Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

*  Reagent Proteins -
Enzymes. Bacterial and Viral Antigens. Vaccine Components ... reagent proteins you have disabled javascript please enable javascript to use this form as intended the protein source news events contact us forgot password register now home products messenger proteins antibodies enzymes bacterial and viral antigens vaccine components miscellaneous proteins knowledge center troubleshooting data sheets custom proteins journal publications press releases contact us about us custom proteins items view cart home error error refer print the page you are looking for no longer exists please feel free to navigate through the rest of the site from the menu advanced search entire site products knowledge center news events data sheets troubleshooting press releases journal publications product spotlight atg protein g custom protein production from gene to protein the source for custom proteins reagent proteins all rights reserved terms of use privacy policy site map website by axxiem...
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*  Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia (Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE)
, Apoptosis, Bacterial Modulins, CD Antigens, Cell lines, ... cytokines cells encyclopedia horst ibelgaufts cope welcome to horst ibelgaufts c o p e cells cell communication cancer cells cytokines online pathfinder encyclopedia version spring edition entries pages cited references internal hyperlinks fully integrated subdictionaries on angiogenesis apoptosis bacterial modulins cd antigens cell lines eukaryotic cell types chemokines cytokinetopics cytokine concentrations in body fluids cytokine inter species reactivities dual identity proteins hematology innate immunity defense proteins metalloproteinases protein domains regulatory peptide factors virokines viroceptors virulence factors keep cope a free service use cope s banner advertising options or support the cope bioinformatics project with an unrestricted educational grant click here to cope with cytokines...
http://copewithcytokines.org/
*  Reagent Proteins - CRM197 Lyophilized
Enzymes. Bacterial and Viral Antigens. Vaccine Components ... and pneumococcal bacterial infections. Pfenex CRM197 is a ... Species Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Formulation CRM197 is ... Reagent Proteins - CRM197 Lyophilized. You have disabled JavaScript. Please enable JavaScript to use this form as intended. The Protein Source. News Events. Contact Us. Register Now. PRODUCTS. Messenger Proteins. Antibodies. Enzymes. Bacterial and Viral Antigens. Vaccine Components. Miscellaneous Proteins. KNOWLEDGE CENTER. Data Sheets. Custom Proteins. Journal Publications. Contact Us. CUSTOM PROTEINS. Products. Vaccine Components CRM197 Product Details. CRM197. Catalog Number CRM-197. Description CRM197 diphtheria toxin mutant, recombinant. Pre-clinical grade. Product Background CRM197 is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin 1,2 having a single amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for glycine. CRM197 is a well defined protein and functions as a carrier for polysaccharides and haptens making them immunogenic. ...
http://reagentproteins.com/product_detail/CRM197_Lyophilized.html
*  GenScript - Make Research Easy - The leader in molecular cloning and gene synthesis, peptide synthes
Protein Services. Bacterial Expression. Insect Expression. Yeast ... Inhibitors. Virus Antigens. Protein Isolation and Analysis. ... GenScript - Make Research Easy - The leader in molecular cloning and gene synthesis, peptide synthesis, protein and antibody engineering. Reward Center. Services. Gene Services. Gene Synthesis. Express Gene Synthesis. ORF cDNA Clones and Custom Clones. DNA Sequencing. Genome-edited cell lines. Peptide Services. Peptide Synthesis. Peptide Library. Large-Scale Peptide Synthesis. Cosmetic Peptide Synthesis. cGMP Peptide Synthesis. Click Peptide Synthesis. Antibody Drug Development Services. DNA Immunization. Recombinant Antibody Production. Protein Services. Mammalian Expression. Recombinant Antibody Services. Stable Cell Lines. Large Scale Production. Other Protein Services. Antibody Services. Ab Drug Development. DNA Immunization. Recombinant Ab Services. Other Ab Services. Antibody Sequencing. Cell Lines Services. Protein Production Stable Cell Lines. Assay Development ...
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*  Protein Lounge: Glycine and Serine Metabolism in N. europaea
Factors. Peptide Antigens. Protein Interaction. siRNA. ... Although this bacterium can incorporate small amounts of ... role in supporting bacterial growth. The involvement of D- and. ... Protein Lounge: Glycine and Serine Metabolism in N. europaea. Citations About Us Contact Us. Login to Protein Lounge. Home. Pathways. Databases. Kinase-Phosphatase. GPCR. Transcription Factors. Peptide Antigens. Protein Interaction. siRNA. Biochemical Compounds. Proteins. Tools. Pathway Builder. Protein Hydroplotter. Clone Easy. Peptide Finder. Easy siRNA. Protein Vision. Animations. News. Featured. Cell Biology. Health & Medicine. Genetics. Molecular Biology. Microbiology. ePath3D. Clientele. Video Tutorials. . Glycine and Serine Metabolism in N. europaea. This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages. Nitrosomonas europaea is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph that can derive all its energy and reductant for growth from ...
http://proteinlounge.com/Pathway/Glycine and Serine Metabolism in N. europaea
*  Patent US8128922 - Superior molecular vaccine linking the translocation domain of a bacterial ... -
to specific antigens such as tumor or viral antigens. ... the enhancement of antigen presentation through the MHC class I ... , some tumor antigens such as human papillomavirus-16 HPV-16...
http://google.com/patents/US8128922?dq=7,134,016
*  Antibody - Conservapedia
exposure to an antigen. There are five major classes of ... During a typical bacterial or viral infection, the major classes ... carbohydrate termed antigens. Antigens may be free floating in the...
http://conservapedia.com/Antibodies
*  biodispersan Summary Report | CureHunter
bacterial polysaccharides biodispersan ... factors antigens bacterial antigens bacterial polysaccharides biodispersan...
http://curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC068057-biodispersan.do
*  JoVE Science Search Tool
, Department of Bacteriology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency ... Research Interests: Antigen, Bacterial Proteins , Cattle, Cell, ... Structures , Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis , Post-...
http://labindex.jove.com/author/Elass_E&author=Elass E
*  JTP 3309 Summary Report | CureHunter
against mycobacterium avium or fortuitum infection also ... bacterial polysaccharides ... factors antigens bacterial antigens bacterial polysaccharides...
http://curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC093653-JTP-3309.do
*  Colton antigen system
... the colton antigen system co is present on the membranes of red blood cells and in the tubules of the kidney denker bm smith bl kuhajda fp agre p identification purification and partial characterization of a novel mr integral membrane protein from erythrocytes and renal tubules j biol chem pmid and helps determine a person s blood type the co antigen is found on a protein called aquaporin which is responsible for water homeostasis and urine concentration king ls choi m fernandez pc cartron jp agre p defective urinary concentrating ability due to a complete deficiency of aquaporin n engl j med jul pmid the co antigen is important in transfusion medicine of people possess the co a allele individuals with co b allele or who are missing the colton antigen are at risk for a transfusion reaction such as hemolytic anemia or alloimmunization antibodies against the colton antigen may also cause hemolytic disease of the newborn in which a pregnant woman s body creates antibodies against the blood of her fetus lead...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colton_antigen_system
*  Yt antigen system
... the yt antigen system also known as cartwright is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a person s blood type the antigens are found on the protein acetylcholinesterase an enzyme which helps break down acetylcholine the yt system features two alleles yt a and yt b antibodies against the yt system can lead to transfusion reaction s such as hemolytic anemia references omim page on yt antigen external links at bgmut blood group antigen gene mutation database at ncbi nih category blood antigen systems...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yt_antigen_system
*  New approaches to antigen delivery - Opus
... Study. Research. Faculties Departments. Business. About. Site Search. Research Research. Publications. Browse by author. Browse by department. Browse by funder. Browse by year. Search. About. Policy. Authors' corner. Contact. Login. REF: Select. New approaches to antigen delivery. Reference: FitzGerald, D. and. Mrsny, R. J, 2000. New approaches to antigen delivery. Critical Review of Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 17 3, pp. 165-248. Related documents: This repository does not currently have the full-text of this item. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided below. Abstract An improved understanding of immunologic events associated with immunization, the identification of promising new antigens, and an increased capacity to generate these antigens through chemical and biotechnology methods have led to many new vaccine opportunities. Inappropriate antigen exposure, however, can result in unwanted outcomes, such as incomplete protection, allergic reactions, autoimmunity, infection, or even ...
http://opus.bath.ac.uk/20087/
*  History and naming of human leukocyte antigens
Taking inspiration from Medawar's skin transplant work, he performed a series of skin-graft experiments that showed that these immunocompromised mice didn't reject skin grafts from non-genetically identical mice. First, compatibility genes were divided into two types, class I and class II. All alleles start with "HLA", signifying they are part of the human MHC genes. In this arrangement there were cells that were 'blank' or had new specificities, these new antigens were called "W" antigens, and as they were reassigned to new groups, for example "A" serotypes, they became Aw or Bw antigens. Classification of C antigens is still ongoing, and they have retained the name Cw as many serotypes have not been developed. DRw antigens were the first to be split, a process made easy by the virtue of having an invariant alpha chain, but complicated by 4 beta chain loci DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5. These cells are attracted to class I antigens that either carry foreign antigens, or are foreign to the immune system. 5 This ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_and_naming_of_human_leukocyte_antigens
*  ANTIGEN
Many methods are available for the measurement of antigens and antibodies participating in the primary, secondary or tertiary reactions. Techniques used to measure antigen-antibody called as immunotechniques, which broadly classified into two categories namely primary techniques and secondary techniques. 1.1 PRECIPITATION REACTIONS:. As each antigen-antibody reaction gives raise to a line of precipitation, the number of different antigens in the reacting mixture can be readily observed. In double immunodiffusion, double refers to the diffusion of both antigens and antibodies. The antiserum is placed in the central well and different antigens in the surrounding well. Agglutination reactions are similar in principle to precipitation reactions; they depend on the cross linking of polyvalent antigens. The antiserum may contain high concentrations of antibodies that bind to the antigen but do not induce agglutination; these antibodies, called incomplete antibodies, are often of the IgG class. The decrease in amoun...
http://biosiva.50webs.org/agab.htm
*  Analyses of antigen dependency networks unveil immune system reorganization between birth and adulth
... ood. Analyses of antigen dependency networks unveil immune system reorganization between birth and adulthood. Cohen 3,a and Eshel Ben-Jacob 1,6,a. Google Scholar. Chaos 21, 016109 2011 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3543800. Hence, to assess the node importance of the dependency networks, we define the system level influence SLI of antigen j, SLI j as the sum of the influence of j on all other antigens i. Next, we define the system level influence or the influence score of antigen j, SLI j as the sum of D i, j over all nodes i. http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/chaos/21/1/10.1063/1.3543800. Analyses of antigen dependency networks unveil immune system reorganization between birth and adulthood. Hence, to assess the node importance of the dependency networks, we define the system level influence SLI of antigen j, SLI j as the sum of the influence of j on all other antigens i. Next, we define the system level influence or the influence score of antigen j, SLI j as the sum of D i, j over all...
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/chaos/21/1/10.1063/1.3543800
*  Induced-self antigen
induced self antigen induced self antigen induced self antigen is a marker of abnormal self which can be recognized upon infected in particular virus infected and transformed cells therefore the recognition of induced self is an important strategy for surveillance of infection or tumor transformation it results in elimination of the affected cells by activated nk cells or other immunological mechanisms similarly γδ t cells can recognize induced self antigens expressed on cells under stress conditions receptors probably the most studied receptor involved in recognition of induced self antigens is nkg d it is an activating receptor which is expressed on nk cells and subsets of t and nkt cells nkg d can bind proteins at the surface of most cells that are not normally expressed but that are expressed during a stress response of the cells e g induction of the dna damage pathway moreover other recognition targets exist for example ligands induced on human macrophages by tlr stimulation ligands that bind to nkg d re...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induced-self_antigen
*  Pan-T antigens
pan t antigens pan t antigens pan t antigens are antigens found on all t cell s they include cd cd cd and cd references category antigen presenting cells...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan-T_antigens
*  Category:Antigen presenting cells
category antigen presenting cells category antigen presenting cells category defensive cells category animal cells category leukocytes category antigens...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Antigen_presenting_cells
*  CDw17 antigen
cdw antigen cdw antigen cdw antigen is a lactosylceramide a galt acts upon it references category lipids...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDw17_antigen
*  Antigens
... redirect antigen...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens
*  ER/PR- Cytoplasmic Staining Artifact-Summary
... Previous Message. Next Message. From: Daniel & Linda Botsford dl.botsford@sympatico.ca by way of histonet To: histonet histonet@magicnet.net Reply-To:. Content-Type: text/plain; charset= us-ascii. Thanks to all who responded. Suggestions, 1. Antigen diffusion from the nucleus to the cytoplasm due to a delay in fixation or high antigen level. 2 From research on ER and PR on the primates in tissue staining and biochemistry assay. We documented both nuclear and cytoplasmic ER. With the advent of antigen retrieval and sensitive detection systems, the cytoplasmic staining is observed with 1D5 ER clone and the 1A6 PR clone. I believe the staining is real. Depending on what time the biopsy is taken high or low estrous during the menstrual cycle you may see various levels of cytoplasmic staining. 3 We were having a blush of cytoplasmic staining as well. When we called the manufacter of the antibody, they thought that what we may be seeing is an expression of biotin in the sample itself. We notice that this happe...
http://histosearch.com/histonet/Nov98A/ER.PR-CytoplasmicStaining.html
*  Antigens, cd11b
antigens cd b antigens cd b redirect integrin alpha m...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_cd11b
*  Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering,
Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Your Basket/Online Quote Items: 114 45.207,79 Search Order View Basket/Get Quote. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Contact Contact us How to find us Jena Bioscience at Meetings and Conferences. Products Ordering. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Native Viral and Microbial Antigens. Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Native Viral and Microbial Antig...
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*  Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering,
Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Your Basket/Online Quote Items: 139 73.377,32 Search Order View Basket/Get Quote. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Contact Contact us How to find us Jena Bioscience at Meetings and Conferences. Products Ordering. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Native Viral and Microbial Antigens. Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Native Viral and Microbial Antig...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-22410cd7dead6f0d642bfa83c534caa9/1/catalog/1807/?m=1&k=63
*  Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering,
Bacterial Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Your Basket/Online Quote Items: 275 125.001,83 Search Order View Basket/Get Quote. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Contact Contact us How to find us Jena Bioscience at Meetings and Conferences. Products Ordering. Recombinant Viral and Microbial Proteins. Native Viral and Microbial Antigens. Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. Your are here: Products Ordering / Recombinant Proteins / Native Viral and Microbial Anti...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-cd2137a1fdfd895c6c98ae8438b07f08/1/catalog/1807/?m=1&k=c4
*  .. Syntiron’s antigen discovery and purification technology targets the bacterial iron transpo
. Syntiron’s antigen discovery and purification technology targets the bacterial iron transport proteins that are critical for causing an infection. . News and Events. Dr. Lisa Herron-Olson will be at the 2015 BIO International Convention, June 15-18 in Philadelphia, PA. Find out more at http://convention.bio.org/. Contact Us. Syntiron LLC 1000 Westgate Drive Saint Paul, Minnesota 55114 USA Tel. 651.641.2876 info@syntiron.com www.syntiron.com. Partners Alliances....
http://syntiron.com/
*  Oncofetal antigen
... s are protein s which are typically present only during fetal development but are found in adults with certain kinds of cancer these proteins are often measurable in the blood of individuals with cancer and may be used to both diagnose and follow treatment of the tumors one example of an oncofetal antigen is alpha fetoprotein which is produced by hepatocellular carcinoma and some germ cell tumor s another example is carcinoembryonic antigen which is elevated in people with colon cancer and other tumors other oncofetal antigens are trophoblast glycoprotein precursor kilodalton oncofetal antigen protein and immature laminin receptor protein are identical universal t cell inducing immunogens on primary rodent and human cancers anticancer res nov dec c pmid and immature laminin receptor protein also known as oncofetal antigen protein oncofetal antigens are promising targets for vaccination against several types of cancers external links references category proteins...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncofetal_antigen
*  Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\(^+\) T Cell
Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\ +\ T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma Patients. . . . . Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\ +\ T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma Patients. DSpace/Manakin Repository. DASH Home. Harvard Medical School. HMS Scholarly Articles View Item. Login. Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\ +\ T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma Patients. Download Full Text. Citable link to this page. . . Title:. Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression is Associated with Tumor Antigen-Specific CD8\ +\ T Cell Dysfunction in Melanoma Patients. Author:. Fourcade, Julien ; Sun, Zhaojun ; Benallaoua, Mourad ; Guillaume, Philippe ; Luescher, Immanuel F. ; Sander, Cindy ; Kirkwood, John M. ; Zarour, Hassane M. ; Kuchroo, Vijay Kumar Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors. Citation:. Fourcade, Julien, Zhaojun Sun, Mourad Benallaoua, Phili...
http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/5361375
*  Oncofetal antigens
... redirect oncofetal antigen...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncofetal_antigens
*  MAD-CT-2 Identified as a Novel Melanoma Cancer-testis Antigen Using Phage Immunoblot Analysis
... Article MAD-CT-2 Identified as a Novel Melanoma Cancer-testis Antigen Using Phage Immunoblot Analysis. In the current report, we sought to evaluate serum antibody immune responses to a defined panel of CTA from multiple antigen families to identify potential tumor-specific antigens that could potentially serve as candidate target antigens for immunotherapy or diagnostic purposes. We found that IgG antibody responses occurred in 39% of patients with melanoma to at least one of these antigens compared with 4% of controls P 0.001. These findings, along with the demonstration that MAD-CT-2 is expressed in melanoma cell lines, identified MAD-CT-2 as a novel melanoma CTA. These individual antigens included 29 cancer-testis antigens, 40 proteins identified in patients with chronic prostatitis, and 57 antigens identified in individual patients, some of whom were treated with androgen deprivation or other immunomodulatory therapies. ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that IgG responses to a panel of 126 prostat...
http://researchgate.net/publication/5950213_MAD-CT-2_Identified_as_a_Novel_Melanoma_Cancer-testis_Antigen_Using_Phage_Immunoblot_Analysis
*  Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5
cancer testis antigen family member a cancer testis antigen family member a multiple issues cancer testis antigen family member a is a protein in humans that is encoded by the ct a gene this gene represents one of a cluster of six similar genes located on the q arm of chromosome x the genes in this cluster encode members of the cancer testis ct family of antigens and are distinct from other ct antigens these antigens are thought to be novel therapeutic targets for human cancers alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants a related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome references further reading category proteins...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer/testis_antigen_family_45,_member_a5
*  MAGE-C2/CT10 - Humpath.com - Human pathology
... Humpath.com - Human pathology A. Molecular pathology. B. Cellular pathology. C. Tissular pathology. D. Systemic pathology. E. Pathology by systems. F. Pathology by regions. G. Tumoral pathology. H. Case records. J. Books. K. Info - Admin. Resources in pathology. Technical section. Home. A. Molecular pathology. MAGE-C2/CT10 MAGE-C2/CT10 Friday 21 December 2012. The cancer-testis CT family of antigens is expressed in a variety of malignant neoplasms. MAGE-C2/CT-10 is a novel CT antigen. MAGE-C1/CT7 and MAGE-C2/CT10 are members of the large MAGE family of cancer-testis CT antigens. CT antigens are promising targets for immunotherapy in cancer because their expression is restricted to cancer and germ line cells and a proportion of cancer patients presents with immune responses against CT antigens, which clearly demonstrates their immunogenicity. Pathology MAGE-C2/CT10 could be a potential target for adjuvant and palliative immunotherapy in patients with prostate cancer. 21754986 The expression of MAGE-C1/CT7...
http://humpath.com/spip.php?article19093
*  Anti-EPCAM Antibody, Clone OTI2H9 - OriGene
... My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. Antibody UltraMAB IHC Antibodies IVD Antibodies TrueMAB Primary Antibodies Anti-tag & Fluorescent Proteins Secondary Antibodies Loading Controls Controls & Others Custom Antibody Ab Specificity Service. Product Video. Related Products Over-expression cDNA Clones Purified Human Proteins ELISA & Luminex Assays. Useful Links Biomarker Suppliment from Cell FAQs Recent Citations Application Brochure. Home Antibody All anti-EPCAM antibodies. Anti-EPCAM TRUEMAB Antibody Clone OTI2H9 TrueMAB Antibodies - Made against Authentic Protein Antigens. Specifications Citations Customer Reviews Product Documents. SKU Description Amount Price Availability*. TA500056 anti-EpCAM mouse monoclonal antibody, clone OTI2H9 formerly 2H9 100ul 379 $228 In Stock. LC400847 EPCAM HEK293T cell transient overexpression lysate as WB positive control 20ug $50 In Stock. CF500056 Carrier-free BSA/glycerol-free EpCAM mouse monoclonal antibody, clone OTI2H9 formerly 2H9 100ug $450 3-4 weeks. WB 3....
http://origene.com/antibody/TA500056.aspx
*  Anti-EPCAM Antibody, Clone OTI1D4 - OriGene
... My Account. Shopping Cart. Home. 中文 Search:. Antibody UltraMAB IHC Antibodies IVD Antibodies TrueMAB Primary Antibodies Anti-tag & Fluorescent Proteins Secondary Antibodies Loading Controls Controls & Others Custom Antibody Ab Specificity Service. Product Video. Related Products Over-expression cDNA Clones Purified Human Proteins ELISA & Luminex Assays. Useful Links Biomarker Suppliment from Cell FAQs Recent Citations Application Brochure. Home Antibody All anti-EPCAM antibodies. Anti-EPCAM TRUEMAB Antibody Clone OTI1D4 TrueMAB Antibodies - Made against Authentic Protein Antigens. Specifications Citations Customer Reviews Product Documents. SKU Description Amount Price Availability*. TA506619 EPCAM mouse monoclonal antibody, clone OTI1D4 formerly 1D4 100ul 325 $195 In Stock. LC400847 EPCAM HEK293T cell transient overexpression lysate as WB positive control 20ug $50 In Stock. CF506619 Carrier-free BSA/glycerol-free EPCAM mouse monoclonal antibody, clone OTI1D4 formerly 1D4 100ug $450 8-10 Days. WB 2. IF 2...
http://origene.com/antibody/TA506619.aspx
*  gms | 27. Deutscher Krebskongress | The differentiation antigen NY-BR-1 is a potential target for im
The differentiation antigen NY-BR-1 is a potential target for immunotherapy in breast cancer. The differentiation antigen NY-BR-1 is a potential target for immunotherapy in breast cancer Meeting Abstract. Text Cancer immunotherapy depends on the identification and functional characterization of potential immunogenic target antigens predominantly expressed by tumor cells. Here we describe the cloning, molecular characterization and expression analysis of the differentiation antigen NY-BR-1, we previously identified by SEREX serological analysis of recombinant tumor cDNA expression libraries. NY-BR-1 mRNA was shown to be exclusively expressed in testis, normal breast and breast tumors. Analyses of NY-BR-1 mRNA as well as protein expression levels demonstrated that NY-BR-1 was overexpressed in the majority 70% of breast tumors as well as metastases compared to normal tissue, as determined by qRT-PCR, cDNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Cloning of the full length NY-BR-1 cDNA predicted an ope...
http://egms.de/static/de/meetings/dkk2006/06dkk168.shtml
*  Oncoantigen
1 A major problem of cancer immunotherapy is the selection of tumor cell variants that escape immune recognition. 2 Features of oncoantigens Extracellular localization. Support of the neoplastic phenotype. Identification of oncoantigens Applications of oncoantigens References. Extracellular localization. Localization of oncoantigens outside tumor cells allows recognition by antibodies if downregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex MHC-I molecules prevents T cell recognition. Most tumor antigens are intracellular proteins. Circulating antibodies do not penetrate inside cells, hence intracellular proteins are only recognized by T cells as MHC-I-bound antigenic peptides exposed on the surface of tumor cells. However downmodulation or complete loss of MHC-I expression occurs in most human tumors,. When tumor cells downregulate MHC-I, only antigens expressed on the cell surface and/or secreted in the extracellular fluids can be recognized by antibodies. Support of the neoplastic phenotype. Loss of o...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncoantigen
*  Tumor antigen
'Tumor antigen' is an antigen ic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e., it triggers an immune response in the host. This may include normal proteins that are well sequestered from the immune system, proteins that are normally produced in extremely small quantities, proteins that are normally produced only in certain stages of development, or proteins whose structure is modified due to mutation. Any protein produced in a tumor cell that has an abnormal structure due to mutation can act as a tumor antigen. Such abnormal proteins are produced due to mutation of the concerned gene. Mutation of protooncogene s and tumor suppressor s which lead to abnormal protein production are the cause of the tumor and thus such abnormal proteins are called 'tumor-specific antigens'. Examples of tumor-specific antigens include the abnormal products of ras and p53 genes. Other examples include tissue differentiation antigens, mutant protein antigens, oncogenic viral antigen s, cancer-testis antigen s and vascular or stromal spe...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_antigen
*  Patent US8017590 - Method of inducing and/or enhancing an immune response to tumor antigens - Google
WO2001030382A1,. WO2001030847A1. 8 is the nucleic acid and amino acid sequence of a modified CEA SEQ.ID.NOS.: 111 and 112. Accordingly, the present invention provides a method for inducing and/or enhancing an immune response in an animal to a tumor antigen comprising administering an effective amount of a tumor antigen, a nucleic acid sequence encoding a tumor antigen, a vector or cell comprising the nucleic acid sequence, or a vaccine comprising the tumor antigen, the nucleic acid sequence encoding the tumor antigen, or a vector comprising the nucleic acid sequence encoding the tumor antigen to a lymphatic site in the animal. Examples include, but are not limited to, modified and unmodified epitope/peptides derived from gp100 WO 98/02598; WO 95/29193; WO 97/34613; WO 98/33810; CEA WO 99/19478; S. 164:6041-5; WO 95/04542; WO 95/25530; WO 95/25739; WO 96/26214; WO 97/31017; WO 98/10780. As such, embodiments of the invention encompass nucleic acid sequences per se encoding for the aforementioned tumor antigens,...
http://google.com/patents/US8017590?dq=7,249,099
*  "Commercializing on Tumor Antigens"
Commercializing on Tumor Antigens. Commercializing on Tumor Antigens Anna Johansson Anna.Johansson at bioseeker.com. Previous message: glycogen Next message: gotta get those #$@ * cells to STICK!!. Messages sorted by:. Press Release SOURCE: BioSeeker Group AB Commercializing on Tumor Antigens - The Next Wave. - New de-novo analysis from BioSeeker Group - Today, in Europe and USA there are close to 20 million people that live with cancer, a figure that is increasing. A new report from BioSeeker Group is available to provide you with in-depth coverage, candid information and analysis of the tumor antigen field. We have identified more than 60 tumor antigens that are in line for commercialization. In this report, we present an extensive overview of business to business b2b collaborations in the competitive landscape of tumor antigen commercialization. Our report Commercializing On Tumor Antigens: Analytical Perspectives analyzes the activities among companies working mainly on antigen, cellular and genetic vacci...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/2002-March/014603.html
*  Antigen
It expanded to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment that can be recognized by highly variable antigen receptors B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor of the adaptive immune system. The T cell s of the adaptive immune system recognize the antigens. For T-Cell Receptor TCR recognition, the peptide must be processed into small fragments inside the cell and presented by a major histocompatibility complex MHC. It first initiates an innate immune response, which causes the activation of the adaptive immune response. Immunoglobulin -binding protein – Proteins such as Protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies at positions outside of the antigen-binding site. Some T cells are specific for the peptide:MHC complex. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with MHC class I molecules. An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex and sometimes DNA or RNA that is recognized by the immune system of patients suffering from a specific ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigen
*  MAGED1
maged maged melanoma associated antigen d is a protein that in humans is encoded by the maged gene function interactions references further reading function this gene is a member of the melanoma antigen gene mage family most of the genes of this family encode tumor specific antigens that are not expressed in normal adult tissues except testis although the protein encoded by this gene shares strong homology with members of the mage family it is expressed in almost all normal adult tissues this gene has been demonstrated to be involved in the p neurotrophin receptor mediated programmed cell death pathway three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene interactions maged has been shown to interact with unc a pja and xiap references further reading...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MAGED1
*  OncoLink - Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania
These have been used to make specific cancer vaccines Current cancer vaccines often activate T cells for only a short time without providing strong, long-lasting antitumor activity There are many hypotheses regarding the reason for this weak immunogenicity: T-cells are only weakly reactive to tumor antigens that are also self-antigens, T-cells exposed to tumor antigens during tumor progression may become anergic, mechanisms that prevent autoimmune diseases may also prevent antitumor responses, and tumor cells alone may not be able to sustain the vaccine-primed antitumor responses The authors recently completed a trial investigating the use of a tumor specific antigen for melanoma viral gp100 as a vaccine in patients with metastatic or high-risk disease. Results The interferon- a2b was administered at various times after the vaccine mean 7.2 months after +/-4.9 months All patients developed flu-like symptoms typically associated with interferon administration as well as cytopenias and mild liver function test ...
http://oncolink.org/includes/print_article.cfm?Page=2&id=777&Section=Oncolink_Library&pdf=1
*  Antigenicity
... is the capacity of a chemical structure either an antigen or hapten to bind specifically with a group of certain products that have adaptive immunity t cell receptor s or antibodies a k a b cell receptor s antigenicity was more commonly used in the past to refer to what is now known as immunogenicity and the two are still often used interchangeably however strictly speaking immunogenicity refers to the ability of an antigen to induce an adaptive immune response thus an antigen might bind specifically to a t or b cell receptor but not induce an adaptive immune response if the antigen does induce a response it is an immunogenic antigen which is referred to as an immunogen references category immunology...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigenicity
*  Anti -CD4 (CD4 Receptor, CD4mut, T Cell Surface Antigen T4/Leu3, T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD4) -
Anti -CD4 CD4 Receptor, CD4mut, T Cell Surface Antigen T4/Leu3, T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD4 - United States Biological. Login. Email. Password. Forgot your password. New User. Remember me. Home. Distributors. Technical. About. Register. Antibodies. Biochemicals. Culture Media. Custom Services. Growth Factors. Bioassay Kits. Lectins. Molecular Biology. Serum, Tissues. Protocols. Newsletter. About Us. Contact. . You are here: Home. Antibodies. Antibodies-CD Markers. Anti -CD4 CD4 Receptor, CD4mut, T Cell Surface Antigen T4/Leu3, T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD4 Anti -CD4 CD4 Receptor, CD4mut, T Cell Surface Antigen T4/Leu3, T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD4. Pricing For pricing information, USA customers sign in. Outside USA. Please contact your distributor for pricing. Specifications Clone. Host. Grade Applications Monoclonal Mouse Highly Purified IH FC IF. CD4, a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein is found on a T cell subset helper/inducer representing 45% of peripheral blood lympocytes. It is also pres...
http://usbio.net/item/C2255
*  Cell-surface molecule control for FACS
... Ian A. York iayork at panix.com. Wed Oct 20 14:57:25 EST 2004. Previous message: UV sterilization of PCR reagents Next message: Cell-surface molecule control for FACS Messages sorted by:. I'm looking for a molecule as a control for flow cytometry. What I need is a protein with the following characteristics: o Expressed on many human tissue types and cell lines o Expressed at relatively high levels, so easily detected o Expressed at relatively constant levels i.e. minimally sensitive to cell cycle stage or stress o Antibodies easily available o NOT MHC class I, since that's what I'm trying to control for. I'm wondering about some of the integrins, perhaps, but I'm not sure which are widely-enough expressed; but any protein that meets the characteristics above would be OK. Ian -- Ian York iayork at panix.com http://www.panix.com/~iayork/ -but as he was a York, I am rather inclined to suppose him a very respectable Man. -Jane Austen, The History of England. Previous message: UV sterilization of PCR reagents...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2004-October/098707.html
*  Template:Surface antigens
template surface antigens template surface antigens...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Surface_antigens
*  SV40 large T antigen
... The transforming activity of TAg is due in large part to its perturbation of the retinoblastoma pRB and p53 tumor suppressor proteins. In addition, TAg binds to several other cellular factors, including the transcriptional co-activators p300 and CBP, which may contribute to its transformation function. "Cellular transformation by SV40 large T antigen: interaction with host proteins". TAg is a product of an early gene transcribed during viral infection by SV40, and is involved in viral genome replication and regulation of host cell cycle. 1 Regions Mechanism Nuclear localization signal References. The genome is functionally divided into 3 regions: 'Early': Expressed early in virus infection, i.e. BEFORE genome replication. Encodes non-structural proteins i.e. 'Late': Expressed later in virus infection, i.e. DURING & AFTER genome replication. Encodes structural proteins i.e. 'Regulatory region': Contains transcriptional promoters & enhancers plus the unique origin of DNA replication. After entering the cel...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SV40_large_T_antigen
*  Publications | Green group
publications green group skip to main content green group department of biomolecular engineering you are here home green lab publications authors keywords publications found results filters keyword is antibodies monoclonal x x yu du x moreno c s green r e ogris e feng q chou l mcquoid m j and pallas d c methylation of the protein phosphatase a catalytic subunit is essential for association of balpha regulatory subunit but not sg na striatin or polyomavirus middle tumor antigen mol biol cell vol pp...
https://green.soe.ucsc.edu/publications/keyword/186
*  Myc-Tag and HA-Tag Expression Vectors for Co-Immunoprecipitation
myc tag and ha tag expression vectors for co immunoprecipitation...
http://clontech.com/US/Products/Protein_Expression_and_Purification/Myc-Tagged_Protein_Purification/Myc_and_HA_Vectors?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=R9DRhLqVhdk_LkJLDoAeSyvk:S&PROD_pses=ZG1CA2945955DA61DFDF53357A8B8F8727A75D9F5B28D9AC530DDECAB787BB4E79F3CA175258EE713BD22B33DAD290DF531285FDB8EB5CB4B4
*  Myc-Tag and HA-Tag Expression Vectors for Co-Immunoprecipitation
myc tag and ha tag expression vectors for co immunoprecipitation...
http://clontech.com/US/Products/Protein_Expression_and_Purification/Myc-Tagged_Protein_Purification/Myc_and_HA_Vectors?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=R9IU537-LivL7RyajMJopFru:S&PROD_pses=ZG5576DA3060FD8CEF6117A6C3CD7E9328815798FFFB10397DE082720E9D3412A7D437B1410EED1EA3135A1674158DEAC86DF41F47EEA7A74D
*  Myc-Tag and HA-Tag Expression Vectors for Co-Immunoprecipitation
myc tag and ha tag expression vectors for co immunoprecipitation...
http://clontech.com/US/Products/Protein_Expression_and_Purification/Myc-Tagged_Protein_Purification/Myc_and_HA_Vectors?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=TBZYtM6X0dF_AcneWgYu3g_0:S&PROD_pses=ZGA180F79B8CA81C6F8129DDC7B0562DE78731049B5149D01B349F9CD4FA8DBFE10EE344BBAAA20114BF49E09AF0D4A0AE9AE30809AF57CBD6
*  Myc-Tag and HA-Tag Expression Vectors for Co-Immunoprecipitation
myc tag and ha tag expression vectors for co immunoprecipitation...
http://clontech.com/US/Products/Protein_Expression_and_Purification/Myc-Tagged_Protein_Purification/Myc_and_HA_Vectors?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=ZNCBE4bE1ldFuGrh0uUcUaYe:S&PROD_pses=ZG1314A677BF5D5A69809276F44AA77CB80CD4BA1CF95E9CCB7DC602EF56CE158332025B57AB80AD4EE985D2D011F09030CD8DBA195B2F89E0
*  HLA-C Gene - GeneCards | 1C05 Protein | 1C05 Antibody
Human Leukocyte Antigen-C Alpha Chain 3. P04222-1C03_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-3 alpha chain. P10321-1C07_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-7 alpha chain. P30499-1C01_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-1 alpha chain. P30501-1C02_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-2 alpha chain. P30504-1C04_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-4 alpha chain. P30505-1C08_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-8 alpha chain. P30508-1C12_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-12 alpha chain. P30510-1C14_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-14 alpha chain. Q07000-1C15_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-15 alpha chain. Q29865-1C18_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-18 alpha chain. Q29960-1C16_HUMAN Recommended name: HLA...
http://genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=HLA-C
*  author:"cobley v" in UniProtKB
Human diseases. Taxonomic lineage. /p> p> a href='../manual/general annotation' target=' top'>More... In addition to capturing the core data mandatory for each UniProtKB entry mainly, the amino acid sequence, protein name or description, taxonomic data and citation information, as much annotation information as possible is added. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain MHC class I antigen A*3. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-7 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*7. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-15 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*15. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-18 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*18. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-44 alpha chain Bw-44 MHC class I antigen B*44. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, Cw-7 alpha chain MHC class I antigen Cw*7. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-4 beta chain MHC class II antigen DRB1*4 DR-4 DR4. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-7 beta chain MHC class II antigen DRB1*7 DR-7 DR7...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/?query=author:"Cobley V."
*  author:"holmes s" in UniProtKB
Human diseases. Taxonomic lineage. /p> p> a href='../manual/general annotation' target=' top'>More... In addition to capturing the core data mandatory for each UniProtKB entry mainly, the amino acid sequence, protein name or description, taxonomic data and citation information, as much annotation information as possible is added. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain MHC class I antigen A*3. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-7 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*7. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-15 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*15. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-18 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*18. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-44 alpha chain Bw-44 MHC class I antigen B*44. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit alpha isoform PP2A B subunit isoform B'-alpha PP2A B subunit isoform B56-alpha PP2A B subunit isoform PR61-alpha PR61alpha PP2A B subunit isoform R5-alpha. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regula...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/?query=author:"Holmes S."
*  author:"clee c" in UniProtKB
Human diseases. Taxonomic lineage. /p> p> a href='../manual/general annotation' target=' top'>More... In addition to capturing the core data mandatory for each UniProtKB entry mainly, the amino acid sequence, protein name or description, taxonomic data and citation information, as much annotation information as possible is added. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain MHC class I antigen A*3. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-7 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*7. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-15 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*15. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-18 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*18. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-44 alpha chain Bw-44 MHC class I antigen B*44. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform PP2A B subunit isoform B'-delta PP2A B subunit isoform B56-delta PP2A B subunit isoform PR61-delta PP2A B subunit isoform R5-delta. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 55 kDa regulatory subun...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/?query=author:"Clee C."
*  author:"laird g" in UniProtKB
Human diseases. Taxonomic lineage. /p> p> a href='../manual/general annotation' target=' top'>More... In addition to capturing the core data mandatory for each UniProtKB entry mainly, the amino acid sequence, protein name or description, taxonomic data and citation information, as much annotation information as possible is added. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain MHC class I antigen A*3. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-7 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*7. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-15 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*15. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-18 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*18. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-44 alpha chain Bw-44 MHC class I antigen B*44. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform PP2A B subunit isoform B'-delta PP2A B subunit isoform B56-delta PP2A B subunit isoform PR61-delta PP2A B subunit isoform R5-delta. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 55 kDa regulatory subun...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/?query=author:"Laird G."
*  author:"whitehead s l" in UniProtKB
Human diseases. Taxonomic lineage. /p> p> a href='../manual/general annotation' target=' top'>More... In addition to capturing the core data mandatory for each UniProtKB entry mainly, the amino acid sequence, protein name or description, taxonomic data and citation information, as much annotation information as possible is added. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain MHC class I antigen A*3. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-7 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*7. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-15 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*15. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-18 alpha chain MHC class I antigen B*18. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-44 alpha chain Bw-44 MHC class I antigen B*44. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform PP2A B subunit isoform B'-delta PP2A B subunit isoform B56-delta PP2A B subunit isoform PR61-delta PP2A B subunit isoform R5-delta. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 55 kDa regulatory subun...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/?query=author:"Whitehead S.L."
*  Mouse anti-Human HLAG antibody (ABIN94366)
Mouse anti-Human HLAG antibody ABIN94366. Antibodies Primary antibodies Secondary antibodies Kits ELISA Kits Assay Kits Reagents Protein Peptide Lysate Isotype Control Accessory Reagent Suppliers Pathways. anti-HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G HLAG Heavy Chain an... HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G HLAG Heavy Chain antibody. Details for Product No. HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G HLAG. Alternatives Heavy Chain. C-Term 26, Internal Region 11, N-Term 8, AA 65-79 7, AA 68-98 7, AA 29-117 5, AA 61-83 5, AA 62-89 3, Heavy Chain 3, AA 1-119 2, AA 21-119 2, AA 71-98 2, Center 2, AA 1-290 1, AA 1-338 1, AA 21-116 1, AA 45-94 1, Extracellular Domain 1, Free Chain 1, Membrane-Bound 1. Application. Alternatives Immunohistochemistry Paraffin-embedded Sections IHC p, Immunohistochemistry Frozen Sections IHC fro, Western Blotting WB. Western Blotting WB 162, Flow Cytometry FACS 143, ELISA 133, Immunohistochemistry IHC 57, Immunohistochemistry Frozen Sections I...
http://antibodies-online.com/antibody/94366/anti-HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen alpha Chain G HLAG Heavy Chain/
*  Alleles Report < IMGT/HLA < IPD < EMBL-EBI
Alleles Report IMGT/HLA IPD EMBL-EBI. Skip to main content. Skip to local navigation. Skip to EBI global navigation menu. Skip to expanded EBI global navigation menu includes all sub-sections. Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. . IPD - IMGT/HLA. Overview. IMGT/HLA. KIR. MHC. HPA. ESTDAB. Contact. Support. IPD. IMGT/HLA Allele Report. Allele Report for A*30:45. A*30:45. View HGVS Report. Pre-2010 Nomenclature:. Local Names: HistoGenetics HIS_NEW_A_598_01500. IMGT/HLA Acc No:. HLA05667. OMIM Entry:. *142800. Assigned:. 2010-08-31. Sequence Last Modified:. 2010-10-15. Source Entries:. GQ401170 , HM362796. Cells Sequence Derived From:. HG00000113 , HN-7062784. Known Ethnic Origin Of Source:. Unknown. CWD v2.0 Status: Not defined. Publications. Unpublished. Confirmatory Data. Sequence Status: Partial CDS Confirmed: Confirmed. Cells: 2 Laboratories: 1. HLA Dictionary Data. Not currently included in the HLA Dictionary Data. Protein Sequence 181 aa. SHSMRYFSTSVSRPGSGEPRFIAVGYVDDTQFVRFDSDAASQRMEPRAPWIEQ...
http://ebi.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ipd/imgt/hla/get_allele.cgi?A*30:45
*  Alleles Report < IMGT/HLA < IPD < EMBL-EBI
Alleles Report IMGT/HLA IPD EMBL-EBI. Skip to main content. Skip to local navigation. Skip to EBI global navigation menu. Skip to expanded EBI global navigation menu includes all sub-sections. Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. . IPD - IMGT/HLA. Overview. IMGT/HLA. KIR. MHC. HPA. ESTDAB. Contact. Support. IPD. IMGT/HLA Allele Report. Allele Report for B*51:139. B*51:139. View HGVS Report. Pre-2010 Nomenclature:. Local Names: HIS_NEW_B_110136_03363. IMGT/HLA Acc No:. HLA08375. OMIM Entry:. *142830. Assigned:. 2012-07-31. Sequence Last Modified:. 2012-10-17. Source Entries:. JQ277289. Cells Sequence Derived From:. HG00004206. Known Ethnic Origin Of Source:. Unknown. CWD v2.0 Status: Not defined. Publications. Unpublished. Confirmatory Data. Sequence Status: Partial CDS Confirmed: Unconfirmed. Cells: 1 Laboratories: 1. HLA Dictionary Data. Not currently included in the HLA Dictionary Data. Protein Sequence 181 aa. SHSMRYFYTAMSRPGRGEPRFIAVGYVDDTQFVRFDSDAASPRTEPRAPWIEQEGPEYWDRNTQIFKTNTQTYRENLRIA LRY...
http://ebi.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ipd/imgt/hla/get_allele.cgi?B*51:139
*  Alleles Report < IMGT/HLA < IPD < EMBL-EBI
Alleles Report IMGT/HLA IPD EMBL-EBI. Skip to main content. Skip to local navigation. Skip to EBI global navigation menu. Skip to expanded EBI global navigation menu includes all sub-sections. Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. . IPD - IMGT/HLA. Overview. IMGT/HLA. KIR. MHC. HPA. ESTDAB. Contact. Support. IPD. IMGT/HLA Allele Report. Allele Report for A*11:21N. A*11:21N. View HGVS Report. Pre-2010 Nomenclature: A*1121N Local Names: HLA-A*1101N1 null allele. IMGT/HLA Acc No:. HLA02052. OMIM Entry:. *142800. Assigned:. 2004-12-19. Sequence Last Modified:. 2005-01-12. Source Entries:. AB196426. Cells Sequence Derived From:. TBC50620. Known Ethnic Origin Of Source:. Oriental. CWD v2.0 Status: Not defined. Publications. Unpublished. Confirmatory Data. Sequence Status: Partial CDS Confirmed: Unconfirmed. Cells: 1 Laboratories: 1. HLA Dictionary Data. Expert Assigned Type: Not expressed WHO Assigned Type: Null. Tested by: No. Cells Tested: Assigned Type:. International Cell Exchange UCLA 2008 - -. NMD...
http://ebi.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ipd/imgt/hla/get_allele.cgi?A*1121N
*  Alleles Report < IMGT/HLA < IPD < EMBL-EBI
Alleles Report IMGT/HLA IPD EMBL-EBI. Skip to main content. Skip to local navigation. Skip to EBI global navigation menu. Skip to expanded EBI global navigation menu includes all sub-sections. Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. IPD - IMGT/HLA. Overview. IMGT/HLA. KIR. MHC. HPA. ESTDAB. Contact. Support. IPD. IMGT/HLA Allele Report Allele Report for DQB1*05:03:03 DQB1*05:03:03. View HGVS Report Pre-2010 Nomenclature:. Local Names: DQB1 IMGT/HLA Acc No: HLA05769 OMIM Entry: *604305. Assigned: 2010-08-31 Sequence Last Modified: 2010-10-15. Source Entries: FR675638. Cells Sequence Derived From:. D10003131. Known Ethnic Origin Of Source:. Oriental. CWD v2.0 Status: Not defined Publications Li J et al. Tissue Antigens 78:267-270 2011. View abstract Confirmatory Data. Sequence Status: Partial CDS Confirmed: Unconfirmed. Cells: 1 Laboratories: 1. HLA Dictionary Data. Not currently included in the HLA Dictionary Data. Protein Sequence 183 aa DFVYQFKGLCYFTNGTERVRGVTRHIYNREEYVRFDSDVGVYRAVTPQGRPDAEYWNSQKEV...
http://ebi.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ipd/imgt/hla/get_allele.cgi?DQB1*05:03:03
*  Alleles Report < IMGT/HLA < IPD < EMBL-EBI
Alleles Report IMGT/HLA IPD EMBL-EBI. Skip to main content. Skip to local navigation. Skip to EBI global navigation menu. Skip to expanded EBI global navigation menu includes all sub-sections. Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. IPD - IMGT/HLA. Overview. IMGT/HLA. KIR. MHC. HPA. ESTDAB. Contact. Support. IPD. IMGT/HLA Allele Report Allele Report for C*03:82 C*03:82. View HGVS Report Pre-2010 Nomenclature: Cw*0382 Local Names: HistoGenetics HIS NEW C 446 00456 IMGT/HLA Acc No: HLA04777 OMIM Entry: *142840. Assigned: 2010-02-22 Sequence Last Modified: 2010-04-01. Source Entries: FJ898484, JN406464. Cells Sequence Derived From:. HG00003207, HN-32259-4. Known Ethnic Origin Of Source:. Mixed. CWD v2.0 Status: Not defined Publications Hernandez-Frederick CJ et al. Tissue Antigens 83:184-189 2014. View abstract Confirmatory Data. Sequence Status: Partial CDS Confirmed: Confirmed. Cells: 2 Laboratories: 1. HLA Dictionary Data. Not currently included in the HLA Dictionary Data. Protein Sequence 181 aa SH...
http://ebi.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ipd/imgt/hla/get_allele.cgi?C*03:82
*  Alleles Report < IMGT/HLA < IPD < EMBL-EBI
Alleles Report IMGT/HLA IPD EMBL-EBI. Skip to main content. Skip to local navigation. Skip to EBI global navigation menu. Skip to expanded EBI global navigation menu includes all sub-sections. Services. Research. Training. Industry. About us. IPD - IMGT/HLA. Overview. IMGT/HLA. KIR. MHC. HPA. ESTDAB. Contact. Support. IPD. IMGT/HLA Allele Report Allele Report for C*15:12 C*15:12. View HGVS Report Pre-2010 Nomenclature: Cw*1512 Local Names: Cw15 230307 IMGT/HLA Acc No: HLA01884 OMIM Entry: *142840. Assigned: 2004-03-22 Sequence Last Modified: 2004-04-05. Source Entries: AJ629315, AJ629316. Cells Sequence Derived From:. 230307. Known Ethnic Origin Of Source:. Oriental. CWD v2.0 Status: Not defined Publications Lebedeva TV et al. Tissue Antigens 65:101-6 2005. View abstract Confirmatory Data. Sequence Status: Partial CDS Confirmed: Unconfirmed. Cells: 1 Laboratories: 1. HLA Dictionary Data. Expert Assigned Type: Undefined WHO Assigned Type: -. Tested by: No. Cells Tested: Assigned Type:. International Cell Excha...
http://ebi.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ipd/imgt/hla/get_allele.cgi?Cw*1512
*  author:"zhang l" in UniProtKB
Human diseases. Protein names. Taxonomic lineage. Function p>Position-independent general annotations used to be found in the 'General annotation Comments ' section in the previous version of the UniProtKB entry view. /p> p> a href='../manual/general annotation' target=' top'>More... Miscellaneous p>Position-independent general annotations used to be found in the 'General annotation Comments ' section in the previous version of the UniProtKB entry view. Subunit structure p>Position-independent general annotations used to be found in the 'General annotation Comments ' section in the previous version of the UniProtKB entry view. Subcellular location p>Position-independent general annotations used to be found in the 'General annotation Comments ' section in the previous version of the UniProtKB entry view. Domain p>Position-independent general annotations used to be found in the 'General annotation Comments ' section in the previous version of the UniProtKB entry view. In addition t...
http://uniprot.org/uniprot/?query=author:"Zhang L."
*  HLA PPT Powerpoint Presentations and Slides - View and Download
... Search:. Showing results for query " HLA PowerPoint PPT Presentations and Slides ". HLA TYPING - Welcome to the British Association for Paediatric ... HLA TYPING B Montague HLA = Human Leucocyte Antigen system HLA forms part of the Major Histocompatibiblity Complex MHC Found on the short arm of chromosome 6 MHC ... http://www.bapn.org/assets/trainingandtrainees/HLA%20TYPING.ppt. JDEP HLA Information Brief. Comparing HLA and DIS Contents History of Simulation Technologies Comparison of Distributed Interactive Simulation DIS and High Level Architecture HLA HLA ... http://www.acims.arizona.edu/PUBLICATIONS/Presentations/CompareHLARTI.ppt. HLA Antibody Detection & HLA Typing on the Luminex Platform: Two ... HLA Antibody Detection & HLA Typing on the Luminex Platform: Two New Tools in the UAH HLA Laboratory Arsenal Luis G. Hidalgo UAH Histocompatibility Laboratory. http://transplants.med.ualberta.ca/Nephlab/data/ATI Lectures/ATLS%20Dec%2015-2010%20Luminex%20overview.ppt. Molecular Oncology. Chapter 15 DNA-Bas...
http://pptsearch365.com/HLA.html
*  Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System - Immunology Allergic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional
Human Leukocyte Antigen HLA System - Immunology Allergic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition. View Consumer Version Written in everyday language. Professional Version. ALL NEWS >. Procedures Exams. PROCEDURES EXAMS. Conversion Tables. Videos, exams. Videos, procedures. Go to the Consumer Version A free medical reference in everyday language. Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written for the health care professional. The human leukocyte antigen HLA system, the major histocompatibility complex MHC in humans, is controlled by genes located on chromosome 6. Class I MHC molecules are present as transmembrane glycoproteins on the surface of all nucleated cells. The heavy chain of the class I molecule is encoded by genes at HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci. Because every nucleated cell expresses class I MHC molecules, all infected cells can act as antigen-presenting cells for CD8 T cells CD8 binds to the nonpolymorphic part of the class I heavy chain. Some class I...
http://merckmanuals.com/professional/immunology-allergic-disorders/biology-of-the-immune-system/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-system
*  HLA B7-DR15-DQ6
... haplotype = HLA A3-B7-DR15-DQ6. gene1name = HLA-C. gene2name = HLA-B. 'HLA B7-DR15-DQ6' is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. A multigene haplotype is set of inherited alleles covering several genes, or gene-alleles, common multigene haplotypes are generally the result of descent by common ancestry share a recent common ancestor for that segment of the chromosome. HLA B7-DR15-DQ6 is a representation by serotype of a common HLA haplotype found in Western Eurasia. HLA Cw *0702 : B *0702 : DRB1 *1501 : DQA1 *0102 : DQB1 *0602. One B7-DR2-DQ6 derives from the fact that DR15 is a split antigen of the DR2 broad antigen serotype. The other B7-DR2-DQ1 stems from the fact that DQ1 is an alpha chain serotype that is now covered by the beta chain type DQ5 and DQ6 DQ1 pairs with DQ5 and DQ6 by cis-haplotype pairing. The A*0301 bearing haplotype HLA A3-B7-DR15-DQ6 is described as the longest known multgene haplotype in humans. HLA A2-B7-DR15-DQ6...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HLA_B7-DR15-DQ6
*  NIF | Searching in Literature
NIF. Searching in Literature. SciCrunch relies heavily on JavaScript. Many functions on the site will not work if you continue with JavaScript disabled. Login. Register. NIF LinkOut Portal. About. Add a Resource. Literature. Go. X. Sign In. Log In. X Forgot Password. If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email. Send. X. Leaving Community. Are you sure you want to leave this community. Leaving the community will revoke any permissions you have been granted in this community. No. Yes. Literature. Home Literature. The IMGT/HLA database. It is 12 years since the IMGT/HLA database was first released, providing the HLA community with a searchable repository of highly curated HLA sequences. The HLA complex is located within the 6p21.3 region of human chromosome 6 and contains more than 220 genes of diverse function. Many of the genes encode proteins of the immune system and are highly polymorphic. The naming of these HLA genes and alleles and thei...
https://scicrunch.org/21071412/resource/nlx_144509
*  Human leukocyte antigens
... PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript, your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. Glossary. Human leukocyte antigens. Also known as: HLA. Group of proteins present on the surface of white blood cells leukocytes and other nucleated cells containing a nucleus. These proteins help the body’s immune system to identify its own cells and to distinguish between “self” and “nonself.” Each person has an inherited combination of HLA antigens and, while not as unique as a fingerprint, the presence or absence of each antigen creates a distinctive HLA combination for each person. HLA antigens are divided into types: Class I A, B, C and Class II DR, DP, DQ. 2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry....
https://labtestsonline.org/glossary/hla/
*  Recognizing the Human Potential | The Scientist Magazine®
The Scientist Magazine. The Scientist Sign In or Register. Stott s brief report showed that while the protection of the monkeys did not correlate with the presence of anti-SIV antibodies, it did correlate with antibodies that recognized proteins expressed on the membranes of the human cell line which had been used to grow the virus. Most importantly, the immunized monkeys were protected against SIV by antibodies against the HLA rather than the viral proteins as long as both the inactivated vaccine and the infecting live SIV had been grown in the same line of cells and therefore expressed the same HLA. Had Stott s monkeys produced only an adaptive immune response antibodies and specific T cells against human HLA. In addition to the above innate responses, recognition of foreign HLA activates two types of adaptive immune antibody responses: anti-HLA antibody, thought to protect the monkeys against SIV infection in the early studies; 7 and the more recently discovered antibodies directed against the HIV corecept...
http://the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/30548/title/Recognizing-the-Human-Potential/flagPost/66138/
*  Fungal Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products & Ordering, Jen
Fungal Antigens, Native Viral and Microbial Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Products Ordering, Jena Bioscience. Your Basket/Online Quote Items: 251 115.156,89 Search Order View Basket/Get Quote. Products Ordering Nucleosides, Nucleotides and their Analogs Click Chemistry Reagents Molecular Biology Eukaryotic Expression System LEXSY Recombinant Proteins Affinity Chromatography Biochemistry Macromolecular Crystallography Probes. Order Information Special Offers Promotions International Distributors Request Catalogs Printed Material Terms and Conditions QR Codes and Jena Bioscience mobile Website. About us About us News Careers JBS Seminars JBS in the Press Imprint/Legal Notice. Contact Contact us How to find us Jena Bioscience at Meetings and Conferences. Downloads Catalogs, Brochures, Flyers Posters Latest Newsletters Talks held at Conferences Jena Bioscience Company Logo Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS ISO and EMAS Certificates. Search. Structure Search beta. Products Ordering. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and t...
http://jenabioscience.com/cms/sid-87b41f021e15955ec8f65a6d7fa86023/1/catalog/1808/?m=1&k=3a
*  pimple: How can i get rid of a red swollen pimple?
pimple: How can i get rid of a red swollen pimple. How can i get rid of a red swollen pimple. I don%26#039;t have bad skin but i really need to get rid of it. Just wash it with products for acne. Acne face wash. |||toothpaste didnt help. Yukidarvs. April 91 How to get rid of pimple scars spots and ways of ... What is the fastest, easiest way to get rid of a b... Fastest way to heal cystic pimple WITHOUT going to... How can I stop a pimple when I feel it under the s... What鈥檚 the safest and quickest way of getting rid ... How can u tell the difference between a cold sore ... How can I remove acne/ pimple scars w/o going to t... How do I remove a pimple with out ruining my skin ... How to easily squeeze a pimple. How to easily squeeze a pimple. Any skin care tips to keep my skin looking fresh a... What are these red pimple like bumps and blister l... What's the best way to get rid of a mean pimple on... Whats the easiest and fastest way to get rid of a ... How do I know if I am going to get a pimple or I h....
http://pimple-tu.blogspot.com/2010/04/how-can-i-get-rid-of-red-swollen-pimple.html
*  FCAND - Overview: Candida Antigen Detection
... MayoACCESS. Test Catalog Go Test Name A. Test Catalog Test Information New Tests Test Updates Reflex Tests Referred Tests NYS Informed Consent Test List Download Catalog References Critical Values and Semi-Urgent Results Performing Locations Policies. Setup Information Test Setup AOE Codes LOINC Codes Units of Measurement. New Tests. Setup Information. Critical Values and Semi-Urgent Results. Referred Tests. NYS Informed Consent Test List. Performing Locations Utilization Management Publications and Tools Algorithms Hot Topics Communiqu A Test in Focus Utilization Spotlight Profiles in Genetics Meaningful Use. Test Ordering MayoACCESS Overview References MayoLINK Overview References. Specimen Handling Collection and Preparation Instructions by Specimen Type Category A Infectious Substances Light Protection Tests Microbiology Culture Tests Resources Supply Catalog FAQ Dangerous Goods Training. Specimen Transport Customized Shipping Instructions Shipping Guides Courier Instructions Transportation Regulatio...
http://mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/90067
*  A4. Does popping pimples make them go away faster? | Skinacea.com
Does popping pimples make them go away faster. Skinacea.com. Skinacea A collection of skin panaceas and personal tips. FAQ Does popping pimples make them go away faster. My Acne Before After Pictures. Laser Skin Treatment Experience. ACNE. What is Acne. What Causes Acne. Acne Face Map. Body Acne Map. Types of Retinoids. Choose the Right Sunscreen. Laser Skin Treatments. Does popping pimples heal faster. Acne Treatments. Question: Does popping pimples make them go away faster. Popping pimples does not make them go away faster. In my experience, picking and popping pimples spreads acne more than touching. Why you shouldn't pop pimples Don’t pop your pimples because doing so pushes bacteria deeper into your skin and helps it spread to other areas of your face. Picking at spots can also cause more pimples to pop up around the picked areas of your skin, so the more pimples you pick, the more pimples you get. Popping pimples makes things worse I have actually tried a personal experiment to see if popping pimples ma...
http://skinacea.com/faq/acne/a04-popping-pimples-heal-faster.html
*  How to Get Rid of Pimples Overnight
... Login http://www.becomegorgeous.com/users/auth/facebook. Or Login using BecomeGorgeous. http://www.becomegorgeous.com/users/auth/facebook. Top to Toe. Body Skin. Acne and Skin Problems. How to Get Rid of Pimples Overnight. How to Get Rid of Pimples Overnight Published on: 23 Nov 2013 in Body and Skin Care, Acne and Skin Problems. Body Skin, Acne and Skin Problems. Body Skin, Top to Toe. Let it sit overnight and wash it off in the morning. How to Remove Pimples Overnight Tip: Honey Honey is one of the best pimple remedies. How to Get Rid of Pimples Overnight: Lemon Here's what will help you get rid of pimples overnight: lemon. How to Get Rid of a Pimple Overnight: Garlic. Although it might seem surprising, garlic is a great natural remedy that will help you get rid of pimples overnight. After 5 minutes, wash your skin with warm water. Get Rid of Pimples Overnight: Egg Whites Egg whites are also an incredible natural remedy that will help you get rid of pimples. All you have to do is separate the whites fr...
http://becomegorgeous.com/body-and-skin/acne_and_skin_problems/how-to-get-rid-of-pimples-overnight-A12078
*  Search Results ((keywords en:CD ANTIGENS)) - ETH E-Collection
Search Results keywords_en:CD ANTIGENS - ETH E-Collection. Skip to main content Skip to navigation Skip to toolbar ETH E-Collection ETH Institutional Repository Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. Navigation Home. Suche. Browse. Publizieren. Kontakt. Über E-Collection. Toolbar. English. Deutsch Sie sind nicht angemeldet. Anmelden. 10 Ergebnisse zu keywords_en:CD ANTIGENS. Diese Suchanfrage als RSS-Feed abonnieren Sortieren nach. Title Publication Year PID Author Last Updated Search Relevance. Dissertationen und Habilitationen. Pathway of the anorexia during bacterial infection; involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors and serotonin Meyenburg, Claudia von 2002. Dissertationen und Habilitationen. Identification and characterisation of differentially expressed genes in naive and activated CD8⁺ T cells Blaser, Claudine 1999. Dissertationen und Habilitationen. Cloning and characterization of trap CD40 ligand and its role in the primary immunodeficiency 'X-linked immunodeficiency with hyper-IGM' Graf, Dan...
http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/list.php?browse=&cat=quick_filter&sort_by=score&key-1=T_Keywords_EN&w1=CD ANTIGENS&lang=de
*  CD36 antigen
cd antigen cd antigen cd antigen is a transmembrane highly glycosylated glycoprotein expressed by monocytes macrophages platelets microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues cd recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein long chain fatty acid s anionic phospholipid s collagen types i iv and v thrombospondin and plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocyte s cd molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces cd antigens nomenclature is updated at protein reviews on the web http mpr nci nih gov prow subfamilies adhesion molecule cd lysosome membrane protein ii human proteins containing this domain cd scarb scarb references category protein domains category protein families category membrane proteins...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD36_antigen
*  P Zhou
... add edit you are here scientific experts usa southwest foundation for biomedical research zhou p zhou research topics murine leukemia virus l selectin cd antigens cd antigens cd antigens cd antigens retroviridae integrins fibronectins jurkat cells genetic transduction macaca mulatta cell separation luminescent proteins gene transfer techniques lymphocytes culture media green fluorescent proteins hela cells genetic vectors t lymphocytes flow cytometry temperature polymerase chain reaction p zhou summary affiliation southwest foundation for biomedical research country usa publications high efficiency gene transfer into rhesus macaque primary t lymphocytes by combining degrees c centrifugation and ch coated plates effect of gene transfer protocol on t cell homing receptor expression p zhou department of virology and immunology southwest foundation for biomedical research san antonio tx usa hum gene ther detail information publications high efficiency gene transfer into rhesus macaque primary t lymphocytes b...
http://labome.org/expert/usa/southwest/zhou/p-zhou-320047.html
*  CD82 - CD82 antigen - human protein (Function) CD82 - CD
CD82 - CD82 antigen - human protein Function. CD82 - CD82 antigen - human protein Function. Login or Sign up now. x loading ... close X. Oooops, an error occured. CD82 - CD82 antigen - human protein Function. Home Recent activites. My favorites. My labels. Downloads Login or Sign up. x. Login Or Sign up Now. Try our new search. Protein. Function. Medical. Expression. Interactions. Localisation. Sequence. Proteomics. Structures. Identifiers. Gene. Exons. Identifiers. References. Curated publications 22. Additional publications 102. Patents 0. Submissions 3. Web resources 1. . CD82 CD82 antigen. favorite. label. cancel. Login or Sign up now. x Protein also known as:. Suppressor of tumorigenicity 6 protein; CD antigen CD82. Gene name: CD82 Family name:. Tetraspanin TM4SF. Entry whose protein s existence is based on evidence at protein level. Protein Recommended name CD82 antigen. Alternative names C33 antigen. IA4. Inducible membrane protein R2. Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1. Suppressor of tumorigenicity 6 prot...
http://nextprot.org/db/entry/NX_P27701
*  SNCA 61-140 Human | ProSpec
SNCA 61-140 Human. ProSpec. Login Register Log out. Home. About. Company. Founder. Customers. Contribution. Offices. Shipping. Products. Cytokines. Growth Factors. Chemokines. CD Antigens. Neurotrophins. Hormones. Enzymes. Viral Antigens. Recombinant Proteins. Natural Proteins. Monoclonal Antibodies. Polyclonal Antibodies. Services. DNA Cloning. Protein Expression. Monoclonal Antibody. Fermentation. Technology License. Contact. Customer Service. . 0 items. 0 $. Online Support Chat. Protein Catalog. Cytokines. Growth Factors. Chemokines. CD Antigens. Neurotrophins. Hormones. Enzymes. Viral Antigens. Recombinant Proteins. Natural Proteins. Monoclonal Antibodies. Polyclonal Antibodies. Protein Catalog >> Recombinant Proteins >> Synuclein >> SNCA 61-140 Human. SNCA 61-140 Human. Accession # print add to favorites. Description Our Price Quantity Shipping. Alpha Synuclein 61-140 Human Recombinant. 10µg $50. 50µg $130. 1mg $1800. Ice Packs. Catalogue Number PRO-163. Synonyms Alpha-synuclein, Non-A beta component of ...
http://prospecbio.com/SNCA_61-140_Human_10_85
*  dUTPase | ProSpec
dUTPase. ProSpec. Login Register Log out. Home. About. Company. Founder. Customers. Contribution. Offices. Shipping. Products. Cytokines. Growth Factors. Chemokines. CD Antigens. Neurotrophins. Hormones. Enzymes. Viral Antigens. Recombinant Proteins. Natural Proteins. Monoclonal Antibodies. Polyclonal Antibodies. Services. DNA Cloning. Protein Expression. Monoclonal Antibody. Fermentation. Technology License. Contact. Customer Service. . 0 items. 0 $. Online Support Chat. Protein Catalog. Cytokines. Growth Factors. Chemokines. CD Antigens. Neurotrophins. Hormones. Enzymes. Viral Antigens. Recombinant Proteins. Natural Proteins. Monoclonal Antibodies. Polyclonal Antibodies. Protein Catalog >> Enzymes >> Phosphatase >> DUT Pyrococcus Fruriosus. DUT Pyrococcus Fruriosus. print add to favorites. Description Our Price Quantity Shipping. Thermostable dUTPase Pyrococcus Fruriosus Recombinant. 500IU $250. 1000IU $390. 2000IU $750. Ice Packs. Catalogue Number ENZ-281. Synonyms Thermostable dUTPase, dUTPase. Descriptio...
http://prospecbio.com/dUTPase_8_148/
*  Postgrad. Scientist (Biochemistry, Biology, Chemsistry) - BSE research
postgrad scientist biochemistry biology chemsistry bse research postgrad scientist biochemistry biology chemsistry bse research sonia rothe rothe at weihenstephan de tue aug est previous message postdoctoral fellowship in immunology next message cd antigen messages sorted by technical university munich life science center weihenstephan postgrad scientist biochemistry biology chemsistry bse research batii the project supported by the bavarian prion research fund deals with the interaction of plasminogen with prpsc a new test system will be established on this basis a further goal is the development of anti idiotypic antibodies for the therapy of tses applicants should have experiences in protein chemistry and protein mapping immunological knowledge is beneficial apply to prof dr bertold hock or dr martin seifert life science center weihenstephan department of plant sciences alte akademie d freising germany e mail hock at wzw tum de seifert at wzw tum de sonia rothe tu m nchen wissenschaftszentrum weihenstephan...
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/2001-August/016733.html
*  Vaccinnes
... JSUMWALT at LOYOLA.EDU JSUMWALT at LOYOLA.EDU. Wed Feb 5 22:31:29 EST 1997. Previous message: Table of CD antigens Next message: flow cytometer Messages sorted by:. I am a student at Loyola College in Maryland and would like to get information on vaccines. I someone would take the time to give any information that will better my understanding of the production, administering, and effectiveness of vaccines. I appreciate any possible help. Thank You. My E-Mail address is: JSUMWALT at LOYOLA.EDU. Previous message: Table of CD antigens Next message: flow cytometer Messages sorted by:. More information about the Immuno mailing list....
http://bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/1997-February/009534.html
*  CD9
cd cd cd antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the cd gene function interactions see also references further reading function the protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane superfamily also known as the tetraspanin family most of these members are cell surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains the proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development activation growth and motility cd is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane superfamily proteins it is found on the surface of exosomes it can modulate cell adhesion and migration and also trigger platelet activation and aggregation in addition the protein appears to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance this protein also seems to be a key part in the egg sperm fusion during mammalian fertilization as cd knocked out mice gametes don t undergo fusion cd is located in the micr...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD9
*  Antigens, cd56
antigens cd antigens cd redirect neural cell adhesion molecule...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_cd56
*  Antigens, cd147
antigens cd antigens cd redirect basigin...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_cd147
*  Antigens, cd
antigens cd antigens cd redirect cluster of differentiation...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_cd
*  Antigens, cd95
antigens cd antigens cd redirect fas receptor...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_cd95
*  Antigens, cd55
antigens cd antigens cd redirect decay accelerating factor...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_cd55
*  Product Inquiry - United States Biological
product inquiry united states biological login email password forgot your password new user remember me home distributors technical about register antibodies biochemicals culture media custom services growth factors bioassay kits lectins molecular biology serum tissues protocols newsletter about us contact product inquiry product name tlr toll like receptor toll like receptor precursor cd cd antigen dkfzp i dkfzp i kiaa mgc mgc mgc rsc similar to drosophila toll protein til toll drosophila homolog toll interleukin recep product code t k name email organization comments or questions...
http://usbio.net/inquiry.php?item=T8050-01K
*  New! Amber Blush Collection - - Bath & Body Works
Amber Blush Collection - - Bath & Body Works. true. Thank you for visiting Bath and Body Works. If you need assistance with using our web site, please call us at 1-800-756-5005 or email CustomerService@BathandBodyWorks.com and a customer service representative will be happy to assist you. Log In My Account. Bag: 0. Log into your account:. Email. Submit. Are you a new customer. Body Bath. Home Candles. Soaps Sanitizers. Spa Skin. Gifts. FRAGRANCES A-Z. Body Bath Features Signature: Buy 3 Get 2 Free. New for Fall. Travel: 3 for $12. Lotions & Creams Body Lotion. Body Cream. Foot Care. Hand Care. Bath & Shower Body Wash & Shower Gel. Body Scrub. Bubble Bath & Soaks. Bar Soap. Sponges. Personal Fragrance Fragrance Mist. Collections Signature Collection. Signature Collection Men's. Forever Collection. Aromatherapy. True Blue Spa. Home Candles Features 3-Wick Candles: 2 for $24. Wallflowers Fragrance Refills: 6 for $24. 2-Pack Wallflowers Refills: 3 for $24. Home Fragrance: 50% off. Mini Candles: 3 for $12. Candles...
http://bathandbodyworks.com/family/index.jsp?categoryId=25107746&cm_sp=LN-_-Up to 50% Off Select Body Care-_-New! Amber Blush Collection&cp=12586965.12587138
*  Antigens, helminth
antigens helminth antigens helminth redirect worm...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigens,_helminth
*  Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain - DTU Orbit
Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain. Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain. Madsen, KS, Holm, DA, Søgaard, LV Rowland, IJ 2008, ' Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain '. Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain. Madsen KS, Holm DA, Søgaard LV, Rowland IJ. Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain. "Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain". Madsen KS, Holm DA, Søgaard LV, Rowland IJ. Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain. / Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain. T1 - Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain. Furthermore, the paramagnetic Mn2+ cations may also influence the relaxation of the metabolites under investigation. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of paramagnetic Mn2+ cations on H-1-MR spectra of the brain using in vivo and phantom mode...
http://orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/effect-of-paramagnetic-manganese-cations-on-h1-mrs-of-the-brain(55b34a9b-bfc5-4653-9299-530f43658c46)/export.html
*  Pool tourney to aid girl with disease | NRToday.com
-h- w-- r-c---ly --v-- fr-- ---r-b-ch-r -- L-g-cy ------l H--p---l -- P-r-l--- f-r -r-------. Pr---- h-- ----c-l ----r--c- -hr--gh h-r --pl-y-r. -ll pr-c---- fr-- -h- p--l ---r------ w-ll b- ------- -- -h- f---ly. -h-r- w-ll -l-- b- - r-ffl-, --- -ll pr-c---- w-ll b---f-- -h- f---ly. C-------y ---b-r- --- b--------- ------- -h- r-ffl- -----. -h- w-- r-c---ly --v-- fr-- ---r-b-ch-r -- L-g-cy ------l H--p---l -- P-r-l--- f-r -r-------. Pr---- h-- ----c-l ----r--c- -hr--gh h-r --pl-y-r. -ll pr-c---- fr-- -h- p--l ---r------ w-ll b- ------- -- -h- f---ly. -h-r- w-ll -l-- b- - r-ffl-, --- -ll pr-c---- w-ll b---f-- -h- f---ly. C-------y ---b-r- --- b--------- ------- -h- r-ffl- -----. -h- w-- r-c---ly --v-- fr-- ---r-b-ch-r -- L-g-cy ------l H--p---l -- P-r-l--- f-r -r-------. -h- w-- r-c---ly --v-- fr-- ---r-b-ch-r -- L-g-cy ------l H--p---l -- P-r-l--- f-r -r-------. -h- w-- r-c---ly --v-- fr-- ---r-b-ch-r -- L-g-cy ------l H--p---l -- P-r-l--- f-r -r-------. -h- w-- r-c---ly --v-- fr-- ---r-b-ch-r -- L-g-cy ----...
http://nrtoday.com/article/20060210/NEWS/102100064
*  Prognostic significance of carcinoembryonic antigen level in pleural lavage fluid for patients with
... lung adenocarcinoma. BioMedSearch. Home. Advanced Search. Tools. Search Tutorial. Login. Create Free Account. Document Detail. Prognostic significance of carcinoembryonic antigen level in pleural lavage fluid for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. MedLine Citation:. PMID: 15975381 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE. Abstract/OtherAbstract:. BACKGROUND: Prognostic indicators for non-small cell lung cancer patients traditionally include TNM staging, pleural lavage cytology, and serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels. This prospective study evaluates carcinoembryonic antigen levels in pleural lavage fluid as a potential determinant for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients underwent thoracotomy. Pleural lavage fluid was collected, and pleural lavage cytology and lavage carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined. The control group included 40 patients with nonmalignant disease. RESULTS: Sixteen patients 10.7% had positive pleural lavage cytologies. These patients and those wi...
http://biomedsearch.com/nih/Prognostic-significance-carcinoembryonic-antigen-level/15975381.html
*  carcinoembryonic antigen
Research Topics non small cell lung carcinoma ca 19 9 antigen biological tumor markers colorectal neoplasms adenocarcinoma neoplasm staging lung neoplasms lymphatic metastasis neoplasm antigens liver neoplasms colonic neoplasms local neoplasm recurrence keratin stomach neoplasms ca 15 3 antigen cell adhesion molecules monoclonal antibodies pancreatic neoplasms survival rate neoplasm metastasis predictive value of tests breast neoplasms ca 125 antigen differential diagnosis survival analysis neoplasm invasiveness rectal neoplasms thyroid neoplasms carcinoma radioimmunotherapy. 2004 b>Carcinoembryonic antigen -related cell adhesion molecules CEACAMs are used by several human pathogens to anchor themselves to or invade host cells... Carcinoembryonic antigen CEA as tumor marker in lung cancer M Grunnet Department of Oncology, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Lung Cancer 76:138-43. Serum tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1, and CA-125 are associated with worse prognosis in advanced non-small-cell lung ca...
http://labome.org/topics/chemicals/biological/biological/biological/carcinoembryonic-antigen-14527.html
*  Carcinoembryonic Antigen
... Testing Information. Test Menu. Laboratory Test Directory. ARUP Consult ®. Specimen Preparation and Transport. Client Services. Client Supply Order Form. Laboratory Expertise. Clinical Pathology. Regional Services. Medical Directors and Consultants. Privacy Practices. Testing Specialties. Test Menu. Resources. Experts. Test Menu. Resources. Experts. Test Menu. Resources. Experts. Test Menu. Reports. Resources. Contact. Test Menu. Experts. Suite of Services. ARUP ATOP. ARUP ATOP. ARUP Consult. ARUP Gateway. Information Management. ARUP ATOP. ARUP Consult. ARUP Gateway. ARUP Connect. ARUP Mednet. Consultative Services. ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology. Education. Client Education. ARUP Regional Events. ARUP Speakers. Educational Events. Some features of the Laboratory Test Directory may not be available; to take advantage of all features, please upgrade your browser. Specimen Preparation Allow specimen to clot completely at room temperature. Unacceptable Conditions Body Fluid refer to...
http://ltd.aruplab.com/tests/pub/0080080

History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5HLA B7-DR15-DQ6CD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Carcinoembryonic antigen: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth.Kinetic-segregation model of T cell activationMonoclonal antibody therapyMHC class IIPerosamineCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.CD79: CD79 (Cluster of Differentiation 79) is a transmembrane protein that forms a complex with the B-cell receptor (BCR) and generates a signal following recognition of antigen by the BCR. CD79 is composed of two distinct chains called CD79A and CD79B (formerly known as Ig-alpha and Ig-beta); these form a heterodimer on the surface of a B cell stabilized by disulfide bonding.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Indian blood group system: The Indian blood group system (In) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigens that reside within the CD44 molecule that is expressed on the surface of blood cells. It is named so because 4% of the population in India possess it.ExbivirumabVisilizumabHLA-A: HLA-A is a group of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that are coded for by the HLA-A locus, which is located at human chromosome 6p21.3.Antigen presentation: Antigen presentation describes a vital process of the immune system. Immune cells cannot "see inside" other cells, which may be infected with viruses or bacteria, and thus rely on information conveyed by fragments of intracellular components being presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the cell surface.HLA-DMColes PhillipsKeliximabImmunizationProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.Radial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.Primary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.SeroconversionHeterophile antigen: Heterophile antigens:Raji cell: Raji cell line is the first continuous human cell line from hematopoietic origin. The cell lines produce an unusual strain of Epstein-Barr virus which will both transform cord blood lymphocytes and induce early antigens in Raji cells.H-Y antigen: H-Y antigen is a male tissue specific antigen. Originally thought to trigger the formation of testes, it is now known that it doesn't trigger the formation of testes but may be activated by the formation of the male testes.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.HLA-DQ: HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC Class II.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Ovalbumin: Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up 60-65% of the total protein. Ovalbumin displays sequence and three-dimensional homology to the serpin superfamily, but unlike most serpins it is not a serine protease inhibitor.CTL-mediated cytotoxicityNew Zealand rabbitImmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis is a general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies. All variants of immunoelectrophoresis require immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, reacting with the proteins to be separated or characterized.Cell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.CTLA-4: CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates the immune system. CTLA4 is found on the surface of T cells, and acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells.Intraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.

(1/13242) Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis.

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

(2/13242) Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni.

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

(3/13242) The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration.

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

(4/13242) Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis.

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

(5/13242) Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis.

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

(6/13242) Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses.

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

(7/13242) Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants.

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

(8/13242) A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer.

A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction.  (+info)


What is the difference between bacterial infection and yeast infection?


I have bacterial  infection could I use monostat 3 for that?
----------

A bacterial infection is caused by a bacteria and needs antibiotics. A yeast infection is caused by an overgrowth of yeast  and you use an anti fungal such as monostat for that. They are not the same thing. If you have been diagnosed with a bacterial infection a doctor would have had to do that so where is your prescription. If you are self diagnosing, bad idea.


how do you get rid of a bacterial infection of the skin from tanning booths?


bacterial infection
the bacteria isnt like MRSA its more like white blochs on my skin that dnt get any color like dry patches?
----------

Tinea Versicolor is what you probably have. They can be white, brown, or a red color. It is not due to the tanning bed. It is from bacteria that is naturally on everyone's skin. Most people can not see it until they develop a tan simply because these spots do not tan. Heat can help them develop but will not cause the bacteria. Dandruff shampoo can help if the bacteria hasn't developed much.




Tinea versicolor is cause by a yeast type of skin fungus, which is present on normal skin. If the skin is oily enough, warm enough and moist enough, it starts to grow into small "colonies" on the surface of the skin. In these colonies the yeast grows like crazy and leaks out an acidic bleach. This changes the skin color. The patches are lightly reddish brown on very pale skin but they don't tan. Because of lack of any tanning, they look like white spots on darker or tanned skin. This is most often seen on the neck, upper chest, upper arms and back. There may be a fine, dry scale on it.

Usually the infection produces few symptoms, but some people get itching, especially when sweating. The warmer the weather, the worse this condition gets. Tanning booths are warm places, so avoid them. The reasons why some get this problem and others do not are not known.

A dermatologist can easily recognize this infection, but occasionally it can be mistaken for other skin conditions. If there is any doubt a 'KOH prep', a test done quickly in the office, will confirm the diagnosis.

The infection is treated with either topical or oral medications. In very mild cases, non-prescription antifungal creams (Lotrimin-AF, Micatin) will work. Prescription antifungal lotions and sprays (Oxistat lotion, Lamisil spray) may work better. The most economical effective treatment is to apply an antifungal shampoo (Nizoral, Excel) to the body as if it were soap, but leave it on for some minutes before rinsing.

For severe, extensive or recurrent cases, a few tablets of Nizoral pills will clear things up. A newer pill, Sporonox, may replace Nizoral for this problem. These will eliminate the fungus and relive any itch and scale. The uneven color of the skin will remain several months, perhaps until one gets a tan again in the next summer.

Remember, since we all have some of this fungus, no treatment can prevent one from picking it up again forever. In many people, the rash reappears for the next few years. To prevent recurrence, preventative re-treatment with the same medication may be advised. This condition is not seen beyond mid-life, so rest assured it won't keep coming back forever

http://www.skinsite.com/info_tinea_versicolor.htm

I. Definition:

Tinea versicolor is a chronic skin condition caused by a yeast living on normal skin of all people. In most people, the presence of this yeast on the skin is not visible. In some people, for unknown reasons, the yeast grows more actively and causes an itchy scaling rash. 



II. Causes: 

Tinea versicolor is caused by a yeast called Pityrosporon orbiculare. 
People who have tinea versicolor are genetically predisposed to developing a rash when this germ is present on the skin. 
When the yeast grows on untanned skin, the rash is pink to brown. When the yeast grows on tanned skin, the rash looks white because the yeast blocks out the sunlight and the skin where the yeast is growing does not tan. When growing on Asian or African-American skin, the rash can look darker or lighter than the surrounding skin depending on the patient 


III. Treatment: 

There is no permanent cure for tinea versicolor. 
Selenium sulfide 2.5 percent should be applied to the skin, between the neck and the knees, before bed every night for 2 nights and washed off the following morning. After this, use the selenium sulfide once a week to once a month in the above manner to keep the condition under control. MY NOTE: Selenium sulfide is the active ingredient in Selsun Blue

Resistant cases can be treated with an antifungal cream applied directly to the skin. 
Some doctors use pills to treat this condition. We do not do this because the pills have side effects and offer no permanent solution. 
The uneven pigmentation that can develop from this condition can be improved with daily alpha hydroxyacid lotion application to the involved areas for several months. 

http://www.drgreene.com/21_677.html

Tinea Versicolor
What is tinea versicolor? How is it treated? 

Tinea versicolor is a mild, superficial fungal infection, somewhat similar to ringworm (true ringworm can also result in white patches). Since the affected skin doesn't change color well with sun exposure, it usually becomes apparent as white patches during the summer months. In the winter it may seem to disappear, or even seem to become slightly darkened patches as the surrounding skin gets paler (this is where the name versicolor comes from). 

Tinea versicolor is most common in adolescents and young adults 15 to 30 years old (although it can certainly happen at any age)


How to have sex with bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy? Does my husband need to wear condoms on?


I had bacterial vaginosis on my third trimester of pregnancy though I haven't had sexual contact with my husband for several months since he's working abroad and didn't even masturbate since I lost my sex drive. My husband will arrive tomorrow and i don't know if he should wear a condom since I have this disease. Please help me. :(
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Bacterial Vaginosis is a bacterial infection. You can get antibiotics for that or take a homeopathic treatment from your local drug store. 
And um....you definately have my empathy for the long distance situation, but I don't think you're supposed to have sex until the infection clears. 

If you're going to anyway I do suggest a condom. It will make it more comfortable for both of you.


What's the difference between Viral, bacterial and fungal meningitis?


I know that they're all different types obviously, bacterial being the most severe. But what's the difference? How does it affect the meninges different and body systems etc?

Also..is meningitis just caused frm typical bacteria that just gets spread through the blood into the spinal fluid?
For example makes bacterial so much worse than viral and how can viral disappear on it's own where bacterial, treatment is necessary.
The MAIN thing I need to know is WHY bacterial is so much more harmful than viral. Like, if both affect the meninges, why is viral so much less serious?
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Viral meningitis can be caused by many different viruses, including common intestinal viruses and viruses associated with mumps and herpes infection. In some cases, people can get viral meningitis from drinking polluted water.

The viruses that cause meningitis are contagious, but most people who become infected don't actually develop meningitis. Viral meningitis is usually mild and often clears up within one to two weeks.

Bacterial meningitis is a serious and frequently fatal illness. Even treated early, it can result in brain damage, hearing loss or learning disabilities. Some forms of bacterial meningitis such as meningococcal meningitis are highly contagious. The bacteria are spread though coughing, sneezing, kissing or sharing items such as eating utensils or toothbrushes with an infected person. Bacteria commonly identified as causing meningitis are Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenza, group B streptococcus (in newborns) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Other less common bacteria include tuberculosis, Listeria, Staphlococcus and Salmonella. 

Fungal and parasitic meningitis are relatively uncommon. Fungal meningitis is more common in people with a weakened immune system. 

Viral meningitis usually doesn't require treatment, although certain types of viral meningitis such as herpes meningitis (HSV1) must be treated with antiviral agents to prevent complications or even death. Doctors often recommend bed rest, fluids and over-the-counter medications to relieve fever and headache. Most people completely recover on their own.

Bacterial meningitis needs to be treated immediately to prevent serious complications and death. A number of antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial meningitis, depending on the organism causing the infection. Other medications may also be used to treat symptoms and prevent permanent damage from the disease.


When looking at the symptoms of a disease, how can a doctor determine whether it is bacterial or viral?


In other words, what is the difference between how viral infections and bacterial infections affect the body?  How are the symptoms between the two types of diseases different?  After a doctor learns what symptoms a patient has, what further tests or examinations would he/she run to determine whether the disease is bacterial or viral?
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In some cases it can be tough.  But there are several ways to try & sort it out.  First, what is going around?  If a virus is spreading through the area, epidemiology suggests it is a virus.  Furthermore, viral infections tend to cause a wide range of symptoms due to the way the virus attacks the body--fever, muscle aches, headache, rash, joint aches, etc all at once highly suggest a virus.  Bacterial infections tend to be more localized--pneumonia causes respiratory symptoms primarily--not joint pain too.  A bacterial infection that has spread so much to cause a lot of symptoms (called "sepsis") has the person very very ill.  Viruses are also much more common than bacterial infections.  Often time its a educated guess (that's why MDs spend so much time in school--you have to know alot about everything to discard causative agents to make an educated guess).  They can do more tests (a Complete blood count, or CBC, will show more lymphs in a viral infection & more ploys in a bacterial).  There are also antibody tests to specific causes.  However, many times, its too expensive & not worth all the time & effort to make a definitive diagnosis.  If you are going to get better anyway in 5-7 days, most people would not want to spend $500 or more to find out EXACTLY what they had.  That's why you are told to return if not better in x days or suddenly get worse.  Then the testing can be better utilized to find a source.  Some tests would be xrays (chest etc); a spinal fluid exam, blood tests like the CBC or antibody tests, blood, urine, sputum cultures for bacteria, viral cultures, bronchial washings of the airways for tests, TB testing, there are many tests and as they become negative, more exotic & rare things are tested for.  You always start with the most obvious & proceed to the rare.


What is a good brand of folic acid for the cure of bacterial vaginosis?


I am a young teenager and I think I suffer from bacterial vaginosis, even though I've never been checked out. I was looking on the internet and came upon a cure for B.V (folic acid). I want to give it a try but I just dont know which brand to pick. Could someone help me with this?
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don't believe everything you read on the web, folic acid will not cure bacterial vaginosis.  You need to see a doctor and get tested and treated appropriately.


What is the difference between a uti and bacterial vaginosis?


can bacterial vaginosis be detected from a urine sample?
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A UTI is a urinary tract infection, its in the urethra or bladder. Bacterial vaginosis is actually in the vagina.
They usually diagnose a UTI with a clean catch urine sample which if done correctly should not get anything except urine since it involves cleaning the area around it first. If it is not done correctly it may be contaminated by bacteria from around the labia.
BV is usually diagnosed with a visual exam and swabs of fluid from inside the vagina.


how long is bacterial conjunctivitus contagious for after start of treatment?


I have a bacterial conjunctivitus, and i started treatment, and i was wondering how long it is contagious for.
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It can last up to 48 hours depending on the length of time it infects. If it has been more than two weeks before treatment you need to be careful not to infect others for at least 48 hours.