724?order=200
*  HIV Infection in Homosexual and Bisexual Men - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Verified November 2005 by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID. Recruitment status was Active, not recruiting Sponsor: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID Information provided by Responsible Party : National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID. HIV Infections. Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID :. Criteria Inclusion Criteria: HIV negative, or HIV positive and no history or current use of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART, or HIV positive HAART recipient with documentation of HAART initiation, no AIDS diagnosis prior to HAART initiation, and a CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA measurement within 6 months prior to first HAART use. Mellors JW, Mu oz A, Giorgi JV, Margolick JB, Tassoni CJ, Gupta P, Kingsley LA, Todd JA, Saah AJ, Detels R, Phair JP, Rinaldo CR Jr. Lyles RH, Mu oz A, Yamashita TE, Bazmi H, Detels R, Rinaldo CR, Margolick JB, Phair JP, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00046280
*  HIV Expression in Patients With Low Viral Load on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) - Ful
INCLUSION CRITERIA: PILOT INTENSIFICATION COHORT: HIV-1 infection documented by HIV ELISA and WB Age greater than or equal to 18 years old Hgb greater than or equal to 12 mg/dl CD4 greater than 200 cells/ micro liter and CD4% greater than 14% and not requiring prophylaxis for opportunistic infections Therapy with accept HAART regimen for greater than or equal to 6 months Viral load less than 50 copies RNA/ml plasma by RT-PCR for at least four months Viral load greater than 0.38 copies RNA/ml plasma by SCA assay or positive in the adapted Amplicor assay Current HAART with DHHS-approved regimen NRTI+PI, NRTI alone, NRTI+NNRTI. INCLUSION CRITERIA - DRUG OVERLAP COHORT: HIV-1 infection documented by HIV ELISA and WB Age greater than or equal to18 years old Hgb greater than or equal to 12 mg/dl CD4 greater than 200 cells/ micro liter and CD4% greater than 14% and not requiring prophylaxis for opportunistic infections Therapy with accepted HAART regimen for greater than or equal to 6 months Viral ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00043641?order=278
*  Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy (DAART) Among HIV-1infected Injecting Drug Users (IDUs)
Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy DAART Among HIV-1infected Injecting Drug Users IDUs in Chennai, India - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy DAART Among HIV-1infected Injecting Drug Users IDUs in Chennai, India DAART+ This study has been withdrawn prior to enrollment. This proposal will assess the feasibility and effectiveness of directly administered antiretroviral therapy DAART in conjunction with opioid substitution as a mode of delivery of HAART to IDUs in Chennai, India. To evaluate this objective we will conduct a randomized controlled pilot study of DAART vs self-administered therapy SAT among 100 HIV-1 infected treatment na ve IDUs who are enrolled in an opioid substitution program in Chennai and compare the following outcomes between the two arms: Primary Endpoint: Proportion of participants with viral load VL 400 copies/ml at 24 and 48 weeks; Secondary Endpoints: 1 Incidence of mortality and ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00709007?order=458
*  Ellen M Tedaldi
2012 Prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus coinfection in a human immunodeficiency virus clinical trials group: the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS Ellen M Tedaldi Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Clin Infect Dis 36:1313-7. 2004 New drug targets for HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection Ellen M Tedaldi Comprehensive HIV Program, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA Clin Infect Dis 41:S101-4. 2005 Increased body mass index does not alter response to initial highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients Ellen M Tedaldi Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:35-41. 2008 Influence of coinfection with hepatitis C virus on morbidity and mortality due to human immunodeficiency virus infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy Ellen M Tedaldi Temple University ...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/temple/tedaldi/ellen-m-tedaldi-373203.html
*  Gray, C.M. et al. Frequency of class I HLA-restricted anti-HIV CD8+ T cells in individuals receiving
Frequency of class I HLA-restricted anti-HIV CD8+ T cells in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART. Frequency of class I HLA-restricted anti-HIV CD8+ T cells in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART. We show in this study that 17 of 18 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic patients have circulating frequencies of 1/50-1/1000 CD8+ T cells that recognize both Gag and Pol CTL epitopes or either epitope alone. Page 1 Frequency of Class I HLA-Restricted Anti-HIV CD8?T Cells in Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART 1 Clive M. We show in this study that 17 of 18 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic patients have circulating frequencies of 1/50–1/1000 CD8?T cells that recognize both Gag and Pol CTL epitopes or either epitope alone. However, a recent study has shown that a highly perturbed CD8?TCR rep- ith the advent of highly active ...
http://researchgate.net/publication/13316750_Gray_C.M._et_al._Frequency_of_class_I_HLA-restricted_anti-HIV_CD8_T_cells_in_individuals_receiving_highly_active_antiretroviral_therapy_(HAART)._J._Immunol._162_17801788
*  Durability and Success Capability of HAART: 4.5 years follow-up
"Viral breakthrough after suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy: experience from 233 individuals with viral loads of less than 50 copies/ml followed for up to 4 years". The occurrence of viral breakthrough on treatment was examined in 233 previously antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients who started highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART and who achieved initial viral suppression to less than 50 copies/ml. The rate of viral breakthrough despite the continuation of therapy was 3.6 per 100 person-years 12 cases occurred during 332.8 person-years of follow-up. It is known that current highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART regimens initially reduce the viral load to less than 50 copies/ml in the majority of drug-naive individuals within 24-32 weeks. The rate of viral breakthrough on treatment was assessed in all 233 patients who fulfilled the following three criteria: i were naive to ...
http://natap.org/2003/april/040303_4.htm
*  Discontinuing Prophylaxis for Opportunistic Infections
A Randomized Trial of the Discontinuation of Primary and Secondary Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with HIV Infection. Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is indicated in patients with human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection who have less than 200 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter and in those with a history of P. The 474 patients receiving primary prophylaxis had a median CD4 cell count at entry of 342 per cubic millimeter, and 38 percent had detectable HIV-1 RNA. After a median follow-up period of 20 months 388 person-years, there had been no episodes of P. For the 113 patients receiving secondary prophylaxis, the median CD4 cell count at entry was 355 per cubic millimeter, and 24 percent had detectable HIV-1 RNA. After a median follow-up period of 12 months 65 person-years, there had been no episodes of P. In HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral ...
http://natap.org/2001/jan/disc_prophylaxis011801.htm
*  Managing Issues Related to Antiretroviral Therapy - American Family Physician
... Advertisement. Previous article Next article. Aug 15, 2003 Issue. Managing Issues Related to Antiretroviral Therapy. FREE PREVIEW. AAFP members and paid subscribers: Log in to get free access. All others: Purchase online access. FREE PREVIEW. Purchase online access to read the full version of this article. EMIL P. LESHO, LTC, MC, USA, Army Medical Department Activity, Heidelberg, Germany DANIELA C. GEY, M.D., U.S. University of Heidelberg School of Medicine, Heidelberg, Germany Am Fam Physician. 2003 Aug 15;68 4 :675-687. Patient Information Handout Abstract. Side Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs. Interactions. Adherence to Therapy. References. Article Sections Abstract. Side Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs. Interactions. Adherence to Therapy. References. Antiretroviral regimens are complicated and difficult for patients to follow, and they can have serious side effects, such as osteonecrosis and bone demineralization. Protease inhibitor therapy has ...
http://aafp.org/afp/2003/0815/p675.html
*  Survival Benefit from Non-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Constrained Setting - T
... heBody.com. . Advertisement. 0 Email. Print-Friendly. Glossary. Medical News Survival Benefit from Non-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Constrained Setting From CDC National Prevention Information Network. September 11, 2003 Triple ARV drug therapy can greatly improve the quality and length of an HIV patient's life. However, such therapy is not always available in the developing world. In Thailand, the government only recently initiated a policy of providing triple therapy to HIV-1 infected individuals on a select basis. Before that policy went into effect, HIV-positive people were either not treated or received ARV monotherapy or dual therapy. The current study reports mortality rates and the effect of ARV drug therapy on HIV-1 patients attending a government referral hospital. The researchers conducted a retrospective cohort study at Lampang Hospital in northern Thailand, surveying all HIV-1-infected adult patients ...
http://thebody.com/content/art27525.html
*  Incomplete CD4 T Cell Recovery in HIV-1 Infection After 12 M... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
... e Deficiency Syndromes. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Incomplete CD4 T Cell Recovery in HIV-1 Infection After 12 M... Incomplete CD4 T Cell Recovery in HIV-1 Infection After 12 Months of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated With Ongoing Increased CD4 T Cell Activation and Turnover. Summary: To evaluate the relationship between T cell turnover, immune activation, and CD4 recovery in HIV infection, 32 antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients were studied before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART. Elevated CD4 and CD8 T cell turnover measured by Ki67 in HIV infection decreased with HAART in blood and lymphoid tissue. Increased peripheral CD4 T cell turnover was strongly associated with immune activation even after viral suppression to less than 50 copies/mL R = 0.8; p .001. Increased CD4 T cell turnover correlated strongly with CD4 cell counts ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2003/06010/Incomplete_CD4_T_Cell_Recovery_in_HIV_1_Infection.2.aspx?WT.mc_id=HPxADx20100319xMP
*  Detection of Lipoatrophy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-I... : The Pediatric Infectious Diseas
... e Journal. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Detection of Lipoatrophy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-I... A A You could be reading the full-text of this article now if you... If you have access to this article through your institution, you can view this article in. Detection of Lipoatrophy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Children Treated With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Hartman, Karin*; Verweel, Gwenda MD*; de Groot, Ronald MD, PhD†; Hartwig, Nico G. Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with lipodystrophy in adults. HIV-infected children with lipodystrophy were compared with HIV-infected ...
http://journals.lww.com/pidj/Abstract/2006/05000/Detection_of_Lipoatrophy_in_Human_Immunodeficiency.10.aspx
*  Impact of HIV and Its Treatment on Reverse Cholesterol Transport - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.g
... ov. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. Find Studies Study Record Detail. Impact of HIV and Its Treatment on Reverse Cholesterol Transport This study has been completed. Sponsor: The Alfred Collaborator: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia Information provided by Responsible Party : Jennifer Hoy, The Alfred. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00168233 First received: September 9, 2005 Last updated: January 19, 2012 Last verified: January 2012 History of Changes. To investigate the effect of treatment of HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy on individual steps of reverse cholesterol transport, endothelial function and intima-media thickness in HIV patients. HIV Infections. Official Title: Impact of HIV Infection and Treatment With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Reverse Cholesterol Transport. 2 Initiating ARV ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00168233?order=303
*  Aspirin and Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... Aspirin and Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Infected Patients This study has been terminated. Lack of funding Sponsor: Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation Collaborators: University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute National Institutes of Health NIH Information provided by Responsible Party : Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00783614 First received: October 31, 2008 Last updated: October 3, 2012 Last verified: October 2012 History of Changes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of HIV treatment antiretroviral therapy and aspirin use on risk for cardiovascular disease among HIV infected persons. Drug: Aspirin 325mg Drug: Antiretroviral therapy ART. Official Title: The Effect of Aspirin and Antiretroviral Therapy on Cardiovascular Risk in HIV Infected Patients: A Pilot Study. Further study details as provided by Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation:. Study Start ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00783614?term=" October 04, 2008":" November 03, 2008"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=6
*  Rev. bras. epidemiol. vol.7 issue1; Abstract: S1415-790X200400010000
bras. epidemiol. vol.7 issue1; Abstract: S1415-790X2004000100008. Article. Portuguese pdf. Portuguese epdf. Article references. How to cite this article. Indicators. Health indicators. Related links. Similars in SciELO. Share. Permalink. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia. Print version ISSN 1415-790X. Abstract. JAIME, Patrícia Constante et al. Prevalence of overweight and central obesity in HIV/AIDS patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. bras. epidemiol. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of HIV/AIDS patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, according to gender and T CD4 + lymphocyte count. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, including 223 individuals 171 men and 52 women treated with protease inhibitors, aged between 20 and 59 years. This study was developed at a HIV/AIDS reference treatment center in the city of São Paulo. Patients were divided into three groups according to T ...
http://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1415-790X2004000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Rev. méd. Chile vol.136 número12; Resumen: S0034-98872008001200001
Impact of baseline CD4 count, immune recoveny and viral suppression at 7 year of first highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival, AIDS defining events and immune recovery reactions. Background: Baseline BL CD4 cell count is a major factor in outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART ; treatment induced immune recovery and viral response can modulate this outcome. Aim: To evaluate the association between baseline CD4 cell count and outcome during the first HAART régimen. Material and methods: Prospective study in 2,050 patients on first HAART with a follow up f/u ofat least 1 year. All had BL CD4 and viral load VL counts which were repeated at least twice a year. Patients were grouped according to BL CD4 cells/mm 3 in 100 Gl, 100-199 G2 and G3. Groups were further divided according to immune and vírologícal response at 1 year in CD4 or 200 and VL detectable or undetectable 80 copies/mL. Resulte: During the first year of follow up, 113 ...
http://scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0034-98872008001200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  A Pilot Study of the Short-Term Effects of Antiretroviral Management Based on Plasma Genotypic Antir
A Pilot Study of the Short-Term Effects of Antiretroviral Management Based on Plasma Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Testing GART Compared With Antiretroviral Management Without Plasma GART - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. A Pilot Study of the Short-Term Effects of Antiretroviral Management Based on Plasma Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Testing GART Compared With Antiretroviral Management Without Plasma GART This study has been completed. To determine the short-term virologic and immunologic effects of using plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing GART results interpreted by study virologists AS PER AMENDMENT 9/17/97 in the management of therapy for antiretroviral-experienced patients failing on one of the following regimens: zidovudine ZDV + lamivudine 3TC + indinavir IDV ZDV + 3TC + saquinavir SQV ZDV + 3TC + ritonavir RTV stavudine d4T + 3TC + IDV. Official Title: A Pilot Study of the Short-Term Effects of ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000874?order=458
*  R T Davey
2000 Effects of intermittent interleukin-2 therapy on plasma and tissue human immunodeficiency virus levels and quasi-species expression J A Kovacs Critical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1662, USA J Infect Dis 182:1063-9. 2000 Effect of interleukin-2 on the pool of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy T W Chun Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA Nat Med 5:651-5. Effects of intermittent interleukin-2 therapy on plasma and tissue human immunodeficiency virus levels and quasi-species expression J A Kovacs Critical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1662, USA J ...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/national/davey/r-t-davey-737884.html
*  Is treatment with HAART for HIV cost-effective in South Africa? - Free Economics Essay - Essay UK
Is treatment with HAART for HIV cost-effective in South Africa. - Free Economics Essay - Essay UK. Essay writing services. Coursework writing service. Free essays. Free Economics essays Home. Free essays. Is treatment with HAART for HIV cost-effective in South Africa. To assess the cost-effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART compared with no therapy for HIV infected individuals in South Africa. South Africa HIV treatment services hospitals, health centres. Health Services. HAART � dual NRTI therapy plus a non-nucleoside analogue NNRTI or a protease inhibitor � vs. Projected life-years gained, cost-effectiveness in US $ per life-year and per quality-adjusted life-years QALYs saved. The model with a time-horizon of 20 years in equivalent number of cycles produced incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ICER of $ 12874 per life-year saved and $ 12323 per QALY saved with costs and effects both discounted at 8% rate. Antiretroviral therapy ...
http://essay.uk.com/free-essays/economics/treatment-with-highly-active-antiretroviral-treatment.php
*  Randomised Trial of Structured Treatment Interruption of HAART in HIV-Infected Adults in Abidjan (AN
Randomised Trial of Structured Treatment Interruption of HAART in HIV-Infected Adults in Abidjan ANRS 1269 TRIVACAN - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Randomised Trial of Structured Treatment Interruption of HAART in HIV-Infected Adults in Abidjan ANRS 1269 TRIVACAN This study has been completed. Official Title: Multicentric Randomised Controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Two Strategies of Structured Treatment Interruption of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART Compared With a Continuous HAART in HIV- Infected Adults in Abidjan. Secondary Outcome Measures: To compare at 24 months two STI strategies of HAART with a continuous HAART in terms of : HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs Cost-utility Compliance to treatment. Trial phase : After at least six months on continuous HAART in the pre-randomisation phase, patients who meet success criteria CD4 count over 350/mm3, undetectable viral load, absence of current opportunistic infection are randomised into ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00158405?order=244
*  WHO | Adoption of national recommendations related to use of antiretroviral therapy before and short
Adoption of national recommendations related to use of antiretroviral therapy before and shortly following the launch of the 2013 WHO consolidated guidelines. HIV/AIDS. Adoption of national recommendations related to use of antiretroviral therapy before and shortly following the launch of the 2013 WHO consolidated guidelines Article from AIDS supplement: 2013 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the use of Antiretroviral drugs: Evidence and Implementation. Downloads Adoption of national recommendations related to use of antiretroviral therapy before and shortly following the launch of the 2013 WHO consolidated guidelines pdf, 1.43Mb. Objective: To determine the status of key national policies on the use of antiretroviral therapy ART at the time of the launch of the 2013 WHO consolidated guidelines as well as to track early progress towards adoption of these recommendations following dissemination. Design: Descriptive analysis of global data on baseline ...
http://who.int/hiv/pub/journal_articles/implementation_arv2013/en/
*  Efficacy of Using Interleukin-2 in Antiretroviral Naïve HIV Patients (ANRS119) - Full Text View - C
Efficacy of Using Interleukin-2 in Antiretroviral Na ve HIV Patients ANRS119 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Efficacy of Using Interleukin-2 in Antiretroviral Na ve HIV Patients ANRS119 This study has been completed. Sponsor: French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Collaborator: Chiron Corporation Information provided by Responsible Party : French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00120185 First received: July 8, 2005 Last updated: December 21, 2011 Last verified: December 2011 History of Changes. Interleukin-2 IL-2 increases the number of CD4 cells in HIV-1 infected patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART with a CD4 cell count over 200/mm3, but its activity in patients without antiretroviral therapy is unknown. This study will test the efficacy and safety of IL-2 in na ve patients with a CD4 count between 300 and 500/m3. HIV Infections. Further ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00120185
*  Homelessness Resource Center - Resource Psychiatric Correlates of HAART Utilization and Viral Loa
... d Among HIV-Positive Impoverished Persons. Loading... Warning To protect your privacy, you will be logged out within 5 minutes due to inactivity. If you would like to stay logged in, simply click "Okay". Skip Navigation. About Us. Contact Us. Search. Psychiatric Correlates of HAART Utilization and Viral Load Among HIV-Positive Impoverished Persons Author s : Carrico, Adam W. |. Bangsberg, David R. |. Weiser, Sheri D. |. Chartier, Maggie |. Dilworth, Samantha |. Riley, Elise D. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3601574/ No Recommendations Yet Click here to recommend. Tags: cocaine |. HAART |. HIV |. methamphetamine |. Mental Health |. severe mental illness. Click here to add your own tag. No Recommendations Yet Click here to recommend. Description: This study administered a validated screener to examine psychiatric correlates of highly active anti-retroviral therapy HAART utilization and viral load. Authors Content: Objective Research on the role psychiatric factors in HIV ...
http://homeless.samhsa.gov/Resource/Psychiatric-Correlates-of-HAART-Utilization-and-Viral-Load-Among-HIV-Positive-Impoverished-Persons-55726.aspx
*  એડ્સ - વિકિપીડિયા
Classification and external resources. The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. HIV RNA copies per mL of plasma. ક્રિપ્ટોકોક્કલ મેનિનજાઇટીસ મેનિક્સ meninx નો ચેપ છે મગજ સ્પાઇરલ કોર્ડ spinal cord ને ફંગ્સ દ્વારા આવરી લેતી અંતરછાલ ક્રિમ્પ્ટોકોક્કસ નિયોફોર્મન્સ Cryptococcus neoformans તેનાથી તાવ માથાનો દુખાવો headache, ફટિગ fatigue, ચક્કર nausea, અને ઉલ્ટી vomiting થાય છે. એન્ટિરિટ્રોવાયરલ થેરાપી antiretroviral therapy ની ગેરહાજરીમાં, મેડીયન median એચઆઇવી ચેપમાંથી એઇડ્ઝ time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS વિકસવાનો સમયગાળો નવથી દશ વર્ષનો છે, અને એઇડ્ઝ વિકસ્યા બાદ મેડીયનના અસ્તિત્વનો સમય ફક્ત 9.2 મહિનાઓ. એઇડ્ઝનું માળખું અને વંશસૂત્ર Structure and genome of HIV એચઆઇવી નકલ સાયકલ HIV replication cycle એચઆઇવી પ્રતિભાવ HIV tropism નિદાન. એચઆઈવીની પ્રવર્તમાન સારવારમાં અત્યંત સક્રિય એન્ટિરેટ્રોવાયરલ થેરાપી highly active antiretroviral therapy, અથવા એચએએઆરટી. ...
https://gu.wikipedia.org/wiki/એડ્સ
*  Pilot Study to Evaluate Intramyocardial Lipid Accumulation in HIV+ Patients Receiving Highly Acti
Pilot Study to Evaluate Intramyocardial Lipid Accumulation in HIV+ Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART. Pilot Study to Evaluate Intramyocardial Lipid Accumulation in HIV+ Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART. The investigators observed that cardiac steatosis fat build-up from abnormal lipid retention has been linked to several Framingham risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, and abnormal plasma lipids. ....The researchers proposed that "this increase in cardiac lipids may contribute to or be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including end-stage heart failure in this patient population." Reported by Jules Levin IDSA/IDWeek Oct 2-6 2013 San Francisco, CA Presenting Author: David Tellalian, M.D. The purpose of this study is to quantitate intramyocardial lipid accumulation in a group of HIV + patients receiving HAART using cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy cMR ...
http://natap.org/2013/IDSA/IDSA_14.htm
*  Search Results
3 Desquilbet, Loic 2 Fried, Linda P. 2 Holloway, Marcy 2 Jamieson, Beth D. A Frailty-Related Phenotype Before HAART Initiation as an Independent Risk Factor for AIDS or Death After HAART Among HIV-Infected Men. Among 596 HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study whose date of HAART initiation was known within ±6 months and who had an assessable FRP status within 3 years before HAART, survival analyses were performed to assess the effect of FRP manifestation on clinical AIDS or death after HAART. In men free of AIDS before HAART, AIDS or death after HAART occurred in 13/36 36% men who exhibited the FRP before HAART but only in 69/436 16% men who did not hazard ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.4–4.6; p < .01. After adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, nadir CD4+ T-cell count, peak HIV viral load, and hemoglobin in the 3 years before HAART, having the FRP at >25% of visits in the 3 years before HAART significantly predicted AIDS or death adjusted hazard ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence ...
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/solr/reg?pageSize=25&term=&sortby=score desc&filterAuthor=author:("Holloway, Marcy")
*  Evaluation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Protease Inhibitors on Virologic Success and Tolerance
... of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00122590?order=229
*  Antiretroviral-Sparing Concept With HIV-specific T Cell Precursors With High Proliferative Capacity
... PHPC - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Antiretroviral-Sparing Concept With HIV-specific T Cell Precursors With High Proliferative Capacity PHPC PHPC-02 This study has been completed. Sponsor: Genetic Immunity Collaborators: ViroStatics srl IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Information provided by Responsible Party : Genetic Immunity. PHPC-02 is a phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to investigate whether therapeutic immunization during highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART induces elevations of HIV-specific T cell precursors with high proliferative capacity PHPC in HIV-1-infected individuals, and whether the quantity of PHPC correlates with the viral load set point following analytical treatment interruption ATI. Biological: DermaVir Biological: Placebo Drug: HAART. Official Title: Antiretroviral-Sparing Concept: An Exploratory Phase II, Randomized, Single Blind Placebo-Controlled Study to Investigate the Effect of Therapeutic ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00918840?order=449
*  WHO | Chapter 7: Clinical guidance across the continuum of care: antiretroviral therapy
Chapter 7: Clinical guidance across the continuum of care: antiretroviral therapy. Chapter 7: Clinical guidance across the continuum of care: antiretroviral therapy Consolidated ARV guidelines, June 2013. Download the supplement to chapter 7 – Antiretroviral therapy, including optimizing ART for children and adults and the use of CD4 testing pdf, 2.83Mb. Browse chapter 7 7.1 When to start ART 7.1.1 When to start ART in adults and adolescents 7.1.2 When to start ART in pregnant and breastfeeding women 7.1.3 ARV drugs and duration of breastfeeding 7.1.4 When to start ART in children. 7.2 What ART regimen to start with First-line ART 7.2.1 First-line ART for adults 7.2.2 First-line ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women and ARV drugs for their infants 7.2.3 First-line ART for children younger than three years of age 7.2.4 First-line ART for children three years and older including adolescents 7.2.5 TB co-treatment in children and adolescents with HIV. 7.3 Monitoring ...
http://who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/art/en/
*  Scientific Publications by FDA Staff
... Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Common Links. U.S. Food Drug Administration. A to Z Index. Follow FDA. En Espa ol. Enter Search terms. Home. Food. Drugs. Medical Devices. Radiation-Emitting Products. Vaccines, Blood Biologics. Animal Veterinary. Cosmetics. Tobacco Products. Scientific Publications by FDA Staff. FDA Home. Scientific Publications Detail Entry. - Search Publications. Fields All Fields. Title Author. Abstract Centers. All Centers Animal and Veterinary Biologics Drugs Food Medical Devices Office of the Commissioner Regulatory Affairs Tobacco Toxicological Research. Starting Date Month. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12. Year. 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965. Ending Date Month. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12. ...
http://accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/publications/search_result_record.cfm?id=38739
*  PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this?
PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Pre-HAART Long-Term Survivors. PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. I Just Tested Poz Living With HIV Vivir con el VIH Someone I Care About Has HIV Long-Term Survivors Positive Women AIDS Activism In Memoriam. Off Topic Forums Off Topic Forum Forums Gatherings. Stats Total Posts: 675714 Total Topics: 52424 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. Posts: 29. PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. on: March 26, 2011, 11:39:22 AM. In a nutshell, it sounds like it is very possible to have long-term effects and reduced lung function from PCP. Logged Diagnosed 18Th March 2010 March 30Th VL +100,000 CD4 46 CD8T 575 CD8 %60.6 On Truvada and Kaletra. July 17 2010 Vl 362 CD4 155, 6.4 % CD8T suppressors 1482 CD8% 61.1 Nov 16 2010: V l 937 CD4 188,10% ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=37115.msg462509
*  PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this?
PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. ABOUT HIV/AIDS. What is HIV/AIDS. POZ Community Forums. Pre-HAART Long-Term Survivors. PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. I Just Tested Poz Living With HIV Vivir con el VIH Someone I Care About Has HIV Long-Term Survivors Positive Women AIDS Activism In Memoriam. Off Topic Forums Off Topic Forum Forums Gatherings. Stats Total Posts: 675717 Total Topics: 52424 Online Today: 166 Online Ever: 585 January 07, 2014, 02:31:47 PM. Author Topic: PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. Posts: 29. PCP Pneumonia and Long Term Lung Effects - Anyone having this. on: March 26, 2011, 11:39:22 AM. In a nutshell, it sounds like it is very possible to have long-term effects and reduced lung function from PCP. Logged Diagnosed 18Th March 2010 March 30Th VL +100,000 CD4 46 CD8T 575 CD8 %60.6 On Truvada and Kaletra. July 17 2010 Vl 362 CD4 155, 6.4 % CD8T suppressors 1482 CD8% 61.1 Nov 16 2010: V l 937 CD4 188,10% ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=37115.msg501423
*  Sara Guillén, Hospital Universitario de Getafe - ResearchGate
Sara Guillén. Are you Sara Guillén. Publications 19 45.04 Total impact Source Available from: Maria Angeles Muñoz-Fernández. Article:. Jose Tomás Ramos Amador. María José Mellado. María Angeles Muñoz-Fernández. María Isabel González-Tomé. ABSTRACT: Results: A total of 95 patients 58% women were assessed with a median age of 15 years 11-19.1 and a median age at diagnosis of 1.7 years 0-12.2. The median CD4 count, at the inclusion, was 626 cells/mm 3 132-998, with 34% 10-52%. AIDS Care 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/09540121.2015.1071768 1.60 Impact Factor. Article:. Jerzy Brzostek Sara Guillén. Antiviral therapy 05/2015; DOI:10.3851/IMP2967 3.02 Impact Factor. Article:. María Isabel de José. Miriann Tovizi Sara Guillén. María José Cilleruelo. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e31829be4bc 2.72 Impact Factor. Article:. Twenty-eight patients 87% were receiving HAART, and 4 patients were off antiretroviral treatment. Twenty-eight patients 87% were receiving HAART, and 4 patients were off antiretroviral treatment. ...
http://researchgate.net/researcher/71380715_S_Guillen
*  Access to Care for Women
... Reports for NATAP. 1st International AIDS Society IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. July 7-11, 2001 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Access to Care for Women. Do women have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART equal to that of men. Numerous studies over the years have demonstrated that women have not had the same access to antiretroviral therapy as men, even with the same indications. For example, in the early 1990s Stein and colleagues found that HIV-infected women with AIDS were 3 times less likely to receive zidovudine than were men, while Hellinger reported that women with HIV were statistically less likely to receive medical services than were men, including medications, hospital admissions, and outpatient visits. Likewise, evaluating Medicaid data from Florida from the years 1992-1997, Anderson and colleagues found a consistent disparity among women and men in terms of receipt of antiretroviral agents. Of interest, Mocroft ...
http://natap.org/2001/1st_ias/access_to_care082701.htm
*  Rob Horne
2004 Patients' perceptions of highly active antiretroviral therapy in relation to treatment uptake and adherence: the utility of the necessity-concerns framework Robert Horne Centre for Behavioural Medicine, Department of Policy and Practice, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, and Brighton University Hospital, National Health Service Trust, The Lawson Unit, United Kingdom J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:334-41. 2004 Medicine in a multi-cultural society: the effect of cultural background on beliefs about medications Robert Horne Centre for Health Care Research, Faculty of Health, University of Brighton, Falmer Campus, Brighton BN1 9PH, UK Soc Sci Med 59:1307-13. 2004 Measuring compliance with drug regimens after renal transplantation: comparison of self-report and clinician rating with electronic monitoring Janet A Butler University Mental Health Group, Royal South Hants Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom Transplantation 77:786-9. Patients' perceptions of highly ...
http://labome.org/expert/uk/university/horne/rob-horne-404703.html
*  Sangamo BioSciences Announces Presentation of Groundbreaking Clinical Data From ZFN Therapeutic for
... HIV/AIDS at ICAAC 2011 NASDAQ:SGMO. Sangamo BioSciences Announces Presentation of Groundbreaking Clinical Data From ZFN Therapeutic for HIV/AIDS at ICAAC 2011 Data Represents "Significant Progress Toward a 'Functional Cure' for HIV/AIDS" Statistically Significant Correlation between SB-728-T and Viral Load Reduction RICHMOND, Calif. "The statistically significant relationship between estimated modification of both copies of the CCR5 gene and viral load during the treatment interruption suggests that the next step is to increase the frequency of the modified cells in HIV-infected patients with the ultimate hope that if we do, we will achieve a 'functional cure' and eliminate the need for continued HAART." In an oral presentation made on Saturday, September 17th at ICAAC, data were presented from all dosing cohorts of Sangamo's Phase 1 dose escalation study SB-728-902 in subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART who entered the study with CD4+ T-cells counts of 450 ...
http://investor.sangamo.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=606148
*  JAMA Network | JAMA | Impact of HIV Infection and HAART on Serum Lipids in Men
doi:10.1001/jama.289.22.2978. ABSTRACT ABSTRACT. Results Among the 50 men, notable declines in mean serum TC –30 mg/dL, HDL-C –12 mg/dL, and LDL-C values –22 mg/dL were observed after HIV infection. Following HAART initiation, there were large increases in mean TC and LDL-C values 50 and 21 mg/dL, respectively ; however, the mean changes from the preseroconversion values were 20 mg/dL 0.52 mmol/L 95% confidence interval, –1 to 41 and –1 mg/dL −0.03 mmol/L 95% CI, –25 to 22, respectively. At the preseroconversion visit, mean SD values of TC 203 mg/dL, 5.26 mmol/L, HDL-C 52 mg/dL, 1.35 mmol/L, and LDL-C 121 mg/dL, 3.13 mmol/L were similar to mean values of 202, 46, and 131 mg/dL 5.23, 1.19, 3.39 mmol/L, respectively, in men aged 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES III. Notable declines were observed in levels of TC –30 mg/dL [–0.78 mmol/L], HDL-C –12 mg/dL, and LDL-C –22 mg/dL between preseroconversion and pre-HAART measurements Table 2. Mean increases in TC ...
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=196714
*  Abstract: CD4 Nadir at HAART Initiation Is Not Associated with the Development of Community Acquired
... Pneumonia IDWeek 2012 Meeting. Navigation Search Print Page Interactive Planning Tool. create your schedule here Abstracts in PDF Browse Options Browse by Day:. Tuesday, October 16th -Grid View Wednesday, October 17th -Grid View Thursday, October 18th -Grid View Friday, October 19th -Grid View Saturday, October 20th -Grid View Sunday, October 21st -Grid View Browse by Track:. Adult ID.
https://idsa.confex.com/idsa/2012/webprogram/Paper36940.html
*  Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of HIV and Tuberculosi... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
... e Deficiency Syndromes. Advertisement. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Subscribe. Search Jobs. Saved Searches. Recent Searches. You currently have no recent searches. Login. Register. Activate Subscription. eTOC. Help. All Issues Current Issue Issue Displayed. Advanced Search. Home Currently selected. Current Issue. Previous Issues. Published Ahead-of-Print. Collections. For Authors. Information for Authors. Language Editing Services. Journal Info. About the Journal. Editorial Board. Advertising. Open Access. Subscription Services. Reprints. Rights and Permissions. Mobile. New Features. iPad App. Home. July 1, 2013 - Volume 63 - Issue. Antiretroviral Therapy for ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2013&issue=07012&article=00016&type=abstract
*  A Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of Hydroxyurea in Patients on Potent Antiretroviral Therapy
... and Who Have Less Than 200 Copies/ml of HIV RNA in Their Blood - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000916?order=110
*  PLOS ONE: Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Before, During, or After Pregnancy in HIV-1-Infected Wom
... en: Maternal Virologic, Immunologic, and Clinical Response. Article-Level Metrics. View. Sum of PLOS and PubMed Central page views and downloads. Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article. Article. Of the 127 women who were pregnant and initiated their first HAART while followed at the Comprehensive Care Center during the study period, 112 had baseline HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocytes and were included in the HIV disease progression analysis: 12 women started HAART before pregnancy, 70 women started HAART during pregnancy, and 30 women started HAART after pregnancy. After adjusting for baseline CD4+ lymphocytes, baseline HIV-1 RNA, age, race, CD4+ lymphocyte count nadir, history of ADE, prior use of non-HAART ART, type of HAART regimen, prior pregnancies, and date of HAART start, the estimated rate of CD4+ lymphocyte increase over the 6 months after HAART initiation for women initiating HAART during pregnancy was similar to that of women initiating before pregnancy P = 0.81 and higher than that women ...
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006961
*  Efficacy and Tolerance of the Switch From Enfuvirtine to Raltegravir in Antiretroviral Therapy Regim
... en in HIV Patients With Undetectable Viral Load - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00454337?order=254
*  January 11, 2008 - Volume 22 - Issue 2 : AIDS
... Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. AIDS Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Search Jobs. All Issues Current Issue Issue Displayed. Advanced Search. Previous Issues. International AIDS Conference Collection. Top Cited Articles. IAS World AIDS Day Collection. Open Access. Rights and Permissions. January 11, 2008 - Volume 22 - Issue 2. Previous Issue. Next Issue. January 11, 2008 - Volume 22 - Issue 2. Table of Contents Outline Subscribe to eTOC View Contributor Index. A New Folder Folder Name:. Email to a Colleague. Your Email:. Message: Thought you might appreciate this item s I saw at AIDS. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Add to My Favorites Email to Colleague Export to Citation Manager. View. Title Citation Abstract. Previous of 2 Next. Lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy ...
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/toc/2008/01110
*  Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Patients With Psy... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun
... e Deficiency Syndromes. . Advertisement. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Subscribe. Search Jobs. Saved Searches. Recent Searches. You currently have no recent searches. Login. Register. Activate Subscription. eTOC. Help. All Issues Current Issue Issue Displayed. Advanced Search. Home Currently selected. Current Issue. Previous Issues. Published Ahead-of-Print. Collections. For Authors. Information for Authors. Language Editing Services. Journal Info. About the Journal. Editorial Board. Advertising. Open Access. Subscription Services. Reprints. Rights and Permissions. Mobile. New Features. iPad App. Home. August 15, 2004 - Volume 36 - Issue 5. Adherence to Antiretroviral ...
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2004&issue=08150&article=00018&type=fulltext
*  WHO | Chapter 7: Clinical guidance across the continuum of care: antiretroviral therapy
WHO. Chapter 7: Clinical guidance across the continuum of care: antiretroviral therapy. Skip to main content. Access Home Alt+0. Navigation Alt+1. Content Alt+2. Search Search the WHO .int site. Submit. Advanced search. Navigation Home. Health topics. Data. Media centre. Publications. Countries. Programmes. Governance. About WHO. Language عربي. 中文. English. Français. Русский. Español. RSS Feed. Youtube. Twitter. Facebook. Google +. iTunes. Play Store. HIV/AIDS. Menu. HIV News and events Topics Publications Data and statistics About us. Chapter 7: Clinical guidance across the continuum of care: antiretroviral therapy Consolidated ARV guidelines, June 2013. This chapter provides updated, evidence-based clinical recommendations outlining a public health approach to ART in the context of the continuum of HIV care, with a focus on resource and capacity limited settings. Download chapter 7 pdf, 655kb. March 2014 supplement. Download the supplement to chapter 7 – Antiretroviral ...
http://who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/art/en/
*  Antiretroviral Therapy (Part XXV) - TheBody.com
Antiretroviral Therapy Part XXV - TheBody.com. Antiretroviral Therapy Part XXV Clinical Implications of Resistance To Antiretroviral Drugs Stefano Vella, M.D. AIDS INFORMATION NEWSLETTER AIDS Information Center VA Medical Center, San Francisco. The treatment of HIV infection is one of the most rapidly evolving fields in medicine. Advances in basic research, the development of new technologies for monitoring therapy, the continuous introduction of new drugs into clinical practice, and the dissemination of the results of recent trials all raise expectations and suggest new strategies for optimal management of HIV disease. It is clear that, as more antiretrovirals become available, clinicians will face more and more complex decisions on when to start antiretroviral treatment and with what combinations and, in the long term, how to define therapeutic failure. Although analysis of the relation between drug resistance and treatment failure has in the past ...
http://thebody.com/content/art6682.html?ts=pf
*  .. HAART
HAART Treatment for human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection that uses a combination of several antiretroviral drugs. The drugs inhibit the ability of the virus to multiply in the body, and they slow down the development of AIDS. Also called highly active antiretroviral therapy.
http://uchospitals.edu/online-library/content=GLOSCDR306532
*  NIH News Release--NIH Scientists Highlight Role of Macrophages in HIV Infection--1/01/2001
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. NIH Scientists Highlight Role of Macrophages in HIV Infection. In the current online early edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID report that macrophages contain and continue to produce large amounts of an HIV-like virus in monkeys even after the virus depletes CD4 + T cells, the primary HIV target in infected individuals. Most currently available treatments target HIV during its infection of T cells, but if the virus also infects and accumulates in large amounts in macrophages, additional drugs may be required." Highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, can reduce HIV to undetectable levels in a person's blood, but the virus usually bounces back when the drugs are stopped. Because HIV enters and destroys CD4 + T cells early in infection, many researchers believe those cells are the most likely source of the rebounding ...
http://nih.gov/news/pr/jan2001/niaid-01.htm
*  Conference Summaries: Day One - TheBody.com
Recent Conference Coverage. He reminded the audience that less than two years ago the expert opinion on the goal of antiretroviral treatment was to reduce the viral load to less than 5000 copies/ml and that combination treatment with two drugs was advocated as likely to be able to achieve that goal. Montaner looking to the future speculated that for many patients directly observed therapy would be the key to control of HIV -- in a manner similar to the way this form of drug delivery is the key to tuberculosis treatment. The ultimate need is for drugs that can be given once daily and together and although there are some drugs that can be given once a daily -- the nucleoside analogs, ddI and 3TC, the nucleotide adefovir, and the NNRTIs, nevirapine and efavirenz -- there is as yet no protease inhibitor that can clearly be given once daily. In general, if a drug is resistant in one of these tests, it is unlikely to be successful; however, the absence of resistance does not predict success -- not ...
http://thebody.com/content/art15281.html
*  Portal:Viruses/Selected intervention/1
portal viruses selected intervention portal viruses selected intervention px right ball and stick model of zidovudine zidovudine zdv also known as azt and retrovir is an antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of hiv aids classed as a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor it inhibits hiv s reverse transcriptase enzyme which copies the viral rna into dna and is essential for its replication the first breakthrough in aids therapy zdv was licensed in while it significantly reduces hiv replication leading to clinical and immunological benefits when used alone zdv does not completely stop replication allowing the virus to become resistant to it the drug is therefore used together with other anti hiv drugs in combination therapy called highly active antiretroviral therapy haart to simplify its administration zdv is included in combivir trizivir and other combination pills zdv can also be used to prevent hiv transmission such as from mother to child ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Viruses/Selected_intervention/1
*  Lívia Trois
... add/edit. You are here: Scientific Experts Trois Lívia Trois. Research Topics streptococcus thermophilus bifidobacterium probiotics diarrhea cd4 lymphocyte count cellular immunity highly active antiretroviral therapy brazil double blind method hiv infections. Lívia Trois Summary. Publications Use of probiotics in HIV-infected children: a randomized double-blind controlled study Lívia Trois Department of Nutrition, Unilasalle, Brazil J Trop Pediatr 54:19-24. 2008. Detail Information Publications 1 Use of probiotics in HIV-infected children: a randomized double-blind controlled study Lívia Trois Department of Nutrition, Unilasalle, Brazil J Trop Pediatr 54:19-24. 2008 ..01. Our study showed that probiotics have immunostimulatory properties and might be helpful in the treatment of HIV-infected children... Labome.Org 2015 All Rights Researved Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA last updated: February 24, 2015.
http://labome.org/expert/trois/l--via-trois-1220240.html
*  BIT 225
http://www.biotron.com.au/ftp/11July06.pdf BIT225 represents a novel, first in class approach to the treatment of HIV. BIT225 has a new mode of action against HIV compared to existing anti-HIV therapies, targeting the Vpu protein of HIV. Unlike existing drugs, BIT225 is active in the viral reservoir in the body, and complete elimination of HIV from infected patients is not possible unless these underlying reservoirs of infection can be cleared. BIT225 represents an opportunity to eliminate the underlying seat of infection, potentially leading to a cure for HIV. J220 : Some more info from the website: The HIV/Vpu program is the most advanced, with a lead compound currently in preclinical safety tests. Vpu represents a new drug target in the fight against HIV. As a result of the limited range of drug targets, the emergence of drug resistant viral strains has become a significant issue. By blocking a new pathway in HIV infectivity, Vpu inhibitors have the potential to combat drug-resistant viral strains, ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=1898.0;wap2
*  .. Questions About PrEP .. STRIBILD Patient Information .. Starting STRIBILD .. Complera Patient In
25 Nov 2014. Questions About PrEP. by Christopher Jost. posted in: High Risk Sex. 0 26 Nov 2013. STRIBILD Patient Information. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 A summary guide to your HIV medication. 26 Nov 2013. Starting STRIBILD. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 A Treatment for HIV Infection. 26 Nov 2013. Complera Patient Information. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 Your guide to taking gastrointestinal GI medications with COMPLERA. 26 Nov 2013. Complera Patient Booklet. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 Starting Complera: A Treatment for HIV Infection. 11 Jan 2013. Toronto Public Health. by zuri admin. posted in: STI Resources. 0 Toronto Public Health promotes and celebrates healthy sexuality. We provide consultation, support, resources, programming and clinical services that are inclusive, non-judgemental, respectful, confidential, pro-choice, and gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, positive. 10 Nov 2012. The Validate Study. ...
http://mlmedical.com/?p=completed_trials
*  .. Questions About PrEP .. STRIBILD Patient Information .. Starting STRIBILD .. Complera Patient In
25 Nov 2014. Questions About PrEP. by Christopher Jost. posted in: High Risk Sex. 0 26 Nov 2013. STRIBILD Patient Information. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 A summary guide to your HIV medication. 26 Nov 2013. Starting STRIBILD. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 A Treatment for HIV Infection. 26 Nov 2013. Complera Patient Information. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 Your guide to taking gastrointestinal GI medications with COMPLERA. 26 Nov 2013. Complera Patient Booklet. by zuri admin. posted in: Pharma Company: Gilead. 0 Starting Complera: A Treatment for HIV Infection. 11 Jan 2013. Toronto Public Health. by zuri admin. posted in: STI Resources. 0 Toronto Public Health promotes and celebrates healthy sexuality. We provide consultation, support, resources, programming and clinical services that are inclusive, non-judgemental, respectful, confidential, pro-choice, and gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, positive. 10 Nov 2012. The Validate Study. ...
http://mlmedical.com/?p=published_articles
*  AIDS Drugs Still Effective After Ten Years - TheBody.com
... Medical News AIDS Drugs Still Effective After Ten Years August 7, 2006 A recent study said HIV/AIDS combination therapy drugs remain effective ten years after their introduction, but many patients are not put on them soon enough. The study found that drug combinations reduce mortality and progression AIDS by about 80-90 percent, but TB has become a dangerous co-infection in some patients. "Ten years on these treatments still work as well as they did initially there is a change in terms of TB becoming more important," Professor Matthias Egger of Switzerland's University of Bern said in an interview. He added that if people were diagnosed and started treatment earlier, the drugs "would achieve even more." The findings in the study derive from data on more than 22,000 HIV patients in Europe and North America who started treatment between 1995 and 2003. Egger, a study co-author, said there is widespread consensus that patients should start treatment when their CD4 cell counts drop below 350 or when ...
http://thebody.com/content/art24071.html?ts=pf
*  Phys.org - human blood(... continued page 9)
Phys.org - human blood ... Home human blood. News tagged with human blood. 1 week. 1 week. 1 week. Jun 27, 2010 in Medical research. PhysOrg.com -- The Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV is widely treated using highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART, which patients must continue throughout their lives. Jun 18, 2010 in Medical research. Jun 09, 2010 in Medical research. Monitoring rejection in heart transplantation patients with a simple blood test co-developed by NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center physician-scientist Dr. A team of Swedish and American scientists has shown for the first time that carbon nanotubes can be broken down by an enzyme - myeloperoxidase MPO - found in white blood cells. Broken genomes behind breast cancers. Blood. Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells such as nutrients and oxygen and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of ...
http://phys.org/tags/human blood/page9.html
*  HIV set point
... the hiv set point is the viral load of a person infected with hiv which stabilizes after a period of acute hiv infection the set point is reached after the immune system has developed specific cytotoxic t cells and begins to attempt to fight the virus the higher the viral load of the set point the faster the virus will progress to aids the lower the viral load of the set point the longer the patient will remain in clinical latency the only effective way to lower the set point is through highly active antiretroviral therapy the set point is not completely fixed and constant but can be quite dynamic with significant fluctuations references category hiv aids
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV_set_point
*  Early and Intermittent Antiretroviral Therapy in Naive HIV Infected Adults - Full Text View - Clinic
... alTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. About the Results Database. History, Policies, and Laws. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00820118?order=310
*  Early and Intermittent Antiretroviral Therapy in Naive HIV Infected Adults - Full Text View - Clinic
... alTrials.gov. Skip to Main Content. A service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Example: "Heart attack" AND "Los Angeles" Search for studies:. Advanced Search. Help. Studies by Topic. Glossary. Find Studies. Basic Search. Advanced Search. See Studies by Topic. See Studies on Map. How to Search. How to Use Search Results. How to Find Results of Studies. How to Read a Study Record. About Clinical Studies. Learn About Clinical Studies. Other Sites About Clinical Studies. Glossary of Common Site Terms. Submit Studies. Why Should I Register and Submit Results. FDAAA 801 Requirements. How to Apply for an Account. How to Register Your Study. How to Edit Your Study Record. How to Submit Your Results. Frequently Asked Questions. Support Materials. Training Materials. Resources. Selected Publications. Clinical Alerts and Advisories. RSS Feeds. Trends, Charts, and Maps. Downloading Content for Analysis. About This Site. ClinicalTrials.gov Background. About the Results Database. History, Policies, and Laws. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00820118?order=86
*  800% cancer incrs on HAART, 200% heart attack increase post your exp.
... Logged mid-dec: stupid ass mid-jan: seroconversion mid-feb: poz mar 07: cd4 432 35% vl 54000 may 07: cd4 399 28% vl 27760 jul 07: cd4 403 26% vl 99241 oct 07: cd4 353 24% vl 29993 jan 08: cd4 332 26% vl 33308 mar 08: cd4 392 23% vl 75548 jun 08: cd4 325 27% vl 45880 oct 08: cd4 197 20% vl 154000 == aids diagnosis nov 2 08 start Atripla nov 30 08: cd4 478 23% vl 1880 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. Logged mid-dec: stupid ass mid-jan: seroconversion mid-feb: poz mar 07: cd4 432 35% vl 54000 may 07: cd4 399 28% vl 27760 jul 07: cd4 403 26% vl 99241 oct 07: cd4 353 24% vl 29993 jan 08: cd4 332 26% vl 33308 mar 08: cd4 392 23% vl 75548 jun 08: cd4 325 27% vl 45880 oct 08: cd4 197 20% vl 154000 == aids diagnosis nov 2 08 start Atripla nov 30 08: cd4 478 23% vl 1880 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. Logged mid-dec: stupid ass mid-jan: seroconversion mid-feb: poz mar 07: cd4 432 35% vl 54000 may 07: cd4 399 28% vl 27760 jul 07: cd4 403 26% vl 99241 oct 07: cd4 353 24% vl 29993 jan 08: cd4 332 26% vl 33308 mar 08: cd4 392 ...
http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=11936.msg149470
*  Nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with severe acute malnutrition -
... UCL Discovery. UCL Discovery. UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery Enter your search terms. UCL Theses. About UCL Discovery. Nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with severe acute malnutrition. Nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with severe acute malnutrition. This study explores nutritional recovery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children during inpatient nutrition rehabilitation and 4 months of follow-up.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: Lilongwe district, Malawi.Main outcome measures: Weight gain, anthropometrics.Results: In our sample of 454 children with severe acute malnutrition SAM, 17.4% n = 79 of children were HIV infected. Among the HIV-infected children, 35.4% 28/79 died, compared with 10.4% 39/375 in HIV-uninfected children p 0.001. All children who survived achieved nutritional recovery 85% weight for height and no oedema, regardless of HIV status. HIV-infected children had similar weight ...
http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/125133/
*  Asymptomatic HIV infection Medical Information
... All Consumer Professional Pill ID Interactions News FDA Alerts Approvals Pipeline Clinical Trials Care Notes Encyclopedia Dictionary Natural Products. Asymptomatic HIV infection. Asymptomatic HIV infection Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. Causes of Asymptomatic HIV infection. Asymptomatic HIV infection is phase in which the immune system in someone with HIV slowly deteriorates, but the person has no symptoms. Asymptomatic HIV infection Symptoms. Asymptomatic HIV means a person does not have symptoms typically seen in people with HIV. A diagnosis of HIV infection is based on results from blood tests, including the HIV antibody test ELISA. Treatment of Asymptomatic HIV infection. When a person without symptoms of AIDs should receive therapy remains controversial. Those who do not have symptoms but who have CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 350 should receive anti-viral treatment. ...
http://drugs.com/enc/asymptomatic-hiv-infection.html
*  Bacteremia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children... : The Pediatric Infectious Diseas
... e Journal. Advertisement. Enter your Email address:. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal Wolters Kluwer Health Logo. Subscribe. Search Jobs. Saved Searches. Recent Searches. You currently have no recent searches. Login. Register. Activate Subscription. eTOC. Help. All Issues Current Issue Issue Displayed. Advanced Search. Home Currently selected. Current Issue. Previous Issues. Published Ahead-of-Print. Collections. For Authors. Information for Authors. Language Editing Services. Journal Info. About the Journal. Editorial Board. Affiliated Societies. Advertising. Open Access. Subscription Services. Reprints. Rights and Permissions. Mobile. New Features. iPad App. Home. October 2011 - Volume 30 - Issue 10. Bacteremia in Human Immunodeficiency ...
http://journals.lww.com/pidj/Abstract/2011/10000/Bacteremia_in_Human_Immunodeficiency.23.aspx
*  SCHERING-PLOUGH PRESENTS CLINICAL DATA ON CCR5 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AT 9TH CONFERENCE ON RETROVIRUSES
... AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS. Conference Reports for NATAP. 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections   Seattle, Washington, February, 2002. Back  . SCHERING-PLOUGH PRESENTS CLINICAL DATA ON CCR5 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AT 9TH CONFERENCE ON RETROVIRUSES AND OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS. Following yesterday's oral presentation by a researcher from Schering Plough, Mark Laughlin, about their entry inhibitor for HIV, Schering issued this statement which I feel you'd like to read. Schering-Plough Research Institute today presented preliminary clinical data on its CCR5 receptor antagonist, a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of HIV infection, at the 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Seattle. In an oral presentation at the conference's opening session on new antiretroviral agents, Mark M. Laughlin, M.D., director, clinical pharmacology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, presented clinical results showing a direct antiviral effect in patients in ...
http://natap.org/2002/9retro/day2.htm
*  Infectious Disease Clinics of North America Journal Impact Factor & Description - ResearchGate
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America Journal Impact Factor Description - ResearchGate. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America INFECT DIS CLIN N AM Publisher: WB Saunders Journal description Each issue of Infectious Disease Clinics reviews new diagnostic and management techniques for a single clinical problem--and makes them simple to apply. Infectious Disease Clinics website. Other titles Infectious disease clinics of North America, Infectious disease clinics. Auwaerter Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 06/2015; 29 2. DOI:10.1016/S0891-5520 15 00034-3. Clostridium difficile Infection. Wilcox Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 03/2015; 29 1. DOI:10.1016/S0891-5520 15 00009-4. ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection CDI is the most common cause of infectious health care-associated diarrhea and is a major burden to patients and the health care system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 03/2015; 29 1 :123-134. ...
http://researchgate.net/journal/0891-5520_Infectious_Disease_Clinics_of_North_America
*  JAMA | Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection2012 Recommendations of the International A
JAMA. Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection2012 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel. Sign in via Shibboleth. Create an Account. The JAMA Network. JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association. JAMA Surgery. You've earned it free CME tokens, redeemable for CME Credits, have been added to your personal account courtesy of The JAMA Network and. Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection : 2012 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel Melanie A. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.7961. • Sign in to your personal account • Institutional sign in: Athens. October 17, 2012 Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Adults Tom A. • Sign in to your personal account • Institutional sign in: Athens. Return to: Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection: 2012 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel. Antiretroviral Treatment of Adult HIV Infection: 2012 Recommendations of the International Antiviral ...
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1221704&atab=7
*  Highlights of the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections - TheBody.com
... Advertisement. 0 Email. Print-Friendly. Glossary. Editorial Highlights of the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections What Are the Newest Developments in the Treatment of HIV. How Will These Advances Affect You. An Advocate for People Living With HIV Provides a Full Report By Dawn Averitt From San Francisco General Hospital. April 1998 A note from TheBody.com: The field of medicine is constantly evolving. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information. The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, which attracts more than 3,000 experts on HIV disease from around the globe, has come to be regarded as the most important scientific meeting of the year for those involved in AIDS research. The particular strength of this annual meeting is that it brings together researchers who rarely venture outside their laboratories and office-based physicians who have never seen the ...
http://thebody.com/content/art12708.html?nxtprv
*  The influence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on chronic hepatitis C in injection drug u
... sers: A long-term retrospective cohort study. The influence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on chronic hepatitis C in injection drug users: A long-term retrospective cohort study. Eighty HIV-positive and 80 HIV-negative injection drug users included between 1980 and 1995 were matched according to age, gender, and duration of HCV infection and followed-up during 52 months. High serum HCV-RNA level was associated with low CD4-lymphocyte count P = .001. The progression to cirrhosis was accelerated in HIV-positive patients with low CD4 cell count RR = 4.06, P = .024 and in interferon-untreated patients RR = 4.76, P = .001, independently of age at HCV infection P = .001. In this retrospective cohort study, HIV coinfection worsened the outcome of chronic hepatitis C, increasing both serum HCV-RNA level and liver damage and decreasing sustained response to interferon therapy. 1 to compare the virologic and histologic characteristics of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-positive and HIV-negative ...
http://natap.org/2001/hepc/121001_1.htm
*  Abacavir and Myocardial Infarction Risk: Additional Data
... The question of whether abacavir increases the risk of myocardial infarction MI initially arose with a study from the D:A:D cohort last year, followed by conflicting analyses from other studies see previous HMQ reports Abacavir and Didanosine Associated with Increased Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Abacavir and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: The SMART Study. A case-control study from the French Hospital Database found that current or recent abacavir use was associated with MI risk odds ratio: 1.97, but only for subjects who had been on abacavir 1 year in patients on abacavir >1 year, or in those with past use of abacavir, there was no statistically significant increased risk of MI. In: Program and abstracts of the 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 8-11, 2009; Montreal. In: Program and abstracts of the 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 8-11, 2009; Montreal. In: Program and abstracts of the 16th Conference on Retroviruses and ...
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/insite?page=hmq-0905-06

Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Statnamic load test: The Statnamic load test is a type of test for assessing the load carrying capacity of deep foundations which is faster and less expensive than the static load test. The Statnamic test was conceived in 1985, with the first prototype tests carried out in 1988 through collaboration between Berminghammer Foundation Equipment of Canada and TNO Building Research of the Netherlands (Middendorp et al.Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Resistance mutation: A resistance mutation is a point mutations in virus genes that allow the virus to become resistant to treatment with a particular antiviral drug. The term was first used in the management of HIV, the first virus in which genome sequencing was routinely used to look for drug resistance.Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.StavudineHIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.NevirapineEfavirenzHIV-associated lipodystrophy: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a condition characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat associated with infection with HIV.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.RitonavirLopinavir/ritonavirLamivudineMakerere University School of MedicineElvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovirCognitive effects of HIVZimbabweans in BotswanaAIDS-related lymphoma: AIDS-related lymphoma describes lymphomas occurring in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Biginelli reaction: The Biginelli reaction is a multiple-component chemical reaction that creates 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones 4 from ethyl acetoacetate 1, an aryl aldehyde (such as benzaldehyde 2), and urea 3. It is named for the Italian chemist Pietro Biginelli.Cytomegalovirus retinitisDidanosineTRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionNelfinavirKaronga District: right|115px|Location of Karonga District in MalawiTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAbacavirNile redQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.LipodystrophyList of birds of Ivory Coast: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ivory Coast. The avifauna of Ivory Coast include a total of 758 species, of which one has been introduced by humans and nineteen are rare or accidental.Paraffin Safety Association of Southern Africa: Paraffin Safety Association of Southern AfricaHinduism in Zambia: Zambia is home to 25,000 Hindus.as reported by Hinduism Today, 2003 Hinduism is the third largest religion in Zambia.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Tuberculosis managementIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Kaposi's sarcomaLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}SaquinavirAntiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions: The Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions is the primary trade union federation in Zimbabwe. The general secretary of ZCTU is Wellington Chibebe and the president is Lovemore Matombo.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Lactic acidosisCameroon–China relations: China and Cameroon established bilateral relations on March 26, 1971. Cameroon is an adherent to the One China Policy.Wat Chiang ManCrime in Haiti: Crime in Haiti is investigated by the Haitian police.Kenya Pipeline CompanyList of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).

(1/4193) Influenza in three patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Three Japanese outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on anti-retroviral therapy showed evidence of influenza in January 1999. CD4+ T cell counts of these patients prior to the diagnosis of influenza were 72, 248, and 152/mm3, and HIV RNA levels were 19,953, 1,259, and 1,585 copies/ml, respectively. Fever continued 4 to 5 days with no severe complications. One patient showed post-influenzal bronchitis which was effectively treated by antibiotics. None of these patients showed increased serum HIV RNA levels during and after influenza, however, in one patient, a transient reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was seen during the active phase of influenza. Although symptoms of influenza in HIV carriers are generally mild and similar to those in healthy adults, careful follow-up is needed as symptoms of influenza in some HIV-infected patients can be prolonged and serious.  (+info)

(2/4193) The effect of potent antiretroviral therapy and JC virus load in cerebrospinal fluid on clinical outcome of patients with AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

A multicenter analysis of 57 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was performed, to identify correlates of longer survival. JC virus (JCV) DNA was quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. Two months after therapy, 4% of the patients without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 26% with HAART showed neurologic improvement or stability (P=.03), and 8% and 57%, respectively, reached undetectable JCV DNA levels in the CSF (P=.04). One-year probability of survival was.04 without HAART and.46 with HAART. HAART and lack of neurologic progression 2 months after diagnosis were independently associated with longer survival. Among HAART-treated patients, a baseline JCV DNA <4.7 log, and reaching undetectable levels after therapy predicted longer survival. Survival of AIDS-related PML is improved by HAART when JCV replication is controlled.  (+info)

(3/4193) Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in an era of effective antiretroviral therapy.

Potent antiretroviral treatment is associated with dramatic improvements in immune function in many human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. This has led to new US Public Health Service/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines that suggest that in certain circumstances (primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection, and secondary prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus retinitis), antimicrobial prophylaxis can be discontinued for patients whose CD4 T-cell counts rise above threshold levels for at least 3-6 months. The new guidelines are probably too conservative, and effective antiretroviral treatment almost certainly provides protection against all major opportunistic pathogens. Therefore, in the future, specific prophylaxis will be needed only for those patients who do not benefit from or fail to adhere to the current more effective treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.  (+info)

(4/4193) The relationship between virus load response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and change in CD4 cell counts: A report from the Women's interagency HIV study.

The relationship between the pattern of virus load response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and CD4 lymphocyte response was assessed in a cohort of 249 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected women at 3 times: 1 before and 2 after initiation of therapy, with follow-up of 6-12 months. Patients with a durable response to HAART (i.e., >1 log decrease in HIV-1 RNA sustained for the study periods) had a continuous and significant increase in CD4 cell counts over time, whereas those with no response (<0.5 log decrease in HIV-1 RNA) had a slight decline. Patients with a mixed response (initial decrease >1 log, followed by a subsequent decrease <0.5 log) had an increase in CD4 cell count, followed by a plateau. The trend in CD4 cell count differed significantly by response to HAART, with those patients who experienced a durable response having significantly higher CD4 cell counts than others.  (+info)

(5/4193) Evaluation of the abbott LCx HIV-1 RNA quantitative, a new assay for quantitative determination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.

A new quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA (Abbott LCx HIV RNA Quantitative assay) has been compared with the Organon NucliSens assay on 521 retrospective samples obtained from HIV-1-positive patients monitored during highly active antiretroviral therapy, 79 of whom were assayed also by the Chiron Quantiplex 3.0 system and on characterized panels. The LCx system showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.795) and gave higher results than the NucliSens system on 245 of 327 concordant positive samples, with similar sensitivity. Correlation with Quantiplex system results was higher (r = 0.943). LCx reproducibility was very good; the procedure was simple, well controlled, and rapid (up to 48 results in 7 h). The HIV RNA quantitative assay on the LCx system is suitable for routine use.  (+info)

(6/4193) Granulomatous amebic encephalitis in a patient with AIDS: isolation of acanthamoeba sp. Group II from brain tissue and successful treatment with sulfadiazine and fluconazole.

A patient with AIDS, treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, presented with confusion, a hemifield defect, and a mass lesion in the right occipital lobe. A brain biopsy confirmed granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) due to Acanthamoeba castellanii. The patient was treated with fluconazole and sulfadiazine, and the lesion was surgically excised. This is the first case of AIDS-associated GAE responding favorably to therapy. The existence of a solitary brain lesion, absence of other sites of infection, and intense cellular response in spite of a very low CD4 count conditioned the favorable outcome. We review and discuss the diagnostic microbiologic options for the laboratory diagnosis of infections due to free-living amebae.  (+info)

(7/4193) Genetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and to reside latently in resting memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes, creating a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. It is therefore not surprising to observe a prompt viral rebound after discontinuation of HAART. The nature of the rebounding virus, however, remains undefined. We now report on the genetic characterization of rebounding viruses in eight patients in whom plasma viremia was undetectable throughout about 3 years of HAART. Taking advantage of the extensive length polymorphism in HIV-1 env, we found that in five patients who did not show HIV-1 replication during treatment, the rebound virus was identical to those isolated from the latent reservoir. In three other patients, two of whom had been free of plasma viremia but had showed some residual viral replication, the rebound virus was genetically different from the latent reservoir virus, corresponding instead to minor viral variants detected during the course of treatment in lymphoid tissues. We conclude that in cases with apparent complete HIV-1 suppression by HAART, viral rebound after cessation of therapy could have originated from the activation of virus from the latent reservoir. In patients with incomplete suppression by chemotherapy, however, the viral rebound is likely triggered by ongoing, low-level replication of HIV-1, perhaps occurring in lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

(8/4193) A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and nucleoside analogue therapy in AIDS.

Preliminary preclinical and clinical data suggest that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may decrease viral replication. Therefore, 105 individuals with AIDS who were receiving nucleoside analogue therapy were enrolled in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study and were randomized to receive either 125 microgram/m(2) of yeast-derived, GM-CSF (sargramostim) or placebo subcutaneously twice weekly for 6 months. Subjects were evaluated for toxicity and disease progression. A significant decrease in mean virus load (VL) was observed for the GM-CSF treatment group at 6 months (-0.07 log(10) vs. -0.60 log(10); P=.02). More subjects achieved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-RNA levels <500 copies/mL at >/=2 evaluations (2% on placebo vs. 11% on GM-CSF; P=.04). Genotypic analysis of 46 subjects demonstrated a lower frequency of zidovudine-resistant mutations among those receiving GM-CSF (80% vs. 50%; P=.04). No difference was observed in the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) through 6 months or survival, despite a higher risk for OI among GM-CSF recipients. GM-CSF reduced VL and limited the evolution of zidovudine-resistant genotypes, potentially providing adjunctive therapy in HIV disease.  (+info)


Is it advisable for a 55 yr old man to engage in a highly active sex life?


Is it advisable for a 55 yr old man to engage in a highly active sex life? By active, I mean twice a week?

Also, is it possible to have any connections with prostate cancer?
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heck ya man go at it till your heart explodes, thats the way to go out. not all old and dead to the world. i would want to go out while getting the big O one last time and if i scar and traumatize whoever im with when it happens for the rest of her life so much the better, she wouldnt want anyone else after me anyway.


How long should you wait after eating before playing a highly active sport?


How long does it take for you not to be effected by the food you have eaten (through cramps, etc) and then can take part in a highly active sport such as squash or badminton?
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An hour and a half should be ok.


How long should you wait after eating before playing a highly active sport?


How long does it take for you not to be effected by the food you have eaten (through cramps, etc) and then can take part in a highly active sport such as squash or badminton?
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I'd say 30 min.


Is Fleischmann's Rapid Rise yeast Instant dry yeast or Active dry yeast?


The package says RapidRise Highly Active Yeast. I need the answer for a chemistry lab report so any other information is welcome too. :)
The package says RapidRise Highly Active Yeast. 

(I need to know if Rapid Rising yeast is instant or active.)
Also, this question is for a chemistry lab. If anyone is able to provide details on why the dough rises better in a warm place rather that in a cold place, that would help too! :D Thank you!
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With Active dry yeast you generally mix the yeast with the liquid before you add the dry ingredients.
With the rapid rise you can mix it all at the same time.   It saves you a few minutes, but I like to make sure the yeast is working properly before I add everything else.


What are the benefits and disadvantages of high protein diets?


So me and my friend are both highly active people and we both weigh around the same - which is a little overweight. It would be stupid for us to starve our selves because we do so much exercise that it would be physically and mentally hard to even stand. So i came up with a plan of eating a high protein diet. Ive heard that this helps develop muscles and that high protein meals make you fuller for longer meaning you eat less. Is this true? what are the benefits? what are the disadvantages?
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protein companies want you to eat excessive protein, but truth is most of our western diets contain enough protein to enable us to exercise and loose weight and gain muscle without having to intake expensive calorie rich protein shakes..

3,500 calories = 1 pound of fat.

downside to eating to much protein..it's hard on your system and your liver.


How many calories, on average, do people burn a day?


I'm 5'1 95 pounds and 18. I walk 2 miles and do situps everyday, so I guess you could say i'm at least moderately to highly active.

I've read some places that you burn 1,200 a day and other places i've read that you burn 2,500 calories a day. I'm so confused, so how many calories does the average person burn a day?
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Depends on the person if someone is a couch potato, I'm guessing they don't even burn 1,200 calories a day. Someone like you that seems active I think would burn around 1,200. But I don't really know about the average person.


Sometimes when I run the left side of my chest starts to hurt?


Im 20 and highly active and would consider myself in better shape than most. Sometimes when I run the left side of my chest starts to hurt and if I continue to run i feel pain behind my shoulder blade parallel to the chest pain and am forced to stop running for shortness of breath and overwhelming pain. Also my left arm is always going numb. Another issue I have is when I get really stressed out I get staggering pain in the upper inside of my left trap. What is wrong with me?
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go to the doc theyll probably wanna check out your hart.


How long does it take for this to ferment?


Ok so the alcohol (2 cups sugar, 1 limeade frozen concentrate, 1 packet Fleishman's Highly active yeast, water, and a 1 gal jug.) has been sitting for almost 7 days now and is still bubbling, and dirty colored. when should it stop fermenting? i heard it only took 3-7 days from a lot of people.
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It will stop when it stops. Just let it go, unless you want it carbonated. Too many variables to predict. What I can predict is that it will taste like crap.